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before the law essay The Power of Independent Thinking. Liberty and the Rule of Law. Student Winner. Third Prize (Tie) ($500) #147;The great aim of the struggle for liberty has been equality before the law.#148; The term #145;rule of law,#146; since reformulated by paper, A.V. Dicey in the 19 th century, has traditionally meant to include such notions as supremacy of courses thinking standing law over paper arbitrary power, equality before the buy uk essays law (which applies also to government officials), and a binding constitutional framework. In the broader context of Hayek#146;s work in political philosophy, his idea of equality is radiology research, meant to incorporate these notions. The following essay sketches out university thesis some highlights of the struggle for this ideal, and then address the role that equality before the law#151;and the rule of law more generally#151;performs in allowing modern civilization to prosper. In The Constitution of Liberty Hayek explains that only equality before the law, and not equality of outcomes, is consistent with a free society. Material inequality is in fact a necessary by-product of freedom.
However, equality before the law is research paper, clearly not sufficient for the kind of society that Hayek was advocating, since it could arguably exist under a totalitarian regime. A Theme Essay! It must exist as part of the rule of law, or a #147;meta-legal doctrine or political ideal#148; that puts limitations on research outline what laws ought to essay, be. The notion of equality before the law arose soon after government was established in its earliest form, for it only makes sense once people move out of family or small tribal communities into radiology paper outline, larger, impersonal societies. If we begin in ancient Greece, this notion of equality starts to appear even before legal institutions became a subject for systematic study. Participants Do Need Dissertation! Aristotle spoke of the rule of laws instead of men, and Pericles#151;whom Hayek quotes approvingly#151;thought this to be a distinguishing characteristic of Athens. However, the Greeks did not yet understand that if a legislative body can decide a particular case, it is neither legislating nor adjudicating, but exercising arbitrary power.
Nor was this fully understood by the Roman Republic, although as this was the beginning of law in its modern sense, some of its weaknesses might be forgiven. The Romans did develop some of these ideas of equality, along with its practical advances in legal institutions. The failure of Greek law, by contrast, was the lack of a competent tribunal to apply the radiology research outline private law to its citizens. There was no legal profession, and law as a popular activity was not conducive to providing general rules. These defects were partly remedied in Rome, and #147;[t]he result,#148; according to Zane, #147;was that among the Romans there was a rule of law.#148; Courts began the write process of research outline resolving particular cases according to general rules, and writers such as Cicero argued that not all enacted laws are necessarily just. Although Rome was a hierarchical society, Hayek admired the good endings essay late republican period for its advances, until these were reversed during the Empire. The emperors of Rome decreed themselves to be above the law (something which would be reincarnated many times in European history), but even they felt the need to research, justify their power as coming from the will of the people. The idea of the rule of good law would survive however#151;if a bit bloodied#151;through the Germanic kingdoms of the Dark Ages. In early medieval political theory, which was dominated by radiology, the Church, rebellion against the king was not permitted, but the idea of the king being bound by essay, the law was seen throughout the period. The rule of law was emerging, and England took its role as the leader of this tradition. The Magna Carta was the first step in paper, a process that would culminate in the Glorious Revolution nearly a half-millennium later.
Of course even England did not realize the pictorial ideal of individual liberty during this long evolutionary period, but it was developing a legal tradition that would set it apart from the Continent. Following Hayek, we can jump ahead in our story, as #147;individual liberty in modern times can hardly be traced back further than the England of the seventeenth century.#148; And as J.M. Kelly noted, #147;[Equality before the law] is a value which, in a Europe full of privilege, found a full expression only in the voice of the English revolution.#148; The ideas were heard most clearly from the Levellers during the English Civil Wars, and then from Locke, whose most influential works would come after the Glorious Revolution. Radiology Research Outline! The sole function of the many do need government, according to Locke, was the protection of property in research paper, the broad sense, meaning #145;lives, liberties and estates.#146; And even though he would endorse majority rule, he also argued that the legislature should not have arbitrary power. Also notable in this century was a conception of good natural rights that focused on individuals rather than social duty, as well as a secular rather than theological foundation. Outside of England, for example, Pufendorf would anticipate Kant: #147;Let no one act towards another in such a way that the latter can justly complain that his equality of right has been violated.#148; In the 18 th century, we begin to see the radiology research outline split in intellectual traditions that Hayek often addressed. The rationalists, most notably in France, wanted to start anew and endings, base everything on reason, while the thinkers of the radiology paper outline Scottish Enlightenment (whom Hayek admired so much) did not, but instead wrote of #145;establishments which are indeed the result of human action but not the execution of human design.#146; It was in fact the unintended consequences of the early rationalist view that led to setbacks for pictorial essay salivary gland liberty, rather than a deliberate strategy advocating centralized power. During this time, the call for laws to be subject to reason was a reaction to the arbitrary rule and privileges of the elite, so the intentions of these writers and activists were consistent with what would become classical liberalism. Tocqueville, whom Hayek puts squarely in the anti-rationalist tradition, illustrates the similarity between these two branches of thought at the time. In summing up the theme of the Enlightenment writers, Tocqueville writes:
They all started with the principle that it was necessary to substitute simple and elementary rules, based on reason and natural law, for the complicated and traditional customs which regulated society in radiology research paper outline, their time. The whole of the political philosophy of the eighteenth century is really comprised in that single notion. It was only when the rationalist vision was brought to university england thesis, its logical conclusion in the French Revolution that it became antithetical to liberty. Edmund Burke would become a fierce critic of the Revolution and paper, its intellectual foundations, and his claim for the superiority of organically grown systems over those designed in the name of reason would be repeated by buy uk essays, Hayek. The rationalist school of thought would continue to radiology paper, have great influence, and it led to the codification of laws in continental Europe and the reform movements from the 19 th century to the present day. The result has been a movement away from the classical liberal ideal of laissez-faire government. However, the basic notions of the essay rule of law and private property have survived.
The collapse of socialism served to vindicate them to some extent, although interventionism that is in research, opposition to buy uk essays, the rule of law is still alive and well. Finally, Hayek and others saw the early United States as taking over the tradition of individual liberty from radiology paper outline, England, as the write essay colonists objected to research paper outline, the increasingly arbitrary power of the British Parliament. They saw the necessity of a written constitution to limit the power of any particular branch of endings personal essay government, and saw it also as laying down general principles to prevent arbitrary rule. It so happens that this attempt at division of powers has not succeeded, nor did the attempts to radiology outline, limit legislative power to strictly enumerated functions, but certainly the intentions of the Framers were in line with this classical liberal tradition. An important point is that despite appearances, the American constitution was not a product of the good personal rationalist #145;French tradition,#146; as the radiology research paper government emerged from general principles and its structure even a few years later could not have been anticipated by its framers. While there are many examples when the buy uk essays legislature and courts have ignored these general principles, there survives something of a consensus that prevented an even greater encroachment of liberty. The U.S. experience has been another in the long line of imperfect experiments in forming a free society. Outline! The Functions of Liberty.
According to Noel B. Reynolds, #147;The rule of law is a solution to a problem, and as the classical liberal tradition has always recognized, the problem is courses thinking, tyranny.#148; Hayek would hardly disagree, but incorporating his insights on how markets work, he saw the fundamental problem solved by a free society to be the use of dispersed knowledge that can never be known to a centralized body. Giving people equal opportunities to use their knowledge for their own ends not only fulfills the Kantian maxim of radiology paper respecting the autonomy of the individual, but is how society adapts to new conditions and discovers new ways to live. As Hayek put it, #147;a condition of liberty in which all are allowed to use their knowledge for their purposes, restrained only by rules of just conduct of universal application, is likely to produce for them the best conditions for achieving their aims.#148; This may seem uncontroversial, but the opposing mindset tends to ask the question: Why shouldn#146;t the do need dissertation government attempt to use our inherited knowledge of society and scientific method to improve on institutions that have evolved without conscious direction? The fact that many people, and especially our political leaders, would surely think this to be a reasonable goal shows that Hayek was not merely arguing against a straw man, nor was his analysis only appropriate for central planning of the early 20 th century variety. It should be pointed out that the formula #145;equality before the law#146; is not a simple guide to radiology research, policy, nor is anything like #145;laissez-faire#146; or #145;respecting private property.#146; So the question is how to define the private sphere of action in pictorial essay salivary gland imaging, which individuals can use their own knowledge for their own ends. It is this conception of knowledge that to Hayek was so important for a society that progresses, and for which equality before the law is necessary. In most of his writings, Hayek was more concerned with the process in which this these limits were decided, rather than laying out the proper functions of paper outline government in any detail. This is why he often advocated the adjudication by many do need dissertation, courts as opposed to legislation; the former is more adaptable, more likely to incorporate local knowledge of the parties involved, and less likely to result in restrictions on parties not involved in a particular dispute. Buchanan takes a similar approach: Each man counts for one, and that is paper outline, that. Once this basic premise is fully acknowledged. Endings Personal! [a] criterion for #145;betterness#146; is suggested.
A situation is outline, judged #145;good#146; to the extent that it allows individuals to get what they want to get, whatsoever this might be, limited only by the principle of mutual agreement. Individual freedom becomes the overriding objective for social policy.  The alternative to this is to use the subjective valuations#151;usually in the guise of objectivity#151;of some particular person or group. Yet Buchanan also argued that anarchy was not practicable. So for him the question was also how to define the university thesis limits on freedom, and radiology paper, he also places emphasis on the (individualist) process by which this is determined, rather than specific outcomes. The rules defining individuals#146; protected domain must solve certain problems that are inherent in a modern society. Besides the division of knowledge, there is the tendency for people to favor their own interests, and also the problem of power, or enforcement abuse. Endings Personal! The latter refers to problems inherent in allowing a monopoly on coercion#151;in other words, the erroneous or improper use of force. The rule of research paper outline law is the most effective way yet discovered to deal with all of these issues. A proper conception of this ideal leads to a process for delimiting private property and write, enforcing contracts, which allows individual knowledge to be used effectively and for paper outline disparate aims to be reconciled. Write A Theme Essay! In particular, the research process consistent with this is an evolutionary growth of law guided by general principles, hence the courses in critical emphasis on adjudication by research outline, courts.
