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A Quick Guide to The Unified Modeling Language (UML) If you become familiar with the UML you will find that you will be able to thesis think of more ideas and also to writing a research proposal s thesis work out how good an idea is. You'll be able to share your idea with others. Thesis. UML is becoming valuable in the job market. Use a diagram when you need to think about thesis of measurement, something, share ideas with someone else, save an thesis powerpoint idea for the future, show management the work you've been doing, when you can't find a bug in code, or when your teacher/adviser requires it. Academic And Study Skills. You can use the UML to make rough sketches, to express a blueprint of the code, as input to a code generator, or as required documentation of a finished project. Keep it simple -- only use the UML when you need it. Draw diagrams that give most value. Thesis Powerpoint. For example, don't draw a deployment diagram unless the software is running on many machines.

Don't draw a component diagram when there is only one component -- the science a blessing, main program. Don't worry about packages until you need to have 10 or more classes. The UML helps with these tasks: In all diagrams, never draw more detail than you actually need. Omit things that are not important or are uninteresting. Presentations. Notice that you often have to add comments or text to a diagram using English, Mathematics, or Java/C++ syntax. How do you draw diagrams in the UML. (howtodraw): First: only diode, draw a diagram when you need to: to clarify your thinking or to record for the future what you've decided. Second, UML is a flexible set of diagrams. Here are some ways to use them: (UseCase): A use case names a type of user (actors) and thesis presentations powerpoint, something that they want to do (usecase). An actor can be a human, a device, or a piece of software but it must not be part of the system we are producing. The use case describes how an actor achieves a specific tangible goal. Or Curse. The important part of a usecase is the description of the steps that the actors take to achieve their goals and how the thesis powerpoint, system appears to respond to the actors actions.

Use any tool to write these Scenarios. The UML provides a diagram that is good for summarizing a collection of use cases. The actors are drawn as stick figures. The things that they want to do are shown as bubbles. Notice that the icons are drawn just like in thesis the next diagram. Rules: The actors must not be part of the software that you are describing. Powerpoint. They are outside it and use it. They can be people, machines, or other software. Usecase names must describe some activity that an actor wants to do. Dissertation Advisors. A simple rule is to start each usecase name with a strong verb: Review grade, update record, Get money from ATM, and Control nuclear reactor are good names.

Grades and thesis, do email are bad ones. Avoid having a large number of overly simple usecases that can be covered by one simple one: Instead of add record, change record, delete record, print record. etc use Access and update record, for current writing and study example. Use Scenarios to show this detail. (Scenarios): Each use case will need to be described in more detail before you work out how to powerpoint implement it. A scenario describes, step by step, how a particular user gets what they want from the computer. It says what the user does and a blessing, what the computer does as a result. Presentations Powerpoint. However it does not spell out all the advisors, details -- things like whether there is a tool bar or the color of the screen is best left out.

It also pays to be very specific about the particular user you are describing. Similarly, at the start of a project only list the obvious and straight forward scenarios. Add special extensions to presentations powerpoint handle the exceptional cases later. Student Enrolls in Class: Jo Doe goes to the phone and identifies his/herself. The computer gives a list of cpr business plan, things that a student can do to the system. Jo asks for a list of powerpoint, sections in a course. The computer shows Jo the sections he or she is interested in. Jo selects one section to enroll in.

The computer records the enrollment and confirms that Jo is writing a research proposal for master, enrolled. What does the User Think its all about. (Domain): The trick that makes object-oriented designs easier to powerpoint work with is that we use classes in the code that reflect the world in which our clients and users exist. The picture of the user's world can be called a Conceptual Model, Business Model , or a Domain Model. Thesis Of Measurement. It is an excellent source of ideas for classes inside an object-oriented program. It is also the perfect model to start the design of a data base. Both Domain and Architecture models are a collection of boxes which contain just the names of the types of objects you expect to be in the software. Show their interconnections as links between the boxes. You can add more detail if you want -- role names and multiplicities can help clarify the powerpoint, meanings of links. A Blessing. It sometimes clarifies a diagram if you list the powerpoint, attributes of some of the classes in a domain model or architecture. In a complex project you tabulate the attributes for each enity in your domain model -- the result is called a Data Dictionary.

These diagrams are also drawings of the data base. In some projects you may have to use a more complex notation called an Entity-Relation-Attribute diagram instead. In a database, domain, or conceptual model avoid all verbs! The names in current to essay writing academic writing the boxes should be names of real entities. For example, the powerpoint, name Enroll is not a good name for for a box. It describes an action. Student is a good name. Enrollment is also a good name. Actions appear in usecase scenarios (see above) and operations in a research proposal for master s thesis sequence charts, collaborations, and class diagrams (see next).

(Architecture): An architecture is a picture of the types of objects in a system plus a list of presentations powerpoint, their attributes and operations that these objects will perform to plan meet the users needs. Add operations to classes at the same time as you sketch Sequence and Communication diagrams. Presentations Powerpoint. (Sequence): In a Sequence diagram you show the users (stick figures) and objects at science or curse essay, the top. A vertical line goes down from each of these. Arrows show one object sending a message or calling a function or operation that belongs to another object. A big X indicates that an object deletes itself.

What happens in the software when student Jo Doe ( jo ) drops a section( s ): (Hint when designing): A System Sequence Diagram or SSD is a good first stp towards a design. It shows all the steps in one scenario as messages flowing into the complete system under design. You typically have 1 or more actors and a single :System object. Draw one when you start to analyze a scenario to thesis prepare to design objects that implement or realize the scenario. Dissertation. Then draw a Sequence or Communication diagrams for each step in the SSD. (Communication): In a Communication diagram actors and objects can be anywhere and sequence is shown by thesis powerpoint numbering the diode thesis, messages that are sent. These show the overall communication pattern but make the thesis presentations powerpoint, sequence of events less clear. What happens in the system when Jo Doe adds a Section. In the more complex CASE tools the Class diagrams and these diagrams are linked together: adding an arrow on a Sequence or Communication diagram helps you to add an operation to the class diagram.

Or when you add a new message the on level, CASE tools can list the presentations powerpoint, possible messages (operations or functions) you might want to send. (Collaboration): This is the plan, old name for what is now called a Communication diagram. They were more complicated, see [ uml.collab.gif ] for an example. (Class): The UML can express most things you can code in C++. A single box represents a class of objects. The name of the thesis presentations powerpoint, class is at the top. In the writing a research s thesis, next part of the box list the data each object contains. In the third part of the class box list the operations (functions) that an thesis object can carry out. Notice that instead of the C++ 'int example(float x)' we have 'example(x:float):int'. Also omit the word void in current to essay writing skills all UML diagrams! Note: you can sketch a UML class quicker than you can write a C++ class.

Hint: When sketching leave the bottom and right hand edge of the box until the end! Connections between classes in a UML class diagram. Here are all the links commonly used in a class diagram: C++ classes have data members that are part of the state of the thesis, whole object. In the UML we can use the dark diamond to indicate that the class is composed of the components. The UML has two or three ways to show this. For example, here is the code for a class called Period: Here are a couple of valid diagrams that show that each Period contains a pair of times and up to cpr business plan 5 days. A simple composition with a multiplicity of one indicates a simple data member in the C++ class. A fixed multiplicity suggests an array. Thesis Powerpoint. A range of multiplicities or an asterisk suggests a more complex data structure such as a vector, list, or set. If the order is important, then the constraint should be put at dissertation advisors, the end of the link.

An vector is an ordered collection of variable size. If the data is accessed via a pointer then a simple arrow should be used to indicate this: Note: older books used to put an uncolored Aggregation diamond at thesis powerpoint, the other end of the association to show a pointer. Writing A Research Proposal S Thesis. Note: If there is a vector (or list etc) of pointers then use the arrow with a variable multiplicity. (Object): It helps to be able to draw objects as well as classes. The rules are simple: use a box, underline the name of the presentations, object and its class, and put attributes in a compartment under the name. Here for science a blessing example is a simple Counter class plus object diagrams of thesis, of an science a blessing essay object the_count before and after a particular operation is applied to it.

Class Diagram of Counter. A recently constructed Counter object called the_count. Thesis Presentations. The same object after being sent a count() message. Plan. How and When does an Object change. (State): Often we need to think about how an object changes. Presentations. Class diagrams give us a static picture of an or curse object and its relations to thesis other objects. Computer Science developed a theory of cpr business plan, automatic machines (automata) that lead to the StateChart notation. This is part of the Unified Modeling Language. It lets us show when and presentations powerpoint, how an object changes its behavior.

Each change of behavior is modeled as a change of the objects internal state . Cpr Business. The diagram shows these and the allowed changes between them. For example a Student starts out thesis presentations as a Person and then can evolve to be an tunnel thesis Undergraduate or an presentations Graduate. Undergraduate can become a Graduate. Each state is shown as a rectangle with rounded corners. Starting and finishing points are shown as black blobs.

Changing state means the object changes it behavior. Thesis Of Measurement. The change (or transition) is shown as an arrow. Each arrow should be labeled with a mutator method or operation. So the arrows show what operations can be called in a given state, and show you how the operation changes the possible behaviors. Initially we can omit the labels and one state can be used as an abbreviation for a whole pattern of behavior: You can add a lot of thesis presentations, extra information to approaches writing and study a State chart -- the operations that trigger changes of state, the presentations powerpoint, conditions governing which transition to follow, and what operations are executed when entering and/or leaving a state.

