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Chicago style footnotes essay in a book

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Essay sample chicago style footnotes

Chicago style footnotes essay in a book

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How to cite an essay as a footnote in chicago style? |…

AP U.S. History Long Essay Example Essay. The long essay question on the AP U.S. Style Footnotes In A! History exam is designed to test your ability to apply knowledge of history in a complex, analytic manner. Hsc English Belonging Creative Questions! In other words, you are expected to treat history and historical questions as a historian would. This process is called historiography— the skills and footnotes strategies historians use to analyze and interpret historical evidence to reach a conclusion. Thus, when writing an effective essay, you must be able to write a strong and clearly developed thesis and supply a substantial amount of relevant evidence to support your thesis. Look at the question below and formulate a response. You can do this by making bullet points or, to get the test day experience, time yourself for 35 minutes and write! After the question, there are two sample essays that would receive a perfect scores.

Check your essay against hsc english belonging creative them to see if you got many of the same key points. Remember the chicago style footnotes in a book, four steps: dissect the question, formulate a thesis, plan your evidence, and write your essay. The reform movements of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century focused primarily on the effects of the accelerating Industrial Revolution, especially its impact on the natural environment.” Support, modify, or refute the preceding interpretation using at least two reform movements and one environmental issue from the period 1880–1920 as evidence. While a number of the most important reform movements of the late 19th and early 20th centuries grew out of efforts to combat the negative effects of industrialization, the main focus of their efforts was not the impact of the Industrial Revolution on the natural environment. Although some reformers, such as Theodore Roosevelt and egyptian conclusion Gifford Pinchot, were deeply worried about the consequences of economic development on the natural environment, the most influential, most effective reformers were primarily concerned with the impact of the rise of big business on small businesses, industrial workers, and essay in a consumers, and with corruption in government that reformers believed resulted from the economic power of large corporations. Farmers were upset at what they regarded as arbitrary and excessive railroad rates and abuses such as rebates to big business like Standard Oil. Creative Writing Questions! These farmers were among the first and most outspoken advocates of reform in the late 19th century. Pressure from the Farmers’ Alliances convinced Congress to pass and President Cleveland to sign the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, a piece of legislation designed to regulate railroad rates and prohibit corrupt practices such as rebates. By 1890, these Farmers’ Alliances had entered politics in a number of Southern and Midwestern states and succeeded in pressuring Congress to pass the style footnotes book, Sherman Antitrust Act, outlawing all “combinations in restraint of trade.” By 1892, a national People’s Party had been organized, nominating a third-party presidential candidate and electing several members of Congress. The Populist movement, a reform movement attempting to combat the negative effects of industrialization and the rise of big business, was now in the myth of sisyphus essay full swing. Beginning at in a, the state level and with strong support in many urban areas, a new progressive movement reached the national level during the first years of the 20th century.

Supported by President Theodore Roosevelt, progressive reformers, like the Populists, sought to strengthen railroad regulation and both enforce and further strengthen the antitrust laws. In 1902, President Roosevelt not only forced mine owners to belonging creative writing submit to arbitration to settle a nationwide coal strike, he also asked his attorney general to file an antitrust suit against chicago essay in a the Northern Securities Company, a large railroad holding company. After the Supreme Court upheld a lower court decision to break up the Northern Securities Company in 1904, Roosevelt went on to strengthen the Interstate Commerce Commission’s ability to belonging writing questions regulate railroad rates by footnotes in a, pushing the Hepburn Act through Congress in 1906. A few years later, another progressive reformer, Woodrow Wilson, succeeded to the presidency, and he managed to further strengthen the antitrust laws by mtel essay, pushing the Clayton Antitrust Act through Congress in 1914. While railroad regulation and antitrust actions attracted the most attention of reformers during the period 1880–1920, some efforts were made by footnotes book, reformers to mitigate the effects of questions industrialization and commercial expansion on the natural environment.

President Roosevelt used his executive authority to footnotes essay in a put thousands of acres of public lands aside for of sisyphus national parks, saving them from commercial exploitation. In 1908, he convened a conservation conference at the White House in footnotes essay book an effort to further mitigate the damage that mining and manufacturing were doing to the natural environment, especially in ann arbor the West. Style Footnotes Essay In A Book! President Roosevelt also pushed for the establishment of the forest service and lpn cover appointed a conservation-minded ally, Gifford Pinchot, to head that agency. Finally, even after retiring from office, Roosevelt supported Pinchot in his efforts to prevent President Taft’s secretary of the interior, Richard Ballinger, from opening additional public lands to commercial exploitation. Thus, both the populist and chicago in a book progressive movements sought to combat the negative effects of egyptian art essay industrialization and economic expansion by focusing primarily on railroad regulation and the strengthening and enforcement of antitrust legislation. Nevertheless, some progressive reformers like Theodore Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot did pay significant attention to in a preventing further damage to the natural environment and helped to found the modern conservation movement. This thesis statement establishes a clear argument that addresses all parts of the question and makes a clear argument, earning one point. It does a nice job of demonstrating that at least two reform movements were not just aimed at the effects of the Industrial Revolution, but also at the.

impact on small business, workers, and consumers, as well as corruption in government. Lpn Cover Letters! Through its clear thesis, the essay is also able to address the targeted skill of causation by dealing with the footnotes essay in a, causes and effects of the new graduate lpn cover, events mentioned in the question, for which it earns both of the possible points. In its body paragraphs, the essay also does a very good job of identifying and chicago style footnotes book using specific evidence to support its argument. It cites the Farmers’ Alliances and their role in university essay questions pushing for the Interstate Commerce Act and Sherman Antitrust Act. In addition, the essay uses a lot of pertinent information from the essay in a book, presidency of Theodore Roosevelt to hsc english creative support the thesis statement and also addresses how there were some reforms that dealt with the natural environment, i.e., national parks and the forest service. These examples also address the targeted skill by showing the cause and effect of these events in relation to the reform movements, earning two more points. You also are able to meet the last point by applying the footnotes in a, skill of synthesis. On Alfred Lord! You modified the statement in developing your argument and employed the essay, use of other categories. This essay scores a 6 out of a possible 6 points. Both the so-called “Market Revolution” and the most influential reform movements of the period 1815–1860 took place throughout the United States, not just in essay New England, and at least some leading merchants and in a industrialists were enthusiastic supporters of reform.

It is true that New England was home to a substantial number of reformers, especially several important leaders of the abolitionist movement, such as William. Lloyd Garrison and Wendell Phillips. It is also true that the two most influential reform movements, the temperance and abolitionist movements, were not primarily concerned with the effects of the Market Revolution. Yet the spread of the essay, Market Revolution did significantly increase the number of employers who supported the temperance movement, if for no other reason than to try to ensure that their employees came to work sober and ready to do their jobs. Although there were numerous reform movements founded during the period 1815– 1860, from the New York Female Moral Reform Society to the Lowell Female Labor Reform Association to chicago style essay in a the Woman’s suffrage movement, the two largest and most influential reform movements were the temperance movement, initiated by the American Temperance Society, and conclusion the abolitionist movement, first organized effectively in the American Anti-Slavery Society. Footnotes In A! Both the American Temperance Society and the New England Anti-Slavery Society, the precursor of the American Anti-Slavery Society, began in New England. On Alfred Lord Tennyson! The American Anti-Slavery Society was founded in style essay book Philadelphia. These organizations quickly spread throughout the country, opening hundreds of writing local chapters. Among the most important, most dedicated leaders of the abolitionist movement were the New York brothers Arthur and Lewis Tappan, wealthy merchants who gave strong financial support to the anti-slavery movement. While some reformers such as the Tappan brothers and Robert Owen, the founder of a utopian community at chicago style essay in a, New Lanark, Indiana, were successful merchants and industrialists, a much larger number of prominent reformers, including most of the leaders of the temperance and hsc english abolitionist movements, were motivated primarily by their religious beliefs. This was certainly true of Reverend Lyman Beecher, one of the founders of the American Temperance Society and a leading abolitionist; Charles Grandison Finney, an evangelist. and leading anti-slavery advocate; and Finney’s disciple, Theodore Dwight Weld, a leading abolitionist and husband of prominent female anti-slavery speaker, Angelina Grimke.

And, of these four famous reformers, only Beecher was a New Englander. Thus, although New England was home to chicago footnotes essay in a a substantial number of reformers during the antebellum period, it was only one of a number of centers of reform. Like the so-called Market Revolution, reform movements flourished throughout the nation during these years, and while some merchants and industrialists were leading reformers, the largest number of prominent reformers appear to have been motivated by writing, religious beliefs rather than a desire to combat any of the evils attributed by contemporaries to the Market Revolution. This thesis statement establishes a clear argument that addresses all parts of the question and makes a clear argument, earning the point for thesis. The essay does a good job arguing that reform was taking place throughout the United States and that some industrialists supported it and some reform was affected by the Market Revolution. The argument also addresses the targeted skill of causation by dealing with the chicago style footnotes essay in a, causes and effects of the events mentioned in the question, earning two points.

The essay uses specific evidence to support the argument, which earns the 2 possible points. For example, it points out mtel essay that the Anti-Slavery Society and Temperance Society were not just limited to New England and that some of the important leaders were merchants. You also identify reformers such as Charles Finney and style footnotes essay in a book use these examples to on alfred tennyson support arguments that some reformers were affected more by their beliefs than by style footnotes essay, the Market Revolution. These examples also address the targeted skill by showing the cause and effect of these events on merchants and reformers in essay on alfred tennyson relation to the reform movements.

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Formatting an Essay in Chicago Style

My Best Gift Essay Essays and Research Papers. A Gift for My Mother The story “A Gift for My Mother” is a short story written by Viv McDade which . deals with a family of style essay three; a set of parents and their daughter. The mother envies the beautiful houses with hallways and moulded skirting boards on the other side of the new graduate letters, railway, and she usually gets angry about the differences between her own family and their property compared to the house on other side of the railway. In A Book? The mother is a housewife, and the narrator lets the reader get to know this. Character , Family , Father 969 Words | 3 Pages. Gifts Essay The reason why I chose the two pictures with the food, is because in the essay Emerson stated that . “Food is one of the necessities that we need in university ann arbor essay questions, order to survive.” And he also said that “It is chicago style footnotes essay in a, also important to the giver and the person who is receiving it. Emerson also stated that “Food is a way to art essay say welcome and food has that balance.” Emerson also states in the essay that “Food is a reward.” In the first paragraph, in the middle of the second sentence, Emerson said “I do not think. Essay , Faith , Love 864 Words | 3 Pages. ? ”A Gift for My Mother” Poverty is a subject that is very relevant all over style essay in a book the world today.

It is an issue, which affects many . New Graduate Letters? people and families. Many people have to struggle everyday just to survive. They starve and chicago style essay, struggle while other people live happy lives without having to worry about if there are enough food or money to survive another day. This is an mtel essay, example of the big distinction between the rich and the poor all over the world. Footnotes Essay? In Africa for instance poverty is very common, because. Africa , Family , Father 995 Words | 2 Pages. Essay about Red Nose Day The purpose is to entertain and change lives in new graduate letters, the UK and Africa. The money spent to aid young who live on the . street and chicago style footnotes essay book, protect people living with domestic abuse. In Africa for vaccines etc. People make donations, people also do something fun as games, parties, karaoke night, contests and other things and it's like winning money. Lpn Cover? This program is great, I think there should be more people like them, generous y caring.

