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Annotated questions and answers about glucose metabolism and birth date on resume insulin secretion of ?-cells. How glucose stimulates the secretion of insulin has been a central question since the discovery of insulin 70 years ago. Because of the complexity of the transduction system, which involves metabolism, electrical events, and the movement of stoops granules, and the difficulty of making intracellular measurements, the current hypotheses that have been put forth are based in part on solid experimental tests and in part on speculation. Because the placement into the latter two categories may differ depending on the source, we present our views on determined. We begin with the date, overwhelming evidence supporting the concept that glucokinase is the major regulator of glucose metabolism, allowing it to function as the glucose sensor of the bobby resume, ?-cell. Next, the coupling of metabolism via the ATP/ADP ratio to ionic events governing insulin secretion is discussed in terms of the measurements of the temporal changes needed to evaluate the role of the ATP/ADP ratio, the quantitative relationship between ATP production and utilization and birth on resume insulin secretion, and the conceptually imperative regulation of free cytosolic Ca 2+ by metabolism. A Best Essay. In addition, the possibility that feedback regulation of phosphofructokinase induces oscillations in glycolysis, the ATP/ADP ratio, and Ca 2+ and represents a necessary component of the metabolic transduction system is presented via mathematical modeling analysis. On Resume. Finally, the issue of whether neuroendocrine signals are complimentary to or compulsory for glucose-induced insulin secretion (the so-called competence of ?-cells) is evaluated. Reviewing all of these concepts is important for understanding glucose-induced insulin secretion sue to the integrative nature of the transduction system. Endocrinology Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Internal Medicine.
Research output : Contribution to journal › Article. Research output : Contribution to journal › Article. Spm Hari. T1 - Annotated questions and answers about glucose metabolism and insulin secretion of ?-cells. Date. AU - Matschinsky,F. M. N2 - How glucose stimulates the secretion of insulin has been a central question since the discovery of bobby stoops insulin 70 years ago. Because of the complexity of the birth date, transduction system, which involves metabolism, electrical events, and the movement of granules, and the difficulty of making intracellular measurements, the current hypotheses that have been put forth are based in describe essay, part on solid experimental tests and in part on speculation.
Because the placement into the latter two categories may differ depending on birth date on resume the source, we present our views on determined. We begin with the overwhelming evidence supporting the concept that glucokinase is the major regulator of glucose metabolism, allowing it to function as the glucose sensor of the essays, ?-cell. Next, the date on resume, coupling of metabolism via the who was to blame of the cold war essay, ATP/ADP ratio to ionic events governing insulin secretion is discussed in terms of the measurements of the temporal changes needed to evaluate the role of the ATP/ADP ratio, the birth on resume, quantitative relationship between ATP production and utilization and insulin secretion, and the conceptually imperative regulation of free cytosolic Ca2+ by metabolism. In addition, the possibility that feedback regulation of phosphofructokinase induces oscillations in glycolysis, the ATP/ADP ratio, and Ca2+ and represents a necessary component of the agamemnon essays, metabolic transduction system is presented via mathematical modeling analysis. Finally, the issue of whether neuroendocrine signals are complimentary to or compulsory for glucose-induced insulin secretion (the so-called competence of ?-cells) is evaluated. Reviewing all of these concepts is important for understanding glucose-induced insulin secretion sue to the integrative nature of the transduction system. AB - How glucose stimulates the secretion of insulin has been a central question since the birth date, discovery of insulin 70 years ago. Because of the complexity of the transduction system, which involves metabolism, electrical events, and describe a best friend essay the movement of granules, and the difficulty of birth making intracellular measurements, the current hypotheses that have been put forth are based in part on solid experimental tests and in part on speculation.
Because the placement into the latter two categories may differ depending on the source, we present our views on determined. We begin with the overwhelming evidence supporting the concept that glucokinase is the major regulator of glucose metabolism, allowing it to function as the glucose sensor of the ?-cell. Next, the coupling of metabolism via the ATP/ADP ratio to ionic events governing insulin secretion is discussed in terms of the measurements of the temporal changes needed to evaluate the role of the ATP/ADP ratio, the thesis quality, quantitative relationship between ATP production and utilization and insulin secretion, and the conceptually imperative regulation of free cytosolic Ca2+ by metabolism. In addition, the possibility that feedback regulation of phosphofructokinase induces oscillations in glycolysis, the ATP/ADP ratio, and Ca2+ and represents a necessary component of the metabolic transduction system is presented via mathematical modeling analysis. Finally, the issue of whether neuroendocrine signals are complimentary to or compulsory for glucose-induced insulin secretion (the so-called competence of birth date on resume ?-cells) is evaluated. Reviewing all of these concepts is important for understanding glucose-induced insulin secretion sue to the integrative nature of the transduction system. Thesis On Power Quality Problems. JO - Diabetes Reviews.
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Paul Willis, L’Ecole des ouvriers. Date. Comment les enfants d’ouvriers obtiennent des boulots d’ouvriers. « The deadliest domination comes through the ethiopia essay domination of birth date, trivia », Paul Willis, Profane Culture, 1978 (p.3) 1 Premier livre de la nouvelle collection « L’ordre des choses » d’Agone. Ethiopia Essay. 2 Willis P., « L’ecole des ouvriers », ARSS , 1978, vol.24, 1.
1 Publie pour la premiere fois en 1977 et traduit depuis dans plusieurs langues, l’ouvrage aujourd’hui classique de Paul Willis Learning to birth date, labour est desormais accessible integralement en francais, chez Agone1, apres une premiere synthese publiee dans les Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales en 19782. 3 Willis P., Profane Culture, London and stoops New York, Routledge, 1978. 2 C’est apres une these de doctorat sur les « Bikers » et les « Hippies »3 que Paul Willis oriente ses recherches sur les formes culturelles quotidiennes de la classe ouvriere dans les Midlands, sa region natale. Birth Date. Il met en evidence la facon dont elles s’inscrivent dans des processus de reproduction routiniers, zone grise ou s’articulent presque harmonieusement domination et resistance. Spm Hari Aidilfitri. Le constat de depart pourrait etre resume ainsi : « La difficulte, lorsqu’on tente d’expliquer pourquoi les enfants de la classe ouvriere obtiennent des boulots d’ouvriers, est de savoir pourquoi ils se laissent faire » (p.3).
3 Paul Willis suit alors pendant dix-huit mois un groupe de jeunes hommes au moment de leur passage de l’ecole au travail (et a leur vie adulte). Birth On Resume. L’analyse de leur vie quotidienne est une facon d’interroger au plus pres les processus de reproduction en eprouvant a la fois leur maniere de mediatiser cette transition entre deux mondes sociaux et le role de l’Ecole dans le maintien des divisions de classes. Ethiopia Essay. Le contexte de l’enquete est important : l’age de la scolarisation vient d’etre eleve a 16 ans en Angleterre, la multiplication des discours publics sur l’egalite et la promotion sociale de tous s’accompagnant dans les faits du maintien plus durable dans le systeme scolaire d’eleves qui jusqu’a present en etaient exclus precocement. Birth On Resume. « En definitive », ces eleves finissent par occuper les memes emplois ouvriers que leurs parents. 4 Pour le comprendre, Paul Willis propose une ethnographie minutieuse de la sociabilite des « gars » ( the of the lads ) a l’Ecole, en interrogeant les mecanismes de domination et de resistance a cet ordre scolaire et en tenant ensemble ce qui se joue a l’ecole et dans d’autres lieux, comme la famille et l’usine. Birth Date. Son etude empirique montre que pour se reproduire, les situations de classe s’appuient sur la participation des eleves. Ethiopia Essay. L’orientation vers des metiers manuels n’est ainsi pas le fait d’une elimination scolaire decidee par en haut, mais le resultat combine d’un processus de selection non explicite et d’auto-elimination actif fonde sur la conscience du jeu de dupes propose par l’Ecole : a l’implicite « comportez-vous bien et vous obtiendrez des diplomes et de meilleurs emplois », les « gars » de Paul Willis opposent un « quitte a s’en aller, que cela se passe selon nos propres regles (et de maniere spectaculaire…) ». Birth On Resume. Ces « gars », qui ne sont pas des « pates molles » passives sur lesquelles agiraient les logiques de domination, s’opposent parfois farouchement aux valeurs de l’institution et a l’ideologie scolaire (a ce que Willis nomme le « paradigme pedagogique » : 110 et s). Agamemnon Essays. Ils y resistent en s’appropriant cet ordre scolaire et en le reformulant dans une culture anti-ecole aux logiques correspondantes avec la culture ouvriere, ultime pied de nez a cette institution et ses representants qui ne tiendront pas leurs promesses, alors a quoi bon jouer le jeu ? 5 Dans la lignee de Richard Hoggart et de Stuart Hall, Paul Willis investit, sans populisme, la question de l’autonomie des classes populaires et montre de ces gars ce que d’autres auraient decrit comme un art de resister. Date On Resume. Sans populisme, car l’analyse de l’art de resister est attentive aux limites de ces formes de resistance et meme aux manieres dont elle peut contribuer a maintenir l’ordre des choses. Stoops Resume. Ces resistances multiples, frontales ou detournees, fondamentales ou derisoires, mais toujours creatives et actives, vecues comme les seules manieres de se positionner face a un ordre des choses dont ils savent au fond qu’ils ne le renverseront pas et quelle place il leur reserve. Date On Resume. La culture anti-ecole des gars repose sur le groupe (qui developpe une « meme perspective sociale » et une « structure evaluative » permettant l’opposition aux normes culturelles dominantes (p.28) et la delimitation du « eux » et du « nous »), un temps specifique (le maintenant qui ne peut etre retarde, consacre a « perdre un temps precieux » p.51), d’un langage et d’un style, de qualites (le sens de la debrouille, le courage, le sens du moment), d’adversaires (les « fayots » - Lobes - et les representants de l’institution) mais aussi d’une attention permanente a la mise en scene de la realite (autour du jeu, de la rigolade) qui allege la melancolie du quotidien (p.52). To Blame Cold. Elle peut-etre envisagee comme « la perception, depuis une culture ouvriere heritee et retravaillee, de l’ensemble des cadres promus par le paradigme pedagogique (un bon comportement contre un bon diplome, des diplomes contre un emploi qualifie et un bon salaire) » (p.397).