To take a more concrete example, consider the provision of public goods. It is often claimed that government is necessary to overcome the dissertation free-rider problem. To argue this, however, it is not only necessary to show that free-riding is radiology research paper, sub-optimal, but also that taxation and government provision is an improvement. Buy Uk Essays! This is not obvious once you consider the knowledge and interest problems#151;that is, in not using local and individual knowledge that may be able to provide this good, and ignoring the outline incentives faced by government officials. Private property and freedom of contract, which is gland, part of the framework that naturally evolves from the conception of the rule of law, do provide incentives (however imperfect) to research outline, solve the free-rider problem. It is important to keep in buy uk essays, mind that even Hayek#146;s richer development of the notion of the radiology research rule of write a theme law may not be enough to guarantee a liberal society. The conditions of research paper generality and abstractness of law that he emphasized can conceivably occur in a non-liberal regime, and Hayek was led to make concessions to government intervention that would likely be rejected by many other classical liberals. This is part of the reason to emphasize the historical development of the rule of law, as Hayek was always aware of the evolutionary nature of changes in society. This is buy uk essays, also why Barnett, who argues for the classical liberal rule of law along with a polycentric legal order (i.e. one without a coercive monopoly), points out that whether this order will be liberal will depend on how it comes about#151;a violent overthrow is likely to have different consequences than a peaceful reform movement. No one is suggesting that issues of path dependence, evolved cultural differences, and entrenched interest groups are problems to be ignored when it comes to reform. The failed attempts to transplant Western institutions to other countries make that abundantly clear. But of the ways that people have tried to organize themselves in society, the radiology paper most successful have followed, at least in part, this classical liberal tradition. Buy Uk Essays! How these foundations can be improved even further, and how to implement and maintain them in different societies, are questions that are still seeking answers.
Just as private property benefits even those who don#146;t own any, we might also say that equality before the law also benefits those who never need to exercise it, or are blissfully unaware of it. For Hayek, ignorance and the limitations of reason were inescapable facts of the radiology research outline world. But he put great importance on the battle of ideas, and to understand liberty requires knowledge of the rule of in critical law. Radiology!  F.A. Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960), p. 85.  See Todd Zywicki, #147;The Rule of good endings essay Law, Freedom, and Prosperity,#148; Supreme Court Economic Review , Vol. 10, 2003, pp. 1-26.  Even more insightful is Hayek#146;s explanation of how inequality is necessary for experimentation and progress.
See Hayek, supra note 1, at pp. 42-49.  See Ibid., at 205-210 and F.A. Hayek, The Road to Serfdom (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972 ), ch. 6.  As Zane put it, #147;In order to outline, insure equal laws it was found, long ages after the Greeks and Romans, that the buy uk essays judicial power must be separately and independently exercised.#148; John Maxcy Zane, The Story of Law , 2 nd . ed (Indianopolis: Liberty Fund, 1998), p. 105.  Hayek, supra note 1, at 162.  J.M. Kelly, A Short History of Western Legal Theory, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992), p. 236.  Quoted in Ibid., p. 226. Radiology Research Paper! For Hayek#146;s emphasis on Kant#146;s importance, see Chandran Kukathas, Hayek and pictorial salivary gland, Modern Liberalism , (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989) and Hayek supra note 1, at pp. 196-197.  See in particular, #147;Individualism: True and False,#148; in F.A. Paper Outline! Hayek, Individualism and Economic Order , (Chicago: The University of essay Chicago Press, 1948).  Adam Ferguson, quoted by Hayek supra note 1, at radiology research outline, p. Pictorial Salivary Gland! 57.  Quoted in Kelly, supra note 9, at p. 251.  F.A.
Hayek, Law, Legislation and Liberty, Vol. 1: Rules and paper, Order , (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973), p. 1. See also James Buchanan, The Limits of Liberty: Between Anarchy and Leviathan, (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2000 ), p. 19. Buy Uk Essays! Hayek#146;s point of course is not that all checks have been eliminated, but the conclusion hardly seems as controversial as it might at first glace, given a casual investigation of Congressional acts or popular beliefs about states#146; rights vs. centralized power.  Hayek supra note 1, at pp. Research Paper Outline! 183-84.  Hayek writes approvingly of the Supreme Court#146;s rejection of FDR#146;s attempt at accumulating discretionary powers for specific ends. See Ibid., pp. 190-91.  Quoted in Zywicki, supra note 2, at p.5.  For Hayek#146;s classic exposition of the role of personal essay knowledge in the price system, see #147;The Use of Knowledge in Society,#148; in Hayek, supra note 11.  Hayek supra note 13, at p. 55.  Bruno Leoni made similar points in arguing against legislation. See Bruno Leoni , Freedom and the Law, (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1991), pp. 6, 22.  Buchanan, supra note 13, at p. 4.  See Randy Barnett, The Structure of Liberty: Justice and the Rule of Law (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998), and Hayek supra note 13, at radiology research paper, p. 107.  For the preceding discussion, see Barnett, supra note 21, at pp. 162 ff. The point is similar to Demsetz#146;s distinction betweeen the #145;nirvana approach#146; and the #145;comparative institution approach.#146; See Harold Demsetz, #147;Information and pictorial essay salivary gland, Efficiency: Another Viewpoint,#148; J. Radiology Research Outline! Law Econ. Many Participants Do Need! , Vol. 12, No.
1 (Apr., 1969), pp. 1-22. For some classic examples of radiology paper market solutions for provision of public goods and buy uk essays, solving externality problems, see Ronald Coase, #147;The Lighthouse in Economics,#148; J. Law Econ. , Vol. 17, No. 2 (Oct., 1974), pp. 357-76, and Steven N S Cheung, #147;The Fable of the Bees: An Economic Investigation#148;, J. Law Econ., Vol. 16, No. 1 (Apr., 1973), pp. Radiology Paper! 11-33.  For some of Hayek#146;s (sympathetic) critics on this point, see Kukathas, supra note 10, and Norman Barry , #147;The Tradition of Spontaneous Order#148;, Literature of Liberty , Vol.
V, No. 2 (Summer 1982), pp. 7-58. One example of in critical thinking Hayek#146;s controversial policy positions is research paper, his view on compulsory military service; see Hayek supra note 1, at p. 143. Write Essay!  As a response to this general line of criticism, Barnett argues throughout his book that the formal requirements of the rule of the law do place limits on substance.  For path dependence and the role of institutions, see Douglass North, Institutions, Institutional Change, and radiology research, Economic Performance , (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), esp. ch. 12.  See Hayek supra note 13, at p. 121.
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Glossary of Sales and research outline Selling Terms. account – a customer, usually in buy uk essays a B2B or business-to-business organization; a major account is usually a large corporation (Top 1000) capable of significant purchases; or a national account is a customer or prospect with branches, offices or plants covering a wide territory – usually multiple states or regions. Research! These type of accounts require special handling (and some pricing adjustments) and a senior sales person or team. Active Listening – Term used to salivary gland imaging describe higher levels of listening activities, involves actively seeking to understand how the radiology research customer or prospect feels and what are their personal and business issues to many participants dissertation be addressed during the sales process. Research Paper! Involves things such as stance or leaning into the customer, observing all movements and changes of position and body language tips. And, key is asking questions for write a theme essay clarity and understanding. Added Value – the element(s) of service or product that a sales person or selling organization provides, that a customer is prepared to paper outline pay for because of the salivary imaging benefit(s) obtained.
Added values are real or perceived; tangible or intangible. A good, reliable, honest, expert, informed sales person becomes a very significant part of the selling organization’s added value, as perceived by the customer, if not by research outline the selling organization. advantage – the aspect of university of new england a product or service that makes it better than another, especially the one in-situ or that of a competitor. advertising/advertising and promotion/AP – the methods used by a company to publicize and position its products and services to radiology paper its chosen market sectors, including product launches, image and brand building, press and public relations activities, merchandising (supporting and promoting the product in essay retail and wholesale outlets), special offers, generating leads and inquiries, and radiology research incentivizing distributors, and agents, and arguably sales people. AP methods are sometimes described as above-the-line (media advertising such as radio, TV, cinema, newspapers, magazines) or below-the-line (non-‘media’ methods or materials such as brochures, direct-mail, exhibitions, telemarketing, and PR); advertising agencies generally receive a commission (discount ‘kick-back’) from pictorial salivary gland, above-the-line media services, but not from below the line services, in which case if asked to arrange any will seek to add a mark-up. appointment – a personal sales visit to radiology a prospect, usually arranged by phone. benefit – the gain (usually a tangible cost, but can be intangible) that accrues to the customer from the courses thinking product or service. buyer – most commonly means a professional purchasing person in a business; can also mean a private consumer. Buyers are not usually major decision-makers, that is to radiology outline say, what they buy, when and how they buy it, and how much they pay are prescribed for them by the business they work for. Courses In Critical! If you are selling a routine repeating predictable product, especially a consumable, then you may well be able to restrict your dealings to buyers; if you are selling a new product or service of any significance, buyers will tend to act as influencers at most. See decision-makers, and the buying techniques page.
buying signal – a buying signal is a comment from a prospect which indicates that he is radiology paper, visualizing to whatever extent buying your product or service. The most common buying signal is the question: “How much is it?” Others are questions or comments like: “What colors does it come in?”, “What’s the lead-time?”, “Who else do you supply?”, “Is delivery free?” “Do you use it yourself?”, and surprisingly, “It’s too expensive.” call/calling – a personal face-to-face visit or telephone call by a sales person to a prospect or customer. Also referred to a sales call (for any sales visit or phone contact), or cold call (in the case of essay imaging a first contact without introduction or notice in research paper outline writing). call center – a department or company for outgoing and/or incoming (outbound/inbound) telephone calls to/from customers, commonly now extending to email communications also if useful for customer service, but not extending to buy uk essays email marketing. Call centers can be primarily reactive (inbound) or proactive (outbound – covering telemarketing, telesales, and radiology research paper research), or both. Call centers can be in-house, part of the employed organization, or external, effectively a contractor or an agency. Most modern in-house or long-term out-sourced call centers are effectively customer service centers or departments, containing staff dedicated to telesales and customer services activities.
Other types of call center activities and operations can be concerned more with short-term telesales, telemarketing or market research campaigns. Run well a call/contact center is a wonderful function. Poorly run call centers are a nightmare for staff and in critical thinking customers alike. Since the 1990s when the call center function became de-humanized and obsessively cost-driven by many large corporations the paper nightmare scenario largely applies. Some call/contact centers are now such vast business units that they warrant being ‘off-shored’ (outsourced to countries with lower costs), which generally equates to corporate own-foot-shooting on good endings a truly huge scale. A call center which is inherently liable to research upset customers due to inadequate levels of thinking customer empathy and service is radiology, quite obviously utterly self-defeating. Staff turnover is unsurprisingly a major challenge in call centers. canvass/canvassing – cold-calling personally at the prospect’s office or more commonly now by telephone, in an attempt to arrange an buy uk essays appointment or present a product, or to gather information.
challenger selling – based upon the study of sales people during and after the great global recession of 2008-2011. The consulting group who engaged this study discovered five types of sales profiles during the study and ranked each of the five profiles based upon their performance levels. At the radiology top of results list were a set of sales people labeled the challengers. These sales people did three primary items not done by the other four profile groups. They 1. Maintained control of the sales process; 2. they introduced innovative ideas into the sales process to entice the customer/prospect; and 3. they educated the essay salivary imaging customer/prospects on new better methods of improving their results. close/closin g – the penultimate step of the ‘Seven Steps of the Sale’ selling process, when essentially the sales-person encourages the radiology prospect to say yes and sign the order. In days gone by a Sales person’s expertise was measured almost exclusively by how many closes he knew. Thank God for evolution. But don’t expect to of new england thesis kid any buyer worth his salt today, and using certain ones might even get you thrown out of his office.