This type of action I love. It is best to help and. British Museum , Cardiff , Remembrance Day 678 Words | 3 Pages. amazing gifts and style essay book, talents. Having these extraordinary talents makes others realize how special that person truly is because of how much talent . they have and new graduate, how well they execute that talent. Chicago Style Footnotes In A? For example, a professional athlete is a person who uses their gift as a talent. Mtel Essay? Lebron James is essay, one of the most gifted and talented athletes on the planet because of his size, speed, and agility. He is known as the of sisyphus, best basketball player in style footnotes, the world because he works harder and harder everyday to be the best he. Basketball , Carmelo Anthony , College basketball 1162 Words | 3 Pages. maybe you dreamed of walking on Mars and talking to the aliens?

B. Connecting Information: Having goals is the best way to achieve success in . Mtel Essay? life. Goals are the building blocks to a happy and prosperous life. Chicago Style Footnotes? C. On Alfred Tennyson? Thesis Statement: Over my lifetime I would like to achieve many things but there are three main things I would like to chicago accomplish those being: to join the army national guard after my 2 years here at Leeward, to become a certified accountant, and to mtel essay travel the style in a book, world. II. BODY: A. The Myth Of Sisyphus? Paragraph 2. Accountant , Army National Guard , Need 819 Words | 5 Pages. First Essay I am interested in becoming a special education teacher because every type of style essay in a book child needs and mtel essay, deserves a proper education. Footnotes In A? . Conclusion? Unfortunately not all children receive the type of education they need. Having worked and volunteered my services to multiple families who have children with different assortments of disabilities. Working with children that required high levels of assistance to perform what would be basic task for other children.

While teaching these children the chicago style footnotes in a book, basic life skills. Education , Gifted education , High school 1808 Words | 5 Pages. ”A Gift for My Mother” is university ann arbor essay, a short story written by chicago book Viv McDade. . It’s chronicling the course of a young girl’s . best intentions. The main character in the story is a little, juvenile girl called Lucy. “..a bunch of wild flowers in the bushveld..” (p. Mtel Essay? 8, l. 1) The story takes place in South Africa, because a bushveld is a well-grassed plain area in South Africa. Throughout the entire story Lucy wants to give her mother a gift . Footnotes Essay Book? She decides to mtel essay collect bunches of flowers, sell them and earn some cash. A Good Thing , Family , Father 1122 Words | 3 Pages. Belonging Essay (the Simple Gift + My Sisters Keeper) which are originally perceived as negative lead the footnotes book, individual to develop insight and reflect upon egyptian art essay conclusion, their current circumstances, ultimately resulting in a . positive action and outcome. This is clearly demonstrated in the prescribed text, The Simple Gift by style footnotes in a book Stephen Herrick as we see the unlikely friendship and essay, bond develop between the characters, Billy and Old Bill and the passionate relationship that forms between Billy and Caitlin. In this text, Herrick uses extensive amounts of chicago style footnotes in a book literary techniques. Caitlin Todd , Family , Feeling 1729 Words | 5 Pages.

Short Essay Re: Gifts of the letters, Spirit. Short Essay #3 Short Essay on chicago style footnotes in a, Pneumatology: Spiritual Gifts A friend contacted me on Facebook the other . day and asked me what I know about the gifts of the Spirit. I replied by telling him the mtel essay, following: The gifts of chicago footnotes essay God the new graduate, Holy Spirit are recorded in 3 similar, but different lists in the New Testament. One lists God’s appointment of apostles, prophets, teachers, miracles, gifts of chicago style in a healings, helps, administrations, and various kinds of tongues (1 Cor. 12:28*). Lord Tennyson? Another, Romans. Charismatic and Pentecostal Christianity , Christian terms , Christianity 868 Words | 3 Pages.

? MY HOLY WEEK CELEBRATION During April we celebrated the chicago footnotes essay, Holy week. It is when Jesus Christ was crucified and died under Poncioplilate and rose . again after three days. Hundreds of people belong to the church to get to the great unwashed, they prayed and thanked Jesus for writing, saving the world from sins and temptation. Chicago Style Footnotes Book? There are many devoted and writing, believe the power of Jesus Christ. Essay? Perhaps processions are also held with prayers too.

In that respect are different saints, showing up. Mtel Essay? From this day, probably. Beach , Holiday , Holy Week 960 Words | 2 Pages. This entry is essay, dedicated to my dad and he will never read it. Creative? Sad thing.* When I was 16 I had to chicago style footnotes book write an essay in mtel essay, school about . the person I admire the most. So I wrote about my dad. My dad is not famous, nor is he rich or talented. Style Essay In A? He is not a scientist or a professor. Conclusion? But he is the best man in my personal world even if he doesn’t know.

We never talk about emotional stuff, he never gives me good advice, actually we hardly talk. When my dad was young he was a biker. Motorbikes were his lifestyle. 2006 singles , Mother 940 Words | 3 Pages. How does Billy develop a sense of belonging in 'The Simple Gift '? In Stephen Herrick's verse novel, The Simple Gift , the main . Chicago Footnotes Essay Book? protagonist, Billy Luckett, is lpn cover, a sixteen year old runaway who feels that he needs to escape after being constantly rejected and alienated in his own town and home by key people and places. He is traumatised by his abusive father, alienated by all his peers at school and style footnotes in a, disconnected from the mtel essay, neighbourhood where he has lived and grown all his life. Billy gradually finds. Friendship , Sense 1335 Words | 4 Pages. Everyone is different – this is one of the few things in my life where I have no doubt. Chicago Footnotes? And since everyone is belonging writing, different, then his dreams, . ideals and perspective are different.

But everyone in this world there is style footnotes essay book, no other perspective than his own. As we try to put a strange place, it only managed to touch the foreign thoughts and feelings, and egyptian conclusion, is quite short. But not every time you try to put in place to someone else, you need to change our mindset and style footnotes essay, our way of thinking. There is university of michigan essay, a really a much. Bee Gees , Debut albums , Earth 921 Words | 3 Pages. Leah Young Young 1 2/14/13 Essay #2 English 101 My Best Friends There’s really no great way to . start my story other than with the truth. I was 31 and living in a tiny apartment in one of the worst neighborhoods in Louisville. I was on chicago style footnotes, my second divorce and third abusive relationship. Between me making excuses for hsc english writing questions, bruises and the women my then husband was seeing while I was working, life for me was a sad one. Footnotes In A? I woke up one morning and decided I had to leave. I packed.

Dog , English-language films , Friendship 2328 Words | 6 Pages. LUKOSE ENGLISH -119 ESSAY # 1 Best Days in My Life . After a long time I went to university of michigan questions visit my homeland . Those days were my best days in my life. I mean colorful days in my life. for essay in a book, the first time, after a long time, I saw my grandparents . who were amazed to egyptian see me again . My grandfather told me, Hey, son, you are completely changed, You are tall, skinny, but you are strong. My grandmother said that. 2007 singles , English-language films , Family 1094 Words | 4 Pages. My best friend Radar. Descriptive essay about my horse. _Descriptive essay_ MY BEST FRIEND RADAR When I woke up in the morning I knew that today is the day for . meeting my best friend Radar. Chicago Essay In A? Radar looks absolutely gorgeous. His black expresive thoughtful eyes are always slightly sad. His moisterous nostrils puff up, that is usually followed by egyptian art essay conclusion sniffing.

He breaths snoaring, sometimes bearing his healthy teeth as if he were smiling. Style Essay In A? His muscleous body with smooth skin, his slender tall legs, his magnificently shaped head. Feeling , Nose , Olfaction 349 Words | 3 Pages. Essay : A gift for My Mother The story is the myth of sisyphus, written by Viv McDade. She was born in Ireland, grew up in Zimbabwe and . lived in South Africa for most of her life. While living in South Africa, she was a part of some organizations. She now lives in Ireland. In the chicago footnotes book, short story the narrator is a girl called Lucy. The story is told by a first person narrator and from her viewpoint. Egyptian? When a story is told by a first person, you need to realize that what the narrator is recounting might not be the objective.

Essay , Family , Father 743 Words | 2 Pages. WRITING THE COLLEGE ESSAY PURPOSE OF THE ESSAY Your GPA, class rank, SATI and SATII scores are all important to a college . admissions officer in chicago in a, helping to assess your academic abilities. But they are only numbers – they have no personality. What can make your application stand apart are the new graduate, personal essays . The college essay will allow an admissions officer to look beyond those numbers and see you as a person. A well-written essay should convey your thoughts, attitudes, personal qualities. College , Essay , Question 1382 Words | 5 Pages.

PART A: OUTLINE: I. DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY : Outline: Introduction: Holiday celebrations are often a very fun and chicago in a book, festive time with . Lpn Cover Letters? my family. Chicago Style Footnotes Essay? One such holiday is Tet holiday of lord year. Chicago Style? Many families have fun days filled with love, gift sharing, eating, fun times and laughs. In my family the belonging creative writing questions, entire family gathers at my grandparent’s home. Chicago Footnotes In A Book? Body paragraph: Decoration: - Outside: + Lights + Flowers + Parallel sentences . Family , Grandparent , Ho Chi Minh 830 Words | 4 Pages. April 11, 2013 Period 2 English 3 Honors Today I am going to explain to you about Judy Blume and her childhood, education, and all . of her great achievements. I chose Judy Blume to write my paper on because she is an amazing writer and I was intrigued to learn more about hsc english writing questions her. She is an inspiration to a lot of people and is very successful. Judy Blume was born on style, February 12, 1938 in Elizabeth, New Jersey.

Her parent’s names are Rudolph Sussman, a dentist, and Esther. A Great Way to Care , Children's literature , Early childhood education 1786 Words | 5 Pages. _____________________________________ Date ________________________________ Period ___ My Dream Life Essay Due Date: Typed . final drafts are due on _______________________ at hsc english belonging, the beginning of the period. Your graded final draft will be placed in your portfolio. Organization of book Paper: Title: Come up with a creative title Paragraph #1: Introduction. Use one of the “hooks” from the six choices on side 2. Ann Arbor Essay Questions? Don’t forget to let your reader know what your essay will be about (career, family, friends, relationships, house. Automobile , Dream , Henry David Thoreau 647 Words | 2 Pages. connectedness is conditional upon one’s acceptance of others and by chicago essay in a book others. How accurately does this statement reflect the ideas . represented in on alfred lord tennyson, your prescribed text and at least one other related text of your own choosing? ‘The Simple Gift ’ by Steven Herrick accurately reflects the notion that an individual’s sense of footnotes in a book connectedness is egyptian art essay, conditional upon one’s acceptance of others and by others. This is demonstrated through the protagonist, Billy who leaves home and his dysfunctional family.

Apple Inc. , Caitlin Todd , Father 1341 Words | 3 Pages. accompanied your mom to style footnotes buy some stuffs then you couldn’t come to the competition that I took last week. Do you know that your coming is really important for . me. Don’t you realize that?” Ami was so sad. “Well, I do have sin with you, Mi. But, I have my own reason why I couldn’t came lastweek. Believe me that I’ve tried to belonging creative writing questions come, unfortunately God didn’t allow me to see you directly on style in a, that competition.

Sorry…..” Denny explained. “Just tell me the real reasons!” “I……….I’ve something to do at that. 2005 singles , 2006 singles , 2007 singles 2316 Words | 6 Pages. What is a gift ? A gift is something that is given without anything in belonging questions, return. Any gift I have received has been . very special to in a me, but one gift in essay, particular stands out. Chicago Style Footnotes Essay? The gift took me by complete surprise. The best gift I have received was my Kindle Fire. I received it on a Sunday morning church service as a graduation present.

It was also my first ever tablet. My Kindle Fire is my best gift , by far. The four graduation seniors at my church all received one. Of Michigan Questions? I happened to style footnotes in a be one of them. Belonging Questions? The.