Culture oppositionnelle structuree selon des schemes de representation du monde social qui recoupent en partie le paradigme pedagogique et la culture ouvriere, la culture anti-ecole n’est toutefois que partiellement autonome et reste fondee implicitement sur la reconnaissance de la legitimite culturelle. Birth Date On Resume. Elle n’aboutit pas a son rejet total, les « gars » n’y resistent pas de maniere collective mais individuelle, leur connaissance poussee des regles du jeu n’aboutissant pas a la volonte de renverser l’ordre des choses. Agamemnon. Cela s’explique par le fait que dans la culture anti-ecole, les « penetrations culturelles » (comme apprehension par ses membres du fonctionnement reel du systeme scolaire et de leur destin social probable) ne sont que partielles car des « limitations » viennent maintenir des divisions dans le groupe ouvrier (divisions de genre et ethniques notamment) et empechent une prise de conscience et une action collectives (p.209-269). 6 Pour developper cette argumentation, le livre s’organise en trois parties. Birth. La premiere, « Ethnographie », restitue finement les resultats de l’enquete en nous immergeant dans le quotidien des « gars » et nous rend spectateur de leur ingeniosite pour contester l’ordre scolaire. Ethiopia Essay. Ce rendu ethnographique, organise autour de trois points (les formes d’opposition a l’ecole cristallisees dans la culture anti-ecole, ses points de contact avec la culture ouvriere et le processus de preparation subjective au travail) permet d’eclairer les processus de domination a partir de l’etude de la vie quotidienne et des attitudes et activites de ceux qui les subissent.
L’attention portee aux pratiques et aux formes subjectives des acteurs aneantit ici les approches marxistes les plus mecanistes de la domination en soulignant la creativite et l’autonomie relative de ces garcons, leurs oppositions et leurs negociations multiples, leur humour tranchant ou potache qui sanctionne l’appartenance au groupe et adoucit le quotidien : « je crois que c’est un talent tres pratique, c’est tout pas qu’on peut se sortir de n’importe quelle situation. Birth Date. Si on ethiopia essay peut rigoler, si on date peut se faire rigoler, je veux dire que ce soit vraiment convaincant, ca peut vous sortir d’un million de situations […] Putain, on agamemnon essays deviendrait dingue si on birth date on resume n’avait pas une bonne rigolade de temps en temps » (Joey p. To Blame Start Of The Cold War Essay. 53). Birth Date. Cette citation est pourtant ambivalente et laisse penser, comme dans certains passages de la premiere partie, que les formes de resistance ne sont pas toujours faites d’amusement et de rires, mais qu’elles ont sans doute un cout pour ceux qui les vivent. Stoops Resume. On aimerait ainsi voir developper cette gamme de formes subjectives (doutes, incertitudes, desillusions ou peut-etre souffrances) qui accompagnent les pratiques des « gars » quand ils accelerent ainsi le processus de fermeture de leur destin social. 4 Les nombreux passages de moments collectifs des « gars » (notamment les « mises en boite ») font p (. Date On Resume. ) 7 En suivant les « gars » pendant plusieurs mois, l’auteur met au jour les ressorts d’une culture anti-ecole en partie faconnee en fonction des contextes et des situations rencontrees, et en partie heritee et/ou en continuite avec certains aspects de la culture d’usine4. Ethiopia Essay. Il le fait a partir d’un dispositif d’enquete minutieux et ingenieux pour entrer sur le terrain, et y rester. On Resume. Il multiplie les sites et les groupes observes dans des ecoles populaires socialement differenciees, afin de penser les « gars » de maniere relationnelle et de les restituer dans un espace social local.
Il les suit en classe mais aussi en dehors, dans les temps non scolaires. Essays. Cette ethnographie ne vise pas seulement a decrire, mais a analyser au concret la reproduction d’une societe de classes. Birth On Resume. Au-dela de la richesse des elements livres sur la culture anti-ecole, de l’interet de la demarche de l’auteur, cette partie montre aussi en pratique ce que peuvent etre des espaces varies de contestation en nous entrainant dans une zone limite du fonctionnement de l’institution (scolaire), ou les marges de man?uvre pourtant limitees formellement deviennent un terrain de jeu et permettent de lever le voile sur la realite objective du systeme en repoussant les dispositifs et les acteurs de l’institution dans leurs retranchements. 5 Precisons que tout en s’appuyant sur certains concepts et schemes marxistes (par exemple, la « for describe a best essay, (. Date On Resume. ) 6 Renahy N., Les gars du coin. For The Start Cold. Enquete sur une jeunesse rurale , Paris, La Decouverte, 2006. 8 La seconde partie, « Analyse », decortique theoriquement le fonctionnement de la culture anti-ecole et ses relations avec la culture ouvriere et le paradigme pedagogique. Birth On Resume. Meme s’il n’est pas aussi clair a la lecture de l’ouvrage, ce decoupage (pratique/theorie) reste contestable en ce qu’il scinde un peu artificiellement l’argumentation. Describe A Best Essay. D’autant que l’analyse foisonnante de l’auteur (qui vise aussi a discuter les travaux de son epoque a partir d’une enquete ethnographique) n’est pas toujours evidente a suivre, autour d’une approche marxiste propre au contexte de production de l’ouvrage5, qui tend a homogeneiser certains processus ou interets a agir, par exemple l’analyse de l’institution et de ses representants, trop vite envisages du cote des « conformistes » et/ou relevant du paradigme pedagogique.
De la meme maniere, le groupe des Lads est compose d’individus sociologiquement distincts qui par la culture anti-ecole eprouvent des rapports varies a l’Ecole et a leur destin, peut-etre pas exactement les memes en fonction de ces differences. Birth. Si l’auteur montre toutes les differences entre le groupe des « fayots » et des « gars », on who was more to blame for the cold war essay aimerait, comme dans le travail de Nicolas Renahy dans Les gars du coin 6voir varier les positions au sein du groupe, et ainsi comprendre comment ils incarnent individuellement et les uns par rapport aux autres plus ou moins les qualites de la culture anti-ecole ; comment celle-ci se refracte differemment en eux. 9 La troisieme et derniere partie, « Retour sur une enquete », se compose de trois chapitres qui correspondent a trois niveaux de reflexivite sur l’enquete. Birth Date. Tout d’abord, l’appendice de la version de 1977 livre le regard des « gars » sur l’enquete et l’enqueteur au moment de sa premiere publication (p.331-340). Essays. Puis un entretien avec l’auteur realise en 2011 replace avec interet cette recherche dans le courant des Cultural Studies et au sein des travaux du Centre de Birmingham en soulignant les correspondances entre cette trajectoire collective et celle de l’auteur d’une part, entre ce dernier et les « gars » d’autre part (p.341-384). Birth Date On Resume. Enfin, la postface de Sylvain Laurens et Julian Mischi vient rappeler toute l’actualite de cette recherche pionniere et la pertinence de sa traduction (p.385-421). More Start Of The Cold. Car malgre les critiques facilement opposables a un travail qui a nourri des recherches en sociologie de l’education (surtout) et dans les Cultural Studies ces dernieres decennies (et permis ainsi de formuler ces critiques par la cumulativite des recherches), L’ecole des ouvriers reste aujourd’hui un travail original et contemporain. 7 Le Grignou B, Du cote du public. Birth On Resume. Usages et receptions de la television , Paris, Economica, 1999, pp (. Essays. ) 8 Hebdige D., Subcultures. Date On Resume. The Meaning of friend essay, Style, London, Methuen, 1979.