How is current approaches to essay writing academic and study, a complex problem solved? What is the Algorithm? (Activity): Sometimes we need to work out how to solve a problem that needs complex logic. UML State charts have evolved to allow us to draw Activity diagrams that look like old fashioned flowcharts. Below is thesis, one form of binary search for a target in a sorted array or vector of items: How is a complex architecture organized? (Component): A component is very like a class. But they are designed to provide certain interfaces and use others. It is a plug-compatible piece of software that often contains many classes. There is a lollipop notation for showing how components are plugged together.

Here is an example: The lollipop indicates the interface between the component and its clients. (Artifact): In any real project there will be hundreds of files involved. These used to be shown as components but are now documented as artifacts. The above diagram treats each source, object, and executable file as a separate component. Notice the stereotypes that tell you the kind of artifact that I'm using -- an executable program, a file, a document and so on. Here is a list of standard ones: We can also show where these artifacts are stored on our computer hardware. (Package): An icon that looks like a folder. It refers to a collection of other icons and diagrams that are said to be inside the package.

In effect it acts and looks like a folder in a GUI for an operating system or a directory. Here is a classic layered architecture that separates work done on the user interface from work done on the data base, etc. Packages are a way of organizing large projects. We can put use cases, classes, components, artifacts, . and even packages inside a package. The dotted lines with stick arrowheads show dependencies. They show that parts of one package depend on cpr business plan, the things in the other package. If we change something at the arrowhead end then we may be forced to thesis change things at the other end as well. These couplings should be minimized when possible. The above packages is the classic organization used in many software packages. The user interface decisions are worked on in the top package, and kept separate from science essay understanding and solving the powerpoint, user's domain problems.

Separately, at the bottom, we can work on how to essay use the thesis powerpoint, database (Persistence) and how to use other servers (Network). What Software is to essay writing academic and study, running on which device. (Deployment): Use a deployment diagram in the UML to show the presentations powerpoint, hardware that your software uses. You can add information describing operating systems, language interpreters, or details (CPU type for tunnel diode example) if this is powerpoint, valuable to know. When a component of a blessing essay, a software system is completed it becomes an thesis powerpoint artifact and thesis on level, can be deployed onto thesis, a system that can use it. We show this with a deployment diagram that also show the artifacts. You can show what software runs on a node in diode a deployment diagram by listing it under the thesis, node(UML 1) or inside it(UML2). You can also make the node bigger and draw the artifact inside the cube. This is thesis of measurement, a nice way to show how web-based systems work because these typically depend on a browser in the user's PC, server software on a web-server, and a separate data base running on a special data base box. Thesis. Here is one way that one of my web applications was deployed until recently: artifact::=`A software component (typically a file) that can placed (deployed) onto a system and be used their`. component::= a module , a software chip, some code that can be compiled separately from science a blessing or curse essay other modules and tested on its own.

It provides and uses interfaces. usecase::= An activity that a user wants to do and which the computer can help . In your future career you may need a text book. If so try: Martin Fowler UML Distilled: A brief Guide to the standard object modeling language Addison-Wesley Longman, Boston MA 2003 ISBN 0321193687 CR 0408-0893.

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Important Of Forest Essay Essays and Research Papers. IMPORTANCE OF FORESTS Introduction Trees are mankind lifeline. If they are destroyed, there is no way that human beings can survive. From the . oxygen that we breathe in, the food that we eat, to the clothes we wear, we owe it all to presentations the trees. Not only this, trees act as purifiers of on level of measurement, air and receptacles of our waste products. Trees have great economic value too.

We get fuel, fodder, timber, medicines and numerous other valuable products from the trees. It is, therefore, not surprising that trees. Ecosystem , Forest , Plant 1011 Words | 3 Pages. Important Forest Trees and Their Uses. Important Forest Trees And Their Uses ( Originally Published 1922 ) Of our native trees, the white pine is one of the best and . most valuable. It is a tall straight tree that grows to a height of 100 to 150 feet. Powerpoint. It produces wood that is dissertation advisors light in weight and easy to thesis presentations powerpoint work because it is writing proposal s thesis so soft. At ,one time there were extensive pine forests in the northeastern states.

Many of the trees were very large, and occasionally one may still see pine stumps that are 5 to presentations powerpoint 6 feet in diameter. A Research For Master S Thesis. White pine made. Birch , Fagaceae , Hardwood 2442 Words | 6 Pages. FORESTS ; A forest , also referred to as a wood or the woods, is an area with a high density of trees. Forests cover . approximately over 9.4% of the earth’s surface * USES OF FORESTS ; Forests are important to the survival of human beings mainly because we are dependent on a significant degree of vast areas of forests . The following states the various uses of forests ; * Habitat for presentations powerpoint, wildlife. * Home for plants. * Flora and dissertation fauna. * Forest plants can be used for medicinal purposes. Carbon dioxide , Deforestation , Ecosystem 655 Words | 3 Pages. ?Life Changing – Forest Gump Essay Jenelle Stanley Context in an individual’s life can drastically affect their . belief of their capability, their choices, and their future relationships. Powerpoint. In the film, Forest Gump by diode thesis Robert Zemeckis, the character Jenny is struggling to believe that she could be ambitious or successful. Jenny never had good example set for her, and did not always make emotionally or physically healthy decisions as a result, and for most of thesis presentations, Jenny’s life she could not accept. 2007 singles , Abuse , Bullying 865 Words | 3 Pages. Temperate forests correspond to forest concentrations formed in the northern and southern hemisphere, or in temperate regions. . Main characteristics include: wide leaves, large and tunnel diode thesis tall trees and non seasonal vegetation.

Temperate forests can be further distinguished by weatherpatterns and thesis presentations powerpoint geographical features that favor the predominance of certain kinds of trees. In temperate coniferous forests , evergreen coniferspredominate, while in temperate broadleaf and proposal s thesis mixed forests , a more even distribution. Biome , Deciduous , Evergreen 2120 Words | 7 Pages. ? Forests A forest is an area filled with trees which provides homes for many different living things. The . forests found in Trinidad and thesis presentations Tobago are called Tropical Seasonal Forests because they are found near the Earth’s equator and have both wet and a research s thesis dry seasons. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ A forest is made up of different layers.

The Emergent Layer is powerpoint very sunny because it is at the very top and only. Animal , Forest , Forest ecology 745 Words | 4 Pages. These are important topics may except. I conclude after analyze last two year essays . (I’m not saying that you don’t want go . other topics I just saying this is important one if u feel it seems ok then first prepare this topics then go other topics “if u can”) Highlighted is most important Current Topic 1. Adulteration (try to link with bihar mid day meal horror) 6. Child Labour – A Bane 9. Rise and or curse essay Fall of Currency (current debate. tnx to congress) 10. Thesis. Drought : A Natural Calamity (Uttarkhand. British Raj , Human rights , India 602 Words | 3 Pages. The Forest - Creative Writing Essay For English - The Forest There’s a forest bordering the . town that I live in.

The adults refuse to go near it or talk of what lies within. Science. From the time we consciously understand our parents teach us not to step foot in thesis there because the thesis, “Unmentionable Monsters” will get you. Thesis Presentations. Of course as kids with wild imaginations we made our own predictions about a research what it could be. The Boogie Man, Dracula, werewolves, ghosts, and all sorts of other ghouls came to thesis mind. The Way Back 1330 Words | 4 Pages.

List of dissertation, Important Topics for Essays. LIST OF IMPORTANT TOPICS FOR ESSAYS It is the list of those essays which has been asked in previous css exams . and intend to presentations powerpoint b most important . By practicing those essays u can achieve robust grip in essay . the following essays may not repeat but surely play crucial role to enlarge idea that how a css essay paper formatted. 01. Of Measurement. Dilemma of the presentations powerpoint, water and energy crisis in Pakistan (2003) 02. A Research Proposal S Thesis. Art critics and reviewers (2003) 03. Alleviation of presentations, poverty (2005) 04. Persecuted poor women (2005) 05.

1912 , 1913 , 1916 1592 Words | 6 Pages. 3. After watching the on level, movie Forest Gump and observing the main character Forest , he illustrates a lot of different aspects of presentations powerpoint, . intelligence. I think that Forest shows his understanding about the world, he can think rationally and he always uses resources effectively when faced with challenges in his life, therefore demonstrating his intelligence. Tunnel Diode Thesis. Forest demonstrates his use of intelligence throughout the movie in many different ways. One major challenge Forest is faced with in his childhood. Body , Cognition , Intelligence 902 Words | 3 Pages.

The Importance of thesis presentations powerpoint, Protecting Rain Forests. Maintaining the Biodiversity of Tropical Rain Forests Biodiversity is the variation of current writing academic skills, plant and animal life in presentations powerpoint a certain habitat, in other . words it is the variation of life forms within a particular ecosystem. All the living species depend on each other and this is where biodiversity comes into play. According to some research 90 percent of all plant and insect and animal species exists in the tropical rain forests . Biodiversity in tropical rain forests is vital since the large amount of species. Amazon Rainforest , Biodiversity , Brazil 826 Words | 3 Pages. ISP NOTES INTO THE FOREST BY JEAN HEGLAND Setting- * Into the to essay writing academic, Forest is based in thesis a world around this time.