2006 albums , Academic dress , English-language films 464 Words | 2 Pages. My Mom, My Hero, My Best Friend Wow where do i begin. My mom is definitly . my best friend. She has been here for me through think and thin, good and bad, and ups and chicago in a, downs. The Myth Of Sisyphus Essay? When I was seven my father passed away who was there for me and style footnotes essay in a book, my sister ? My mom she was my mom and of michigan ann arbor, my dad for a while untill one day she met a man who has been my dad for chicago style essay book, the past 12 years couldnt ask for of michigan ann arbor essay, a better dad then the one she found. Chicago Footnotes Essay In A Book? My mom has helped me through so many things in mtel essay, my life pushed me through school. English-language films , Friendship , Lie 1219 Words | 3 Pages. ?Mikells Smith Dr Bailey Essay , College Writing From feelings to the future For 17 years I went through so much. Chicago Essay In A? I held so much pain inside . and honestly didn’t know how I did it. Of Michigan Ann Arbor Essay Questions? When my high school English 4 teacher told me to write about anything in the world, I knew right then and there I would write her a mini tell all essay . I was at the end of my senior year of high school and our last assignment was to style essay write an questions, essay to our teacher, about chicago style anything we wanted.

I remember being a little. Debut albums , English-language films , Essay 963 Words | 3 Pages. March 11, 2010 The Real Shakespeare Essay / Analysis…okay maybe not an essay … Poetry is a great way for a person to express . what they are feeling, or what they feel about mtel essay a certain subject through words. Following simple guidelines poets are able to create poetry that affects the way you may think about a certain topic or might have a strong emotional impact on you. Although there are many poems that can be considered great, only one can be the chicago style in a, best . Ann Arbor Questions? And that poem was written by chicago style footnotes essay in a book William Shakespeare. Alliteration , Emotion , Iambic pentameter 912 Words | 3 Pages.

The Gift of the Magi: Narritive Essay. Theme and Narrative Elements: The Gift of the Magi ENG 125: Introduction to Literature Theme and Narrative Elements: The . Gift of the Magi The Gift of the Magi is a short story that was written by the myth essay William Sydney Porter, better known by his pseudonym O. Henry in 1906. Style In A Book? O. Henry was a prolific author penning many short stories beginning in egyptian conclusion, 1899 until his death in style essay in a, 1910. O. Henry is famous for his trademark surprise endings which he called “snapper” endings (Clugston, 2010) and. Fiction , First-person narrative , Grammatical person 1549 Words | 4 Pages. friend in need is a friend indeed.

This famous saying holds true. A true friend never sees only belonging your good days and good deeds but he stands by you even on . the style footnotes in a book, darkest day of your life. Ramu Rao studies in my class. We have been friends since class two. On many occasions when I would forget my lunch box at home, he has shared his tiffin with me. Once when I nearly fought with the class bully he saved me. He thought that no good would come from new graduate lpn cover letters, bad actions and to get good things in life one must. Affection , Friendship , Homework 1063 Words | 3 Pages.

My Best Friends Wedding I am feeling lonely and sad. Chicago Style Footnotes Book? It is new graduate, a cold and blustery Wednesday in style footnotes, November. Tomorrow will be the mtel essay, . first Thanksgiving I have spent without my family. Chicago Style Essay In A? My boyfriend at of sisyphus, the time asks me to in a book come to his house and egyptian art essay conclusion, meet his parents and essay in a, join them for their thanksgiving feast. Art Essay? Though it is chicago style footnotes in a book, quite a tempting offer, I don’t feel up to that level of social activity, so I politely decline and mention that he and I could have some quite time once he gets back. He seems ok with that. 1995 singles , 2000 singles , 2006 albums 1333 Words | 3 Pages. Thumb wrestling federation Regan Lee Block C/D Paolo!!

Paolo! My mother said, Paolo what did I say about watching those thumb . wrestling matches” “come on ma what has thumb wrestling ever done to lpn cover you” said Paolo “you know what I finally think your old enough to know. Now Paolo you’re Grandfather Enrique you know the man you always see in the old pictures well when he was 22 he was drafted into the TWF, he was better known as rumble because of his monstrous thumb. Anyway he was knocking. Animation Collective , Family , Ice cream 1625 Words | 4 Pages. 101 Prof.

Blandford My Space photo essay My space There are many places that I could have used to chicago style footnotes essay in a book describe . myself. Mtel Essay? Although there are so many I have three that really describe the person I am. One of these pictures may come to most people as a surprise. So here is a few pictures that really describe me. My first picture is one of my favorite things to do. This is where people become very surprised with me. I love to play video games. I even play this stuff for money. My ps3 is everything to. Backpack , Baseball , Focus 1148 Words | 3 Pages.

English 111/03 30 Jan 2013 My Best Memorable Sandwich The best memorable food experience that . I have would be the time that I went to Fuddruckers with my mom, dad, both of my grandmothers and my two brothers. The reason why I say this is because this place was very nice and had the best burgers and sandwiches, so I have heard. As I was walking in the restaurant I started looking at footnotes essay in a, the menu and of michigan ann arbor essay, there was something that had caught my eyes, and that was the grilled chicken breast. Cheese , Chicken , Eating 1067 Words | 3 Pages. REFLECTED BEST SELF EXERCISE Introduction: I am Swapnili Jadhao, student with UTD under Systems Engineering and Management. I am a simple, . happy and passionate person. I like my work and life. I enjoy working with people and facing new challenges at work. The exercise of Reflected Best Self helped me to know views of style essay book people for me.

I really astonished me to know that people value me and new graduate lpn cover letters, expect good and bright future for me. Chicago Footnotes Essay In A? I had asked for the views from egyptian conclusion, around 15 people and 13 of them were really. Debut albums , Decision making , Friendship 1191 Words | 2 Pages. ? My best friend Sam I go to a school in Sydney, we were sitting in chicago style footnotes book, class my friend came to me saying “rami do you . want to go for a smoke at lunch”, I looked at him with anger and didn’t reply he then went and sat back down in his chair. When the lunch bell rang Sam pulled out a bottle I thought he would of taken a drink but it was empty he told me to follow him so we went towards the back gate he sat down on the floor he got a small piece of ann arbor essay hose out, I would of never thought Sam would be smoking. Bloods , Crime , Gang 1128 Words | 3 Pages. | My Life | The absolute true story of my life. | | Malik Flournoy | 8/22/2012 | U.S.

History Mueller U.S. . History Mueller | “Life is only as complicated as you make it,” my mom would always say to style essay in a me. My life has been great so far, then bad at times. But in retrospect my life may seem better than others. Although that may be the art essay, case, my life isn’t as perfect as it may appear. Being me I had to go through a father-less childhood with a “pop-up father”, brainless injuries. Aerosmith , American films , Debut albums 1195 Words | 4 Pages. Narrative Essay Draft Topic: #3 An experience that helped you discover a principal to live by. Buddha once said, “Instead of judging a man . by style footnotes essay his appearance, look inside their heart, and read what it is their soul wrote.” I was raised in a family, which at times, could be very judgmental of people.

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AIDS , Chlamydia infection , Human sexual behavior 1125 Words | 3 Pages. should have a best friend. I am lucky enough to have two! There exists a popular phrase, “dog is mans best friend,” and indeed . my dog, Maxwell, is my best friend. Mtel Essay? Maxwell is a cuddly, 5 year-old cocker spaniel and poodle mixture, weighing in at roughly 20 pounds. In addition, a lovely lady by chicago footnotes essay the name of Jenna Michelle also earns the egyptian conclusion, “ best friend” title in my life. Jenna is a 27 year-old goofy lady who has shown me solid friendship for the past three years. I spend a majority of my time with both. Best Friends , Communication , Dog 1138 Words | 3 Pages. firm. At this point, the only good Friar Laurence sees in footnotes essay in a, the relationship is that it could eventually bring together the houses of essay on alfred lord tennyson Capulet and Montague. . Chicago Essay In A? This first exposure to the Friar shows his careful, wise manner and ann arbor essay, his obvious care for Romeo’s best interests.

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Essay using chicago style footnotes

100 Brilliant Color Combinations and How to Apply Them to Your Designs. Color makes a design come alive. Footnotes Book! But sometimes it can be hard to know where to start when choosing a color palette for mtel essay, your design project. So we#8217;ve done the hard work for chicago style in a book, you— giving you 100 color combinations inspired by new graduate lpn cover letters nature, food drink, travel, and everyday items. Want to use these color combinations in chicago style footnotes essay, Canva? Click here to sign up for free if you haven’t already (if you haven’t — are you kidding me?!). Canva lets you change the colors of your design by entering the hex code in the color menu. Check out the new graduate lpn cover video below for a quick tutorial on how: Photo credit: Flickr/u2tryololo. Chicago! Fresh greenery and colorful blossoms make springtime a welcome sight after a long winter.

This color palette features bright shades of green and coral that will make your design pop. These types of colors might be used for a spring- or summer-season event poster or perhaps an advertisement that wants to come across as fresh and youthful. Photo credit: Flickr/Vincent D’Amico. Red and blue are some of the letters most common colors that businesses use for branding, and for chicago in a, good reason. University Ann Arbor Essay! Red says “confident and chicago style footnotes in a book powerful,” while blue says “calming and trustworthy.” This palette offers a little bit of both, with slightly desaturated shades that aren#8217;t overpowering. To the conservative blue and gray hues, the brick red shade adds a burst of extra color that is still professional. This would work well in any corporate context or for a more “serious” design project.

Photo credit: Flickr/Wolfgang Staudt. Desert landscapes are full of creative, dramatic contrasts, and so is this color scheme. For an unexpected color combination that is more toned down than bright and chicago style footnotes essay book garish, try this pairing featuring shades of plum and reddish-orange. Photo credit: Flickr/Alexander Shchukin. Lpn Cover! Iceland’s natural beauty is legendary, and chicago footnotes essay this palette tries to capture its dramatic contrasts. The warm, grayish undertones of the top two colors contrast nicely with the cooler greens.

A range of lighter and darker shades makes it easy to combine any two or three of the colors and hsc english creative writing have them still complement each other. Photo credit: Flickr/Sunova Surfboards. Monochromatic color schemes (made up of the footnotes essay in a book various tints, tones, or shades of one color) are extremely versatile. While this palette may not qualify as monochromatic according to the technical definition, for visual purposes, it creates a similar effect. With a color as multipurpose as blue, this combination could be used just about anywhere. Photo credit: Flickr/PapaPiper. Ann Arbor Essay! If you have a brand or need a design that emphasizes natural or “green” qualities, a color palette featuring greens and browns is chicago style footnotes book, a logical choice. Rather than your typical dull shades, this palette brightens things up with a splash of lime green. 08. Primary Colors With a Vibrant Twist.

Photo credit: Flickr/Clint Losee. Crisp turquoise hues set off bright yellow and bubblegum pink for a palette almost reminiscent of Easter candy. If the pink makes the palette too “girly” for your design’s purposes, just leave it out and opt for lord, the top two aqua shades plus the yellow for a bright, clean combination. Footnotes Book! Photo credit: Flickr/Shandi-lee Cox. Mtel Essay! The bluish shades at the top and essay in a bottom of this selection have gray undertones, which makes them almost neutral — a great foundation for playing with more daring tones like the lime green. Photo credit: Flickr/Tambako The Jaguar. The almost neon shades of blue and green balance out the other two more conservative colors and add a bright freshness that gives the combination some kick. This kind of scheme might work well for a fitness brand or any design that needs to balance a businesslike feel with an energetic vibe. Photo credit: Flickr/Cycling Man.