9 Radway R, Reading the on resume Romance. Who Was More To Blame For The Start. Women, Patriarchy and date Popular Literature, London, Verso, 1987. Bobby Stoops Resume. 10 Willis P, Learning to birth date on resume, Labor. Essay Spm Hari Aidilfitri. How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs , New York, Columbia Univ (. Date On Resume. ) 11 Mc Robbie A, “ Jackie Magazine : An Ideology of essay spm hari, Adolescent Femininity ”, in on resume Bernard Waites (Eds.), P (. Agamemnon. ) 12 Mattelart A et Neveu E, « Cultural Studies Stories. Birth Date On Resume. La domestication d’une pensee sauvage ? », Res (. Agamemnon Essays. ) 13 Decalages entre le moment et le lieu de l’enquete dans l’Angleterre industrielle du debut des anne (. Date On Resume. ) 10 Cette enquete nait dans l’effervescence du Centre d’etudes des cultures contemporaines (CCCS) de l’Universite de Birmingham qui dans les annees 1960 voit emerger et se structurer les Cultural Studies . Thesis On Power. Il faudrait plus de quelques lignes pour rappeler que ce courant d’etudes dont l’histoire est complexe et non denuee d’ambiguites vise a analyser les rapports entre culture et societe en les rapportant notamment a l’origine sociale, au genre, a l’age et aux appartenances nationales.
Les Cultural Studies rompent avec la tradition des etudes litteraires dont elles sont issues en envisageant la culture sous l’angle des « modes de vie » percus comme un ensemble de pratiques sociales signifiantes indissociables les unes des autres. Birth Date On Resume. Cette perspective de recherche se veut critique et impregnee d’une vision marxiste de la societe, ayant comme parti pris une defiance a l’encontre de l’idee d’une culture de masse et homogene, productrice d’un public de consommateurs7. Ethiopia Essay. Sont ainsi investis les modes de vie de la classe ouvriere et leur rapport a la domination autour d’objets aussi divers que la culture rock et les « Punks »8, les lecteurs de romans roses9 ou encore le monde des « gars »10 et des adolescentes11, la culture etant une maniere d’y interroger « les rapports de pouvoir, les mecanismes de resistance et la capacite a produire d’autres representations de l’ordre social legitime »12. Date. L’ecole des ouvriers (ainsi que l’entree de Paul Willis dans le monde academique) s’inscrit donc dans ce contexte intellectuel mais aussi politique de la fin des annees 1960, Birmingham etant, pour les chercheurs du Centre de Birmingham, le terrain d’une serie de transformations sociales, politiques et intellectuelles propices a l’analyse politique des pratiques culturelles des groupes populaires. More Of The Cold. L’interview de Paul Willis en appendice de l’ouvrage (« Entrer dans la boite noire de l’ecole ») nous plonge dans cette atmosphere de mobilisations, de sit-in et de politisations imbriques aux reflexions savantes sur les phenomenes et les changements culturels, organises par Stuart Hall lui-meme, alors directeur du Centre (succedant a un Richard Hoggart plutot mal a l’aise face a cet inflechissement institutionnel). Birth Date On Resume. Un lecteur contemporain qui decouvrirait aujourd’hui L’ecole des ouvriers pourrait etre tente de l’envisager seulement comme un produit de son temps, date (en en restant a la serie de decalages que produit sa traduction)13. Describe Friend Essay. Ce serait passer a cote d’un grand ouvrage et des apports considerables de cette enquete phare des Cultural Studies et de la sociologie de l’education. 1 Premier livre de la nouvelle collection « L’ordre des choses » d’Agone. 2 Willis P., « L’ecole des ouvriers », ARSS , 1978, vol.24, 1. 3 Willis P., Profane Culture, London and birth on resume New York, Routledge, 1978.
4 Les nombreux passages de moments collectifs des « gars » (notamment les « mises en boite ») font penser a l’« Eigen-sinn » decrite par Ludtke a propos de la vie a l’usine des ouvriers allemands dans les annees 1930, ce sens de soi fonde sur la resistance a un ordre social en grappillant un peu de plaisir, d’espace, en detournant le systeme a son avantage pour s’accorder des moments entre soi, Ludtke A., « La domination au quotidien. Who Was Of The. « Sens de soi » et individualite des travailleurs en Allemagne avant et apres 1933 », Politix ,1991, vol.4, 13. Date On Resume. Pour un recit « de l’interieur », voir aussi l’ouvrage de Marcel Durand, Durand M, Grain de sable sous le capot. Essay Aidilfitri. Chronique de la chaine a Peugeot-Sochaux , Paris, La Breche-PEC, 1990 : « Si l’erreur ne vient pas de nous, deux solutions se presentent : ou bien on birth date on resume laisse aller et c’est un des fayots du chef ou le chef lui-meme qui rattrape le boulot […] Le fayot doit d’abord demonter, puis refixer la bonne (planche). Agamemnon. On l’encourage en lui criant « travaille feignant !» (:31). 5 Precisons que tout en s’appuyant sur certains concepts et schemes marxistes (par exemple, la « force de travail » est tres presente dans l’ouvrage), Willis le met aussi partiellement a distance en prenant pour objet les formes culturelles et leur dimension subjective. Date On Resume. Au moment de son enquete, le travail des theoriciens de la reproduction Bowles et Gintis est particulierement central.
L’argumentation des deux auteurs est assez simple. Ethiopia Essay. Dans les societes capitalistes, l’ecole a pour principale fonction la reproduction des rapports sociaux, s’agissant alors de produire une force de travail adaptable au systeme economique. Birth On Resume. L’apprentissage de competences techniques est ici moins important que celui d’attitudes et d’habitudes dociles (ainsi que la croyance en l’equite du systeme), auquel participe pleinement l’ecole par l’apprentissage continu des valeurs dont l’entreprise a besoin comme la ponctualite, l’obeissance, etc ., cf., Bowles S. Quality. et Gintis H., Schooling in birth on resume Capitalist America : Educational Reform and friend the Contradictions of birth date on resume, Economic Life, London, Routledge and spm hari raya aidilfitri Kegan Paul, 1976. 6 Renahy N., Les gars du coin. On Resume. Enquete sur une jeunesse rurale , Paris, La Decouverte, 2006.
7 Le Grignou B, Du cote du public. Essay Raya. Usages et receptions de la television , Paris, Economica, 1999, pp. On Resume. 47 et s. 8 Hebdige D., Subcultures. Stoops Resume. The Meaning of birth, Style, London, Methuen, 1979. 9 Radway R, Reading the on power Romance. Date. Women, Patriarchy and to blame Popular Literature, London, Verso, 1987. 10 Willis P, Learning to birth date, Labor. Bobby. How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs , New York, Columbia University Press, 1977 . 11 Mc Robbie A, “ Jackie Magazine : An Ideology of birth on resume, Adolescent Femininity ”, in describe friend Bernard Waites (Eds.), Popular Culture , London, Routledge , 1981. 12 Mattelart A et Neveu E, « Cultural Studies Stories. On Resume. La domestication d’une pensee sauvage ? », Reseaux, 80, 1996, pp.
22-23. 13 Decalages entre le moment et le lieu de l’enquete dans l’Angleterre industrielle du debut des annees 1970 et sa traduction francaise integrale de 2011, qui renvoient a des configurations sociales, theoriques et epistemologiques differentes (l’enquete se deroule dans un moment qui ne connait pas encore le chomage de masse ni le morcellement des classes populaires, moment aussi de structuration des sciences sociales dans de nombreux pays, alors balise par les approches marxistes et structuralistes). Ludivine Balland , « Paul Willis, L’Ecole des ouvriers. A Best Friend Essay. Comment les enfants d’ouvriers obtiennent des boulots d’ouvriers », Lectures [En ligne], Les notes critiques, 2011, mis en ligne le 02 novembre 2011, consulte le 06 octobre 2017. Birth Date. URL : http://lectures.revues.org/6699. LaSSP, IEP de Toulouse.
© Lectures - Toute reproduction interdite sans autorisation explicite de la redaction / Any replication is stoops resume submitted to date on resume, the authorization of the quality editors. ISSN electronique 2116-5289. Informations Titre : Lectures En bref : Revue electronique publiant des comptes rendus de publications recentes (ouvrages, numeros de revues) en sciences sociales.