Electricity is . non-existent, Civilization has vanished and science essay the world is in a commotion. * Based on thesis presentations, two sisters who live in science a blessing essay a post-apocalyptic world. * This story takes place in California, near San Francisco in a town called Redwood and that isn't exactly an isolated part of the thesis, world. * Eva and Nell stay at their house which is in a forest . Tunnel. They have to go to the town which. Apocalyptic and presentations powerpoint post-apocalyptic fiction , Famine , Food 2799 Words | 7 Pages. Mankind uses forests in writing academic writing and study skills many different ways and presentations all these uses prove to be significant and helpful to us. However, even though using . forests have many positive impacts on plan, humans, there are also many effects which affect our environment and us negatively. In this essay , I will hone in on what we use forests for and the impacts of the different ways that we use them for. Presentations Powerpoint. Forests are often used as a source for current and study skills, useful materials or natural resources. Materials found in forests such as the wood of. Biodiversity , Ecology , Ecosystem 1146 Words | 3 Pages. Essay : Forests Need For Conservation Trees are mankinds lifeline.

If they are destroyed, there is no way that human beings can . survive. From the oxygen that we breathe in, the powerpoint, food that we eat, to the clothes we wear, we owe it all to the trees. Advisors. Not only thesis presentations this, trees act as purifiers of proposal for master s thesis, air and receptacles of our waste products. Trees have great economic value too. We get fuel, fodder, timber, medicines and numerous other valuable products from the trees. It is, therefore, not surprising that trees.

Agriculture , Deforestation , Ecology 877 Words | 3 Pages. We were walking through the forest ; we had just got out from presentations powerpoint school. I was taking a look behind me and thesis of measurement see Sarah running trying to keep up with . my pace. “Slow down, I can’t keep up with your pace” she said breathing heavy from running so much. I rolled my eyes at my dramatic friend; she glared when she saw me roll my eyes at her. I turned around and continued walking at a slightly slower pace. “It's not like anything bad is going to happen” I pointed out.

It's like she thought Big Foot or. Breathing , Mobile phone , Turn 1318 Words | 4 Pages. probably the most important sentence in the article, especially in presentations a materialised country like Hong Kong. In order to cpr business have extraordinary . employees you need to get more than material satisfaction. If you look at e.g. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs it can be seen there is thesis presentations powerpoint much more to motivation than material needs. Nordstrom Rules: “Use your own good judgement in all situations…” This is typical in Scandinavia so maybe the roots of or curse, Nordstrom still have their say.

It is important because it shows respect. Company , Employment , Human resource management 1914 Words | 6 Pages. ? Forest Hill Paper Company Thomas L. Albright University of Alabama Introduction Forest Hill Paper Company (FHPC) is a . small, closely-held paperboard manufacturer that produces a broad line of paperboard in large reels, termed parent rolls. These parent rolls are sold to converters who further process them into containers used for a diverse line of consumer products, such as packaging for microwavable meals. The owners of FHPC have long pursued the thesis, strategy of producing a full range of products. Cost , Costs , Grade 1866 Words | 4 Pages. Discipline is important in life Discipline is an important virtue. Life without discipline is just like a ship without a rudder. . Thesis Of Measurement. It is necessary for expressing other virtues.

It is thesis presentations powerpoint absolutely essential for success in life. Discipline refers to orderliness in life which results from our adherence to certain code of conduct prepared by the learned people. It also implies our respect to physical and moral laws in our society. Without discipline, it is very difficult to a research proposal for master lead a happy life in society. Bluetooth , Cellular network , Cordless telephone 1472 Words | 4 Pages. BEECH FOREST ECOSYSTEMS INTRODUCTION This essay will look at beech forest ecosystems, describing the thesis presentations powerpoint, main . characteristics, along with pre-human and current distribution of beech forests . Vegetation structure and native fauna associated with the ecosystem will be looked at with examples of dissertation advisors, species given.

Environmental effects such as altitude, latitude, rainfall and soil drainage, and presentations how they can affect beech forests will be investigated. Dissertation Advisors. Anthropogenic effects will also be looked at, explaining. Ecosystem , Forest , Forest ecology 1414 Words | 4 Pages. ? Deciduous forest biome . Presentations Powerpoint. UNKNOWN AUTHOR March 5, A deciduous forest biome is a type of forest characterized by trees that seasonally shed their leaves. In the deciduous forest biome has a variety of different. Autumn , Fruit , Oak 286 Words | 3 Pages. INTRODUCTION Echo systems around the writing proposal for master s thesis, world help sustain life for millions of powerpoint, species. Echo systems that are mainly forests provide a home for essay, . a large majority of the species alive. Powerpoint. Therefore the trees in these forests are considered to be the approaches to essay writing academic, most important species.

Although it is true, that most species are not able to sustain without each other. There are many benefits that we get from our forests . Some of thesis powerpoint, these include cleaner drinking water, a home for plants and animals, economic growth, clean air. Amazon Rainforest , Brazil , Carbon dioxide 1853 Words | 5 Pages. are few legal and business practices which have caused as much controversy and public outcry, as privatization of forests . To Essay Academic Writing. Other than the . Ocean, forests are maybe the most important system to sustain life on this planet. Forests regulate weather, neutralize ecosystems and sustain life to the cellular level. Thesis. So why would anyone privatize forests ? In a nutshell, proponents of forest privatization argue that the resources are not being fully exploited. They argue, many neighboring nations and people. Deforestation , Forest , Government 1433 Words | 5 Pages.

? FOREST SCHOOL ENGLAND DEFINITION Forest School is an inspirational process, that offers children and young people . opportunities to achieve, develop confidence and self-esteem, through hands on learning experiences in a local woodland environment. Writing A Research Proposal S Thesis. According / Forest school (learning style) From Wikipedia Forest school is presentations a type of tunnel diode, outdoor education in which children (or adults) visit forests /woodlands, learning personal, social and technical skills. It has been. Alternative education , Child , Education 1120 Words | 3 Pages. Deciduous Forests INTRODUCTION A deciduous forest , simply described is a forest that is leafless during the . winter. Eury species make up this type of forest , meaning that the species can tolerate a wide range of conditions. In the extreme northern latitudes, the growing season is short causing the trees to be leafless the majority of the thesis presentations powerpoint, year. Current Approaches Writing Academic Skills. The deciduous forest is powerpoint subjected to distinct weather cycles and temperature shifts. In this area of the northeast we experience four distinct seasons, and. Forest , Leaf , Maple 1307 Words | 4 Pages.

Bankers Adda How to write Essay in advisors SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of thesis powerpoint, . 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of on level, English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and few points to remember while writing an essay in the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam. How to write an thesis presentations, essay ? 1. Analyze the approaches writing academic and study skills, prompt. Note exactly what. Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages. Ancient forests around the world are in peril, but we can still save them. Governments and the timber industry need to understand what a . crucial role they play in maintaining global biodiversity, not to mention how vital they are in regulating the thesis, climate, so they need to act now. And as consumers, we can all help to save the forests . Making sure that the wood and paper we buy has come from well-managed sources (or, even better, is 100 per cent recycled) is something we can all easily do. We have. Biodiversity , Conservation , Deforestation 1896 Words | 7 Pages. Intro Forest Conservation is the practice of planting and maintaining forested areas for the benefit and sustainability of approaches to essay and study, future generations. . Presentations. Around the year 1900 in the United States, forest conservation became popular with the uses of natural resources.

It is the upkeep of the current to essay writing skills, natural resources within a forest that are beneficial to presentations powerpoint both humans and the ecosystem. Forest conservation acts to maintain, plan, and thesis of measurement improve forested areas. Thesis Powerpoint. Forests provide wildlife with a suitable habitat for living. Biodiversity , Conservation biology , Deforestation 1298 Words | 4 Pages. Forest management is the diode, maintaining and management of not only the trees in the forest , but the streams, habitat, watersheds, . and even the decaying trees or logs on the forest floor. Managing our forests is not only important to the wildlife, but to our future economy and way of life. We need to thesis presentations powerpoint continue to save the Oregon forests and help the dissertation, ecosystems within them because human beings are also part of the thesis presentations, ecosystem.

By using forest management, it can help certain species of wildlife. Endangered species , Forest , Forest ecology 986 Words | 3 Pages. living in the forest , some who have no contact with the 'outside' world and plan live in thesis presentations a harmonic environment. Rainforests are the most diverse . ecosystems on the planet, as well as being the dissertation advisors, home to an estimated 50 million indigenous forest people. These people depend on the rainforest for their way of life. It provides them nearly everything from shelter and food to tools and thesis presentations medicine. On Level Of Measurement. The people living in the forest make practical and sustainable use of the forest . It also plays an powerpoint, important role in their. Agriculture , Amazon Rainforest , Family 1361 Words | 4 Pages. “Tribal Scars” by Sembene may not have a happy ending but it does teach us an tunnel diode, important lesson. Even though Amoo and Momutu may have committed . an indecent act, depending on what their motivation was will determine if their act was moral or not. By betraying his own kin Momutu decided to give up his humanity, while on the other hand, Amoo gave up his own freedom to protect his family.

Testing with success series The Essay Exam Organization and thesis neatness have merit Before writing out the exam: . African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages. Conservation Of Wild Life forests Protection and conservation of forests and wildlife are essential to maintain the earth’s . health and cpr business environment. The earth is the presentations powerpoint, only known living planet and it is because of its special environment and ecology which are life-supporting. Forests are part and parcel of our environment. They are one of the most valuable resources and gifts of nature. They play a key role in the maintenance climate, rain-patterns, water and soil conservation.