This landscape features both warm and cool colors in mtel essay, both bright and subdued shades. The beachy, mellow color palette inspired by it draws from those contrasts for a combination that brings to mind relaxing island vacations — just one example of how we can associate color with certain places, moods, or emotions. Photo credit: Flickr/Stanley Zimny. Contrasting warm grays with cool, glacial blues makes for a dynamic color scheme that’s more visually interesting than your average combination of drab blues and chicago style book grays. If you’re in need of a palette that’s more restrained, instead of letters, opting for navy and dark gray, try these lighter, brighter hues. Photo Credit: Flickr/JohnFish.

Photo credit: Flickr/Mirai Takahashi. Essay! Photo credit: Flickr/Andy Rothwell. The muted shades of this color scheme have a vintage vibe, with the light aqua and gold particularly being colors that were popular in the 1950s and the myth of sisyphus essay 60s. But that doesn’t mean this combination looks dated. These colors (and the mid-century modern aesthetic in general) have seen a resurgence in popularity and still look stylish. Photo credit: Flickr/Prachanart Viriyaraks.

Photo credit: Flickr/Lou Gabian. Photo credit: Flickr/shutterbugamar. Photo credit: Flickr/taro. Photo credit: Flickr/Tina. Essay In A! This combination has an outdoor feel to conclusion it, like a summer baseball game: you have the in a book red dirt of the baseball diamond, the green grass in the outfield, the bright sun in a blue sky overhead. However, it’s more subtle (and has more variety of color) than, say, the more obvious greens and browns in art essay, #6. Photo credit: Flickr/Ramesh Rasaiyan. Pairing black and white with bright, crisp shades of green makes for style footnotes book, a modern palette that is university of michigan essay, sophisticated without being too serious. Instead of pairing red or blue with your black and chicago essay in a book white, freshen things up with some green. Photo credit: Flickr/Mirai Takahashi. Neutral colors like the shades of gray and tan here are very versatile and can be paired with almost anything.

A color scheme of all neutrals, however, can be quite nice, too. Mtel Essay! Depending on how you apply it to a design, it can be upscale and sophisticated (think branding for style footnotes in a, a luxury hotel) or calming and comfortable (think the decor of a favorite neighborhood coffee shop). Photo credit: Flickr/ccharmon. Photo credit: Flickr/Pink Sherbet Photography. Photo credit: Flickr/Katie Ring. Photo credit: Flickr/Lisa Murray. Calming, spa-like greens and blue — great by themselves — look a little more lively with a splash of raspberry as an accent color. Adding a brighter or bolder accent color to a more restrained selection is a nice technique to of michigan essay liven up a color palette and give it a little extra interest. Photo credit: Flickr/Louis Vest. This happy blend of colors doesn’t take itself too seriously.

Have a summer party invitation to style footnotes essay in a design? Maybe a children’s event poster or advertisement? A palette like this one will make it clear where the fun is mtel essay, at. Photo credit: Flickr/Michael Stern. Shades ranging from light to dark make it easy to apply this color palette to chicago style footnotes essay book a design. New Graduate Lpn Cover Letters! There’s enough contrast that you can choose a background color, a text color, and an accent color or two just from these four. Photo credit: Flickr/Michael Stern. Applications for chicago style footnotes essay book, a pastel palette will be somewhat limited — designs having to do with Easter, spring, babies, or tea parties are pretty safe choices. Pastel colors generally come across as pretty and delicate, so you’ll want to make sure your design calls for a similar mood if you want to use a color combination like this one.

Photo credit: Flickr/Michael Stern. Photo credit: Flickr/Michael Stern. Photo credit: Flickr/Michael Stern. Red and green is one of three pairs of complementary (or opposite) colors on the traditional color wheel; others include orange/blue and violet/yellow. When combined, these colors make a striking, high-contrast impression that can be a little jarring if you don’t use them carefully. That’s why, for this palette, the reds and ann arbor questions greens have been balanced and toned down (not full saturation like the red and green you see on chicago style footnotes essay in a book Christmas decorations) for new graduate letters, a fresher twist on a complementary color palette. Photo credit: Flickr/Michael Stern.

Photo credit: Flickr/Michael Stern. Photo credit: Flickr/Michael Stern. Photo credit: Flickr/Michael Stern. Warm grays with a pop of golden yellow is a combination you’ll see sometimes in footnotes in a, interior design and home decor contexts. The Myth! It’s primarily neutral (and the chicago style footnotes in a warmness of the grays feels calming and letters inviting) but the yellow adds some cheerfulness and energy for an overall palette that’s refined but not stuffy.

Reminiscent of winter berries and bare branches against a snowy sky, this combination of colors would make a great alternative to your traditional Christmas or holiday palettes. Chicago Essay Book! The rich reds paired with violet-tinged grays feel festive, but sophisticated. Who says brown has to the myth essay be boring? Add some red and violet undertones, and you have a full, rich color palette that — like these chocolate cupcakes — feels a little decadent. Chicago! White, black (or in lpn cover letters, this case, very dark navy), red, and yellow is a very common combination. But with these saturated shades, it certainly isn’t boring. If you’re looking for a bold palette that doesn’t mess around with unusual colors but that still makes a strong, eye-catching statement in your design, this type of color scheme is an easy one to apply. Many cliff-hugging villages along the Mediterranean coast are painted in warm pastels. You can replicate that sunny, carefree look with this selection of chicago essay in a book, shades and bring a little of the Italian dolce vita to your design, creating a warm and welcoming effect. Creative Questions! These vibrant hues look like they belong in a candy store, and they’re sure to give a design some youthful energy.

Just make sure that it’s okay that the overall effect of the design is a little “loud,” because like the graffiti they’re inspired by, these colors certainly aren’t quiet; they’re out to make a statement. It’s hard to replicate a metallic effect with just flat color, but dark blue and gold is in a book, a timeless combination that you’ll see on hsc english belonging creative writing questions everything from swanky party invitations to chicago footnotes in a book the official colors of mtel essay, elite schools and sports teams. To add a little class to chicago footnotes in a book a design, try some combination of the two colors. The Myth! (If you can manage to get your design printed with gold foil accents, even better!) The ink colors that all printers use (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black; abbreviated CMYK) make a striking combination on their own, similar to the neon and illuminated signs of a big city at night. Blue and gray always work nicely together (and you could certainly use the bottom three selections of this palette by themselves) — but the chicago book addition of a light coral pink, along with the brighter blues, gives this combination a little extra sparkle. Lunch at new graduate, an Italian restaurant, anyone? Some of the things most often associated with Italian cuisine — wine, rich tomato sauce, fresh handmade pasta — all make an appearance in this color scheme. Try it out to style in a book add some warmth and flavor to a design.

The inclusion of the myth of sisyphus essay, a creamy neutral shade balances out the more colorful selections; you can use it as a background or base color and one or more of the chicago style essay in a others as tasteful accents. University Ann Arbor! Black, gray, and chicago style footnotes in a book white are always acceptable, usable colors. But add some cobalt blue, and those run-of-the-mill neutral shades become a backdrop for on alfred lord tennyson, a modern, attractive palette that could work for any design style, from chicago style, corporate to trendy. New Graduate Lpn Cover! Red or blue might be common pairings for basic black and white, but here, a deeper red along with a brighter turquoise blue gives a fresh twist to a familiar combination. 83. Autumn Oranges + Complementary Neutrals.

Reminiscent of colors you might see decorating a beach house, this palette is book, slightly nautical, slightly faded and vintage, but the hues included here won#8217;t box you into a certain style. They’re pretty versatile and subtle, and won#8217;t overwhelm your design. Photo credit: Flickr/Teresa Romano. Dark wood, leather, old books — things you might find in mtel essay, an English pub or one of those gentlemen’s clubs you see in essay in a, old movies. If your design could use some suave sophistication, try out this combination of rich browns plus a lighter, smoky neutral shade. We hope that left you feeling inspired. Egyptian Art Essay! Let us know in style essay book, the comments section if you know of a color combination that deserves a spot in letters, the list. Bring great design to your entire workplace.

Janie is style, a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on hsc english belonging writing her background in art to style footnotes in a explore design. and loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of graphic design. 60 Free Outline Icon Sets Perfect for Contemporary Desi. 60 Free Fonts for Minimalist Designs. 50 Free Headline Fonts Built For Impact And Audience En. 50 Beautiful Free Wallpapers For Creatives [2015 Editio. 50 Design Terms Explained Simply For Non-Designers. The 30 Best Free Social Media Icon Sets of 2015. The Myth Of Sisyphus! 100 Brilliant Color Combinations and How to Apply Them . Free Icons: 49 Best Sites To Find Beautiful And Useful . 60 Awesome Free Tools To Create A Visual Marketing Camp.

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essay on john penn (1) The record of the chicago footnotes essay book Europeans' first hundred years in America is fraught with violence, chicanery, and misunderstandings with the indigenous peoples; the lpn cover shameful Walking Purchase fraud of chicago style footnotes essay, 1737 perpetuated this phenomenon in mtel essay, our heritage. By the late seventeenth century, the era of discovery and conquest in the New World had essentially passed into history; the next phase focused on the expropriation of land by white colonists from the Indians, including Pennsylvania settlers. (2) The one exception was William Penn, the founder of the Quaker sect in Philadelphia. Chicago Style Footnotes Essay Book. His early dealings with the lpn cover letters Delaware Indians reflected his respect for these natives and style in a book his dedication to equality and fair play. His treaty with the Delawares in 1682 exemplified these traits, establishing a bond of new graduate letters, trust that remained for almost sixty years. Essay In A. Unfortunately, his sons, Thomas and of michigan ann arbor essay John, did not share their father's philosophy.

To extricate themselves from indebtedness and to assure their gentrified lifestyle, they devised a scheme to cheat the Indians out of 500,000 to 750,000 acres of prime hunting grounds. Furthermore, they sought to keep this swindle from public knowledge for several decades. (3) This essay focuses on the 1737 Walking Purchase document that elucidates the scheme of the Penn sons and its impact on the history of the Delaware Indians in Pennsylvania. I'll contrast William Penn's Quaker philosophy with the opposing views of his sons to style book elucidate this fraudulent attempt to justify the mtel essay dispossession of indigenous inhabitants for personal gain. (4) To fully understand this historical event, it is chicago style footnotes essay in a book expedient to explore the customs and life of the Delawares (the Lenni Lenape) and their sachem (Indian chiefs) who were hoodwinked by the Penn brothers and their fellow conspirators (traders, interpreters, land speculators, and colonial officials), as well as the difference in the meaning and use of treaties and essay agreements by chicago footnotes the Delawares and the proprietors of hsc english writing questions, Pennsylvania. William Penn Brother Onas to the Delawares. (5) In 1681 King Charles II granted William Penn a charter to chicago footnotes essay in a lands in America called Pennsylvania in payment for a debt of £16,000 (owed to Admiral Sir William Penn, the Quaker leader's father), making Penn and his heirs true and tennyson absolute Proprietaries. James Merrell posits that every colony founder, anxious about attracting settlers, faced the formidable task of surmounting deep-seated fears of the wild woods, and none of the footnotes colonial leaders worked harder to new graduate lpn cover letters banish these misgivings than Penn.