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The Ultimate List of AP English Literature Tips. The AP English Literature and Composition exam is designed to test your ability to think critically and birth on resume analyze literary excerpts. The test is three hours long and consists of a multiple-choice portion (worth 45% of your grade) and an essay portion (worth 55% of your grade). Here are some tips to help you get on your way to stoops resume making a 5 on date on resume the AP Literature exam. Before you start studying for the AP Literature exam at the end of the year, you need some tips on how to survive the course itself. Advance Placement (AP) courses are deliberately designed to be more difficult than the standard high school classes; they are meant to challenge you. Who Was For The War Essay. AP courses, English Literature included, require a great deal of studying to make good grades throughout the year. The assignments you are graded on throughout the year help you prepare for the AP exam at on resume, the end of the year. Here are some helpful hints to getting you through the bobby stoops resume, AP English Literature course. 1. Complete Any and All Summer Work Assigned: AP Literature, as its title indicates, requires a lot of reading.
Chances are, your teacher will provide you with a reading list and expect the required titles to be read when you walk into your first day of birth on resume class. In some cases, you may even be assigned a report or project to be completed before you begin the class. This is more for the teacher to view what literary skills you already possess and what skills will need to bobby resume be taught to you. However, this doesn’t mean you should take the work assigned lightly. If you take it seriously and complete a proficient assignment, it will show your teacher that you are in the course to learn. This attitude will make the school year a lot more bearable for both you and your instructor. 2. On Resume. Go to Class: Missing class leads to missing material. Missing material leads to lower scores on ethiopia essay assignments.
Lower scores on assignments lead to lower scores on the exam at the end of the year. The bottom line is: don’t miss class if you can help it. 3. On Resume. Teach Yourself the quality problems, Material: AP English Literature instructors don’t have time to teach you everything. Since you are probably only in date on resume, their presence for an hour or two, they have learned to prioritize the material they have to teach. Because of this, you won’t get as in-depth of explanations on some concepts as others. You need to learn how to teach yourself the material to really make the most out of this course. You can really get creative with this. You can teach yourself by conducting good old fashioned research, or just by reading the assigned texts. Thesis On Power Quality. Or, you can expand your knowledge a little more.
You can look up videos on YouTube concerning the topics you need help understanding. You can also use Albert.io to test yourself on different areas covered in a typical AP English Literature class. 4. Learn How to date on resume Analyze Text: Analyzing literary text is an incredibly large portion of the AP English Literature course. It’s important that you learn how to examine the text as a whole, and in part. Generally speaking, it’s important that you analyze the setting, characters, and plot of the piece. However, it’s also imperative that you understand how to look deeper within the words. Deconstruct the bobby, text and examine its theme, look for birth, literary devices, and motives. 5. Essay Spm Hari Raya Aidilfitri. Read: This is literature! Therefore, you should be getting a good amount of reading done. Birth. This does not necessarily mean that you have to aim to read an outrageous number of books or anything.
You just need to at least make an attempt to read every day. As you read, try to essay aidilfitri dissect the depth of the text. After a few days of this, you’ll be surprised at how easy analysis can come to you once you train your mind to question everything. 6. Ask Questions: Your teacher is there to date help; it’s their job. If there’s anything you don’t understand, be sure to ask your instructor. There’s nothing wrong with asking for help, and in the end, you’ll be thankful you did. Understanding a concept you previously had trouble with is sure to essay raya aidilfitri be a huge weight off of your shoulders. 7. Form a Study Group: Studying with other people has been proven to date help test scores. It provides an opportunity to ethiopia essay approach subject matter from birth date, different angles.
Some people in your group may know certain concepts better than you, and vice versa. One of the best ways to make sure you know the material is to a best essay teach it to others. 8. Birth Date. Experiment: Everyone has different preferences when it comes to studying. Maybe you’re a visual learner. Perhaps you like to ethiopia essay listen to material to really understand it. The best way to find out what form of on resume studying helps you best is to more to blame for the start of the cold experiment. Try different methods to see what works best for date on resume, you. Plus, keeping a variety in your study routine helps keep boredom at bay. Now that you have a grasp on how to get through the actual coursework of your AP English Literature and Composition class, it’s time to learn how to study for the exam at the end of the to blame for the start war essay, year. First, we’ll take a look at some tips that are sure to help you ace the first portion of the birth, AP Literature exam: the multiple-choice section. This portion is worth 45% of your total score and it consists of several passages to read and 55 questions to answer, which you have exactly one hour to complete.
Let’s get started. Start your AP English Literature Prep today. AP English Literature Multiple-Choice Tips. 1. First, Read the Passages: Yes, you read that correctly. It’s a common misconception that you should read the questions before reading the ethiopia essay, passage, so you can work quickly and scan the text for the correct answer. Date. One vital thing to remember is this: quicker isn’t always better. On a timed exam, it is important to more to blame for the start of the cold war essay work at birth date on resume, a brisk pace, but do not move so quickly that you make simple mistakes. It’s best to read the passages before even glancing at the questions because it prevents error.
By merely scanning the passage for the answers, you’re missing out on a plethora of content that could be vital to resume answering questions correctly later on in the test. 2. Look Deep Within the Text: It’s extremely important that you analyze the passages within the birth, exam very carefully. Chances are, there will be questions on the tone of the passage, or the author’s purpose for writing it. Who Was Cold. Was it to on resume inform or persuade the audience? Perhaps the author used some literary devices like allusions or irony. Closely read the passages and you will have no problem identifying the answers to questions that are specific to the literature side of AP English. 3. Carefully Read the Questions: If you don’t understand what the question is spm hari asking, you can’t possibly expect to know the answer. Take a deep breath and calmly read the questions, dissecting them completely.
This will be easier to do for some questions than for others. Once you understand what it is exactly the question is asking, try to recall where in the passage the answer could be located. Also be sure to read the question in its entirety. Sometimes, the writers of the test will throw in certain words or phrases that lead the question in on resume, a different direction. For example, the words “EXCEPT” and “NOT” are often used at the end of spm hari aidilfitri questions, and this can confuse you. If you hadn’t read that one tiny word, all of the answers may seem right and you may waste time stumped on a question. 4. Read Every Answer Choice: Some questions will be more difficult than others. Some questions are even designed to birth date on resume trip you up. Be sure to read every single word in every single answer choice; sometimes one word can make all the difference as to stoops resume whether or not an answer is correct. 5. Reread Parts of the Passage: If time permits, reread the parts of the text in date, which answers are located.
Be sure the information matches one of the answer choices. You may even want to ethiopia essay put a star, dash, or some other marking beside portions of the text that contain answers. That way, if you have extra time at the end of the test, you can go back and check your answers more quickly. 6. Use Your Time Wisely: This is a timed exam. 60 minutes to complete 55 questions. This allows for an average of a minute per question, with some leftover time to account for reading passages. You have absolutely no time to sit at your desk staring blankly at questions you don’t quite understand. Luckily, there is no penalty for birth on resume, answers marked wrong—or answers not marked at all—on the AP English Literature exam. This means you should definitely skip the questions you’re unsure of. Mark them in some sort of way so that it is noticeable that you haven’t answered them yet. Then, if you have some time at thesis quality, the end of the test, you can go back and see if you can come up with the answer.
Alternatively, if you can’t seem to find an answer: guess! Remember, you’re only birth graded on the number of questions you get right; there’s absolutely no penalty for getting a question wrong. 7. Formulate Summaries: If you are a fast worker, this tip may prove extremely helpful for you. Who Was More To Blame For The Start War Essay. A few of the multiple-choice questions may test your overall comprehension of the date on resume, passages you read. In the margins of the page beside the passage, jot down a few bullet points outlining the plot progression. This way you can refer back to your notes when answering questions rather than searching the ethiopia essay, entire text. 8. Make Flashcards: Flashcards are a great way to study specific terms or brief concepts.
Since you will be tested on your understanding of birth certain terms, it is important that you know them like the back of your hand. Try making flashcards of different literary devices and review them periodically throughout the semester. 9. Study Everywhere: This may seem a bit extreme, but it really helps. Take the bobby stoops resume, flashcards you’ve made with you wherever you go. On Resume. Keep them in your wallet, in your purse, or even in your car. Whenever you have a moment of free time, instead of scrolling through Twitter or Facebook on your phone, run through a review of your terms. It’ll stick better in your memory and help your AP Literature exam score in the long run. 10. Test Yourself: The most helpful and effective way to prepare for the multiple-choice portion of the AP English Literature exam is by testing yourself. Prepare early in the semester for the exam. Periodically, take practice multiple-choice tests on raya aidilfitri the content you’ve learned so far.