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She must have stood behind the car waving as Clare and her dad drove off for California. That summer Kelly’s dad had a conference to go to in Sacramento. Constable , Friends , High school 1501 Words | 4 Pages. What is a report? This is an introductory guide to tunnel diode thesis report writing. Thesis Powerpoint. It gives some general advice on the content and structure of a report. Cpr Business Plan. It is very . important for you to presentations consult your Departmental Guidelines or Unit Guide for advice on the required report format for the units in dissertation advisors which you are enrolled. Differences between the thesis presentations, report and the essay Report • is usually a question or a proposition. • is based on reading and tunnel diode thesis sometimes field work. Presentations Powerpoint. is to investigate, present and analyse. Essay , Report , Technical communication 580 Words | 7 Pages. Narrative Essays : To Tell a Story There are four types of essays : Exposition - gives information about diode thesis various topics to . the reader. Description - describes in detail characteristics and traits.

Argument - convinces the thesis powerpoint, reader by demonstrating the truth or falsity of a topic. Narrative - tells a story, usually from one person’s viewpoint. A narrative essay uses all the story elements - a beginning and diode thesis ending, plot, characters, setting and climax - all coming together to complete the. A Story , Essay , Essays 1444 Words | 5 Pages. of this essay ). And then, out of powerpoint, nowhere, you realize that something is missing. That THING, is actually something really quite . A Blessing Essay. important . In fact, your life depends on it. Well that THING, ladies and gentlemen, is the forest , and the birds and the bees and thesis presentations powerpoint the flowers and the, well: trees! OK, I know that this probably hasn't really happened to you, (the whole, OMG, the forest disappeared! thing), but I assure you that it has occurred in Australia and thesis on level of measurement South America, where rain forests are burnt. Carbon dioxide , Forest , Oxide 1094 Words | 3 Pages. thesis is never a question. Readers of academic essays expect to have questions discussed, explored, or even answered.

A question (“Why did . communism collapse in Eastern Europe?”) is presentations powerpoint not an argument, and without an argument, a thesis is dead in the water. 2. A thesis is tunnel never a list. “For political, economic, social and thesis presentations cultural reasons, communism collapsed in Eastern Europe” does a good job of “telegraphing” the dissertation, reader what to expect in the essay —a section about political reasons, a section about. Argument , Frederick Douglass , Logic 1094 Words | 5 Pages. 1 American Rangelands and Forests Jessica Rohan SCI 275 7/28/2013 Erin Fogarty . PART 1 American Rangeland or Forest : San Bernardino Forest Rangeland or Forest Location: Yucaipa, California Brief History of Rangeland or Forest : The San Bernardino Forest was home to Native Americans long before it was recorded in history. In the early 19th century the forest was settled by Mexicans and presentations powerpoint Europeans. In 1855 gold was discovered. Combustion , Consciousness , Lightning 540 Words | 4 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the word ‘hate’ in the Heian era. Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on honesty and writing proposal for master s thesis transparency of a situation? “Hateful Things” is an opinionated extract from the book “Pillow Talk” written by Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is a collection of the thesis presentations, lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by Shonagon. Sei.

Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. edu/clrc/files/wl/downloads/WritingaCompareContrastEssay.pdf . Before beginning with the compare and contrast essay topics, let us spend some time on how to thesis on level of measurement write and essay of this type and thesis presentations powerpoint what it entails. Writing can be of many types - academic writing, journalistic writing, letter writing, essay writing, creative writing, and thesis fiction writing. All these types require different writing skills, and presentations powerpoint the writing tips also differ for science a blessing or curse, each of them. Writing.

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AdvancedStartupShutdownWithMultilayeredBlockDevices. This should be used a discussion base in order to implement an advanced startup/shutdown system that can use multi-layered block devices for presentations it's filesystem. Filesystems are one of the basic objects needed in every Linux/UNIX system. They're needed very early (usually after the kernel itself has booted) and very long (usually until the machine powers off or reboots, and dissertation during it is in thesis powerpoint any suspend-state.) A filesystem generally lays (on top) of approaches writing writing a block device. This can be usually any block device, for example: /dev/sda (directly on presentations, the physical disk) /dev/sda1 (directly on the physical disk, but in any partition of any partition table type) /dev/loop0 (on loopback devices) /dev/nbd0 (on network block devices) /dev/vg00/lv00 (on logical volumes from LVM) /dev/mapper/dmcryptDevice (on plain- or LUKS-dm-crypt device) et cetera. There are different kinds of filesystem classes to be considered: root-filesystem (which includes hopefully everything from e.g. /usr , /bin, /sbin, /etc, /var (some parts of /var might actually be needed), /lib, et cetera that is required to boot) non-root-filesystems (which are not required to boot, e.g. Current To Essay Writing Writing And Study Skills! /home, /srv or /root) resume devices, which are used in powerpoint suspend-to-disk. The kernel supports many types of on level block layers: Physical disks and their partitions Loopback devices Network block devices Device Mapper (generic block device mapper) Logical Volume Manager (LVM2) (which uses physical volumes (not necessarily disks) (PV), to map them to logical volumes (LV), grouping them by volume groups (VG)) MD (software RAID) dm-crypt (providing plain- and LUKS-dm-crypt devices) DRDB et cetera.

All usually give us miscellaneous block devices and have their own userspace tools. It is presentations powerpoint, very important for the following the whole topic to understand, that block layers can be nearly arbitrary stacked, as following examples should show: Things to notice: One can get even more complex setups, by using the same type of block layers multiple times (e.g. Cpr Business! . --lvm-- dm-crypt -- lvm --. ). Using loopback devices on top of filesystem, everything gets even worse. The Boot Process and the Shutdown Process.

The boot process consists of several systems/steps: Boot loader (loads kernel and powerpoint optionally the initramfs image) Kernel optionally, an initramfs image The initramfs image, should do everything that is writing, necessary to mount the root-filesystem (specified by the kernel-parameter root) and/or to resume from any resume device. It should only contain stuff that is required to do this (e.g. Thesis Presentations! if the root-filesystem/resume device is neither directly nor indirectly on a LV, no LVM stuff should be included and/or executed or as another example, if btrfs is not used for root-filesystem, the cpr business plan btrfs-scan (btrfsctl -a) should not be done). It should not mount any other filesystems or make any other devices/block layers available that are not required. init-system (e.g. sysvinit) and thesis presentations powerpoint it's initscripts If no initramfs image was used in step 3, the root-filesystem must be already present. The init-system should mount any further filesystem as specified by /etc/fstab and tunnel also make any further block devices available as specified by their userspace's respective configuration (e.g. /etc/crypttab, the presentations powerpoint VG descriptors of LVMs, et cetera) Things to notice: We do not care on science, anything before step 2, so the thesis presentations boot loader is rather irrelevant for us. Of course, for any complex setup (especially where userspace tools and/or config is required), the initramfs image is not optional. There may be some exceptions to this, e.g. lvm is (IIRC) quite smart in figuring out a research for master, everything alone. However, for we really should should try to avoid forcing users to thesis presentations powerpoint, use initramfs images, for setups where they're not strictly needed (e.g. (physical disk -- root-filesystem) or (physical disk(s) -- lvm -- root-filesystem)). The shutdown (halt/reboot) process consists of several systems/steps: init-system (e.g. sysvinit) and it's initscripts The init-system should first unmount all non-root filesystems and a blessing essay close all their related block devices from thesis powerpoint all layers in the correct (reverse) order. Tunnel Diode Thesis! After that, the root-filesystem is still mounted (hopefully also all stuff that is required to proceed) and all the block devices/layers it uses directly or indirectly are still open.

If it was tried to close them (the block devices) and presentations error should have occured (something like still busy). Next, the root-filesystem should be remounted read-only (see later why it's not unmounted. shutdown (halt/reboot) At this point, there are special dm-crypt related security issues, which will be discussed below. Going into suspend modes: AFAIK, there is not kind of diode thesis shutdown procedure that affect filesystems or blockdevices when going into suspend modes.

There is thesis, however some driver unloading, the current approaches writing academic network will be interrupted (which affects at least NBD and DRDB). Thesis Presentations Powerpoint! At least suspend-to-RAM has huge security risks when using dm-crypt encrypted systems. The information presented in the introduction leads two to the questions: Which setup (i.e. which way to stack all the diode thesis different devices) is the right one? The definite answer:

No one, each of them is vaild. Every user might have a different environment and different wishes, and we should not force him to powerpoint, go any way that we personally prefer. As any example that every setup has advantages and disadvantages: . -- lvm -- dm-crypt -- filesystem Here, every filesystem will have different dm-crypt keys, making it possible to decrypt them independently. . -- dm-crypt -- lvm -- filesystem Here, all LVs and cpr business therefore all filesystem will have the thesis presentations powerpoint same dm-crypt keys, making it possible to science a blessing or curse, decrypt all at once. In both setups, things like resizing should still be possible. It should be quite clear, that both are valid. Where do we allow the thesis presentations root-filesystem? The definite answer:

Everywhere. It would be a unjustifiable restriction if we e.g. restrict the root-fs to plain partitions or to be on only one intermediate block layer (e.g. Approaches To Essay Writing Academic Writing And Study Skills! LVM). For example at least one block layer in between is thesis presentations, required to cpr business, support fully encrypted systems, where even the root-filesystem is encrypted, and thesis one boots from an e.g. USB-stick. This is dissertation, especially interesting, as with modern filesystems that do checksumming (e.g. btrfs) one gets kind of thesis integrity/authenticity for free, in addition to the encryption by dm-crypt, as we then have something like MAC. But even without checksumming, fully encrypted systems are nearly unmodifiable as an attacker does not know what to modify and to which value (if he wants for tunnel diode thesis example to compromise the thesis presentations powerpoint system). In order to get everything outlined above many problems have to be solved, including the following ( add them if there are any further ). Most of them are probably not Debian-only . How-to Tell The Initramfs Image And The Init-System The Order In Which Block Devices/Layers Must Be Created And Filesystems Mounted (“Problem I”) For both, the advisors initramfs image, in order to thesis powerpoint, get the root-filesystem and resume-device(s) as well as for the init-system, in order to thesis, get the non-root-filesystem to make sure that devices that require firmware from the root-filesystem are not created before the root-filesystem. we must find a way to tell them how (meaning in which order) to do so.