To put the least appealing features of the essay in a American land grant into a favorable light, he called the area Penn's Wood , hoping that sylvan would bring to prospective settlers' minds visions of sun-dappled groves instead of mtel essay, a vast wilderness filled with savages. He listed all of the Fruits that I find in the Woods and noted that [t]he Woods are adorned with lovely Flowers, for colour, greatness, figure, and footnotes essay variety rivaling the best gardens in London. Are you afraid of all those trees covering the land? There is plenty for university of michigan questions the use of man. As for the Beastes of the Woods, the proprietor announced they were not terrible at all but rather furry or feathered natural resources, some for Food and Profit, and chicago footnotes essay some for Profit only (Merrell 23-24). (6) William Penn is exemplary, not for his Quakerism or even for the founding of Pennsylvania, but for the manner in essay lord, which these two endeavors were combined in his dealings with Indians. In his negotiations with the Delawares, Penn regarded the land promised to him by Charles II as providentially for the peaceful and righteous. Steven Harper notes that these nuances of promised land are so intricately related that when Penn's heirs forsook the idea that they were engaged in a holy experiment on land upon chicago style essay in a book, which construction of the New Jerusalem was not far distant, they simultaneously lost the impetus that motivated their father to just, pacific, and equitable relations with the art essay Delawares (6). Penn's devotion to the tenets of Quaker philosophy guided his ideals of style footnotes essay in a, peaceful relations and equal treatment under the law with his land sales. Thus, he hoped to satisfy his spiritual needs and provide for his material wants as well as those of his heirs. (7) While Penn's real estate ventures proved to conclusion be less than lucrative, his efforts to establish a colony in Pennsylvania were commendable in terms of his peaceful interactions with the Indians, a policy that remained in force for seventy-five years.

In contrast, Jean Soderlund notes, Just a few years after the bloody King Phillip's War in New England and Nathaniel Bacon's massacre of Indians in Virginia, William Penn was pursuing a policy of unarmed friendship with the Native Americans in the Delaware Valley (307). (8) Paul Wallace says that it is beneficial to go back in time to style essay book appreciate the wise policy under which Pennsylvania conducted Indian relations, starting with Columbus and the first contact between Indians and white men that brought wonder and delight to both groups. However, both sides were eventually disillusioned, and mtel essay the cycle of captivities and massacres continued for hundreds of chicago essay book, years (142). He posits that it is difficult to place blame: the Indians were fighting to preserve their country, and the settlers were caught up in the vast migration that Columbus's discovery of America had initiated, although we should not condone the crimes committed by those who cheated and murdered to wrest lands from egyptian conclusion indigenous peoples. However, in his view, Pennsylvania came closer than all the English colonies to chicago footnotes essay in a a just and sensible solution to the problem, with Roger Williams' policies in Rhode Island paralleling William Penn's conduct. Until the middle of the eighteenth century, Indian/European relations in Pennsylvania were cordial for three reasons: 1) a tradition of fair and questions friendly dealings introduced by the Dutch and Swedes was reinforced by William Penn; 2) Pennsylvania had a concise and well administered Indian policy founded on style footnotes essay book the realities of Indian and European politics that took into account that the Iroquois were the dominant power in the Indian world and France was Pennsylvania's potential enemy; and 3) the Quaker ideal of the mtel essay pursuit of peace was in force. (9) George Arthur Cribbs attributes William Penn's ideas of justice and humanity to a single Indian policy: his natural benevolence and the principles of his sect demanded a just and friendly treatment of every human being. Before leaving England, he forwarded a letter to those Indians living in chicago style essay book, his province conveying his friendly attitude toward them and his hope that they would live together as neighbors and friends.

He instructed his commissioners to take great care not to offend the natives, to seek their good will, and to let them know that Christians had come to settle among them in friendship (5). (10) Several factors demonstrate Penn's fair and honest treatment of the Indians: 1) only in mtel essay, Pennsylvania could an Indian get a satisfactory legal judgment from chicago style footnotes essay a white man because Indian testimony was accepted in legal matters; 2) in matters of trade the provincial government made a concerted effort to guard the Indians against exploitation; 3) in treaties (for the first fifty years at least), only open and honorable means were used to gain a point; and 4) friendly and kindly intercourse was encouraged (Penn learned their language and customs so that he could converse with them freely, as did Roger Williams.) Penn was a frequent visitor among them, eating their venison, hominy, and roasted acorns, and participating in their athletic exercises. Of course, the Indians responded by providing food, assistance, or protection if it were within their power (Cribbs 5-6). (11) But Ray Thompson relates that William Penn's critical attention to details in the promotion of new graduate lpn cover, Quaker spirituality and fair treatment of the Indians did not prevail in his personal financial situation. Surprisingly, he spent only three and a half years in chicago style footnotes essay in a, the New World during two brief visits to his province in the periods October 1682 to August 1684 and from December 1699 to February 1701. He spent the rest of his hectic life embroiled in controversy with his political and religious enemies and debtors in England. His first son, William, Jr. (known as William the essay Waster), was a failure in every venture he attempted and eventually accumulated a debt of £10,000. In 1704, his father stated, My son is chicago style footnotes essay book my greatest affliction, for his soul's and my country's and my family's sake (20-21). (12) Known as Brother Onas to university of michigan questions the Delawares (the Indian word for quillhence pen), in 1682 William Penn convened a treaty council with the Delawares at Shackamaxon near Philadelphia for lands above the Neshaminy Creek with the following deed: All those lands lying and being in the province of Pennsylvania, beginning upon a line formerly laid out from a corner spruce tree, by the Delaware River, and from thence running along the ledge or the foot of the mountain west, northwest, to a corner white oak marked with a P standing by chicago style footnotes in a book the Indian path that leadest to an Indian town called Playwiskey. And from thence extending westward to essay tennyson Neshaminy Creek, from chicago style which said line, the said tract or tracts granted doth extend itself back into the woods, as far as a man can go in one day and of michigan ann arbor essay a halfand bounded on the westerly side with the Creek called Neshaminyor to the utmost extent of said creed one day and footnotes essay in a a half's journey to essay on alfred lord the Delaware and thence down the several courses of said river to the first mentioned spruce tree. Style Footnotes In A. (Thompson 30) Chief Tamanend of the Delawares presented the famous Treaty Wampum Belt (see image gallery) to William Penn as a token of this event.

Fashioned from oyster-shell beads and leather, the of sisyphus wampum belt has become a symbol of chicago footnotes essay, Penn's policy of essay lord tennyson, purchasing land from the Indians and living peacefully with them. Penn's speech to the Delawares held out great hope: We meet on chicago essay in a the broad pathway of good faith and art essay good will; no advantage will be taken on either side, but all shall be open-ness and love (see image gallery) (Thompson 22). Benjamin West's painting of this event in 1771 became an icon for Penn's benevolence (see my title page.) (13) Although he was not legally required to pay the Indians for the grant lands in Pennsylvania, Penn and his agents made at least seventeen purchases from the Indians living near the lower Delaware. Most of these purchases involved narrow tracts of land, often overlapping, but on paper, at least, some of them extended far back into the country: two days' travel by horse, as far as a man could go in a day and half, or in one case to footnotes the utmost bounds of the said Province. Such measurements, however important to Penn, meant little to the Indians as long as they were not hurried off the land. In one instance Penn had the land measured; the man's two-day travel (specified in a 1685 deed) was surveyed three years later as a line from Philadelphia to letters the Susquehanna, a distance of about seventy miles.

(14) Soon after Penn's death in 1718, his secretary James Logan had these purchases confirmed by a single deed from Sasoonan and other Indians representing those who had made the earlier sales. Extending north to the Lehigh Hills and from the Delaware River to the lower Susquehanna, this deed did not actually include all the land that might have been claimed under the earlier onesit certainly did not extend to the utmost bounds of Pennsylvania, but it did include as much as was needed for the white settlers. (15) For fourteen years thereafter no further purchases were made, although new settlers continued to arrive. Without permission, people from New York settled on choice lands outside the area of the 1718 purchase. Chicago Style Footnotes Book. Not until 1727, when William Penn's sons became the proprietors of Pennsylvania, was Logan able to on alfred lord tennyson deal with these problems. He sent agents to settle affairs with the trespassers, but this undertaking was not very successful. To deal with this problem and because more land was needed for style footnotes settlers, Logan urged the new proprietors to come to America to meet the Indians and make new purchases. John and Thomas Penn Perpetrators of the Walking Purchase. (16) William Penn assumed that God had promised him Pennsylvania for the creation of a peaceful and tolerant society to lord tennyson avoid the self-righteous tendencies of other colonizing ventures that wreaked havoc on native peoples (also the reason Roger Williams founded Rhode Island). However, his sons had a different vision of this province.

In their minds, the Upper Delaware Valley their father knew as altogether Indian was vacant land. (17) John Penn, the oldest son, received one half of his father's estate while Thomas and Richard received a quarter each. Chicago Essay Book. As the mtel essay businessman for the family, Thomas came to Pennsylvania in 1732 to appraise the chicago style in a wealth of the province and to attempt to exploit its resources. John and Richard urged him to sell out enough land in America to art essay conclusion settle their obligations and improve their financial situation after paying off their father's debts. The Penns were also subjected to the expense of long litigation in Pennsylvania's dispute with Lord Baltimore over the property around Chesapeake Bay, claimed by both parties. John and Richard wanted to sell Thomas their interest in the province for the sum of £50,000 (which they considered a bargain), but Thomas did not have the footnotes essay in a book cash to on alfred tennyson take them up on footnotes essay book their offer. (18) Thomas Penn was strictly a business man with no time for mtel essay culture, the arts, or the humanities. When he arrived in Philadelphia in 1732, his manner was cold and unfriendly toward the old friends of his father. The somber citizens committee disapproved of the chicago footnotes in a book fun-loving society members with whom he associated and his flamboyant attire; he and his brothers had abandoned the Quaker faith. (19) Soon after his arrival, Thomas Penn and the present Governor of Pennsylvania, Patrick Gordon, called a conference with the mtel essay Iroquois Indians at Stenton (the home of James Logan, the President of Council) just north of Philadelphia. Through an interpreter, Penn told the Indians that he wished to carry on the good relationship and liberal policies of his father, Brother Onas: that the whites and Indians should live in a true and perfect peace.

The conference lasted for three weeks and style book important articles of agreement were signed into the treaty. After obtaining the goodwill of the Iroquois (who held domination over egyptian conclusion, the Delawares), Thomas began bargaining for more land; his first purchase was a tract of 100,000 acres between the Schuylkill River and its branches and the branches of the Delaware River. In exchange the Indians received many gifts, including six guns (one for each of the six chiefs of the Iroquois). (20) In 1734 John Penn arrived in Philadelphia to join Thomas in a scheme to make the province show a profit. They further alienated the colonists by insisting they pay their quitrents (rent paid by a freeholder in lieu of services) and dues as contracted, a requirement quietly overlooked by the former governors. Benjamin Franklin, a leader in America's democracy, clashed constantly with them due to their dissonant ideologies. Chicago Footnotes Essay. He noted in a letter to a friend: I am astonished to see him [Thomas Penn] thus meanly give up his father's character and conceived at that moment a more cordial and thorough contempt for him than I ever before felt for any man living a contempt that I cannot express in words, but I believe my countenance expressed it strongly, and that his brother [John] who was looking at me must have observed it. Franklin noted that the Proprietors will be gibbeted as they deserve, to rot and stink in of michigan ann arbor, the nostrils of posterity (Thompson 27).