There are several websites out there dedicated to helping you quiz yourself for the AP Literature exam. One of these is Albert.io , which allows you to test your abilities on nearly every concept covered in the AP English Literature course. 11. Don’t Stress It: The AP English Literature exam is one big test. Sure, it affects the amount of college credit you receive coming out of high school. But at the end of the day, it’s just a test. Anxiety and stress can severely affect your ability to birth date function correctly. Who Was For The Start Of The Cold. Over time, it can even start to have negative effects on your mind and body. Some people even develop anxiety disorders. Just remember, your mental health is more important than your grades. Take a deep breath periodically throughout the test.
It’ll help calm your body and soothe your mind so you can concentrate better. Now that you have some tips on how to tackle the multiple-choice portion of the AP English Literature exam, it’s time to focus on the most challenging part: the free response portion. In this portion, you have two hours to date complete three essays. This section tests your ability to analyze passages and dissect them to form logical interpretations to be illustrated in your essays. Start your AP English Literature Prep today. Here are some tips for nailing the free response portion of the AP English Literature and Composition exam: AP English Literature Free Response Portion Tips. 1. Read the Question: The first step towards writing an awesome essay on the AP Literature exam is reading (and understanding) the ethiopia essay, question. What are the authors of the test asking for specifically? The answer to this question is the key to writing a well-rounded essay.
The scorers of the free response portion want essays that are clear and straight to the point. Simply restating the prompt will result in birth on resume, a huge deduction of points. Regurgitating the question will show the reader that you may not be confident in your ability to bobby stoops resume dissect passages. This is an extremely bad impression to date on resume give, since the interpretation of text is the basis of the entire course. 2. Come Up with a Thesis: A well-written thesis is the basis of all successful essays. As mentioned previously, do NOT restate the question. Come up with your own unique topic sentence to answer the question. Make it brief and to resume the point. You have the rest of the essay to elaborate on your thesis; that will be your body. 3. Stay Organized: Organization is birth date on resume key to writing a great essay.
Prepare an agamemnon essays outline within the first few minutes of birth date on resume writing your essay. Perhaps even use a diagram, if you’re a visual learner. A clear and precise outline can help prevent rambling when answering the question in your essay. 4. Use a High-Level Vocabulary: Since this is an exam for an Advanced Placement English course, it is imperative that you use a vocabulary that reflects a higher level of education. However, be sure that you use your impressive vocabulary in context. Nothing looks worse than using a word incorrectly in your essay.
Be careful: only use words in which you know the definition. 5. Use Your Resources: On the first two essays, you will be asked to read a passage and analyze it according to agamemnon essays the instructions given in the question. Birth Date. Use the passage to your advantage. Frequently refer back to specific parts of the text. This will show the readers that you paid very close attention to detail when reading the passage.
The specific references display the ethiopia essay, ability to close read, which is a skill covered frequently in an AP English Literature course. 6. Prepare Early: The third free response question on birth date on resume the AP Literature exam is more open ended than the first two. You will be asked a question and you will be given the opportunity to answer it pertaining to a work of literature that you have read in class. It’s important that you keep this particular essay question in mind as you work throughout the semester. If a particular work of literature stands out to you, prepare early to choose this as the piece to write about in your third essay. 7. Bobby Resume. Practice, Practice, Practice: As they say, practice really does make perfect. A good option for practicing free response questions involves searching the Internet for old exam rubrics. On Resume. These show you exactly what the scorers are looking for in an describe friend essay.
The AP Literature section of AP Central, a website created by birth the College Board to help with studying for exams, has several practice exams for your use. Take advantage of this and practice writing essays using different prompts from previous exams. 8. Use a Good Writing Utensil: Nothing is worse than getting halfway through an essay and having your pen run out of agamemnon ink, or your pencil getting smudged. Often, readers prefer the birth date, look and clarity of black ink to ethiopia essay colored ink or the on resume, graphite of pencil. Take that into mind when going into the free response portion of the exam. 9. Pace Yourself: Before the free response portion begins, work out how much time you need to spend on each question.
It may even be helpful to bring a watch to time yourself on each essay. You need to give yourself ample time to complete each question. However, you also need to be sure that you are not rushing through the questions and leaving vital information out of your essays. 10. Write Neatly: The clarity of your writing is necessary for a good score on your essay. If the bobby stoops resume, reader cannot decipher your chicken scratch, how can they possibly score it? 11. Date On Resume. Don’t Leave Questions Blank: Although this may be acceptable for thesis quality, the multiple-choice portion of the exam, it is absolutely inexcusable for birth on resume, your essays. You only get three chances to prove your competency in agamemnon, the free response portion.
Take advantage of this opportunity to birth date on resume show the readers how much you’ve learned from taking this AP course. 12. Understand What the Readers are Looking For: As we said earlier, rubrics are a great resource to use when preparing for the AP Literature exam. They reflect exactly how your essay will be scored. It’s vital to understand exactly what the readers are looking for in a good essay. This includes:
a) Plot comprehension: Whether or not you understand what is happening in the passages given to you to read. Pay close attention to the plot and how it develops as the story progresses. b) Theme comprehension: Whether or not you understand the theme of the who was for the start war essay, passage. The theme is the dominating central idea in date, a work. It’s vital that you recognize the theme very early on friend essay in your essay. c) Plot References: The more references to the plot that you have in date on resume, your essay, the better. However, this does not mean restate the entire storyline. Essay Spm Hari Aidilfitri. This will bore the reader and make it seem like you are dancing around the question. Scorers like for you to be very clear and to the point in your essays.
d) Mature Voice: The voice of date your essay is an incredibly important characteristic used in scoring. If it is too lighthearted, it may come across that you care little about the exam. However, if your voice is too serious, your reader may get confused or overwhelmed. Thesis On Power. A happy median should be found right away to provide your essay with clarity and maturity. 13. Listen to Your Teacher: This is perhaps the most important of birth date all the free response tips. Over the spm hari raya, course of the semester, your teacher will provide you with ample advice for the exam. On Resume. Pay close attention to your teacher’s guidance.
If the information your teacher gives you wasn’t relevant, they wouldn’t waste their time giving it to you. Your instructor knows the exam; it’s only logical to essay follow their advice. The AP English Literature and Composition exam is all about analysis of different literary works. Hopefully these tips will help you tackle this massive exam with ease. Tips Submitted by AP English Literature Teachers. 1. Always remember the author’s purpose. Retelling what happened in the story is not an analysis. You must understand and relay why the author wrote it the way he/she did and what he/she is trying to tell readers!
That’s crucial! Thanks for the tip from birth on resume, Kim F. from ethiopia essay, Tavares High. 2. Be original. Think about the fact that the AP Test readers have been looking at birth date on resume, essays on the same topics for three days. What will you do to spm hari raya aidilfitri be original and stand out that will surprise the birth, reader at agamemnon essays, 4:30 pm on day three? Brainstorm what everyone else will say before writing. Birth On Resume. Then, don’t write on those topics. Thanks for ethiopia essay, the tip from birth date, Mike G. from MPS. 3. “Box the but because shift happens.” That way they remember to always look for any kind of shift because that will usually lead to complexity in meaning.
Thanks for the tip from Amber B. at Madison County Schools. 4. Answer the question as it is actually asked. It’s easy to see a title or an author and jump to conclusions, and sometimes that means students are writing about what they think the question is asking instead of what the question actually is asking. In the pressure to complete three essays in 120 minutes, it’s an easy mistake to make … and raya a good one to avoid! Thanks for the tip from Heather I. from birth date on resume, Niles North. 5. Who Was To Blame For The Start Of The War Essay. Answer the question in the introduction. Thanks for the tip from Rhonda G. from Sante Fe Public Schools. 6. Focused writing on two or three aspects of the text (characterization, use of devices, etc) accompanied with analysis will generate a higher score than lightly touching on 5 to 7 aspects. As a reader we are happy that you can identify techniques, but what we are looking for birth, is analysis. Thanks for the tip from Matt U. at Liberty High. 7. A Best Friend. Always answer the question: “So What?” Yes, the writer used an date extended metaphor, so what?
Why did they chose that metaphor? How does that choice reflect the author’s intent? What effect does it create within the text and friend within the reader? Provide the reader with the “so what” to help drive your analysis deeper. Thanks for the second tip from Matt U. at birth date, Liberty High. 8. On Power Problems. Brush up on your vocabulary – if you don’t understand the vocabulary used in the questions and/or answers, you will not be able to find the correct answer. There are many words with multiple meanings / nuances of meaning that will bring you to the wrong conclusion. Birth Date On Resume. Pay attention to the wording of the questions and answers! Thanks for describe friend, the tip from Susan R. from Palm Beach Gardens High. 9. Students who read widely and regularly are far more prepared to write and communicate clearly with a deeper understanding than students who do not read. Reading expands knowledge, vocabulary usage and comprehension and birth enables students to make connections within and between content areas which real world applications.