Detailed discussion and thesis powerpoint proposed solutions can be found and for master s thesis should take place here. How-to Add Only Strictly Necessary Stuff Into The Initramfs Image (“Problem II”) In order to add only the strictly necessary stuff into the initramfs image, we need to thesis presentations powerpoint, find out what is needed, by determining which kinds of block devices / block layers are either directly or indirectly used by the root-filesystem and the resume devices. Detailed discussion and proposed solutions can be found and should take place here. How-to Keep Cryptsetup Secure When Booting (“Problem III”)

I recently described a kind of a meta-attack (other have probably found before), where an attacker can trick a user, by replacing his (fully encrypted) physical volumes with compromised ones. This is thesis on level, probably not the powerpoint most important issue here, but it is related to the boot process, and therefore we might want to have a look at plan it. Detailed discussion and proposed solutions can be found and powerpoint should take place here. How-to shut the system down cleanly (halt or reboot) (“Problem IV”) I try to explain the following as good as I can, but others (Milan?) have surely more knowledge and should please correct my mistakes and missing stuff. When shutting down, we need to do the following (naively): Unmount all non-root-filesystems Close all block devices/layers (in the correct order), which were solely used by these non-root-filesystems Unmount the root-filesystem. Close all block devices/layers (in the of measurement correct order), which were solely used by the root-filesystem. Halt or Reboot.

It does/can however not work like this. Steps 1-2: These are already not that easy, in principle they are as complex as the other way round, when setting them up (discussed above). Presentations Powerpoint! Step 3: We cannot really unmount the root-filesystem . I guess the only reason is, that it's still used ( or is there any other? ). The init-system is still running, it e.g. Science! further wants to thesis presentations powerpoint, read later init-scripts, and we want to plan, somehow call halt or shutdown. What we do instead is, remounting the root-filesystem read-only . Step 4: This doesn't work either, as the root-filesystem is not really unmounted the block devices at all layers below it think (correctly) that they're still used. Detailed discussion and proposed solutions can be found and should take place here.

Is our root-filesystem (data) really safe, after we remounted read-only. Probably yes. Milan tried to describe the technical details in the lkml thread referenced above. ( Correct me if anything is wrong. ) It seems that unmount / remount,ro does a flush, and this flush goes down through all the powerpoint different block layers. This uses some technique like barriers, which are block-IO-barriers and not the same ones as e.g. those from ext4 ( right?? ). mount -o remount,ro / waits until all this flushing is really finished before it returns. I hope the current writing writing init-system ( what about sysvinit?? ) would wait forever, if mount does not return. and does not simply try to powerpoint, kill it and proceed with the next (e.g. halt/reboot). Writing For Master S Thesis! ( Petter can you tell us? )) At least one question is open (to me) now: What if remount,ro and thesis presentations powerpoint the flushing cannot finish as some block layer below has to wait or blocks. Consider e.g. Tunnel Thesis! lvm with using the cluster-thingy?

The network could be down. Or would it (the daemon) already be gone at presentations powerpoint that stage, having cleanly stopped and locked/unlocked everything as necessary before? Detailed discussion and proposed solutions can be found and should take place here. We cannot close all the science a blessing or curse block devices/layers below the remounted,ro root-filesystem. What are the resulting problems? Are there any problems at all? Yes! What would happen at all? We would somehow (perhaps with error messages) continue and move forward to halting/rebooting, of thesis presentations powerpoint course after the of measurement root-filesystem had been remounted read-only.

As mentioned just above, our data is probably save, as everything has already been safely flushed out. Thesis Presentations! Can there be any other problems, when not closing any of the a blessing essay underlying block devices? E.g. I could imagine that there might be problems with RAID metadata, or things like this which could be perhaps not flushed correctly, or even if they were flushed. a ongoing process could be running, where a clean stop like the remount,ro would be needed but we have only the presentations close the device doing this (which we cannot use however). The user gets annoying error messages about thesis of measurement, devices that could not be closed. Thesis Presentations! This is not critical, but we should solve.

It might also irritate non-expert-users. There are however, as also discussed in the lkml thread mentioned above, quite serious dm-crypt security problem arising from this, which are discussed below. Detailed discussion and proposed solutions can be found and should take place here. How-to Keep Cryptsetup Secure When Shutting down (“Problem V”) Milan noted in the lkml thread, that not closing the dm-crypt device(s) lead to ( I guess at on level least? ) one security problem. The key is thesis powerpoint, not deleted from memory. Perhaps Milan can describe this (and any solutions) please . and writing a research proposal hopefully finding the perfect solution . Detailed discussion and proposed solutions can be found and should take place here. Are there any further problems? For example related to suspend modes or security issues?

I've already played with such thoughts and Milan spoke it out thesis powerpoint, loudly at the lkml thread. one solution for some of the thesis above problems (but not all!) would be to invent the opposite of initramfs images. uninitramfs images , which could then easily ( ) clean up, and thesis presentations really unmount the root-filesystem. This shows the current status in Debian. Please correct anything that's wrong. The Problems From Above And Their Status In Debian. How-to Tell The Initramfs Image And The Init-System The Order In Which Block Devices/Layers Must Be Created And Filesystems Mounted. AFAIK, all this is statically defined at cpr business the moment in powerpoint both the initramfs boot scripts and the init-scripts. For the init-system the order seems to be: physical disks/partitions -- md -- dm-crypt -- lvm -- dm-crypt -- filesystem.

Each of them is of optional, e.g. For Master S Thesis! not having mdadm installed will mean no md. The double dm-crypt is done via cryptdisks-early and thesis cryptdisks. I guess the order is solely defined via the LSB init-script headers. For the initramfs image the on level order seems to be: physical disks/partitions -- lvm -- dm-crypt -- filesystem. Not sure whether there's also kind of presentations a cryptdisks_early and where mdadm is. Not sure how the order is defined here. Thesis On Level! there are these ORDER files in powerpoint ../scripts/local-*/, there is the prereqs mechanism in boot-scripts, and IIRC the remaining ones are simply alphabetically? How-to Add Only Strictly Necessary Stuff Into The Initramfs Image. Some packages already do some checking. For example cryptsetup tries to only include stuff that is necessary. But I guess (Jonas correct me) this is limited: I assume you start scanning in /etc/fstab, but will this work, if the dm-crypt device is not directly below the advisors root-filesystem but only at some other indirect place below (see scenarios above)? Other packages, e.g. lvm2 simply always include and run their stuff within initramfs images, when installed (see my notes in the Notes section below ).

How-to Keep Cryptsetup Secure When Booting. Currently, we are probably vulnerable to that issue, at least IMHO. How-to shut the powerpoint system down cleanly (halt or reboot) Same issues as mentioned above. We even have effectively only this (at least as far as I understand): Unmount all non-root-filesystems Close _ALL_ block devices/layers (in the science a blessing essay correct order) remount,ro the root-filesystem. not trying again to close all block devices/layers (in the correct order), which were solely used by the root-filesystem.

Halt or Reboot. Is our root-filesystem (data) really safe, after we remounted read-only. Same issues as mentioned above. We cannot close all the block devices/layers below the remounted,ro root-filesystem. What are the resulting problems? Same issues as mentioned above. Some packages e.g. lvm2 let the powerpoint init-script fail if closing didn't work, leading to a big red failed on the terminal ;). Others, e.g. cryptsetup (at least until the proposal for master s thesis next upload), print a warning but do not let the presentations init-script fail (right?). How-to Keep Cryptsetup Secure When Shutting down. As we cannot close the dm-crypt devices laying below an encrypted root-filesystem, we're currently vulnerable. There are already some related bugs in the BTS, including: lvm2.

Please add them if you find more. I'm really not the for master kernel/block layers/etc. Thesis Powerpoint! expert. Many of the on level of measurement information I wrote down here is probably borrowed by other people or at least inspired. Many people gave me some - for my level of knowledge - great insight on how these things work (including, but not limited, Milan Broz, Jonas Meurer, Arno Wagner, and many I've probably forgot ). Presentations Powerpoint! Further. Diode Thesis! my apologies if I pointed with my fingers at any Debian package, showing that something does not yet work there. Thesis Powerpoint! I don't mean this offensive, or that I'm smarter or so ;). Dissertation! just want to contribute . I guess all these issues are not only Debian-related, at least mostly.

Therefore I think we should try to thesis powerpoint, do team work with other distros which does not mean we should throw away our own tools in on level places where they use others. I guess to really solve all that issues cleanly and securely it's critical to have all experts (especially the upstream gurus like Milan ) as well as all the presentations affected maintainers at science or curse essay one (virtual) table and pulling on the same rope. The later probably includes cryptsetup, lvm2, mdadm, initscripts (as they do the booting/umounroot/etc) and many other packages I can't think of right now. Things we might need to consider in thesis presentations addition. although iSCSI is advisors, similar to NBD (give that it's block device via network) it might be more complicated in reality? any special things to consider when using network filesystems like NFS(v3,v4), GFS, etc. (especially as root-filesystem)?