Use with great care. closed question – a question which generally prompts a yes or no answer, or a different short answer of just two possible options, compared to open questions, which typically begin with who, what, where, when, etc., and which tend to invite much longer answers. cold calling – typically refers to the first telephone call made to a prospective customer. More unusually these days, cold calling can also refer to calling face-to-face for radiology research paper outline the first time without an appointment at commercial promises or households. Cold calling is also known as canvassing, telephone canvassing, prospecting, telephone prospecting, and more traditionally in the case of consumer door-to-door selling as ‘door-knocking’. collaboration selling – very modern and sophisticated, in which seller truly collaborates with buyer and buying organization to help the buyer buy. A logical extension to ‘strategic’ or ‘open plan’ selling. commodities/commoditized (products and services) – typically a term applied to describe products which are mature in many do need dissertation development, produced and radiology research sold in vast scale, involving little or no uniqueness between variations of different suppliers; high volume, low price, low profit margin, de-skilled (‘ease of use’ in consumption, application, installation, etc).
Traditionally the ‘commodities’ term applies to do need the ‘commodities markets’ which trade and radiology research set prices for fundamental commodities such as coffee, grain, oil, etc., however in university thesis a more generic sales and selling sense the term ‘commoditized’ refers to a product (and arguably a service) which has become mass-produced, widely available, easy to make, de-mystified, and simplified; all of which is radiology paper outline, almost invariably associated with a reduction in costs, prices and personal essay profit margins, and which also has massive implications for paper outline the sales distribution model and methods for good personal essay taking the research product or service to market. Commoditized products are amenable to mass-market and large-scale sales distribution methods and models, as opposed to specialized or high-complexity products, which tend to require closer customer support and greater expertise and advice at the point of selling and write a theme essay installation, and commissioning and application, if appropriate. An electric battery torch is a commoditized product that is freely available, at competitively low price, ‘off-the-shelf’ at any supermarket (or via the internet); whereas a holographic projector is only available via a specialized supplier, at outline, relatively high cost and profit margin, potentially without a similar competing product, and requires a significant degree of technical advice and support, and possibly user-training. Similarly, a microwave oven is a commoditized product, widely available, inexpensively, off-the-self from a retail store (or via the university england internet); whereas an integrated commercial kitchen is radiology paper, a specialized system, requiring a high level of sales and selling expertise, support and installation. Commoditized products sell by the millions; specialized products might only sell in hundreds or less. All consumer products and good essay services become commoditized over radiology paper time. Virtually all B2B products and write a theme services become commoditized over time. Color TV’s are cheaper than they were thirty years ago because they’ve become commoditized. Same can be said for mobile phones, home security systems, computers; even motor cars are becoming genuinely commoditized.
In our lifetimes perhaps so too will houses and buildings. concession – used in the context of radiology outline negotiating, when it refers to courses an aspect of the sale which has a real or perceived value, that is given away or conceded by seller (more usually) or the radiology outline buyer. One of the fundamental principles of sales negotiating is never giving away a concession without getting something in return – even a small increase in commitment is better than nothing. consultative selling – developed by various sales gurus through the 1980s by Mark Hanan among others, and practiced widely today, consultative selling was a move towards more collaboration with, and involvement from, the buyer in the selling process. Strongly based on questioning aimed at gaining useful information. consumer – in the context of selling a consumer typically refers to a private or personal customer or user, as distinct from many, a business or organizational, or trade customer. Radiology Research! Notably we see this term in the acronym B2C, which means ‘business-to-consumer’, which describes the type of business in which the transaction and a theme relationship is between a business and radiology research a private ‘domestic’ customer. A household insurer, or an estate agent, are examples of B2C sales organizations.
Retail is by its nature consumer business. A holiday company is a B2C business. B2B describes ‘business-to-business’ – which is trade and selling between businesses. customer – usually meaning the write purchaser, organization, or consumer after the sale. Prior to the sale is usually referred to paper as a prospect. customer relationship management:CRM – CRM is buy uk essays, now a commonly used term to describe the process of managing the entire selling process within a department or organization. Computerized CRM systems enable management of prospect and customer details, contacts, sales history and account development. Well known examples of CRM computerized systems are Sage’s ACT!, which claims to be the world’s most popular CRM system, and outline Front Range’s Goldmine. SalesForce.com is making a big push in the CRM market with its web-based system. Chief elements of a CRM system (or strategy, since the term is used to describe the process and methodology as well as the buy uk essays system) are: • compilation and organization of radiology research paper outline data (prospects, customers, product, sales, history, etc) • planning, scheduling and essay gland integrating customer development activities and communications. • analysis and reporting of all sales related activities and radiology research paper data.
Good CRM strategy and good personal essay systems are generally considered necessary for modern organizations of any scale to enable effective planning and implementation of sales (and to an extent marketing) activities. deal – common business parlance for the sale or purchase (agreement or arrangement). It is rather a colloquial term so avoid using it in research serious company as it can sound flippant and unprofessional. decision-maker – a person in the prospect organization who has the power and budgetary authority to agree to a sales proposal. On of the most common mistakes by sales people is to courses thinking attempt to sell to someone other than a genuine decision-maker. For anything other than a routine repeating order, the only two people in any organization of any size that are real decision-makers for significant sales values are the CEO/Managing Director/President, and the Finance Director.
Everyone else in the organization is generally working within stipulated budgets and research outline supply contracts, and will almost always need to refer major purchasing decisions to one or both of the above people. In very large organizations, functional directors may well be decision-makers for significant sales that relate only to their own function’s activities. See influencer. deliverable(s) – an aspect of a proposal that the provider commits to do or supply, usually and gland imaging preferably clearly measurable. demonstration/demo/ – the physical presentation by the sales person to the prospect of paper outline how a product works. Generally free of charge to the prospect, and of new normally conducted at the prospect’s premises, but can be at another suitable venue, eg., an radiology exhibition, or at the supplier’s premises. demographics – the buy uk essays study of, or information about, people’s lifestyles, habits, population movements, spending, age, social grade, employment, etc., in terms of the consuming and buying public; anyone selling to the consumer sector will do better through understanding relevant demographic information. discipline – within the context of an organization this is similar to function, i.e., job role, although a discipline can refer more generally to a capability or responsibility, for outline example ‘financial disciplines’, or ‘customer service disciplines’, or ‘technical support disciplines’.
Discipline can of write course mean separately ‘control’, others or oneself, which is certainly relevant to sales and selling, but not the reason for its inclusion in this glossary. In business-to-business selling of a complex strategic nature looking at disciplines (capabilities and responsibilities) can help to explore the radiology research outline different ways that people are affected by a change or proposition, which generally accompanies the sale of a product or service. distribution/sales distribution – the methods or routes by which products and services are taken to market. Sales distribution models are many and various, and are constantly changing and new ones developing. Understanding and establishing best sales distribution methods – routes to courses market – are crucial aspects of running any sales organization, and any business organization too. Sales distribution should be appropriate to the product and service, and radiology research the end-user market, and many do need the model will normally be defined by these factors, influenced also by technology and social trends. For example, commoditized mass-market consumer products (FMCG – fast-moving consumer goods, household electronics, etc) are generally distributed via mass-market consumer distribution methods, notably supermarkets, but also increasingly the radiology research paper outline internet. A lesson in courses in critical changing sales distribution models, and the need for manufacturers and sellers to anticipate changes is research paper, found in thesis the switching of book sales and CD sales from research, retail store distribution to websites, with the resulting demise of many retailers in courses in critical thinking those sectors.
Future changes in radiology research outline sales distribution will see for example music transferring increasingly via online downloads, thus threatening those involved with or dependent upon physical shipping of products. B2B (business-to-business) sales distribution models have their own shape, again dependent on pictorial products and research services, customer markets, technology, plus other influences such as economical trends, environmental and legislative effects, etc. Good! Examples of B2B sales distribution models are franchising, direct sales forces (employed), direct sales forces (sales agents), telephone sales (call-centers, out-bound and in-bound), the internet (online website businesses), distributors (independent sellers who carry products and services of other manufacturers and ‘principals’), and channel partners and partnering arrangements (prevalent in telecoms and outline IT sectors). empathy – understanding how another person feels, and write typically reflecting this back to the other person. Paper Outline! The ability to many feel and show empathy is central to modern selling methods.
Critical success factor that is research paper outline, totally misunderstood by many sales managers and sales people. ethics/ethical selling/ethical business – this would not have appeared in pictorial gland imaging a selling glossary a few years ago, because the line between right and wrong was a mile wide. To certain leaders and companies it still is, although gradually, slowly business and selling is becoming more civilized. Honesty, morality and social responsibility are now crucial elements in any effective selling method, and for any sustainable business. In Spring 2008 someone left a message on my answerphone. Radiology Research Paper! The person said he was from do need dissertation, ‘central government’, working on a ‘policy piece’ about e-learning, and could I give him a call back. I duly called back. After several sidesteps, the ‘seller’ eventually clarified that the purpose of the contact was to sell me some advertising in a directory, supposedly endorsed or approved by outline a ‘government department’.
This is a fine example of unethical selling, and unethical business too, since the seller was clearly following a company script and set of tactics designed to deceive. Unethical business and selling have always been wrong, but nowadays they carry far greater risks for those who behave badly. Consumers are wiser and better informed. The courts are less tolerant and more sensitive to many participants transgressions. In all respects today poor ethics guarantee personal and business failure. FAB – features advantages benefits – the outline links between a product description, its advantage over others, and the gain derived by courses thinking the customer from using it. One of the central, if now rather predictable, techniques used in the presentation stage of the selling process. feature – an aspect of a product or service, eg., color, speed, size, weight, type of technology, buttons and knobs, gizmos and gadgets, bells and whistles, technical support, delivery, etc. Also referred to a product or service detail. field – means anywhere out of the research outline sales office. Field sales people or managers are those who travel around meeting people personally in the course of managing a sales territory.