(21) In 1735 the brothers Penn were scheming to obtain the Minisink lands from the Delawares under Chief Nutimas. As they met with the chief, they were secretly having the chicago footnotes in a route of the new purchase surveyed by some of the men who would later make the 65-mile walk. (22) Thomas Penn found a fellow conspirator in William Allen, the heir to the colony's largest fortune. Tennyson. Penn was looking for ways to turn a shrewd business deal, and style footnotes essay book Allen admired the appearance of pseudo-royalty that the son of the hsc english creative Founder possessed -- both enjoyed the style life of country squires. Soon after they became proprietors in 1727, the Penns had sold 8,000 acres of prime Indian hunting grounds (in Bucks County just north of Philadelphia) to Allen in order to raise cash. Now Allen and his friends were re-selling parcels of this land to private individuals; since the sales were technically illegal, the dates of the hsc english questions original grants were omitted. (23) The Penns were growing uneasy that these transactions would get out of hand and chicago footnotes essay cause trouble among the Delawares, so they decided to lpn cover secure a large area of the Delaware lands to the north. Allen held title to chicago style footnotes essay book thousands of acres of the Delawares' best timber land above the Blue Mountains. Mtel Essay. This hunting land was vital to the existence of footnotes, these tribes who placed little value on farm land held by the white settlers that the Indians had sold off previously. (24) When Governor Gordon died in 1736, James Logan became the new governor, and mtel essay the Penns found the perfect agent to acquire more Indian lands. Since William Penn had appointed him as his agent in 1701, Logan had been a valuable and trusted secretary.

Involved in Indian negotiations for three decades, he enjoyed the full confidence of the Indians. The Penns requested him to essay book call a conference with the new graduate lpn cover letters Delaware chiefs to discuss a mysterious deed dated 1686 that the sons claimed had never been fulfilled. The Walking Purchase Fraud of 1737 -- ye Running Walk (25) This sad chapter in Pennsylvania's history can be attributed to a number of circumstances: 1) the chicago style book population in Pennsylvania had exploded from 20,000 inhabitants at the time of William Penn's departure in 1701 to 100,000 by 1740, and the colony needed to acquire more territory; 2) John and Thomas Penn were encumbered with paying off their father's debts; 3) these two sons expected to be treated as nobility in the province whereas at home in England they were actually part of lower middle class society. (26) Merrell encapsulates the significance of this fraud by comparing it with another land-grabbing scheme in 1728 in hsc english belonging writing questions, the Tulpehocken Valley. In the 1720s the Delawares complained about style footnotes book colonial encroachment on Indian lands in egyptian art essay, the area; their request for provincial officials to stop the rapid white settlement of Delaware land by chicago footnotes in a book white settlers was ignoredmuch to their disappointment.

The Tulpehocken event was insignificant compared to the resentment over art essay conclusion, the so-called Walking Purchase of 1737, when William Penn's children, John and Thomas, acquired a vast stretch of the Delaware Valley. Footnotes. Brandishing a copy of the lost 1686 land sale agreement, they had convinced the Delawares to go along with the idea of relinquishing as much land as a man could walk in a day and new graduate lpn cover a half and then (ignoring protests by Delaware observers) sent seasoned runners down a prepared trail to book cover as much ground in that span as they could. The Delawares soon learned that even this large piece of land (1200 square miles) did not satisfy their demands. Thomas Penn keeps begging plagueing us to Give Him some Land, they complained in 1740; he Wearies us Out of Our Lives (166,176). (27) At issue in the Walking Purchase was control of land in the Lehigh Valley. Tohicken Creek was recognized by both Europeans and Indians as the new graduate lpn cover letters northern boundary of the land William Penn had purchased from the Indians. In 1726 Secretary James Logan privately purchased a tract of chicago footnotes book, land beyond this line from the Delaware landlord Nutimus, paying £60 for mtel essay his quitclaim (transfer of all interest in real estate, especially without a warranty of title).

A series of purchases from the Indian landlords in 1727 and 1729 alerted the Delawares that this land was a valuable commodity. The Penns continued to sell land when they could get cash, without regard to Indian rights; they acted in full knowledge of what they were doing. (28) Crucial to an examination of the chicago essay Walking Purchase fraud is the mtel essay controversial deed of 1686. At a meeting with the Delaware chiefs in 1734 (supposedly to renew friendships with the chiefs), Thomas Penn reminded them how fairly Brother Onas had treated them in years past. He then carefully mentioned certain adjustments that should be made in those lands in Bucks County that lately have had some claims made upon them, although formerly they were fully and absolutely released by the Indians living on those lands to style in a book his father. Chief Nutimas of the Minisi tribe gave no indication he would agree to any further purchase of lands in the region. At another preliminary meeting a year later, Penn became more specific about these land disputes. (29) After a polite exchange of essay, compliments and gifts, the in a brothers Penn produced a sheaf of mtel essay, old deeds signed by their father and the Delaware chiefs; the northern Indians did not remember the sachems who dealt with William Penn.

The Penns produced a deed dated August 30, 1686, that had been signed by William Penn and three Lenape chiefs. Thomas Penn claimed it had never been fulfilled. For a considerable quantity of trade goods, the document was to have sold the following property: . all those tracts of footnotes in a book, land lying, and being in the Province of on alfred lord, Pennsylvania, beginning on a line formerly laid out from a corner spruce tree, by the Delaware River about Makeerickiton and from thence running along the ledge, or floor of the mountains west, southwest, to a corner white oak marked with the footnotes essay in a book letter 'P', standing by lord tennyson the Indian path that leadeth to style footnotes book an Indian town called Playwickey, Bucks Country, then the home of Chief Tamamend, or Tammany, who was counselor at the original Penn Treaty in 1682, and from thence extending westward to the Neshaminy Creek from which line the said tracts thereby granted doth extend itself back into the woods as far as a man can go in one-day-and-a-half, and bounded on the westerly side with the Creek called Neshaminy (or the most westerly branch thereof) so far as the Branch doth extend, and from thence to a line. Essay Lord Tennyson. (blank space). to the utmost extent of the said one-and-a-half days journey, and from thence to the aforesaid River Delaware and from thence down Several Cources (sic) of said Delaware River to the first mentioned Spruce Tree. Footnotes Essay In A. And all this did likewise appear to mtel essay be true by in a William Biles and Joseph Wood (witnesses) who upon conclusion, their affirmations did solemnly declare that they well remembered the Treaty held between the agents of William Penn and those Indians. Footnotes Book. (Thompson 35) (30) The Penn's only conclusion, appreciable income came from the purchase money laid down for chicago style in a book large tracts of land, and the only open spaces large enough to the myth essay locate large tracts were located over the Indian line. Nutimus and the other Delaware chiefs were demanding more money for the land than the Penns could pay, so they resorted to the Treaty of 1686 regarding land north of the 1682 purchase as far as a man could walk in chicago style in a, a day and essay on alfred a half, between the Delaware River and Neshaminy Creek.

A party of walkers was sent out to determine how far robust men could reasonably walk in a day and a half; it was determined that woodsmen could (with a properly cleared path) cover well over forty miles in twelve hours. This information was exactly what the Penns needed; all that remained was for them to book convince the Delawares to sign the land away, a formidable task indeed. (31) The next step was to find written records to show the Delaware chiefs, and the best record they could find was a copy of the 1686 deed that outlined preliminary terms for a land transfer but with missing information about the direction and distance of the bounds of the of michigan essay questions tract. No signatures were affixed to the document, and there was no mention of chicago style, payments made. However, the Penns decided to outsmart the Delawares by arguing that their ancestors had sold this land to William Penn; they would use a document proving nothing more than preliminary plans had been drawn as proof that an letters, agreement for a walking purchase had been signed, sealed, and style footnotes essay book paid. (32) After many meetings and negotiations and new graduate lpn cover having seen a crudely drawn map of the territory along the in a book upper Delaware River, the Indian chiefs acquiesced, being desirous to mtel essay preserve and continue the same Love and Friendship that had existed between Brother Onas and the Indians, and style footnotes in a ultimately they signed the release. Thomas Penn did not want the Delawares to essay lord comprehend the huge tract of land he wanted to chicago essay in a book wrest from them, so the map depicting the area was deliberately distorted to reflect a smaller area. It was carefully prepared to give the impression to egyptian art essay the chiefs that all they were relinquishing was the land below Tohickon Creek that the Delawares had been willing to release since 1686. Chicago Style Essay In A. The text of the release is as follows: We do acknowledge ourselves to mtel essay be fully satisfied that the above described tracts of land were fully granted and sold by Mayhkeerickisho, Saphoppy and Taughaughsey unto said William Penn and chicago style footnotes essay in a book His Heirs.

And for a further Confirmation thereof, We, the said Manawkyhickon, Lapowinsa, Tishcohan and Nutimas, do for ourselves and all the mtel essay other Delaware Indians, fully, clearly and Absolutely Release and forever Quit Claim unto the said Joh Penn, Thomas Penn and Richard Penn, all our Rights, Title, Interest and pretensions whatever of, in , or to the said Tract or Tracts of style in a book, Land, and on alfred every Part and Parcel thereof, so that neither We, or any of Us, or our Children shall or may at any time thereafter have Challenge, Claim, or Demand any Right, Title, Interest or Pretentions whatever of, in or to the said Tracts of Land, or any Part thereof, but of and from the same shall excluded and forever Debarred. And we do further agree that the extend of the said Tract shall e forthwith WALKED, TRAVELED or gone over by PROPER PERSONS to be appointed for the Purpose, according to chicago style essay in a the direction of the aforesaid Deed. In witness, thereof, we have hereunto set our hands and seals at Philadelphia, the 25th day of the conclusion month of August in style footnotes in a book, the year --- according to the English Account, one thousand, seven hundred and thirty seven. Manawkyhickon (his mark) Lapowinsa (his mark) Tishcohan (his mark) Nutimas (his mark) (Thompson 50) (33) Francis Jennings notes that a comparison of the draught shown to the Delawares and a map of the of sisyphus essay Delaware Valley reveals the trickit was a simple matter of switching labels. What the chicago style footnotes essay Indians thought to be Tohickon Creek was marked West Branch River Delaware; streams appeared in a pattern the Indians recognized as the lower end of Bucks County, but the illiterate Indians could not read the false names that extended the on alfred area far beyond the representation. The minutes and draught could be sent to England as proof of the righteousness of the Penns' negotiations as nobody in England would know the local terrain well enough to comprehend the trickery.

Only the provincial enemies of the Penns could have interpreted the papers correctly, and they were not permitted to chicago book see them (37). (34) On September 19, 1737, three men set out on the infamous walk; inspired by the Penn's promise of 500 acres of land for the walker who covered the most territory, they walked fast and essay lord surprised the Indians by going northwestward away from the Delaware River rather than parallel to it. Chicago Footnotes Book. In eighteen hours of travel, sixty-five miles were covered, which took in some 1,200 square miles (three-quarters of the myth of sisyphus, a million acres), including the lands Thomas Penn had been selling since 1728. (35) Indian witnesses began to complain even while the Walk was in chicago essay, progress, and the Indians resentfully pegged the whole affair as an act contrary to the agreement and therefore null and void. Thomas Penn released a large number of patents he had been withholding for sales by essay on alfred lord tennyson agreement some time since made. Settlers such as the Moravians made private extra-legal arrangements with their Indians to chicago footnotes keep the peace. The Myth Of Sisyphus Essay. The Delawares had reconciled themselves to the white settlement, hoping that they would be compensated for their land.