If we allow using the same type of powerpoint block layer several times (e.g. as in or even more complicated (e.g. having another dm-crypt on top of the above lvm, and still below the a research for master root-filesystem) this could add us much complexity. Taking cryptsetup as example ( which I know a bit better ), we'd need to include keyscrips (as well as their configuration), checkscripts for all of the devices in presentations powerpoint the initramfs image. cryptsetup, especially when using plain dm-crypt devices, must always check whether the encryption was correct (otherwise data corruption on current approaches to essay, read/write could occur). For LUKS this is thesis presentations powerpoint, easy, for diode plain-dm-crypt devices not (Debian can however check whether any valid filesystem is on top of dm-crypt). However this is AFAIK not done during initramfs images (and there's probably nothing similar for presentations powerpoint resume-devices?!). Further. if the current approaches to essay writing writing skills filesystem is thesis powerpoint, not directly on top of dm-crypt, we cannot check for it anyway. Tunnel Diode! (see also some notes in 587222)

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to thesis presentations powerpoint, start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two?

Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the dissertation advisors, resume advice you need into one place. Read on presentations powerpoint, for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on current approaches to essay academic writing skills, it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs.

Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on thesis, your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the thesis on level, Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the thesis presentations, fold” refers to of measurement, what you see on thesis presentations, the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. Science A Blessing Essay. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on thesis, the top third of your resume. On Level. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. So focus on thesis presentations, putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the plan, get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and thesis presentations powerpoint, focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. Dissertation Advisors. There are lots of different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding.

The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the presentations, information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to writing and study, showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to presentations, fit more in less space. Can’t figure out writing for master how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to powerpoint, be able to science or curse, include some visual examples of powerpoint your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the writing a research, ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple.

Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for thesis presentations powerpoint, the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out advisors from the presentations, sea of Times New Roman?

Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to proposal s thesis, make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to powerpoint, make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to a blessing or curse, include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. Thesis. (Implicit in tunnel, this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of thesis time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible.

These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. Tunnel Diode. This is arguably the most important document of presentations powerpoint your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13.

Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the plan, experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to thesis powerpoint, importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). Tunnel Diode Thesis. 14. Thesis Presentations Powerpoint. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill.

Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and for master s thesis, transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of presentations why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the dissertation advisors, recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of thesis industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to dissertation advisors, the average person. Remember that the presentations powerpoint, first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is thesis on level, readable, relevant, and interesting to all of thesis presentations powerpoint them. Use as many facts, figures, and cpr business plan, numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them.

Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . Presentations Powerpoint. People hire performers, so you want to dissertation advisors, show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at presentations powerpoint, your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. Writing. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the thesis powerpoint, employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for thesis of measurement, turning your duties into thesis, accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of a blessing meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in presentations powerpoint, your bullet points without actually saying them.

Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the cpr business, same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the thesis powerpoint, result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. Cpr Business Plan. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in thesis powerpoint, a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology.

If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to thesis of measurement, mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the thesis presentations powerpoint, job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Cpr Business. Stuck on which words to thesis powerpoint, include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the dissertation advisors, most used keywords.

What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Presentations. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and plan, relevant to you getting the job than where you went to thesis, college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological.

Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in current approaches academic writing and study, reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is presentations, more specific to the job, list that first to tunnel diode thesis, grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. Presentations Powerpoint. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and proposal, motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out thesis all the cpr business, relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications.

Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of powerpoint skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on cpr business, its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and thesis, detail your experience there. Tunnel Diode Thesis. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it.

But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on presentations, the reg.

Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by thesis someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of powerpoint whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in thesis, a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at thesis presentations, a (non-temporary) job for on level of measurement, only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from presentations, your resume. According to advisors, The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about thesis powerpoint, your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and a research proposal, end dates for each position. Use years only thesis presentations, (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions.

If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to s thesis, each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to thesis, include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out advisors of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is presentations powerpoint, as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to advisors, take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in thesis presentations, you, he or she will ask you for on level of measurement, references—and will assume that you have them.

There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and thesis presentations powerpoint, clear of dissertation advisors typos. Thesis Powerpoint. And don’t rely on spell check and thesis on level, grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an thesis presentations powerpoint, editor on how to perfect your own work ). On Level Of Measurement. If emailing your resume, make sure to thesis, always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and dissertation advisors, open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to thesis powerpoint, take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Thesis On Level. Have you taken on new responsibilities?

Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of thesis presentations powerpoint good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of advisors Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and thesis presentations, content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of thesis on level of measurement writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team.

If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at Presentations. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for current writing academic and study skills, this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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Formative assessment and feedback. This page addresses feedback from tutors to students intended to help students learn; the thesis presentations powerpoint, use of feedback from students to teachers (intended to enhance teaching) is discussed on the Evaluating your teaching page. The Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) says: Formative assessment has a developmental purpose and is designed to help learners learn more effectively by giving them feedback on writing proposal s thesis, their performance and on how it can be improved and/or maintained (QAA, 2006, p35). Formative assessment is usually contrasted with summative assessment: Summative assessment is used to indicate the extent of a learner's success in meeting the assessment criteria used to gauge the intended learning outcomes of a module or programme (QAA, 2006, p36). While formative assessment usually takes place during the learning process, summative assessment usually takes place at the end of a unit, module, course or programme.

Central to formative assessment is the feedback given to learners: Feedback. is usually defined in terms of information about how successfully something has been or is being done (Sadler, 1989, p120). Good feedback practice is anything that might strengthen the student’s capacity to self-regulate their own performance (Nicol Macfarlane-Dick, 2006, p205). The notion of self-regulation is vital to effective feedback insofar as our goal is to develop independence in learning. Self-regulation means the student has internalised an idea of what good performance is, is able to compare his or her own work with that standard, and knows what needs to be done to meet the thesis, standard (Sadler, 1989, cited in Nicol Macfarlane-Dick, 2006). Independent learning requires self-regulation. Self-regulation also explains the connection between students’ understanding of the assessment criteria (internalising what good performance looks like) and feedback. We’ll look at this in the Oxford context in the next section. Across the UK, students report less satisfaction with the feedback they receive than with other aspects of their university experience (National Student Survey, 2011) and this holds true in thesis on level, Oxford too.

Given Oxford’s tutorial-based teaching and consequent high tutor-student ratio, a better satisfaction rating for thesis presentations, assessment and feedback might be expected. In fact, Oxford results have consistently revealed that students are least satisfied with the clarity of marking criteria and the quality of feedback they receive. Dissertation Advisors! For instance only 57% of undergraduate finalists responding to the 2011 NSS survey agreed that criteria were clear in advance, compared with 93% who said they were satisfied with the course overall. Nearly a quarter of the students disagreed that “feedback on thesis presentations powerpoint, my work has been prompt” or that they “received detailed feedback on my work”. Nearly a quarter disagreed that “feedback on my work has helped me clarify things I did not understand”. When oral feedback is explicitly mentioned in the question, levels of agreement improved slightly but were still substantially lower than in the other areas about which students were asked (i.e. teaching, academic support, organisation and management, learning resources, personal development). With the intention of supplementing earlier NSS data, Oxford University Student Union’s (OUSU) Initial Response to Oxford’s Review of its Teaching Model obtained more than 400 students’ views on teaching at the University through a large scale focus group exercise in Trinity Term 2010. Many students talked about feedback, wanting information about “what aspects of their work needed improvement” and feedback on tunnel, the structure of the essay”. Thesis! Others wanted to use feedback to monitor progress, often specifically towards preparedness for examinations. Comments such as “No-one ever tells you how to writing proposal for master s thesis do better; just that you’re going wrong” demonstrate a level of anxiety about the presentations powerpoint, standards they are aiming for.

Students are also unclear about how assessment criteria are applied in examinations. In Humanities and Social Sciences, especially, they find it difficult to or curse see tutorial essays as authentic preparation for examination essays; tutorial essays are written over a week, which is different to completing an essay in an hour under exam conditions. It was suggested, though, that tutors could help by giving feedback in the tutorial on how the essay under discussion might be written under examination conditions. It may help if tutors promote an understanding of tutorial work as developing deep understanding of the subject area, rather than the ability to pass examinations; if the former is in place the latter will be a natural consequence. Explaining to students how tutors apply criteria to thesis presentations tutorial essays and other work, and how examiners do so in examinations, is also helpful for students. Relationship between feedback and clarity of marking criteria. The two issues of clarity of marking criteria and feedback are related because students’ interpretation of advisors, feedback requires understanding of powerpoint, what constitutes good performance. Advisors! The key principles of good feedback are rooted in helping students internalise good performance standards. Feedback (or marks) which refer to ‘assessment criteria’ are valued by students only if they have a clear understanding of the criteria in use (Ferguson, 2011, pp55-56).

Marking criteria and thesis powerpoint learning outcomes, however, often use terminology students do not yet understand. Although more sophisticated understandings of the meanings of assessment criteria come with experience, spending time at an early stage working through criteria with students pays dividends in enhanced understanding and thesis of measurement a better standard of work produced (Gibbs, 2007). Some terminology used in the marking criteria of two disciplines at thesis presentations, Oxford (Economics, History) Analysis (competent, skilful) Argument (incisive, sophisticated) Breadth of reference. Evidence of extensive reading. Solidly competent work. Structure (clear, logical) Style (clear, elegant)

These terms appear to be generic, but their interpretation depends on context. Is an ‘incisive argument’ in History the same as a ‘logical structure of argument’ in Economics? Knowledge about such terminology in use is frequently tacit; experts may not realise the extent to which disciplinary novices misunderstand it. If feedback on an essay aiming to meet these criteria is to be effective in bringing about improvement, the tutorial discussion must develop shared understandings of complex concepts such as “critical evaluation”, “incisive argument” and plan “originality”. See Ideas and tools (below) for examples of exercises to develop students’ understanding of assessment criteria. In 2003-4 Archer (2007) investigated Oxford History and Archaeology students’ experiences of the formative assessment of essays.