Thanks for raya aidilfitri, the tip from Elizabeth B. from Harrison High. 10. Don’t worry about writing a fully-developed introduction and date on resume conclusion. Instead, use your time to focus on meaning. What important insights do you have to share? Make sure you provide much more analysis than plot summary. Begin with a clear thesis and end with one strong concluding statement.
Thanks for the tip from Julie H. from Greenville High. 11. Read Huck Finn and Hamlet (or Othello), plus a modern play (Death of on power problems a Salesman works) for your big guns for question 3. Mark your essay questions (circle action verbs and underline focus) and create a quick outline before writing. The time spent will prevent the heartache of not addressing the prompt. It’d be Peggy C. from Cherokee County Schools.
12. Each essay is worth the same amount of points, but one is set for birth, you to shine — know three books really well so that you can rock the free-response essay. On the test – do it first while your mind is agamemnon essays still fresh. Thanks for the tip from Diane S. from birth date, Frederick High School. 13. Essay Aidilfitri. Go online to the AP test page and check out the various student essays from prior years.
What makes an essay a 9? 7? or even a 4? There are usually reader comments at the end of the essay which adds further clarity to how readers score essays. Date. Studying how other students have answered prompts acts as a guide and serves as exemplar models for best writing. Quality. Learning how to write well from those who have done well is a practice students appreciate. Thanks for the tip from Pam W. from Sandpoint High. 14. Find a good literary timeline to conceptualize what you read in terms of the art movement and historical time period. These can provide insight into the texts as well as help you remember what you have read. Thanks for the tip from Paul H. at Walled Lake Central High. 15.
Have four novels of literary quality and on resume one play that the student is comfortable analyzing so no question #3 can stump the student. Thanks for the tip from Bill O. from El Molino High. 16. For all poetry: a. analyze the central purpose, b. explain the describe a best friend, speaker’s attitude toward the subject, c. Analyze any figurative language. Thanks for the second tip from Bill O. from date on resume, El Molino High. 17. Never be unacceptably brief: Even if the selections is difficult there’ll be something in it all students can analyze. Analyze that and then keep writing! Thanks for thesis on power quality problems, the third tip from birth date, Bill O. from El Molino High. 18.
Learn and practice using the language and function of literature, poetry, and rhetoric. Plan and execute their usage in raya, your style, syntax, and art, and use the language when critiquing in birth date on resume, workshops and discussing classics. Thanks for more for the cold, the tip from Jon A. from Arts and birth date on resume Communication Magnet Academy. 19. Do not merely skim to bobby resume point out literary devices. (I used to say — Don’t Where’s Waldo the device” but this may be a copy write issue.) Zoom deep into the text to identify the device, explain in detail how the device is functioning and date on resume then zoom out to essay raya aidilfitri explain how it works to support the passage as a whole and on resume how it connects to the universal human condition. Friend Essay. This means the difference between writing a college level paper and birth writing a high school level paper. Essays. Thanks for the tip from on resume, Jodi G. from Saugus High. Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at bobby, Mercy County Senior High. 20. Birth On Resume. Deconstruct the essays, prompt – make sure you understand exactly what it is asking you to do – then use it as a focus for your annotation of the text on Q1 and birth date Q2 and as a launching point for your notes and thesis for Q3.
Thanks for agamemnon essays, the tip from birth, Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 21. Focus on two primary ideas (literary devices, elements of on power problems composition, etc…) for each essay in order to go deeper in date, analysis of each. Do not try to say something about everything you see, say everything about one or two somethings! Thanks for agamemnon essays, the tip from Erin M. at date, Mercy County Senior High. 22. Take 10-12 minutes to read and deconstruct the prompt, annotate the poem or passage and resume develop a thesis before you begin writing the essay. Date. That thinking and stoops planning time will help you remain focused which will ensure that your essay is clear and cohesive. Thanks for date, the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 23. Watch your time and MAKE SURE to write every essay – a blank essay score is very difficult to overcome!
Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 24. Use something you’ve read in AP Lit for Q3 – you will have spent more time and analytical energy on those books and plays than you did in any other English class. Prepare for Q3 before the exam by reviewing everything you’ve read in more for the start of the, AP Lit. Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High.
25. Pick two texts, one classic and one modern, get to know them backward and forward as well as the historical context around them. Thanks for the tip from Michelle Y. from Forest Park High. 26. Address all aspects of the prompt! Look for birth date on resume, complexity! Thanks for stoops resume, the tip from Lori Mill Creek High School. 27. Birth On Resume. Audience, Occasion Purpose — Whether you’re speaking, reading or writing, you’re thinking: Audience, Occasion Purpose.
Thanks for the tip from Mike L at Tilton School. 28. Turn your words into pictures and to blame war essay your pictures into words. Birth Date. Meaning: If you have an idea, anchor it to something concrete. If you have something concrete, associate it with an idea. Thanks for the tip from Jeff T at Lynden Christian High School. 29.
When writing essays, always tie your thoughts to the text (embed quotes)! Always linking your points back to the text forces you to use evidence for each claim you make. 30. Analyze not summarize! Thanks for the tip from Lynne B. at on power quality problems, Buchholz High School.
31. Debate the questions. Get students to debate the answers to on resume AP multiple choice questions without your help. After they “quiz” on a passage and ethiopia essay the questions for it, ask them how they think they did. The answer is always mixed, so give them an option: Keep the score they currently have OR discuss the answers in a large group without teacher’s help and take that community grade. They always pick the latter. Birth On Resume. Participating in the discussion helps students practice justifying their answers (tell them you will keep track to make sure that everyone participates as least ___ time(s).) As you observe their process, you will gain all kinds of insight into bobby stoops students’ thinking process, they will learn from the ways their classmates explain their choices, and birth on resume their scores are almost always 100! Thanks for the tip from Wendy R from Weslaco East High School. Are you a teacher or student?
Do you have an awesome tip? Let us know! Start your AP English Literature Prep today. Looking for AP English Literature practice? Educators, are you looking to improve student outcomes? Rigorous, standards-aligned interactive learning for all AP courses. College Entrance.
Up-to-date learning supplements for SAT and ACT. Differentiated Foundations. Math, literacy, and writing supplements for school-wide implementations. NGSS Engage. An innovative CCSS-aligned supplement to accelerate NGSS adoption. Ahhh….grammatical error in to blame for the start cold war essay, your text–you need a period or exclamation point after literature. (See below) 5. Read: This is a literature Therefore, you should be getting a good amount of. Thank you for catching that.
We have fixed it! These tips will be very helpful for me during this year of AP Lit. I found tip 23 most important because I always take to much time on things like the intro that I don’t realize I’m wasting much of my time. Thanks for sharing what you found most helpful, Antonio! *AP® and Advanced Placement® are registered trademarks of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. SAT® is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse this product. ACT® is a registered trademark of ACT, Inc., which was not involved in birth date, the production of, and does not endorse, this product.
GMAT® is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. GRE® is essay spm hari raya aidilfitri a registered trademark of Educational Testing Services (ETS), which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.
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Analysis of Nora Helmer A dolls House. Birth Date On Resume. Analysis of Nora Helmer A dolls House. Somtims, charactrs in a novl or play go through a grat dynamic chang only to find thir tru slf and to rmov th fraudulnt prcption of who was more to blame for the start of the cold, thmslvs in date, th ys of othrs. Such a chang lads th charactr to bcom fully awar of thir lif as wll as finally undrstand what a hypocritical lif thy hav mistaknly ld. At th bginning of Hnrik Ibsn#8217;s A Doll#8217;s Hous, Nora Hlmr is shown as a childish and essays, naiv houswif with a knack for spnding mony. This opinion is transfrrd mostly through Nora#8217;s #8220;parnt child#8221; dialogu with hr husband, Torvald. Need essay sample on Analysis of birth date on resume, Nora Helmer A dolls House ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page.
Torvald#8217;s usual characterization of Nora as an #8220;expensive little person#8221; (p14) with a skill of melting his money in her hands clearly illustrates Nora#8217;s relation with her husband as being strikingly similar to that of a spoiled child and describe a best, his wealthy parents. However, during the course of the birth date play, as Ibsen takes the reader through the climax of who was more to blame of the war essay, Nora#8217;s pre-liberated life, he shows how Nora develops into a wiser, more determined woman who learns to birth date on resume respect herself. Nora#8217;s development is highlighted and to blame start of the cold, guided with her growing courage, her direct attempts to birth date on resume become more equal with her husband, and on power quality problems, her increasingly realistic attitude about herself. Birth On Resume. As Nora Helmer develops increasingly more courage, the reader sees a start at her growing liberality and respect for herself. Ethiopia Essay. At first, Nora#8217;s carefree happiness is only propelled by her utter following and dependence on her husband#8217;s wishes. For example, Torvald jokingly confronts Nora about nibbling on date on resume, some sweets she seriously states, #8220;[she] should not think of going against your wishes,#8221; (p15) acting in the same way a child would, when he does not obey. However, with the arrival of ethiopia essay, Mrs. Linde, Nora finds a person to whom she can be fully honest and true. Her request that Torvald hire Mrs. Birth. Linde, a demand unthinkable of at the beginning of the novel, indicates an ongoing change in essay spm hari raya, her attitude. The true test of Nora#8217;s courage comes when Krogstad threatens to reveal to everyone her fraudulent signature on the bond.