To be field-based is to work on the sales territory, as opposed to a theme being office-based. forecast/sales forecast – a prediction of outline what sales will be achieved over a given period, anything from a week to a year. Sales managers require sales people to forecast, in order to provide data to production, purchasing, and other functions whose activities need to be planned to meet sales demand. Pictorial Salivary! Sales forecasts are also an research paper outline essential performance quantifier which feeds into the overall business plan for any organization. Due to essay salivary gland the traditionally unreliable and optimistic nature of sales-department forecasts it is entirely normal for research paper outline the sum of all individual sales persons’ sales annual forecast to buy uk essays grossly exceed what the business genuinely plans to sell. See targets. function/functional – in the context of an organization, this means the job role or discipline, eg., sales, marketing, production, accounting, customer service, delivery, installation, technical service, general management, etc.
Understanding the functions of people within organizations, and research paper critically their interests and needs, is england, very important if you are selling to radiology research businesses or other non-consumer organizations. influencer – a person in the prospect organization who has the power to buy uk essays influence and persuade a decision-maker. Radiology Research Paper Outline! Influencers will be generally be decision-makers for courses relatively low value sales. There is radiology paper, usually more than one influencer in any prospect organization relevant to a particular sale, and large organizations will have definitely have several influencers. It is usually important to sell to influencers as well as decision-makers in the same organization. Selling to large organizations almost certainly demands that the sales person does this. The role and power of influencers in any organization largely depends on the culture and a theme essay politics of the organization, and particularly the management style of the two main decision-makers. See decision-makers.
intangible – in a selling context this describes, or is, an aspect of the product or service offering that has a value but is difficult to see or quantify (for instance, peace-of-mind, reliability, consistency). introduction – the word introduction has two different main meanings in selling: Introduction refers either to outline first stage of the face-to-face or telephone sales call (see the Opening stage in university of new the Seven Steps of the Sale), or the term means a personal introduction – also called a referral – of the sales person to someone in the buying organization by a mutual friend or contact. Personal introductions of this sort tend to imply endorsement or recommendation of the seller, and since they are made by an existing contact they help greatly in establishing initial trust. The value and radiology research potency of endings a personal introduction generally reflects the importance of the radiology paper outline introducing person and the strength of their relationship with the buying contact. Networking is essentially based on using (sometimes several quite informal) introductions, to connect a seller with a buyer. introductory letter – a very effective way to improve appointment-making success, and to open initial dialogue, especially for selling to large organizations. LAMP® – Large Account Management Process – sales acronym and university of new england thesis methodology for major accounts management developed by Robert Miller, Stephen Heiman and radiology Tad Tuleja in their 1991 book Successful Large Account Management (see the books at the foot of of new thesis this page). Note that LAMP® and Strategic Selling® methods and research materials are subject to in critical thinking copyright and intellectual property control of Miller Heiman, Inc. Radiology Research Paper Outline! Also note that LAMP® and many participants do need Strategic Selling® methods and materials are not to be used in the provision of training and development products and services without a licence. lead-time – time between order and delivery, installation or commencement of radiology paper a product or service. listening – a key selling skill, in that without good listening skills the process of questioning is rendered totally pointless.
major account – a large and complex prospect or customer, often having several branches or sites, and generally requiring contacts and relationships between various functions in the supplier and customer organization. Often major accounts are the responsibility of courses in critical thinking designated experienced and senior sales people, which might be formed into a major accounts team. Major accounts often enjoy better discounts and terms than other customers because of purchasing power leveraged by bigger volumes, and radiology research outline lower selling costs from economies of scale. marketing – perceived by lots of business people to mean simply promotion and advertising, the term marketing actually covers everything from company culture and essay positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the sales functions as well. It’s the process by which a company decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and then does it. margin/profit margin – the difference between cost (including or excluding operating overheads) and selling price of a product or service.
Percentage margin is radiology paper, generally deemed to be the difference between cost and selling price, divided by the selling price ex tax (ex.- something that costs $100 and is sold for $200 plus tax produces a 50% margin – gross margin that is – net margin is after overheads are deducted). mark-up – this is the money that a selling company adds to essay imaging the cost of a product or service in order to produce a required level of profit. Strictly speaking, percentage mark-up refers to the difference between cost and selling price as a factor of the cost, not of the selling price. Outline! So a product costing $100 and good personal essay selling for $200 has been given a mark-up of radiology paper outline 100%; (at the same time it produces a margin of 50%). needs-based selling – a selling style popularized in the 1970s and 80s which asserted that sales people could create needs in a prospect for their products or services even if no needs were apparent, obvious or even existed. Endings! The method was for the sales person to question the prospect to identify, discover (and suggest) organizational problems or potential problems that would then create a need for the product. I’m bound to point out that this is no substitute for good research and radiology research paper proper targeting of pictorial essay prospects who have use of the products and outline services being sold. negotiation/negotiating – the trading of buy uk essays concessions including price reductions, between supplier and customer, in an attempt to shape a supply contract (sale in other words) so that it is acceptable to both supplier and customer. Negotiations can last a few minutes or even a few years, although generally it’s down to one or two meetings and one or two exchanges of correspondence. Ideally, from the seller’s point of view, negotiation must only research outline, commence when the buy uk essays sale has been agreed in principle, and radiology research paper conditionally upon satisfactory negotiation.
However most sales people fall into a theme essay, the trap set by most buyers – intentionally or otherwise – of starting to negotiate before the selling process have even commenced. NLP:Neuro-Linguistic Programming – A very accessible branch of psychology developed by Bandler and research paper Grinder in the 1960s. NLP involves language, thinking and communications, and of new thesis is therefore immensely useful and often features in sales training. networking – an increasingly popular method of developing sales opportunities and contacts, based on referrals and radiology research paper introductions – either face-to-face at in critical thinking, meetings and gatherings, or by other contact methods such as phone, email, social and business networking websites, etc. objection/overcoming objections – an objection is a point of resistance raised by a prospect, usually price (“It’s too expensive..”), but can be anything at any stage of the selling process. Overcoming objections is a revered and much-trained skill in the traditional selling process, but far less significant in modern selling.
Modern collaborative selling principles assume that objections do not arise if proper research, needs analysis, questioning and empathic discussion has taken place. Radiology Research! Also the notion of using techniques or pressure to overcome what may be legitimate obstacles is contrary to principles of modern selling. Modern selling methods tend to identify objections much earlier in the process, and university england thesis either to filter out the radiology research paper prospect at that stage and abandon the approach, or where objections arise from multiple decision influencers within the buyer organization, to agree collaboratively a strategy with the main contact at dissertation, the prospective customer for dealing with objection(s) arising. open/opening – the first stage of the actual sales call. opening benefit statement/OBS – traditionally an initial impact statement for radiology research paper outline sales people to use at essay salivary gland imaging, first contact with prospect, in writing, on the phone or face-to-face – the OBS generally encapsulates the likely strongest organizational benefit typically (or supposedly) derived by customers in the prospect’s sector, eg., “Our customers in the clothing retail sector generally achieve 30-50% pilferage reduction when they install one of radiology outline our Catch-A-Crook security systems…” open question – a question that gains information, usually beginning with who, what, why, where, when, how, or more subtly ‘tell me about..’ – as distinct from a closed question, for example beginning with ‘Is it…?’ or ‘Do you…?’ etc., which tend to glean only courses thinking, a yes or no answer. package – in a selling context this is another term for the product offer; it’s the whole product and service offering at a given price, upon given terms. partnership selling – very modern approach to organizational selling for business-to-business sales. pattern interrupt – term used for paper outline gaining the courses attention of the buyer or customer. Buyers have been conditioned to assume a pattern or flow of ideas or statements from a sales person.
Therefore, in the pattern interrupt, the sales person goes off-script or makes an outline unexpected statement – truthful statement – that suddenly grabs the attention of the buyer / customer who is asking themselves the question – What? And therefore tuning back into the conversation to find out if what they thought they heard was true. Very powerful attention gaining method used by the top sales and marketing professionals. perceived – how something is seen or regarded by someone, usually by the prospect or customer, irrespective of what is believed or presented by the seller, ie what it really means to the customer. positioning – more a marketing than sales term, although relevant to experienced and sophisticated sellers, and related to targeting – positioning refers to how a product/service/proposition is buy uk essays, presented or described or marketed in relation to the market place – with reference to research paper outline customers, competition, image, pricing, quality, etc. Positioning basically refers to whether a proposition is write a theme, being sold appropriately – in radiology research paper the right way, to essay the right people, at radiology, the right time, in the right place, and at the right price. A potentially brilliant business can fail because its products are not positioned properly, which typically manifests as sales people being unable to sell successfully. There might be little or nothing wrong with the sales people and their skills, and the product/service, but the write essay venture fails because the positioning is wrong. Conversely, good positioning can rescue a less than brilliant product/service.
Effective selling is not only about quality and skills – its about suitability of targeting. preparation – in research the context of the buy uk essays selling process this is the work done by the sales person to research and plan the sales approach and/or sales call to a particular prospect or customer. Almost entirely without exception in radiology paper the global history of good essay selling, no call is adequately prepared for, and radiology research sales that fail to happen are due to essay this failing. presentation/sales presentation – the process by which a sales person explains the paper product or service to endings essay the prospect (to a single contact or a group), ideally including the product’s features, advantages and benefits, especially those which are relevant to radiology paper outline the prospect. Presentations can be verbal only, but more usually involve the use of visuals, commonly bullet-point text slides and images on a computer display or projected onto pictorial essay salivary gland imaging, a screen. product – generally a physical item being supplied, but can also mean or include services and intangibles, in which case product is used to mean the whole package being supplied. product offer – how the product and/or service is positioned and presented to the prospect or market, which would normally include features and/or advantages and research also imply at least one benefit for the prospect (hence a single product can be represented by a number of different product offers, each for different market niches (segments or customer groupings). Courses! One of the great marketing challenges is always to define a product offer concisely and meaningfully. proposal/sales proposal – usually a written offer with specification, prices, outline terms and outline conditions, and warranty arrangements, from a sales person or selling organization to buy uk essays a prospect.
Generally an radiology research outline immensely challenging part of the process to get right, in that it must be concise yet complete, persuasive yet objective, well specified yet orientated to the customer’s applications. An outline proposal is often a useful interim step, to avoid wasting a lot of time including in a full proposal lots of essay salivary material that the customer really doesn’t need. proposition – usually means product offer, can mean sales proposal. The initial proposition means the basis of the first approach. PSS – Professional Selling Skills – highly structured selling process pioneered by the US Xerox (and UK Rank Xerox) photocopier sales organization during the 1960s, and adopted by countless business-to-business sales organizations. PSS places a huge reliance on presentation, overcoming objections and 101 different closes.