He conceptualised the essay as an thesis powerpoint, artefact (p28) that could be used to science or curse diagnose student learning attainment, indicating a starting point for using the tutorial to develop learning further. Archer’s findings indicate that student’ essay-writing benefits from thesis presentations, explicit student-tutor discussion (and mutual understanding) of various points: What are tutorial essays for? Tutors say, a means for students to tunnel diode “organise themselves intellectually (p9)” or opportunities for practice in analysis, argument formulation and marshalling evidence (p11), whilst students often see them as being about subject knowledge (p9). How did the student use the reading lists? What did the student find difficult about the essay-writing process and why? What is the relationship between tutorial essays and examination essays? Students who see the purpose of the tutorial as coverage of the material also see essays as revision material for examinations; tutors tend not to endorse this view (p11). What makes a good Archaeology/History essay?

What does the thesis, student understand by writing s thesis the tutor’s comments on the essay? History students interviewed about their educational experience typically said they wanted more feedback. However this was rarely expressed in thesis presentations powerpoint, terms of advisors, wanting a grade, rather they asked for “more advice on style and structure” (Archer, 2006). Does feedback require giving a mark? In the Policy and presentations powerpoint Guidance on Undergraduate Learning and Teaching the University makes it clear tutors should explain their feedback approach explicitly to students, but does not legislate on whether or not marks or grades should be assigned to tutorial work. Paragraph 3.10 states: The scale and extent of feedback provided through tutorial teaching is cpr business, a core element of the collegiate University’s learning support for undergraduates. Tutorial teaching provides regular and substantial feedback and formative assessment, although it is acknowledged that the precise form will vary from one subject to thesis presentations powerpoint another, and from tutor to tutor. For example, tutors take different approaches to the provision of marks. Some prefer written or oral feedback that does not include marks and focuses at least as much on the growth of intellectual understanding as on preparation for future summative assessment. Others see marks as part of cpr business plan, a range of appropriate feedback, alongside specific comments and constructive criticism. [. ] What is of most significance is that tutors explain, and students understand, the individual approaches taken (p9).

The Commission of Inquiry’s (COI) report, published in 1997, stated that “undergraduates are entitled to presentations powerpoint effective and helpful written comments on their work” and “marking with grades is not always appropriate” (paragraph 9.37). The question about grades was influenced by the idea of expected standards varying according to the stage reached and tunnel grades possibly not being comparable. Thesis Powerpoint! Other views stress grades as actively unhelpful to students, having a de-motivating and cpr business ego-involving potential, whilst effective feedback comments promote task involvement and powerpoint efforts to science a blessing improve (Juwah et al, 2004). The Commission’s recommendation that undergraduates be better informed on the grading and commenting on tutorial work” (COI, 1997, Recommendation 55) suggests tutors should discuss explicitly with students their reasoning and approaches to thesis feedback and marking. The COI Report (1997) responded to Oxford undergraduates’ complaints “that tutors did not provide enough feedback on essays, either by giving an overall grade for an essay or by making specific comments on the content of an essay (paragraph 9.35)” by science a blessing or curse essay saying they believed this “represented a misunderstanding of the tutorial process”. Presentations Powerpoint! The Report declared that “the central part of the business in plan, a tutorial should be active, two-way discussion of the powerpoint, student’s work” (paragraph 9.36). Feedback takes place at the point of learning, i.e. in the classroom, the science essay, tutorial or the lecture. Considered in this light, we can interpret the ‘two-way discussion’ recommended by the Commission as the tutor continuing the assessment which began with reading the essay, and supplementing it by thesis presentations questioning the student and cpr business plan giving oral feedback.

However, tutors must make it explicit to students that this whole process is presentations, about giving feedback. In addition to weekly tutorials, Collections (college examinations) offer an a research proposal, opportunity for presentations powerpoint, formative assessment and advisors constructive feedback. Students in the OUSU focus groups, though, seem to believe that Collections are “not taken seriously”. They see evidence for this in Collections being returned late and presentations with minimal feedback. Tutors can use Collections to help students monitor their progress and feel better prepared for Finals. The University’s Policy and dissertation advisors Guidance on thesis powerpoint, Undergraduate Learning and Teaching makes it clear tutors must ensure students both understand the science, purpose of Collections and thesis receive feedback on these written examinations “within a reasonable timescale”. It seems reasonable to expect that students receive feedback very soon after the examination; this is critical because, other than by Collections, explicit preparation for cpr business plan, writing examination essays is powerpoint, difficult to provide.

Feedback on taught master’s programmes. Like undergraduates, taught master’s students at Oxford also want more feedback on their work. In OUSU’s 2011 report on students’ responses concerning postgraduate taught courses, a widespread concern about feedback was evident, across all divisions. These graduate students clearly saw feedback on their work as a vital taught course element, without which they could not understand the marking criteria being applied, gauge the standard they had achieved or work out how to improve. Students reported inconsistency in the availability of good, usable feedback. On short, one-year courses, they needed early feedback to tunnel diode thesis determine tutors’ expectations, establish whether they were meeting the requirements and understand how to improve. PGT students would like to receive both comments or annotations written on their essays and supplementary oral feedback.

They found it de-motivating to receive inadequate feedback or none. On most courses there was concern over presentations, the timing of approaches academic and study, assignments, both in terms of uneven workloads from powerpoint, term to term, and cpr business plan because it was difficult to presentations powerpoint use learning gained from feedback on one assignment to understand and meet the requirements on the next one. On Level! In particular, it was a problem for thesis powerpoint, some students that feedback was rarely given on assignments being assessed summatively, even if they occurred early in the course, because of sensitivity over contact between students and examiners. In response to such concerns, the Education Committee has now agreed that all students should receive written feedback on at least one designated piece of cpr business plan, formative assessment, e.g. Presentations! essay or assignment, during the course of the first term, with the a research proposal s thesis, purpose of: providing guidance to students for thesis powerpoint, whom extended pieces of writing are unfamiliar forms of assessment; indicating to students their areas of strength and tunnel thesis weakness in relation to the assessment task; providing course members with an indication of the presentations powerpoint, expectations and standards towards which they are working. In addition the Education Committee has established the on level, principle that limited feedback must be given to students on thesis presentations, any elements of summative assessment which are undertaken prior to the final term of the dissertation advisors, course. It is also Education Committee’s intention that written feedback will be provided for all PGT dissertations or theses of 5,000 words or over, in accordance with an agreed divisional format or template. Feedback to postgraduate research students. Research students also benefit from regular feedback.

The stages of Transfer and Confirmation of Status are important occasions for formal feedback but doctoral students also express the need for regular formative feedback which enables them to understand whether they are progressing sufficiently and attaining expected standards in thesis presentations powerpoint, their work. See Giving and receiving feedback (with DPhil students). While students may “accept a teacher’s judgement without demur” (Sadler, 1989, p121) we really want them to develop their own judgement and learn to approaches academic writing and study regulate for themselves the quality of their work. The teacher’s role is to provide constructive and timely feedback comments, assisting students to internalise an appropriate concept of good quality in their subject area. “Students have to be able to judge the quality of what they are producing and thesis powerpoint be able to approaches academic and study regulate what they are doing during the doing of it” (p121). Thus feedback is presentations powerpoint, teaching. A teacher conveys disciplinary standards in several different ways: As a role model , i.e. Cpr Business! through demonstrating (modelling) disciplinary practice. Thesis Presentations! This might be through lecturing, constructing argument in tutorial discussions or in small group seminars, research papers, etc. A good learning environment requires “a teacher who knows which skills are to be learned, and who can recognize and describe a fine performance, demonstrate a fine performance, and indicate how a poor performance can be improved” (Sadler, 1989, p120).

As a judge , through both written and oral feedback. Diode! Good written feedback based on criteria effectively develops student independence by encouraging them to use the criteria autonomously for checking their work. Feedback should be sufficiently detailed to enable students to determine how to improve the work, without actually telling them what to powerpoint do. Remember that oral feedback can sometimes be mistaken by current approaches academic writing and study students for general discussion, so this must be made explicit. As one of the subject experts who set the assessment criteria . If criteria genuinely encapsulate the qualities, skills, knowledge and understanding that characterise graduates in the discipline, at a level which helps students to thesis powerpoint understand what they are aiming for without prescriptive detail, they help students develop independence as learners with skills to regulate the standard of their work. As a fellow learner . Both tutor and student are engaged in separate and joint endeavours to learn more within the discipline, and on specific topics within the discipline. Be open-minded and advisors prepared to both learn and presentations teach when you interact.

Hounsell et al’s Guidance and Feedback Loop (398kb) diagram highlights challenges facing students at each of the points during the lifecycle of an assignment. Difficulties can occur at each of several steps: Correct conception of task, assignment or goal (e.g. what does ‘critical analysis’ mean?) If a student performs poorly, it may be because they did not understand the task itself. Thesis! Hadwyn (2006) says, “Academic tasks constitute much more than a list of specific instructions and criteria in a course outline. They are: layered with both explicit and thesis presentations powerpoint implicit requirements, deeply embedded in discipline specific thinking and presentation genres, and described with discipline specific language”. Of Measurement! Further, Lea Street (2000) contend that dealing with these layered issues is thesis powerpoint, not simply a matter of “study skills” or “academic socialisation” but of “academic literacies”, where the dissertation advisors, student must negotiate conflicting literary practices (p34, Fig 2.1). Devising appropriate strategies for achieving the presentations powerpoint, goal (e.g. understanding and using a reading list). Completing the task as understood.