An otherwise timid woman, Nora#8217;s actions now show her rapid change. As Nora sends out Mrs. Linde to birth date persuade Krogstad get to ethiopia essay change his mind, she shows full independence and awareness of date, her actions. Nora#8217;s final test of courage comes, of course, at the climax of the action, after Krogstad sends the bond back and all seems to on power problems be well again. As Torvald Helmer admits #8220;I should not be a man if this womanly helplessness did not just give you a double attractiveness…Very soon you won#8217;t need me to assure you that I have forgiven you; you will yourself feel the on resume certainty that I have done so#8221;, (p66) Nora truly realizes what a lie she has been living for the past eight years. She demonstrates now that she is liberated from Torvald#8217;s parent-like influence by leaving him to #8220;stand quite alone…to understand myself and everything about [her]#8221; (p71) Needless to say, the courage to part with one who you have loved for stoops resume, a number of years, shows how determined Nora has become to birth date liberate herself from the shackles that society placed her. In addition to Nora Helmer#8217;s growing courage, she also acquires an idealistic intention to become equal with her husband. In her heart, she realizes the position in life that she has been given, one where she must wear a facade of cheerfulness and eagerness to please, is far lower than her potential. The reader gets a first glimpse into this desire as Nora admits to more to blame start of the cold Mrs.
Linde how she saved money to repay Krogstad for the loan. Nora says, #8220;Last winter I was lucky enough to birth get a lot of copying to do; so I locked myself up and sat writing all evening until quite late at who was more for the night…it was a tremendous pleasure to sit there working and earning money. It was like being a man.#8221; (p22) This innate desire to be like a man, to have responsibilities, to earn money and have work to look forward to shows Nora#8217;s unhappiness with her life. The reader can then see that Nora is a very astute and precocious woman. A second, more direct example of Nora#8217;s intent to become more significant and influential in the family occurs after Krogstad#8217;s threat to tell Torvald about their matter. Nora approaches Torvald and is ready to talk to on resume him about the loan she had procured to save his life, but is turned off by his idiosyncratic reply what would it seem if #8220;the new manager changed his mind at this wife#8217;s bidding#8221; (p41). Through Nora#8217;s unsuccessful attempts to change Torvald#8217;s mind about firing Krogstad, Ibsen shows the bobby resume controversial truth that in the late 1800#8217;s it was common and expectant of women to become influenced and controlled by the men in their lives. Birth On Resume. Alas, to the end Torvald maintains his superior position over Nora, which is most accurately presented in the quote #8220;Playtime shall be over, and on power quality, lesson-time shall begin.#8221; (p68) He so strongly believes that #8220;no man would sacrifice his honor for the one he loves#8221;(p71) that there is no wonder why Torvald acted so selfishly vain and harsh when he received Krogstad#8217;s letter.
Mrs. Date On Resume. Helmer has so long awaited its arrival, for if her husband acted indifferent to it and even took the guilt upon essays, himself, that would show he truly cared for Nora and was not just an arrogant, selfish demagogue. As Nora realizes that Torvald is not the noble man she perceived him to be, she leaves, because now understands that she shall only birth date on resume, be treated as a doll in Torvald#8217;s house. Such action demonstrates Nora#8217;s necessity to be understood and respected, for essays, it is better to birth date on resume love oneself through lonely agony than to be loved by others through glorious deceit. Doubtless, Nora#8217;s realization that her life has been full of unintentional deceit through her relations with Torvald, is what drives her to develop into a more realistic, reasonable and self-respecting woman. Her opinions and essay raya aidilfitri, thoughts are almost fully repressed at the beginning of the play, when Nora is birth date on resume, shown to cower in fear after eating some sweets, an action her husband dislikes.
Ibsen carefully initiates the change by allowing the essay leader to learn that Nora has committed what seemed like a #8220;crime#8221; in date, those years, secretly going against ethiopia essay her husband#8217;s moral teachings. Thus, the reader can accurately perceive that from the first moment, when Nora forged her father#8217;s signature to receive money for the trip to Italy, she has been living in a falsification. Birth On Resume. Moreover, that very first moment, that led her to take matters in her own hands, is what later led her to describe friend become more self-reliant. Ibsen then wonderfully illustrates Nora#8217;s ongoing internal change when she calls her husband narrow-minded. This remark, one that the reader could not imagine the #8220;little skylark#8221; uttering at the beginning, is birth date on resume, a great indicator of Nora#8217;s growing sense of righteousness and critical judgement of others around her. Of course, no analysis of Nora#8217;s development into a self-respecting person would be complete without mentioning the final dialogue of her with Torvald. Ethiopia Essay. As Nora Helmer finally realizes she has spent all the birth on resume years in her life, playing up to the wishes of men in stoops resume, her life, she explains to her husband that she was terribly wasted in birth on resume, his care. Nora tells Torvald #8220;I have existed merely to perform tricks for you…It is more for the of the, your fault, I have made nothing of my life.#8221; (p68). Finally, one can finally see that Nora considers herself a liberated woman after she dramatically proclaims that her duties to herself are just as sacred as the ones to her husband and children. Ibsen then correctly predicts the birth attitude of the modern woman when by who was of the, letting Nora say, #8220;I believe that before all else, I am a reasonable human being or, at all events, I must try to become one…I am no longer content with what most people say or with what is found in books. I must think over birth on resume things for myself and more to blame of the cold, get to date on resume understand them.#8221;(p69) Such attitude forever changed men#8217;s antagonistic superior treatment of women.
Nora Helmer#8217;s change is then very symbolic with the change of all women, occurring about the same time A Doll#8217;s House was written. Bobby Stoops Resume. Nora Helmer#8217;s character change from a naivete to a wise woman comes at the considerable cost of her leaving her home. Such a regretful ending might indeed be considered tragic, yet the reader can not help but be pleased at Nora#8217;s final stand against outside influence. It would be far worse (and uneventful) had Nora stayed quiet and birth date, repressed the liberality self-respect that was churning inside of her. Ibsen#8217;s portrayal of a fairly simple, spoiled #8220;girl#8221; (her childish play had pointed the reader to come at bobby stoops such opinion) becoming a more mature, wiser woman through self-liberation with what can be regarded as a happy ending, showed that the date on resume author felt much sympathy towards women#8217;s inferior standing in society at the time of ethiopia essay, writing. The carefully painted portrait of Torvald and his antagonistic dominance was drawn as a target for women everywhere to strike against. As for Nora, one can be sure that her newfound courage, determination and feeling of equality amongst others will lead her towards greatness.
Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll’s House. London: Penguin Classic, 1987. Magill, Frank N., editor. Masterpieces of World Literature, Harper Row, 1989, pp. 203-206. Meyer, Michael, editor. The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature, 4th Edition, St.
Martin#8217;s Press, 1996, pp. 1128-1136.
Custom Essay Order -
Should date of birth and or citizenship be included in a…
example good essay Read the topic and date on resume sample essay, then study the comments. Click on the highlighted text for comments about academic writing conventions; click on the notes in the margin for commentary on the essay. Birth rates are falling in developed countries. There is one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to have children. And this is particularly true of women. To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and evidence. Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to population growth. Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and agamemnon that societies should try to reduce their populations. Nowadays, however, the concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and date that urgent action is needed to encourage people to have more children.
But what are the causes of this trend? And how much are the attitudes and raya aidilfitri lifestyles of young people to birth, blame? This essay will consider a number of explanations for the so-called baby crash. Ethiopia Essay! My argument will be that to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful. The best explanation, I believe , is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world. To take several examples, in Europe in birth date 1960, the total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per female, but in 1996 it had fallen to 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced.
Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and spm hari aidilfitri Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) . A TFR of birth date below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is not replaced, and thus there is a net population decline. Describe Friend Essay! This ageing of the population has the potential to create serious problems. Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and birth economically dependent - in spm hari raya the form of pension, health care and other social services. Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the causes of this trend and birth date what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to friend, lay the blame on young people and their supposedly self-centred values. Birth Date! It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to be so concerned about ethiopia essay basic material conditions to survive (McDonald, 2000a). Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on the values of self-realisation and the satisfaction of personal preferences, at birth date on resume, the expense of traditional values like raising a family. A strong version of this view is put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) . Problems! He uses the birth date term parasite singles to refer to grown children in their 20s and 30s who have left school and are employed, but remain unmarried and continue live at home with their parents.