Largely now superseded by more modern two-way processes, but PSS is still in use and being trained, particularly in old-fashioned paternalistic company cultures. The regimented one-way manipulative style of PSS nowadays leaves most modern buyers completely cold, but strip it away to radiology research outline the bare process and it’s better than no process at all. prospect – a customer (person, organization, buyer) before the sale is made, ie a prospective customer. puppy dog sale/puppy dog close – a classic method of selling or closing a deal whereby you let the courses customer try the product or service for outline free without commitment, for a limited period, in the confidence that once they live with it they won’t want to university of new thesis give it up – just like giving someone have a puppy for a day. These days the radiology paper puppy dog approach would ideally extend to giving the prospective customer some education and support about looking after the puppy so that they understand and are prepared for the changes that come with a new puppy. questioning – the second stage of the sales call, typically after the opening or introduction but also vital to write a theme essay modern selling methods, notably collaborative/consultative selling. A crucial selling skill, and rarely well demonstrated.
The correct timing and radiology research use of the important different types of questions are central to england the processes of gathering information, matching needs, and building rapport and empathy. Research Paper Outline! Questioning also requires that the sales person has good listening, interpretation and imaging empathic capabilities. referral – a recommendation or personal introduction or permission/suggestion made by someone, commonly but not necessarily a buyer, which enables the seller to approach or begin dialogue with a new perspective buyer or decision-maker/influencer. Seeking referrals is a a widely trained selling technique, in which the seller asks the radiology research outline buyer (or other contact) at endings personal essay, the end of a sales call for radiology research referrals, i.e., details of write other people who might be interested in the seller’s proposition, or who might be able to make their own introductions/referrals. research/research call – the act of gathering information about a market or customer, that will help progress or enable a sales approach. Often seen as a job for telemarketing personnel, but actually more usefully carried out by sales people, especially where large prospects are concerned (which should really be the only type of prospects targeted by modern sales people, given the need to research outline recover very high costs of sales people). retention/customer retention – means simply keeping customers and not losing them to of new england competitors. Modern companies realise that it’s far more expensive to find new customers than keep existing ones, and so put sufficient investment into looking after and growing existing accounts. Less sensible companies find themselves spending a fortune winning new customers, while they lose more business than they gain because of poor retention activity. (The hole in the bucket syndrome, where it leaks out faster than it can be poured in.) risk reversal – concept used in marketing quite often to entice the passive decision maker into making a decision.
The seller assumes all or the majority of the risk involved in the business transaction, thus taking away the primary negative in a buying decision – the risk to the buyer. sales cycle – the Sales Cycle term generally describes the time and/or process between first contact with the radiology research paper outline customer to when the sale is made. Sales Cycle times and england processes vary enormously depending on the company, type of business (product/service), the effectiveness of the sales process, the market and the particular situation applying to paper outline the customer at the time of the inquiry. The Sales Cycle can be less than a minute or can be many months or even a few years. A typical Sales Cycle for a moderately complex product might be: 1. lead generated. 3. arrange appointment. 4. customer appointment with questions. 5. verify depth of problems and consequences. 6. presentation of proposal.
7. and close sale. sales forecasts – also called sales projections, these are the good endings personal essay predictions that sales people and sales managers are required to make about future business levels, necessary for their own organization to plan and budget everything from stock levels, production, staffing levels, to advertising and promotion, financial performance and radiology paper outline market strategies. sales funnel – describes the pattern, plan or actual achievement of conversion of prospects into sales, pre-inquiry and then through the a theme essay sales cycle. So-called because it includes the conversion ratio at each stage of the radiology paper outline sales cycle, which has a funneling effect. In Critical! Prospects are said to be fed into radiology, the top of the funnel, and converted sales drop out at participants, the bottom. The extent of conversion success (ie the tightness of each ratio) reflects the quality of research paper outline prospects fed into courses in critical, the top, and the sales skill at research outline, each conversion stage. Essay Imaging! The Sales Funnel is a very powerful sales planning and sales management tool. sales report – a business report of sales results, activities, trends, etc., traditionally completed by paper a sales manager, but increasingly now the responsibility of sales people too. A sales report can be required weekly, monthly, quarterly and annually, and often includes the need to write provide sales forecasts. sales pipeline – a linear equivalent of the Sales Funnel principle.
Prospects need to be fed into the pipeline in order to drop out of the other end as sales. Radiology Research Outline! The length of the salivary imaging pipeline is the sales cycle time, which depends on business type, market situation, and the effectiveness of the sales process. sector/market sector – a part of the market that can be described, categorised and radiology outline then targeted according to its own criteria and characteristics; sectors are often described as ‘vertical’, meaning an industry type, or ‘horizontal’, meaning some other grouping that spans a number of vertical sectors, ex. a geographical grouping, or a grouping defined by age, or size, etc. segment/market segment – a sub-sector or market niche; basically a grouping that’s more narrowly defined and do need smaller than a sector; a segment can be a horizontal sub-sector across one or more vertical sectors. service contract – a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by which the trading arrangement is radiology research paper, agreed with the customer. Pictorial Essay Imaging! Also known as trading agreements, supply agreements, and other variations. solutions selling – a common but loosely-used description for radiology research paper outline a more customer-orientated selling method; dependent on identifying needs to which appropriate benefits are matched in a package or ‘solution’. The term is based on good personal essay the premise that customers don’t buy products or features or benefits – they buy solutions (to organizational problems). It’s a similar approach to ‘needs-creation’ selling, which first became popular in research the 1970s-80s. University Of New England! Solutions selling remains relevant and its methods can usefully be included in the open plan selling style described later here, although modern collaborative and facilitative methodologies are becoming vital pre-requisites.Michael Bosworth developed this method as continuation of radiology SPIN selling methods.
SPIN® and SPIN® Selling – A popular selling method developed by participants do need dissertation Neil Rackham in radiology paper the 1970-80s: SPIN® is an acronym derived from the basic selling process designed and good defined by Rackham: Situation, Problem, Implication, Need, or Need Payoff. Note that SPIN® and SPIN SELLING® methods and materials are subject to copyright and intellectual property control of the Huthwaite Organisations of the US and UK. Strategic Selling® – when used in upper case and/or in the context of Miller Heiman’s Strategic Selling® methodology (which features in their books of the same name, first published in research paper 1985) the Strategic Selling® term is a registered and essay protected product name belonging to the American Miller Heiman training organization – so be warned. Radiology Paper! LAMP® and Strategic Selling® methods and materials are subject to many copyright and intellectual property control of Miller Heiman, Inc., and again be warned that LAMP® and Strategic Selling® methods and materials are not to be used in the provision of training and development products and services without a license. strategic selling – you will also hear people (me included) referring to ‘strategic selling’ in research outline a generic sense, and not specifically referring to the Miller Heiman methods and materials. In a generic ‘lower case’ sense, ‘strategic selling’ describes a broad methodology which began to be practiced in the 1980s, literally ‘strategic’ by its nature (the principles involve taking a strategic view of the prospective customer’s organization, its markets, customers and strategic priorities, etc), which is described below and referred to as ‘open plan selling’. When using the ‘strategic selling’ terminology in university of new thesis a training context you must be careful therefore to research paper avoid confusion or misrepresentation of the Miller Heiman intellectual property. Many Do Need Dissertation! If in any doubt don’t use the ‘strategic selling’ term in relation to providing sales training services – call it something else to radiology research paper avoid any possible confusion with the do need dissertation Miller Heiman products, (see the research paper Miller Heiman Strategic Selling® copyright details below. tangible – in a selling context this describes, or is, an aspect of the product or service offering that can readily be seen and measured in terms of cost and value (eg., any physical feature of the thinking product; spare parts; delivery or installation; a regular service visit; a warranty agreement). See intangible. target account – in a sales context this is the radiology paper issued (or ideally agreed) level of sales performance for a sales person or team or department over a given period.
Bonus payments, sales commissions, pay reviews, job gradings, life and death, etc., can all be dependent on sales staff meeting sales targets, so all in all sales targets are quite sensitive things. Targets are established at the beginning of the trading year, and then reinforced with a system of regular forecasting and reviews (sometimes referred to as ‘a good bollocking’) throughout the year. See forecasting. targeting – this has a different meaning to the usual noun sense of target (above). Targeting is a marketing term – very relevant and important for sales people and sales managers too – which refers to the customers at which the selling effort is aimed, hence targeting.
In this respect the term relates to ‘target markets’, or ‘target sectors’. This is the customer aspect within ‘positioning’ of a product or service or proposition. Targeting is represented by courses in critical the question: Who will buy the paper outline product/service? Deciding targeting on a company scale is salivary gland imaging, normally the radiology research outline responsibility of personal essay a marketing department or agency, but each sales person and sales team as huge potential to develop and refine their own local targeting – so as to aim their efforts at the sectors or customers which will produce the greatest results. For example – and many sales people, especially self-employed providers and radiology research traders – completely ignore the fact that sales generally come more easily from university of new england, existing or previous customers than prospective new customers to whom the supplier is completely unknown. Similarly size of prospective customer is another largely overlooked aspect of targeting. Any business will naturally have more amenable sectors of radiology paper potential customers than other parts of the market. Targeting is the process by which the selling organization maximizes its chances of engaging with the most responsive and profitable customers. telemarketing – any pre-sales activity conducted by telephone, usually by specially trained telemarketing personnel – for instance, research, appointment-making, product promotion. telesales – selling by telephone contact alone, normally a sales function in its own right, ie., utilizing specially trained telesales personnel; used typically where low order values prevent the use of expensive field-based sales people, and a recognizable product or service allows the process to succeed. It is usually an outbound sales method.
territory – the geographical area of many responsibility of a sales person or a team or a sales organization. A generation ago a field-based sales person’s territory would commonly be a county or state. Now in this globalized age, where so much selling is done online and remotely by telephone rather than by expensive face-to-face selling, field-based sales people’s territories are much bigger, and can be entire countries or continental regions. territory planning – the process of research paper outline planning optimum and most cost-effective coverage (particularly for making appointments or personal calling) of participants a sales territory by the available sales resources, given prospect numbers, density, buying patterns, etc., even if one territory by one sales person; for one person this used to radiology outline be called journey planning, and was often based on a four or six day cycle, so as to avoid always missing prospects who might never be available on one particular day of the university of new week. trial close – the technique by which a sales person tests the radiology research paper prospect’s readiness to buy, traditionally employed in response to a buying signal, eg: prospect says: “Do you have them in stock?”, to which the sales person would traditionally reply: “Would you want one if they are?” Use with extreme care, for fear of looking like a clumsy desperate fool.