Seeking clarification when needed. Interpreting the current approaches to essay writing academic and study, feedback received: recognising feedback as such, understanding tutor comments, relating feedback received to thesis powerpoint own assessment of work, recognising implications for action. Oral feedback, especially in an oral performance environment (tutorial discussion, debate, etc.) can be just as important as written feedback. One way of science a blessing, encouraging students to make oral feedback ‘usable’ is by suggesting they take notes of discussions about thesis presentations powerpoint, essays (if not during then immediately afterwards), especially when they plan to essay use them for revision purposes. Action in response (or “feed-forward”): changing strategies or changing understanding of presentations, goals for future assignments or examinations. It is more difficult but important - to apply feedback on essay 1 to essay 2 (on a different topic). While schedules are very tight, finding a way to allow students to revise and resubmit the same essay can ensure students engage with and respond to writing for master feedback. Essay cover sheets can be used to direct students’ attention to certain parts of the task, by ensuring they self-assess their work against questions you pose. An essay cover sheet can be structured to hold students accountable for acting on the feedback you’ve already given them by describing how they’ve addressed it in a subsequent essay. Powerpoint! This Essay Cover Sheet (12kb) from Law includes some discipline-specific questions. Science Or Curse! To ensure students pay attention to thesis presentations analysing an essay or other assignment task before setting about it, what questions or items would best help students in your discipline?

Another idea, perhaps best suited to current approaches writing academic writing the ‘problem-set’ assignment style found in Physics or Engineering, is used by Stephen Clark who tells his students “to make a cover sheet for presentations, your tutorial work in cpr business plan, which you write down unresolved problems or issues you had while tackling any part of the work we have done so far”. Presentations Powerpoint! This “unstructured” cover sheet approach, i.e. not telling students what to write about, is used to make them examine and isolate what exactly they struggled with. Stephen finds that requiring students to comment on thesis on level of measurement, problems they cannot answer often leads them to solving the problem (resulting in no cover sheet) or acts as a self-appraisal process which better directs the subsequent tutorial discussions. In Editing as tutor-, self- and peer-assessment (26kb) Liz Baigent describes her approach to fostering a standard of disciplinary writing among groups of visiting students using a model of “professional scholarly life”. Powerpoint! Tutors themselves edit parts of students’ first essays, modelling academic writing style and improved communication of ideas. Students receive handbooks and instruction on current approaches to essay, editing their own work and (optional) peer editing activities are also encouraged. Try offering the opportunity, perhaps once a term (perhaps over the vacation), for thesis powerpoint, students to thesis revise and resubmit a tutorial essay. Having received feedback comments which suggest improvements, the opportunity of putting tutor recommendations into effect by reworking and resubmitting the essay, will enable students to get to grips more effectively with applying criteria and meeting a required standard. See Gibbs, Student understanding of assessment standards (34kb), which, in the context of comparing Oxford’s approach to assessment with that of other UK universities, also includes an example of an presentations powerpoint, exercise which involved students marking and thesis on level discussing assignments, as well as comparison of the subsequent end-of-course assessments for participant students against those of a control group. See illuminatio 2012 (1,340kb). Clarifying essay marking criteria in history through a student marking workshop . This article by Tracey Sowerby begins on page 2 of this issue of Illuminatio.

It discusses using “a pool of anonymised essays by former students who have given their permission” to thesis powerpoint give students experience of advisors, applying criteria to marking another person’s work, then applying the same guidelines to a critical appraisal of thesis powerpoint, their own work. Understanding Coursework Requirements Assessment Criteria (173kb) gives a number of tunnel diode, Oxford examples of suitable activities for helping students to understand requirements and criteria at different stages of their courses. In 2006, Archer compared assessment practice in his Faculty with Nicol and Macfarlane-Dick’s (2006) Seven Principles - see Feedback principles in action? The Oxford History Faculty (461kb) . You could use the list of principles in Helping students take control of their own learning (234kb) to reflect on thesis presentations, your own practice in the same way. Similarly, Gibbs and Simpson’s Conditions under which assessment supports student learning (171kb) could be used to current approaches academic writing and study analyse your own practice and the learning and teaching environment you establish for presentations powerpoint, your students. In this Extract from the a blessing or curse essay, Code of Practice on assessment of students (104kb) the QAA lists a number of assessment examples intended to help tutors ensure student learning is supported. Insights from research and literature. A number of studies have focused on students’ responses to feedback; whether they understand it (Chanock, 2000) and how they perceive and value it (Weaver, 2006). Chanock (2000) looked at the problem of students misunderstanding what tutors write on their essays, examining what students and tutors in different Humanities subjects understood by the comment “Too much description; not enough analysis”.

She found terminology was frequently understood differently by presentations academics in different disciplines, and students often failed to interpret such comments in writing, the way their tutor intended. Chanock concluded by thesis recommending: explanation needs to be accompanied by models and these are already to hand. S Thesis! When a lecturer explores a question in the classroom; when a tutorial group goes to powerpoint work on a document; when a student reads an article; all of these are models of analysis in the discipline. What is often lacking is some explicit commentary by the teacher, drawing students’ attention to how exactly this activity or this reading exemplifies the process of analysis. Process is as important here as product ; students will not get far simply by imitating an end product without knowing how to reach it (Chanock, 2000, p103.

Emphasis added). Walker (2009) set out to discover what makes teacher comments usable by cpr business plan students. She identified three categories of comments: about content; about the presentations powerpoint, student’s development of to essay writing academic writing skills, skill (e.g. in analysis, in structuring argument, etc.); or designed to motivate the thesis, student. 62% of all feedback comments Walker analysed (n=3095) were either about content or skills development. Cpr Business! 14% of these offered an explanation (as opposed to merely indicating a content or skills problem existed or offering a correction for the problem). Walker interviewed students about the presentations powerpoint, feedback they received and results indicated that, to writing a research be usable, feedback comments concerning content or skills development must be fully explained. Overall, her students found skills development comments more usable than those in other categories: respondents said about two-thirds of these comments were “useful/ helpful for future work”. Motivating comments were seen as being useful in the affective domain, and students were “pleased/encouraged” by 73% of thesis presentations, such comments, although 15% of approaches to essay writing and study skills, them led to “lack of understanding of the comment and/or need for more explanation or detail”. “Unqualified praise” expressed alongside “less-than-full marks” led to students being puzzled, and sometimes annoyed, by the conflicting information.

If tutors’ messages to students are inconsistent, students will be dissatisfied. Students questioned about feedback by Ferguson (2011) said what they found most useful were: i) brief written comments throughout the piece of work, and. ii) a written summary or overview. It is interesting (and instructive?) to note that as many as 50% of Ferguson’s respondents had experience of difficulty reading teachers’ handwriting! . What is needed is an explanation of how to improve. . Brief notes linked to the work and explicit. . Powerpoint! Highlight the main issue influencing the grade. . Short, unexplained responses (‘good’, ‘needs more work’, etc.) were of no value at all. . ticks or crosses without further explanation were useless. . Concise remarks must tell you something constructive. (Ferguson, 2011, p56)

Ferguson also found students expressed a strong preference in their free text responses for science a blessing essay, ‘personal’ as opposed to ‘non-personal’ feedback (where ‘non-personal’ focused on comparison with grades or criteria and thesis powerpoint ‘personal’ focused and commented on specific aspects of the individually presented work). Taras (2006) contended that whilst academics who write scholarly articles for journals receive iterative feedback on their writing, enabling them to improve their work until it is advisors, deemed suitable for publication, undergraduates rarely have that opportunity to learn from constructive comments and feedback on assignments. While students get weekly feedback on the same type of assignment, they rarely have the opportunity to revise and resubmit the same piece of work. Doing so could be very valuable and more closely mimics the “real-world” of writing, which is thesis presentations, a process of iterative drafting. Archer, IW. (2007) Students' Experiences of the Formative Assessment of thesis of measurement, Essays (381kb) in History and Archaeology at Oxford . Final report on an investigation funded by thesis powerpoint the HEA Subject Centre for History, Classics and Archaeology. Commission of Inquiry (1997) Commission of a research proposal for master, Inquiry Report . Oxford: University of Oxford. Hadwyn, A. (2006) Do your students really understand your assignments? Tomorrow’s Professor Mailing List website. Stanford University.

History Faculty. History Marking Criteria . University of Oxford. (Access restricted: Oxford Single Sign-on required) Lea, M. Thesis! R. Street, B. V. Advisors! (2000) “Student Writing and thesis powerpoint Staff Feedback in Higher Education: An Academic Literacies Approach”. In Lea, M. R. Stierer, B. (Eds) (2000) Student Writing in Higher Education: New Contexts . Buckingham: SHRE and Open University Press. Oxford University Student Union. (2010) Initial Response to Oxford’s Review of its Teaching Model. Downloaded from: on 10 January 2013.

Oxford University Student Union. (2012) Review of cpr business, Postgraduate Research Student Provision. Downloaded from thesis presentations, on 24 February 2014. Black, P. Wiliam, D. (1998) Assessment and Classroom Learning. Assessment in to essay writing academic writing and study, Education: Principles, Policy and Practice . 5(1), 7-74.

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