When they received nothing, their resentment grew. In 1741 Governor Thomas and James Logan enlisted the Iroquois to run the Delawares off their land. Ultimately, the chicago essay in a book Delawares chose to revenge the settlers by joining the mtel essay French in their wars against the English (the French and footnotes essay Indian War), although, as one Delaware sachem told missionary John Heckewelder, they never would have joined the French in the Wars against the English, had they not been so shamefully dealt with at the time (Merrill 176). (36) Proprietary policies in handling complaints about the Walking Purchase restricted the Delawares because they had no recourse to justice. Displaced and highly incensed, they brooded the Injuries they had received in being cheated out of their lands (Harper 186). In 1756 they asked for a meeting to art essay discuss the chicago style essay Injustice [that] had been done them in Land Affairs (Franklin 153.) Chief Teedyuscung outlined the Delaware case against the proprietors regarding the Walking Purchase. (37) In early 1756 Pennsylvania declared war on the Delawares, and Sir William Johnson, the British colonial superintendent of the myth essay, Indian affairs for the northern half of the continent, devised a plan to subdue them diplomatically.

By Royal Order in chicago footnotes essay book, Council in 1759, Johnson was instructed to the myth essay examine the complaints of the Delaware Indians regarding land fraud by the proprietors of Pennsylvania. His bias against the Quakers was no secret, but the investigation was simply in line with his official duties, not a conspiracy against the Delawares. The issue was not whether the lands should be given back to the Indians, who themselves had not suggested that, but whether the Indians could be reconciled to chicago essay the presence of the whites. Johnson was opposed by a group of Quakers (the Friendly Association for Regaining and Preserving Peace with the Indians) who worked with the Pennsylvania Assembly to investigate Delaware claims. Johnson had been a rival of the belonging questions Penns in Indian affairs, and the fact that they had suggested him argues that they were convinced of the justness of their position. Johnson's separate inquiry would be the final proof of the sincerity of the chicago in a Penns and of the English. (38) At the Council of the Six Nations held in 1762 at Easton to formally settle Delaware complaints about the Walking Purchase, Johnson skillfully manipulated the proceedings. Hsc English Belonging Writing Questions. The lengthy defense of the legality of the Walking Purchase was read; it was a complicated web of arguments that exhaustively demonstrated that the letter of the chicago style footnotes essay book original deed of the myth essay, 1686 had not been violated by the Walk itself but never touched upon the main pointwhether the Indian signers of the 1686 deed had ever intended to (or ever had the right to) sell lands north of Tohiccon Creek. (39) At the close of the four-hour reading that was not translated into style footnotes essay, Delaware, Teedyuscung, without being asked, said that he very well understood the purport, or meaning of what had been read (A.

Wallace 246). That he understood it is doubtfula legal defense in egyptian, a foreign language would be difficult enough to understand at footnotes best and doubly so when it was heard without access to documents. But he was sick of the whole affair and was not anxious to be dragged into this embarrassing dispute between the lpn cover letters Quakers and the proprietary party. (40) When Johnson asked Teedyuscung to chicago essay prepare a reply (a written copy was given to him) and to have it put into egyptian art essay, writing (thus affording him full opportunity to chicago footnotes essay book consult with his Quaker advisors), his reply was: Brother, Please to conclusion hear me what I am going to say.

What pass'd yesterday, neither I, nor my people understood it, as no one interpreted what was said. Brother, now you tell me you have orders from the King to see Justice done me. Brother, about five years ago, when Mr. Croghan was here, He had orders to see Justice done to me: now I desire as he did, for essay in a He went away, and did nothing at new graduate all. Brother, I desire you'll let me have the Writings which were read yesterday, that I may have time to Consider of them, as We did not understand what was read. I told you another Thing, which was, to let me have a Clerk, to write down what I have to say.

This is the request of Us all. Footnotes. Brother, I desire all my Brethren to attend to what I say. I do not Speak this only from conclusion my Mouth, but from my heart. (A. Wallace 247) (41) Teedyuscung decided the forces against him were too powerful, and he declared: I did not come to have a Difference, but to Settle matters upon a good Footing. I did not come to put my hand into your Purse, or to get Cloathing. I give up the style essay Land to you, and the white People (A. Wallace 249).

The next day he delivered a document in which he relinquished all of his accusations and his claims to land: . Essay. as to the Walk, the Proprietary-Commissioners insist that it was reasonably performed; but We think otherwise: which Difference in opinion may happen without either of chicago footnotes book, Us being bad Men; but this is a matter that Brethren ought not to differ about. Wherefore, being desirous of living in peace and mtel essay Friendship with our Brothers the Proprietaries, and the good People of Pennsylvania, We bury under Ground all Controversies about Land; and are ready, such of us as are hear, to Sign a Release for all the Lands in Dispute; and will Endeavour to to persuade the rest of style essay in a, our Brethren who are concerned, to the myth Sign the same. (A. Wallace 249) The Delaware Indians (Lenni Lenape) A People Displaced by style in a Trickery. (42) Removing the Delawares from their prime hunting grounds in Pennsylvania was not the essay lord tennyson result of the style book forces of nature, but rather it was through conscious choices, calculated alliances made secretly and under false pretenses, conspiratorial effort, collaboration with witnesses, a deceptive map, and of michigan essay falsified reports. Following the initial contact with white settlers, no event in style in a book, Delaware history is as significant at the Walking Purchase. To understand this resistance, it is university ann arbor necessary to look at the history of chicago in a, these Native Indians.

(43) The Lenni Lenape or Woapanachke (people living toward the rising sun) were called the Delawares by Europeans after the Virginians named Delaware Bay in mtel essay, honor of Governor Sir Thomas West, the footnotes essay in a third Lord de la Warr. They lived in small groups of about forty people and foraged for food; with the new graduate lpn cover exception of corn, they raised very few agricultural foodstuffs, preferring to fish, hunt, and chicago footnotes essay in a book gather in season. This social and economic organization resulted in of sisyphus essay, a smaller population compared to the more sedentary, centralized groups such as the essay book Iroquois. (44) In 1600 their territory extended from the Delaware Bay to the Blue Mountain and from the belonging questions Atlantic coast to the Delaware-Susquehanna watershed. Their lands included most of the present state of Delaware, all of footnotes in a, New Jersey south of the Raritan River, and, in Pennsylvania, the Delaware River drainage area south of the Blue Mountain. They were willing to give access, first to the Dutch and Swedes and later to the English, to specified lands in egyptian art essay conclusion, exchange for desirable goods (such as cloth, axes, beads), but they never intended to give up these lands. Land transfers were ambiguous; documents marked by the Delawares conveyed to all who could read them that they had given up, abandoned, and renounced forever their claim to the land. The Delawares neither read the documents nor understood the legal terms if they were interpreted for them, so they had a different view of these transactions. These differences in perception resulted in tragic miscommunications, e.g., the style footnotes essay Walking Purchase. (45) At first contact, the Delawares recognized the superiority of the belonging questions white man's tools: axes and hoes, needles and kettles, and, most importantly, firearms.

They soon found themselves dependent on the white man's good for comfort as well as survival. By 1682 when the first colonists under William Penn's charter reached Pennsylvania, the style essay in a book Delawares for two generations had been engaged in egyptian art essay conclusion, the most lucrative trade goodsfurs, such as beaver, fox, otter, mink, deer, etc. In order to buy what they needed, the Delawares devoted their best energies to hunting. When their own territory was exhausted, they went farther afield and came into conflict with hunters of other tribes, e.g., the Iroquois. (46) In 1682 the Delawares occupied the southeastern Pennsylvania, but their overlords were the style book Five Nations, the mtel essay Iroquois Confederacy, whose homeland was in chicago footnotes in a, upstate New York. After the Iroquois defeated the Susquehannocks in western Pennsylvania in 1675, they set their sights on mtel essay the Delawares' land. Style Footnotes. As part of the Five Nations, the new graduate lpn cover Iroquois were a more powerful force than the Delawares. To obtain a better share of the fur trade, the Iroquois joined forces with the chicago style in a book French against the English. At the Easton Treaty of 1758, the Iroquois joined forces with Pennsylvania to make peace for the Delawares over their heads and brought the Indian war in egyptian, Pennsylvania to an end. Ultimately, the style essay book Delawares were removed from egyptian art essay conclusion their lands. (47) These early inhabitants of Pennsylvania were a people endowed with some of the noblest traits.

There were no feudal laws or privileges for the benefit of the fewall had equal rights to chicago style footnotes in a the lands, to the game, and to the fruits of the earth without any restriction or limitation whatsoever. They were astonished at the white settlers' desire for land; for them it had no particular value except as it benefited everyone. Thus Thomas and John Penn found it easy to take advantage of them. Taking their favorite hunting grounds by the Walking Purchase hoax stirred them to fight with a determined resistance, provoking Governor John Penn to go to war against them. The Delawares who were concerned with the Walk by which they were so grossly wronged deserve a tribute to their memory -- Lapowinsa, Nutimas, Sassoonan, Teedyuscung, and Tishcohan. (48) Lappowinzo was the chief orator at mtel essay the 1735 Treaty with John and Thomas Penn; he signed the release of Delaware lands stipulated in the forged 1686 agreement. He voiced his dissatisfaction with the outcome of the style footnotes in a book Walk and complained that it was not fairly performed. (49) Nutimas raised objections about the increasing encroachments of white settlers at a meeting with Thomas Penn in 1733 on matters related to hsc english creative writing land. He became the protagonist of the Delawares who opposed acceptance of the style footnotes essay book Walking Purchase confirmation deed. When he learned of the results of the Walk, he attached his name to a complaint in new graduate lpn cover letters, 1740.

As a result, when he and footnotes essay book other Delawares went to Philadelphia in 1742 to hsc english belonging creative questions attend a council with Governor Thomas, Thomas instigated an Iroquois chief to grossly insult the Delawares and ordered them from the lands they occupied. (50) Sassoonan first saw William Penn in May 1683 when Penn negotiated the land purchases made later that year; he signed the chicago footnotes book 1728 deed that confirmed all of Penn's land purchases. He was unaware that white settlers would eventually force his people from their hunting. Thomas Penn made sure Sassoonan was not present for the signing of the art essay conclusion Walking Purchase release. (51) Teedyuscung is noted for his long and arduous efforts to regain the lands belonging to his people; his ordeal ended with his murder in 1763 by land-hungry settlers. Chicago Footnotes Essay. His role in the 1762 Walking Purchase case was complicated by the Quaker faction's efforts to use him to create a controversy over the proceedings.

(52) Tishcohan complained to the government in Philadelphia in 1734 and was summoned to a meeting with John and Thomas Penn where he formally lodged a protest with the proprietors, alluding particularly to one white man who had settled north of the Lehigh on the pretense that the Penns had given him permission this they could not allow; they had not sold the land. The Penns evaded the issue by producing the forged 1686 document. Tishcohan signed the release for the Walking Purchase. White Conspirators Selfish Motives. (53) Colonial mediators engaged in negotiations and dealings with the conclusion Delawares bore little resemblance to William Penn's benevolent blueprint.

They never shed prejudices that Europeans brought to America; instead, they embraced the idea that getting along with the Indians was only a necessary step on the road to footnotes in a book a future when those Indians would follow the forest into writing questions, oblivion. No provincial go-between could resist the land fever that afflicted British America, and none could deny the temptation to play on chicago style footnotes essay in a book the Delewares' trust to acquire more, such as George Crogan (a trader), Conrad Weiser (an interpreter), William Allen (a land speculator), and James Logan (a Pennsylvania official). (54) George Crogan was the the myth of sisyphus essay most successful of the many traders in Pennsylvania who negotiated with the Delawares for furs. Arriving in America in chicago book, 1741, he quickly sought and gained the moral and financial support of the wealthy merchants and university ann arbor essay colonial officials of Philadelphia. He set up trading houses in essay in a, Lancaster and into the Ohio Valley with commodities such as rum, guns, gun powder, lead, flints, tomahawks, vermilion, blanketing, linen and calicoes, wampum, lace, thread, ready-made clothing, knives, brass and tin kettles, axes, traps, looking glasses, rings and silver jewelry of all kinds in exchange for skins and furs that he sold to both colonial and hsc english belonging questions British merchants. As early as three years after his arrival, he purchased 1200 acres of land in style footnotes in a, Harper's Ferry, Pennsylvania; in essay lord tennyson, 1768 he received 100,000 acres in the Fort Stanwyx land lottery. (55) Was his main focus on fair trade with the Indians?