If you see a buying signal there’s no need to jump on buy uk essays it – just answer it politely, and before ask why the question is important, which will be far more constructive. unique/uniqueness – a feature that is research paper, peculiar to endings essay a product or service or supplier – no competitor can offer it. See the marketing section for more detail about developing unique selling propositions. Uniqueness is a much overlooked aspect of selling. Radiology Research Paper! The vast majority of sales organizations focus their efforts on selling ‘me too’ products and services, where inevitably discussions tend to concentrate on price differences, whereas the most enlightened and good endings progressive sales organizations strive to develop unique qualities in the propositions, which dramatically reduces competitive pressures. UPB – unique perceived benefit – now one of the central strongest mechanisms in the modern selling process, an extension and refinement of the product offer, based on radiology research paper outline detailed understanding of the prospect’s personal and organizational needs. A UPB is your USP from the customer’s perspective, in other words, what your USP means to your customer, which is a very different way of approaching selling than from the in critical traditional angle of seller-oriented USPs. It’s essential to discuss your offering in radiology paper outline these terms with your customer. USP – unique selling proposition – this is buy uk essays, what makes the product offer competitively strong and without direct comparison; generally the most valuable unique advantage of a product or service, for the market or prospect in question; now superseded by UPB. variable – an aspect of the radiology paper outline sale or deal that can be changed in order to better meet the needs of the salivary seller and/or the buyer.
Typical variables are price, quantity, lead-time, payment terms, technical factors, styling factors, spare parts, back-up and breakdown service, routine maintenance, installation, delivery, warranty. Paper! Variables may be real or perceived, and often the perceived ones are the most significant in any negotiation.
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an essay conclusion Have you ever heard that different people learn in research paper outline different ways? Well, it’s true. And while some people may be able to learn just by reading the salivary gland theories on how to do something, you learn differently–you need actual examples. Just like protestors or politicians, I’m here to radiology research lead by example. I’ve put together a list of essay conclusions that cover a range of topics and essay formats to serve as a stepping stone for many do need dissertation, your own writing. Why Do You Need a Strong Conclusion?
Before I get into the examples, you should know why writing a strong essay conclusion is paper, so important. Your conclusion is not just a summary of what you’ve already written. True, it’s a little bit about summary, but it should take your essay one step further. Buy Uk Essays? It needs to answer any unresolved questions the reader might have and end your essay with a bang! In short, an awesome essay conclusion is super important because it rounds out your essay, making it feel complete. Now on to the good stuff… Analytical Essay Conclusion Examples. Radiology Research Paper Outline? Topic #1: Analyze the good personal theme of radiology research outline, compassion for endings personal essay, one character in the Hunger Games series. The obvious choices for compassion in the Hunger Games may have been Katniss or Peeta, but the radiology paper character who personified compassion best was Prim. Throughout the series, her compassion can be seen when she keeps secrets from her mother for Katniss, when she heals Gale after he gets whipped, and courses, as the last act of her life as she rushes to save children in the Capitol. She truly lived Albert Schweitzer’s words, “The purpose of human life is to serve, and to show compassion and the will to help others.” The importance of each cause of the American Civil War can be debated, but what is fact is that there were several factors that led the South to secede.
Slavery, states’ rights, and the election of Abraham Lincoln to the presidency–even though no state in outline the South voted for him–all contributed to the war. Even though it has been nearly 150 years since the Civil War ended, some of the leftover divide between North and thinking, South can still be seen. Radiology Research Paper? Though social media allows young users to connect with people across the world and get instantaneous news about the world around them, it also has come with many complications. From access to inaccurate information to the rise of cyberbullying, the bad can sometimes outweigh the good among younger users. With 73% of endings personal, young Americans ages 12-17 years old using Facebook, it may be time to come up with better rules for promoting responsible use.
Expository Essay Conclusion Examples. Essay conclusions are pretty simple once you know the framework. It all boils down to three main parts: a transition from the last body paragraph, a summary of the thesis statement and main points of the essay, and a closing statement that wraps everything up. Radiology Research? If all students knew this simple formula, maybe essay writing would be easier for essay imaging, everyone. The scientific method is radiology research, common sense.
First, a person has to have a research question they want answered and good essay, a little background knowledge on the subject. Paper Outline? Then the person forms a hypothesis, or what he or she thinks the answer to the research question is, which he or she tests with an university experiment. Finally, the person should analyze the data and radiology paper outline, draw a conclusion. This method can be used both in and out of the scientific realm, testing everything from many participants dissertation history to social issues. Paper? Passing by a homeless person is write a theme essay, not uncommon especially in outline urban settings. Homelessness could be caused by many factors including job loss, lack of family support, and the diminishing availability of affordable housing. Although it’s easy for some to think that homelessness is caused by mental problems or general laziness, there are other factors to consider. Only when we know the of new whole scope of the problem can we begin to come up with a comprehensive solution. Narrative Essay Conclusion Examples.
Topic #7: Write about what it would be like to be put into the pages of Romeo and Juliet ? Being catapulted into the pages of Romeo and Juliet would definitely come with some culture shock. Men would be carrying swords and fighting each other in the street. Girls would be getting married at 13 years old. Had I the knowledge of what would become of the radiology research outline star-crossed lovers, I would have warned Romeo that Juliet’s death was a hoax and to wait until she woke up. This, of a theme, course, would make the play quite different, but I would feel that it was my duty after having spent so much time with the radiology paper characters. Topic #8: A time machine has taken you back to meet your favorite author (Edgar Allan Poe in this case). Buy Uk Essays? Write about radiology research outline, that meeting. As Edgar and buy uk essays, I were discussing the common themes and research outline, dark imagery of his works, the courses thinking waiter interrupted us, I reached for the wine decanter, poured myself a glass, and asked if he would like some. Radiology Research Paper Outline? “No, thanks.” he said, laughing grimly. “After all, it might be poisoned.”
Topic #9: Tell about your proudest moment. Standing up for good endings personal essay, my little brother made me feel like the character that everyone likes in radiology outline those after-school sitcoms. I was able to confront the kid that was bullying him without using threats or physical force. In Critical Thinking? In the end, encouraging the two to have an open dialogue brought them closer, and while they may never be best friends, at least they can respect each other. Persuasive Essay Conclusion Examples. Topic #10: Should Hermione have ended up with Harry instead of research, Ron in the Harry Potter series? Harry may be the main character of the Harry Potter series, and J.K. Personal Essay? Rowling may have stated recently that even she thinks Hermione and Harry should have ended up together, but the characters are much too similar. They are both natural leaders, which would create a lot of radiology research paper outline, relationship tension. Ron, on the other hand, is the Type B to essay balance Hermione’s Type A personality.Since Harry ended up with Ron’s sister, Ginny, all three main characters are married into the same family.
That certainly would make holiday get-togethers much more entertaining. The amount of radiology research paper, student loan debt is an indication that something is definitely wrong with the pictorial essay salivary gland imaging system. Although universities need an income to survive, getting a college education should still come at no direct cost to the student. Free education would allow for a more educated nation as a whole, it would leave some students with more time to work more on their studies than their jobs, and it could encourage universities to get more creative. If more universities embraced the Pay It Forward model, the US might become one of the most educated countries in the world.
Topic #12: What is the most important thing high school students should be learning but aren’t? There are many areas where public high school education could improve, but the research outline most important is write a theme essay, financial planning. While some may argue for better nutrition or fitness programs, that information is easily available online and even in commercials–and should actually be taught starting in paper elementary school. Stronger financial planning curricula would teach high schoolers how to establish credit, save for retirement, and essay gland, how to budget. All of these are important for life in the real world but can be filled with confusing jargon and advertising schemes. With Americans having more than $11 trillion in debt, it’s time the younger generation be taught how not to be another statistic. As you probably noticed, there are a lot of ways to radiology end an essay. Generally, there will be a summary, but narrative essays might carry an buy uk essays exception. These types of essays allow you to radiology outline be more creative with your conclusion. Courses In Critical Thinking? You should still try to end the essay with a sense of closure even if, as in the case of Topic #8, this means ending on paper, a somewhat ominous note. No matter how you learn, it’s pretty helpful to have practical examples.
And now that you do, you can get to finishing your own essay. Once you have your essay drafted, have one of Kibin’s talented editors take a look at it for you. *Cover image Photo by Derek Harper via Wikimedia Commons. Psst. Pictorial Essay? 98% of radiology research outline, Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the many participants do need Author. Eden Meirow is paper, a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. You can find her on Google+. Thanks for posting this article.
I will use these tips in my essay. I have a question regarding proofreading. Do you think it is worth hiring a professional service for that? In my opinion, hiring a professional proofreading service is not a bad idea. Many students do it.
There are many companies, that may help you)) I know one, that my friend hired. Many Participants Do Need Dissertation? It is called Pro-Papers. com. Visit their website) This example has helped me to radiology paper outline understand essay writing better. My English teach hardly comes to our class so I feel like I have to teach myself. I love the pictorial essay salivary use of practical examples because I learn faster when i get the theoretical and practical teaching. Radiology Paper Outline? Thanks a lot! We#8217;re happy to hear that we could help you! Thanks for reading. #128578; Excellent piece , I was enlightened by the insight , Does anyone know where my company can grab a fillable ASQ-3 12 Month Questionnaire example to edit ? how about any examples for history?? Hey there, great idea for a blog post, but right now we don#8217;t have much history paper content (except this one: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-find-primary-sources-for-your-essay/). I think the qualities of your conclusion will work the same for your history essay: so basically restate your thesis in new words, and leave the reader with something to think about. A good history related example from the above list is: Topic #2: What caused the Civil War?
The importance of each cause of the many participants dissertation American Civil War can be debated, but what is fact is that there were several factors that led the South to secede. Slavery, states’ rights, and the election of Abraham Lincoln to radiology paper outline the presidency–even though no state in the South voted for him–all contributed to the war. Even though it has been nearly 150 years since the Civil War ended, some of the leftover divide between North and South can still be seen. That#8217;s very creative, Jack and could definitely become the premise for closing the first book of a sci-fi trilogy as a teaser for the next installment. #128578; What about university of new england thesis, a conclusion for an Analytical Essay? Hi there you might want to check out research this other post on essay conclusions to help you formulate yours: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ The three main things your conclusion should accomplish are to tie up lose ends, restate your thesis in a different way, and end on an interesting note.
I would definitely recommend that you write your conclusion after you#8217;ve drafted the rest of your paper! It#8217;s much easier to tie up those loose ends after you#8217;ve made your main arguments. So in participants do need your conclusion, you might highlight the reasons that sleep is beneficial but also point out radiology research paper outline some of the drawbacks of sleep (especially because most people would be surprised that there *are* drawbacks to good endings sleep!). You could also answer any questions that are unresolved: how to maximize the benefits of sleep without suffering from the negative effects, for instance. What about a conclusion to an essay on mood disorders. No matter what your topic, your conclusion can follow the same principles. as the above examples. Tie up loose ends (answer any unanswered questions) Restate your thesis statement in outline different words. Close with an insight or thought that expands upon the work you put into buy uk essays your essay and radiology research outline, leaves your reader something to many dissertation think about. Research? Hi i need help with a thesis could please help im trying to write a good thesis on why or why not parenting education should be mandatory. You need to take a stance and then find evidence to support your stance.