According to Merrill, to advance his friendship with the Delawares, he learned their language, customs, and traits of character; most importantly, he regarded them as human beings (44-45). But his questionable acquisition of Indian lands and rapid rise to power belie this reading. In 1756 he was appointed Deputy Superintendent for Indian Affairs for the Crown and served at the Easton Council of the chicago style footnotes essay book Six Nations in 1762 and was instrumental in the settlement of the Delaware dispute about the Walking Purchaseto the detriment of the Delawares. (56) Conrad Weiser's appetite for land was not as acute as was George Crogan's, but he too constantly pressed Indians to surrender more territory. He began his life in Pennsylvania as a squatter in the myth of sisyphus essay, the Delawares' Tulpehocken domain and went on to a career that earned him substantial grants from chicago in a friendly Indians and grateful proprietors. His methods of land acquisition included bribery, secret deals, and unleashing squatters on Indian lands. The Delawares regarded him as one of the world's greatest thieves. Essay On Alfred. In the style footnotes book land rush, he did not envision, did not work toward, did not even want a world in which Indians and colonists could co-existquite the contrary; his greatest fear was that the Europeans and Indians would mingle. He served as the interpreter for new graduate lpn cover letters the Delawares at the Easton Council of the Six Nations in 1762 and chicago style footnotes essay in a book collaborated with the proprietaries to make sure Teedyuscung, the Delaware representative, was plied with enough liquor to keep him inebriated. (57) William Allen, a wealthy, eminent merchant in Philadelphia, gained favor with the the myth of sisyphus essay Penn brothers and made use of the power this liaison gave him to select and take only those lands that suited him.

He had little regard for Indian rights and claims. In 1727 he purchased thousands of acres of the best land above the Blue Mountains plus one tract of five thousand acres in 1735 at the present Nazareth and footnotes in a book three thousand acres in 1736 along the hsc english creative questions Lehigh River in and around the present Allentown. These tracts were purchased without any right or even the knowledge of the Indians. He carefully omitted the dates on which he received these grants when he sold them to purchasers; Thomas Penn certainly was aware of these transactions. Allen was mayor of Philadelphia in style footnotes essay in a book, 1735, a recorder from 1741 to 1750, and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1750 to mtel essay 1774. (58) James Logan, a shrewd and diplomatic provincial secretary, was the footnotes in a Penn family's executive in mtel essay, the province for much of the first half of the eighteenth century. With the authority vested in chicago footnotes book, him, no other single person (including William Penn himself) was more influential in Pennsylvania land policy.

Under his watch, Pennsylvania cleared land lying along the Delaware River northeast of Philadelphia of Delaware Indian claims. He made his fortune in land investments and trade with the Indians. He had a private financial interest in the Durham ironworks and settlement just south of the Lehigh and by 1737 he devised a scheme to take the forest land surrounding the ironworks from the university of michigan ann arbor questions Delawares. He had been the task of forging a permanent alliance between Pennsylvania and chicago style footnotes book the powerful Six Nations, but by alienating the Delawares he was threatening to do the province a double disservice. With a falsified map of the 1686 purchase, he persuaded the illiterate Indian owners that the lands around the ironworks were included in the 1686 agreement. (59) The chroniclers of history have portrayed these men as good examples of valorous forefathers in America's pre-Revolutionary War era, but delving deeper into their goals and performances reveals a different scenarionone of them regarded the Delawares as fellow human beings who rightfully owned the land on which they lived. Treaties and new graduate lpn cover letters Agreements White vs. Chicago Essay Book. Indian View. (60) Merrill notes that for treaties between Indians and proprietaries in Pennsylvania, ultimately all paths led to a clearing and all conversations to a councilold and wise People on both sides met in a National way by Treaties.

To forge or refurbish the chain of friendship (and when the chain broke in the 1750s), mere messengers would not suffice. A meeting of the great Delaware sachems and lpn cover the officials was paramount (253). (61) The Indian treaty was a form of literature with no single author. The Delawares suggested the rites and metaphors to be used, but they had to be adapted by the Pennsylvania officials. Nothing quite like the Indian treaties exists anywhere else in the literature of the world.

The Indian speakers live on in the actual words they spoke, face to face with their conquerors. The plain facts as the footnotes treaties presented them are alive with poetry no less than truth (Franklin xviii). (62) Benjamin Franklin printed the the myth essay proceedings of thirteen councils, thus providing a fascinating stage on which the peoples of early America acted out the chicago footnotes essay contest for continent. However, these minutes present a distorted view; the university ann arbor essay information on the printed page was the result of decisions by colonists who recorded the words spoken during a session and then altered them for publication. Thus omission, distortions, and deletions (some intentional, some not) crept into the published accounts. The written record did not cover an footnotes, important part of these meetings talks in the bushes were essential; the Delawares believed in the harmonious feeling nurtured over days or weeks, not on some piece of paper. The colonial record keeper missed much of what happened.

(63) Treaty councils changed over the course of the colonial era. Earlier congresses (usually held in Philadelphia) were small, drawing two- or three-dozen people, and the recorders barely sketched the new graduate negotiations. After 1720 when Pennsylvania's population expanded, assemblies took place in Lancaster or Easton with large numbers of Delawares and scores of colonists. Fuller written accounts of the speeches and rituals of the treaties were more common, but the key issues were the samepeace and war, trade and footnotes essay in a land. (64) Surrounded by the powerful French and English in art essay conclusion, the early part of the style footnotes essay in a eighteenth century, the Delawares were aware that only by remaining neutral could they survive in the face of immensely superior numbers and wealth. Therefore, at treaty after treaty, they made concessions only when it was absolutely necessary, looked out for the interests of the Indian trade and essay lord tennyson exacted or coaxed whatever they could in chicago style book, the way of goods and munitions given as peace-making presents. (65) The negotiators and mediators knew treaty culture bestfrom the council ground at midday to an Indian camp late at night to lpn cover a governor's chambers at sunriseand their job was to soothe frayed nerves and short tempers to achieve friendship from chicago essay in a book generation to generation, none of mtel essay, which checked colonial expansion or erased bitter memories of past crimes. Councils where colonists acquired land (often by shady means) helped pave the way for European invasion of the interior of Pennsylvania while adding to the bad memories. At the chicago essay in a end of the colonial period, the Pennsylvania officials and the Delawares, thoroughly disillusioned by mtel essay what treaties had wrought, were ready to give up on them.

The very instruments that could have promoted harmony were useful in keeping the Indians in chicago style footnotes essay book, the dark. If the Pennsylvania proprietaries' defense against essay on alfred tennyson charges of land fraud took several hours to chicago style deliver in English, the translator gave (in Delaware) only a brief synopsis of the proceedings. (66) By the 1760s, it was clear to mtel essay both the colonists and the Delawares that treaties could never truly unite the chicago essay in a two groups in the face of colonial expansion. After almost a century of treaties between William Penn's province and the Delawares, these gatherings, intended to egyptian conclusion bring them together, had essentially driven them apart. Understanding had ended in hatred.

After 1750, the Delawares were fully aware that treaties had been the means for colonists to acquire Indian landswithout the promised peace. (67) Negotiators George Crogan and chicago footnotes essay in a Conrad Weiser were less in demand as go-betweens by the 1770s; both men were disgusted by and disdainful of the Delawares. Even these two men, so skilled at crossing the cultural divide, limited how much they wanted to writing get along and how close they wished to come. Style Footnotes Essay In A. There was a deep divide between colonial and Indian worlds; instead of crossing that fault line, the negotiators personified and perpetuated it. It is no wonder the treaty culture failed. (68) The Walking Purchase fraud of 1737 is one of mtel essay, many attempts to justify the dispossession of indigenous peoples, beginning with the Roman Catholic church documents that sanctioned the Christian Crusades and continuing through Columbus's discovery of the New World and the colonial conquests in the New World. (69) Why was this event hidden for many years? The answer is revealing: American historians have attempted to keep a low profile on style in a the Walking Purchase because it was one of the most sordid pages in the myth essay, the records of chicago style footnotes book, Indian-white settle relationsmore so due to the involvement of the Founder of Pennsylvania's sons. The Delawares complained about the injustice of the Walking Purchase even before the university of michigan questions completion of the walk, but they were totally ignored. In 1742 while the dispossessed and style book insulted Delawares sought justice for the myth of sisyphus essay the loss of their lands, Pennsylvania officials worked to shade, twist, and finally bury the realities of the Walking Purchase.

In the beginning, it appeared to be only a small affair that lay chiefly between the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania and the Delawares, but in 1762 the incident became public knowledge when the Assembly of Pennsylvania (through their agent, Benjamin Franklin) brought the affair to the British Crown for investigation. (70) For the chicago style footnotes essay in a book next century, little attention was paid to this event until the Penn papers and memorabilia were given to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania in 1867. William J. Buck, a well known local historian, was given the task of cataloging the documents; he examined all the old deeds and documents pertaining to the Walking Purchase in great detail. Curious as to why the Penn family papers were so long withheld from the public, he noted that the records of lpn cover letters, Thomas Penn were missing from July 2, 1736 to November1738. He believed these papers were intentionally destroyed by the Penn family to style footnotes in a book conceal the mtel essay Walking Purchase fraud. (71) Buck examined the so-called Treaty of 1686 and noted that it was a crude forgery. Not only was William Penn's signature unlike Penn's well-known handwriting, but the terms of the treaty were ambiguous with a blank space to be filled in at a later date. Thomas Penn acknowledged that the 1686 Deed was a copy, but the original has never been found, nor was it ever recorded. (72) The consensus of historians through the first two centuries after the Walking Purchase occurred has been that the Delawares were passive victims, but more recent accounts show that they were active participants who influenced, shaped, and forged their destinies. Indeed they were conscious of the Walking Purchase fraud and chicago style footnotes essay in a complained about it from university of michigan ann arbor essay questions their first knowledge of it. Their vicious attacks on the Pennsylvania frontier beginning in 1756 are the direct result of those unresolved complaints.

Buck, William J. History of the Indian Walk . Printed for the Author, 1886. Cribbs, George Arthur. The Frontier Policy of Pennsylvania . Pittsburgh, PA, 1919. Harper, Steven Craig. Promised Land: The Holy Experiment and the Walking Purchase. Ph.D.

Dissertation. Lehigh University, 2001. Indian Treaties Printed by Benjamin Franklin: 1736-1762 . Chicago Style Footnotes Essay In A. Philadelphia: Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1938. Jennings, Francis. The Scandalous Indian Policy of William Penn's Sons: Deeds and Documents of the Walking Purchase. Conclusion. Pennsylvania History 37 (1970): 19-39. Merrell, James H. In A. Into the American Woods: Negotiators on the Pennsylvania Frontier . New York: W.W.

Norton Co., 1999. Soderlund, Jean R., ed. Of Sisyphus. William Penn and the Founding of Pennsylvania 1680-1684 . Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1983. Thompson, Ray. The Walking Purchase Hoax of 1737 . Style Footnotes Book. Fort Washington: Bicentennial Press, 1973. Wallace, Anthony F.C. King of the Delawares: Teedyuscung 1700-1763 . New York: Syracuse UP, 1990.

Wallace, Paul A. Indians in Pennsylvania . Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1991.