Your framework might look like the following: Parenting education should be mandatory (Where? A specific town or in the U.S. or in good endings personal certain circumstances?) because REASON 1, REASON 2, and REASON 3. an radiology research outline example reason is write a theme essay, that it would make for safer home environments. Parenting education is unnecessary and should not be mandatory (Where?) because REASON 1, REASON 2, and REASON 3. an example reason is research outline, it would be an infringement on freedom and difficult to create a curriculum that would take into good endings account different family values. Radiology? Whichever side you choose and salivary, whichever reasons you choose, make sure that you have sufficient evidence to support it. This is what i wrote so far parenting education is the most important job when raising children . Rasining children does not come with instructions. While critics might argue that parenting education should not be mandatory those in favor believe other wise. The general argument made by those in favor made of parenting education is better supported for radiology research paper outline, several reasons including nutritions,health,safety and stages of many participants dissertation, child delevopment.. Ms naomi if there is anything u disagree with please let me know.
I think you are off to a good start. Outline? I would just revise as follows: Raising children does not come with an instruction manual, and parents would be more successful with parenting education. While critics might argue that parenting education should not be mandatory because it is an infringement on the parents#8217; freedoms, those in favor believe otherwise. Proponents argue that parenting education should be mandatory for many participants do need dissertation, several reasons including it will improve nutrition, health, and radiology paper outline, safety in the home, and it will teach parents about the stages of child development. Once again, great job! I think this is personal essay, coming together very nicely. Thank you sooo much for ur support i really do apperciate it now i just have to find the right way to reword it on my own wish me luck ?? THANKYOU.
Feel free to use what I sent you, the only idea of radiology research, my own that I added was the essay part about #8220;infringement on parents#8217; freedoms#8221; #8212; you could replace this with a more relevant objection. The rest of radiology research paper, it was your words just polished up and organized! Ok thanks again ?? Hi any good website that u would recommend to upgrade my vocabulary use. Also, read! The best way to get a great vocab is to read a lot of books. I#8217;m writing a persuasive essay but i don#8217;t know a good way to close it. Any advice? The general practice for writing a good conclusion is to university of new thesis restate your thesis in radiology paper outline a different way, tie up any loose ends, and leave your reader thinking. You could do this last part by bringing up a question about the courses future of your topic or challenge your audience to act (this is an especially good approach in a persuasive essay.) I think that you could focus on research paper outline, these crops#8217; role in essay gland the betterment of humanity and how they might contribute solutions to radiology research paper problems that will arise/worsen in the future.
Since genetic engineering has the of new potential to impact the future, I would focus on research outline, one or two of the write issues that genetic engineering has the best shot at helping #8212; perhaps ending on an optimistic note #128578; Thanks for radiology paper outline, reading! I disagree that your conclusion should say something new. If you are bringing in new information, you might as well write another essay. Courses Thinking? Conclusions are for reiteration and summarization ONLY. You#8217;re right that you shouldn#8217;t necessarily introduce new information, but there#8217;s nothing wrong with leaving the reader with fresh insight on the topic or something that expands one#8217;s understanding of your subject. Radiology Research Paper Outline? The idea is to university of new england give the reader something to research chew on. Many Participants Dissertation? I need help with writing why Quito, Ecuador would be the perfect city to host the Olympics. What should I look for to outline make the audience agree with what I#8217;m trying to say. You just need to sit down and brainstorm some of the most compelling reasons to courses in critical thinking host the Olympics there (weather, surroundings, availability of space for an Olympic park, cost#8230;).
I#8217;d try to come up with a list of paper, 15 or so items and then from salivary gland there, choose three or four that are the outline most convincing reasons and that you can support with evidence to make your paper the most persuasive. Is there any way to cleverly loop your conclusion back to your introduction? Typically your conclusion doesn#8217;t have to do a whole lot more than restate your thesis in a new way, tie up loose ends, and maybe leave your reader with something to think about. Haven#8217;t read the poem (so you don#8217;t want to use my idea verbatim because it probably doesn#8217;t make sense), but an example of restating and adding something to think about would look something like : In the end, despite the speaker#8217;s anxieties, the essay gland imaging devil does not have more power over the speaker than God does, but God doesn#8217;t have power either. In truth, he is the one in control of his own life. While it#8217;s tempting to ascribe one#8217;s fate to external forces as a way to avoid responsibility for one#8217;s actions and decisions, at the end of the day, the power always comes from within. i need an radiology outline conclusion that is fun/funny for newtons 3 laws, please help and send a response ASAP! Without Newton#8217;s 3 laws and in critical, his discovery of gravity, science would be WEIGHTLESS in our lives. am writing an radiology research outline essay on obedience i need help on the ending of participants do need dissertation, this essay..can i get help rn #128577; Your conclusion should include these elements: 1. Restate your thesis and main points in new words.
2. Tie up any loose ends. Radiology Research Paper? 3. Leave your reader with something to think about. Congrats! You#8217;re at the finish line #128578; Hi i need help for my report today 9am in the morning on #8220;Ways to end a composition#8221; could u help me please.. Hi I need help. I#8217;m writing a paragraphs for #8220;why should senior high school students enroll in personal our school#8221; And it#8217;s persuasive paragraph. I need an conclusion please thanks!! In short, you conclusion should paint a clear and compelling picture for why your school is the right choice for seniors. Use this chance to tie up loose ends and make the choice seem obvious. Generally, your conclusion will restate your thesis, tie up any loose ends, and radiology, give your reader something to think about. You can learn more about each of these elements in this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ I#8217;m comparing between single called organisms and cells from multicellular organisms.
I would like to know how to conclude my concluding paragraph. I can think of a few possible ways that you could finish your essay. If the overall tone of your essay is sad, you could conclude on a hopeful note, where you look ahead to when the in critical boy#8217;s father comes home: what will they do? How does the boy feel about it? How old will the boy be #8212; the father? Maybe something like: #8220;While [the boy] understood that his father would be gone for [some amount of time], he looked forward to radiology research the day his father walked through the doorway#8230;#8221; If you want to endings essay close on a more somber note, you could also close with a comment about war#8217;s effect on radiology research, families if that fits with your overall thesis and main idea: #8220;The effects of war are not only fought by soldiers, but by essay, the families they leave back home#8230;#8221; I hope this gives you some ideas #128578; Happy writing! am I the only one who get stuck in the conclusion? I#8217;m writing a 5 paragraph essay about bucket list and paper, I#8217;ve finished 4 paragraphs but it#8217;s really hard to of new thesis conclude it.. You#8217;re definitely not the only one who gets stuck there; that#8217;s why we wrote this post #128578; I#8217;m not sure if you#8217;re writing about *your* bucket list or the research paper movie The Bucket List.
If it#8217;s your own list, then the examples under the #8220;narrative#8221; and #8220;expository#8221; sections will be the best ones to use for inspiration. If you#8217;re writing about the movie, you#8217;ll want a more analytical conclusion. Essay Salivary Gland? You can summarize your topic briefly if that helps you start your conclusion, but just remember to radiology research paper outline broaden it and make a larger final statement about your topic, too (why it#8217;s significant/important, for instance). I#8217;m writing an argumentative essay about many participants, drugs and alcohol. I have no clue in how to radiology research paper outline end it. Thinking? Help? I have the paper outline same advice for you as I#8217;ve given others. Your conclusion should include these elements: 1. Restate your thesis and essay, main points in new words. 2. Tie up any loose ends. 3. Leave your reader with something to think about. hi im doing a paper on the effects of ww2 can u please help #128578; Also, I#8217;d recommend starting with making a simple list of effects that you can find via your research.
Then pick three that stand out and are somewhat related to each other (i.e., economic effects, socio-political effects, human rights effects#8230;). This is such a giant topic that you#8217;re really going to consciously narrow it down to something manageable. help me, my topic is radiology research, about discrimination. I#8217;m writing an essay on the dutch colony of new netherland and I don#8217;t know how to write the participants do need conclusion paragraph. Can you help?? It#8217;s hard to say how to research outline approach your conclusion without knowing a little more about what exactly you said about chocolate in your essay (mmm, chocolate). Courses Thinking? Just remember to use a *little* bit of summary (restating your thesis statement is a great start!) and then end on radiology research, a note that leaves your reader thinking. Here#8217;s some more great advice: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ please pray for many participants do need dissertation, me. Essays are tough sometimes and I really need an A or B in this essay due Wednesday. Hey, you#8217;ve got this.
Good luck!! this is really dope and helpful. So glad you found it helpful, Bob. Research Paper? Thanks for reading! I AM WRITING A COURSE WORK ABOUT CONVERSION IN ENGLISH AND I NEED HELP ON INTRODUCTION AND CONCLUSION PLESSEEE((((( Hey everyone)I am writing about #8220;Which of the following Cold War president-Truman Eisenhower or Kennedy was able to contain the spread of Communism?#8221;#8230;Can someone help me with this please?i will be thankful)))) i need help with conclusion:( A conclusion for that essay might talk about the spread of communism (or lack thereof) after the term of the pictorial gland imaging president you chose to write about #8212; for instance, you might mention modern-day communist nations and what a president today could learn from President Truman, Eisenhower or Kennedy. Research Paper Outline? I#8217;m doing an essay on the relationship between Lady Macbeth and Macbeth and how it develops I#8217;ve got the thinking main paragraphs and radiology paper, introduction but I#8217;m not sure how to buy uk essays finish the conclusion by relating to the essay question. #8220;Choose a play which explores an important relationship, for example husband and wife, leader and follower, parent and child, or any other relationship. Describe this relationship and then, by referring to appropriate techniques, explain how the relationship develops.#8221; I think you could end the essay by discussing the larger significance of their relationship within the paper outline play and in critical thinking, (if you want to go the hypothetical route) mention how the play would be different had their relationship been different. You could also re-emphasize a turning point in the development of radiology research, their relationship that was key to the outcome of the play. I#8217;m doing an essay about tuition-free college. Salivary? And I chose to against it. I#8217;m stuck with the radiology outline conclusion.
I don#8217;t know how to buy uk essays end this or recommend a better solution for this. Radiology Research? Can someone help me? Thank you in advance! It sounds like you might be getting hung up on many participants dissertation, the #8220;recommend a better solution#8221; idea, which isn#8217;t a requirement #8212; it#8217;s just one way to end an essay. Instead, you might end by noting the sense of satisfaction one feels when knowing that they paid for their education (perhaps tying this to your own experience, if you are currently paying tuition) or another benefit of tuition #8212; this is a good opportunity to mention something beneficial that perhaps wasn#8217;t #8220;meaty#8221; enough to be one of the main points of your argument.
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General Histories of Astronomy and Cosmology. Since the dawn of time there have been astronomical (more generally called heavenly) phenomena which not only ‘forced’ our human ancestors to look towards the heavens but also affected their lives in great many ways. To mention a few of these phenomena, one should point to the never- ending succession of radiology outline, night by day and pictorial essay salivary gland, vice versa, the four seasons spanning across a whole year, the bright stellar constellations covering the whole of the night sky. To be a bit more specific, the four seasons would affect the humans nutrition while the stellar constellations would facilitate navigation around the then-known world (hence increase trading and radiology outline, the profits made from it). Many of the pictorial essay salivary gland imaging, very first civilisations (Egyptians, Assyrians, etc.) glorified heavenly objects such as the sun or the moon to a point where they considered them as the upper gods in their deities’ pantheon.
One of the first applications of astronomy appearing in the history of human civilisation (circa 4000-1000 BC) is the adaptation of the paper, moon calendar to courses in critical, the solar year which was a bit larger than the corresponding lunar periods. This adaptation was realised for radiology outline, agricultural reasons. Another characteristic example of a civilisation adapting its calendar to its agricultural needs is the Jews (their calendar became solar based instead of the lunar based calendar they originally used). Another ancient civilisation whose existence is closely linked to astronomy and its effects were the Babylonians . Their measurements regarding appearance and disappearance of heavenly bodies and a theme, the extremely accurate position monitoring of other bright planets of our solar system (e.g Venus) righteously gives to the Babylonians a prominent place amongst the pioneers of the astronomical science. The Assyrians on the other hand were more cruel and crude compared to the Babylonians even if these two share more or less the same time slot in human history. The Assyrians treated the sun and the moon as deities like many of the Mesopotamian people at outline the time, but also demonstrated a vibrant interest in astrology and not so much in buy uk essays, astronomy . One of the research outline, primary reasons that they used a calendar was not for astronomical observations or other reasons, but for astrological predictions; Assyrians deeply believed that the effect of the stars and heavenly bodies on buy uk essays, the behaviour and thought of the man was quite significant. What is even more interesting is that Assyrians in their effort to discover and radiology, interpret omens regarding kingdoms, kings, empires etc., observed more closely the buy uk essays, moon and the stars rather than the sun. This ‘preference’ was due to the fact that the radiology research outline, sun does not present any variations in his colour or trajectory throughout the time that he is observable from the write a theme, earth. The planets and the moon in radiology outline, the dark sky on the other hand appear to have multiple trajectories (relative to the earth of course) depending on the time of year, etc. The Assyrians’ kingdom however was dismantled by a combined effort of the Babylonians and their allies in courses in critical, the late 7th century BC. This conquest marks a new era for the science of astronomy.
No more omens are exclusively sought after in paper, the night skies, but scientific observations and mapping efforts of the night sky and its objects is beginning to university of new, be realised. The town of Babylon itself which is the centre of this cultural and scientific revolution will pass from the hands of radiology research, many conquerorsstability however is ensured throughout those transitions and this city will become the courses in critical, epicentre of this astronomical evolution up until the time of the deat of Alexander the Great roughly three centuries afterwards. However, it should not be forgotten that the main driving force behind the evolution of astronomy in research paper outline, Babylon were the priests who, locked inside their temple they made their observations but this situation had one inherent disadvantage: their knowledge and scientific methods are not documented anywhere; instead, the knowledge passed on from templar to templar most likely. In the years after the decay of Babylon, the Chaldeans appear and take over further advancing the astronomical science. Greek mathematicians at the time also use for the first time elliptical coordinates systems to fully describe the motion of a planet inside space and not only on do need dissertation, a two-dimensional area (as the Babylonian priests did up to that time).
The Chaldeans created the now-famous Chaldean tables which are essentially a whole collection of various data on motion of the planets inside a 3-D elliptical world which is cut in two parts: an upper and a lower part which is smaller. The people with the greatest influence on the evolution of astronomy during the antiquity were without doubt the Greeks. Research! In classical plays such as the essay, Iliad and the Odyssey, Homer clearly mentions a series of constellations and stars known at radiology paper the time such as the Great Bear, Orion, etc. Some of the early settlers of Greece were also forced to of new england, migrate to research outline, the islands of the Aegean or to Asia Minor due to the harsh morphology of mainland Greece; a side effect of this migration were the commercial bonds developed between those various towns. Courses In Critical Thinking! Commercial bonds means trading, and trading also comprises accurate navigation form town to town; these were typical needs which lead to the evolution of Astronomy in ancient Greece. The Greeks on the other hand still worshipped heavenly bodies as deities like the rest of the people of their time. Early Greek philosophers have tried to give some reasoning to phenomena such as eclipses, day and night, etc. Their reasoning however hardly had any practical value. The first to express an radiology outline opinion of salivary gland imaging, value was Thales who foretold within a year an actual solar eclipse. It is paper outline worth noticing at this point that a few Greek philosophers were the very first to express the opinion that the earth is of spherical shape and the moon rotates around it: they were Timaeus, Aristoteles and Plato.
The latter’s theory was based on two sentences firstly expressed by the two former. The fact remains that by the 4th century BC, astronomy had evolved in Greece up to a point where for example the elliptical trajectories of individual planets were easy to be observed throughout the year; this evolution however was nothing compared to the corresponding revolution of courses in critical thinking, other arts and philosophy of the time. In the second century A.D Ptolemy extended the idea of the ancient Greeks for the universe and radiology paper outline, he proposed a model where the university thesis, earth was stationary at the center surrounded by eight spheres which carries the sun, the moon, the five know at that time planets and the stars. The planets moved on their respective spheres and radiology paper outline, the stars which were at the last and pictorial essay gland imaging, eighth sphere, would always stay at the same positions relative to each other and rotate across the sky; beyond those stars it wasn’t clear what existed. Ptolemy’s model was accurate to predict the position of the planets, while it fails to describe accurately the orbit of the moon. This model has been generally accepted, and since there was a “free’ space beyond the last sphere for heaven and hell this model has also been accepted by the Christian church. In 1514 Nicholas Copernicus proposed a model for the universe but in order to avoid to be characterized as heretic by the church he published it anonymously. According to his model, the sun was stationary at the center and the earth and research paper outline, the planets where moving around it in do need, circular motion.
The discovery of the telescope a century later makes possible the acceptance of Copernicus model. The Italian astronomer Galileo Galilee observed that Juniper’s moon was orbiting around Juniper and not as according to Ptolemy’s model around the earth, while the German astronomer Johannes Kepler observed that planets move around sun in elliptical and not circular orbits. Those observations confirm Copernicus model for the universe, but the explanation for the elliptical and not circular motion of the planets came later in 1687. At this time a great publication came to radiology research outline, life from Sir Isaac Newton who in his published work explained the motion of the objects with time and he put mathematical expression for those, as well as defining the law of universal gravitation. Good Personal Essay! According to him, each body in the universe will be attracted by any other body by a force known as gravity; this force is proportional to the mass of the bodies and radiology research outline, inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Newton’s law of pictorial essay salivary gland imaging, gravity gave proof that the orbits of the planets around the sun will be elliptical as so the orbit of the moon around the earth. The law of gravity gave a reasonable explanation on the motion of the radiology paper outline, planets but created a paradox at the same time; since gravity is an attractive force therefore will it cause the planets to collide at some point with each other? Newton argued on buy uk essays, this by defining the universe as static and infinite; at research paper outline that point, no one thought about the courses in critical, possibility that the universe will expand or contract, but they where trying to modify the law of gravity in order to radiology research paper outline, complete the “picture”. The way we think about the universe changed in 1929 after a great discovery made by Edwin Hubble. Hubble observed distant stars and galaxies and he discovered that galaxies are moving away from us, or in general the courses in critical, universe is expanding. For an expanding universe there was a time where the universe was still infinitesimally dense and infinitely small, this time has been named as the Big Bang.
At that point in time the radiology research paper, general laws of physics broke down, and if there was time of the universe before the big bang, we are not able to know it since there is nothing left from them. The idea of a static universe collapsed! The discovery of the electromagnetic theory by James Clerk Maxwell in 1865 brought the idea that light is a wave disturbance of the electromagnetic spectrum , which travels at good endings personal essay fixed speeds. Albert Einstein introduced that in the theory of radiology research, relativity in 1905, according to pictorial salivary imaging, his theory all the laws of physics are the same independently from the speed of the observer. The law of relativity put an radiology paper end to the idea of absolute time, since it confirmed both Newton’s and Maxwell’s theories. In 1915 Einstein extended his theory and write, produced the general theory of relativity; he found out that the universe is a four dimensional space where time is the fourth dimension, thus the space-time universe is not flat but it is curved by the disturbance which is caused by the mass of radiology research, any object. The force of gravity is the product of the disturbance of the space-time universe caused by any mass. Courses! For example the mass of the sun curves the space-time domain while the earth is moving in a straight path in paper, the space time domain it appear from earth (a three dimensional space) that is of new orbiting in an elliptical path.
According to the law of relativity, the path of the light is affected by the wrapped space time universe; it bends its path so it doesn’t travel in straight line. When the light from a distant star passes near the research paper, sun the light is bended because of the distortion of space time universe by the mass, so for an observer on earth the in critical thinking, star will appear in a different position in the sky, the radiology research, prediction of endings, general relativity confirmed by the observations made in radiology research, 1919 measuring the position of courses thinking, a star during an research paper outline eclipse. Before the theory of endings personal essay, general relativity space and time was thought as static, events happening there wouldn’t have an affect on them, after 1915 things changed the universe defined as a dynamic quantity of space and time where each action taken place affects it. A. Pannekoek, “A HISTORY OF ASTRONOMY ”, Ruskin House, George Allen and Unwin Ltd. J.D. Radiology Paper! North, “ the Fontana history of many participants, Astronomy and Csmology”, Fontana Press I.D. Novikov, “Evolution of the Universe”, Cambridge University Press James Cornell and Alan P. Radiology Research Paper Outline! Lightman, “ Revealing the Universe, Pediction and Proof in Astronomy ”, The MIT Press S.W.Hawking, “A Brief History of Time”, Bantam Press 1988 J.J.C. Smart, “Problems of Space and Time”, Macmillan Pub. Co, 1964 S.F. Mason, “A History of Sciences”, Colier, 1962 M. Of New England! Kaku J. Thompson, “Beyond Einstein”, Oxford University Press, 1999.
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