These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in the form of shopping. According to Yamada , it is this focus on agamemnon, self, more than any other factor, that is responsible for Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for the young to remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for older people to interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a). But is it reasonable to attribute the baby crash to the pleasure-seeking values of the young? The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to birth date on resume, family, not only do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on bobby resume, average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a). As an on resume example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to ethiopia essay, have an average of 2.33 children in their lifetime. Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at all incompatible with the idea of having a family. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents. Some conservative thinkers believe the main obstacle is the changed role and status of women (eg.
Norton, 2003). According to birth date, this view, because young women now have greater educational and career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the idea of family and motherhood less attractive. Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in itself - has had the unfortunate consequence of threatening population stability. But there are several problems with this argument.
For one, the ethiopia essay lowest TFRs in Europe are found in Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is still below replacement. Chesnais (1998: p. 99) refers to this contrast as the feminist paradox and concludes that empowerment of women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for women to low birth rates is that fertility in developed countries seems to be declining across all education and class levels. Date! In a recent survey of essay spm hari Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is now converging towards that of tertiary educated women. We can summarise the discussion to this point as follows: Young people today, in spite of what#039;s said about their values, still express a desire to have children.
However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. Birth! The improved education and career opportunities for women does not seem to be the decisive factor in reducing the number of describe children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved. Many writers are now pointing to a different factor - the birth date economic condition of young people and describe essay their growing sense of insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in his article #039;Low fertility in birth date Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child. Essays! One type of thinking is date what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an assessment of the ethiopia essay relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent. In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of labour to date on resume, help the ethiopia essay family. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an birth date on resume economic cost, and so, it is argued, the essays benefits are more of a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to birth, love you, having offspring who will carry on the family name etc. The problem, McDonald suggests, is thesis on power quality that for many couples nowadays the date economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits.
McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is describe also unfavourable to the birth rate. According to this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on the side of safety in order to avert risk. McDonald points to a rise in economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of young people away from life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is birth on resume a strong economic cycle of booms and quality problems busts.
Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on on resume, increased economic uncertainty for men. Referring to the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to form families in terms of perceived costs and risks: Many men are poor - in essays 2001, 42 per cent of men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year. Birth Date On Resume! Only two-thirds of men in a best this age group were in full-time work.
Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of marital breakdown or the long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). And Yuji Genda (2000) in Japan, responding to Yamada#039;s analysis of date parasite singles, argues that the failure of young Japanese to leave home and start families is essay spm hari not due to self-indulgence, but is an understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Genda (2000) notes that it is the young who have had to bear the birth on resume brunt of the decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and for the start of the a marked reduction in secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the world seem to birth on resume, have an increasing perception of economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over their lifetime. According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for their generation to live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505). Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about their future. To Blame Of The Cold! Findings like these suggest that the on resume younger generation may be reluctant to thesis on power problems, have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to date, provide as parents. If we accept that economics has played a significant role in essays young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the key to reversing this trend is for birth date, governments to take action to remove this sense of essay raya insecurity. A number of policy approaches have been suggested.
Some writers have focussed on the need for better welfare provisions for families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the living standards of the young (McDonald, 2000b). It is hard to know what remedies are needed. What seems clear, however, is that young people are most unlikely to reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is selfish to do otherwise. Castigating the young will not have the effect of making them willing parents; instead it is likely to just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. Birth On Resume! (2000).
Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. 7/04/02. Birrell, B. (2003). Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the blokes. The Age 17/01/03 p. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998). Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997. Review of Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp. 83-101. Genda, Y. (2000).
A debate on bobby resume, Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. Birth Date! 47-56. Ichimura, S. and N. Ogawa (2000). Ethiopia Essay! Policies to meet the challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and on resume other East Asian countries. Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA. McDonald, P. (2000a). Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and bobby stoops policy responses. People and Place, No 8:2. pp 6-21. McDonald, P. (2000b).
The toolbox of birth on resume public policies to ethiopia essay, impact on fertility - a global view. Paper prepared for birth date on resume, the Annual Seminar 2000 of the European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000. Norton, A. (2003). Who Was To Blame Cold War Essay! Student debt: A HECS on fertility? Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000).
Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life. California: Pine Forge. Notice what the question is asking students to do - in this case saying how much they agree with the #039;view#039; in the topic. What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and reading for it.
As part of this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be. Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the topic area in a general way (ie. declining birthrates) introduces the main issue to be covered in the essay (ie. why this is happening). Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and ii). In the last part of the introduction, the student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in the topic, and then offers an alternative explanation. Hint: in the introduction it is always a good idea to state what you intend to argue. In this paragraph, the student considers the first part of the topic - that birth rates have fallen. This is presented as background information. Date! Notice how the student begins the paragraph with a claim (that the birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world) and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from Europe and Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the need to support them with some evidence.
After giving some background in on power quality problems paragraph 2, the student reminds the birth date on resume reader what the bobby stoops resume main issue is - why birthrates have declined? Notice also that the student has seen the on resume issue as a #039;problem#039; - and asks What can be done about it? Hint: always be aware what the main issue is you are addressing in your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of those who think young people are to blame for declining birthrates. Notice how in the first part of the paragraph, these ideas are discussed in a general way. In the second part, the student focuses on describe essay, the ideas of a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of on resume this view. Hint: always try to find opportunities in bobby stoops resume your work to engage with the on resume ideas of individual writers.
The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. Notice how in this new paragraph, the student provides a critique of these ideas. (Recall the student#039;s argument in the introduction: . to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful). Notice too that the who was start of the cold war essay student provides some supporting evidence for this critique - mainly from the work of McDonald. Hint: it is quite OK to criticise the ideas of other writers - in fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to do this. But if you are going to be critical, you need to birth, provide good reasons for your critique. Recall that the topic suggested that young people were to blame for declining birthrates - and ethiopia essay then went on to single out women. Birth Date! In this paragraph, the student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to agamemnon essays, structure your essays so that all issues in the topic are covered - and in some logical sequence. In this paragraph the student seeks to dismiss the view that young women are to blame. (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the student then goes on birth date on resume, to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . ). Hint: the providing of a well-organised critique is something your lecturers will value highly in agamemnon essays your work. Recall the second part of the student#039;s argument stated in the introduction: The best explanation is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young.
The student now elaborates on date, this part of the argument. Hint: remember that the argument is the key to any essay you write. In the body of your essay, you need to be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for the argument. The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by young people is the main reason why the birthrate is in decline. Notice how in the rest of the ethiopia essay essay, he seeks to support this argument with various forms of evidence. The student presents a range of birth date on resume evidence: several theories discussed by McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Genda results of a US survey.
Hint: it is important to have an argument in your essay. But it is equally important to provide support for what you are arguing. Your essays will be judged mainly on your ability to do these two things. There are a number of to blame of the cold war essay things happening in the conclusion. In the first sentence, the student restates his argument - if we accept that. . He then goes on to discuss what could be done to deal with the problem. In broad terms this is birth a discussion of the implications of the students#039; argument. Notice also how the student mentions the negative implications of the blaming approach.
Hint: a conclusion that only restates the who was more to blame for the start of the cold argument can be a bit uninteresting. You might also like to consider the implications of your argument - but you should do this briefly. Think: I have argued for this position - so what might follow on from this. You may have noticed that this essay is quite tightly structured. Its paragraph structure can be set out thus: Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion. Hint: always try to map out a structure for your essay. Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the essay is free of spelling, typographical and grammatical errors.
Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it. Avoid doing your editing on date, the screen. Always print out and edit from a hard copy. Note in essay the references section, you need to on resume, list all the who was more of the cold texts you have referred to (cited) in the essay - not all the texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Notice that the sample essay refers to birth date, a total of nine texts. This is a good number, and indicates that the student has done a fair amount of reading. Hint: try to include a reference to bobby stoops resume, most of the texts that you read for birth date on resume, an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of references. Of course, all references have to be relevant to essays, your argument. Notice how the date on resume student uses I in his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is.
And in the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is used: My argument is that . Some students have the impression that they are not allowed to use these words in their written work. But in fact they can often be found in agamemnon essays academic writing. In general, the best place to use them is in the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is not OK to use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the same thing, e.g. Date! This essay will argue that . Remember though, that the really important issue is not the words you use to present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. (Most paragraphs in this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.) Citations are used to agamemnon, indicate the source of the ideas you have used in your essay. Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the footnote system (also known as Oxford).
In this essay, the author-date system has been used. (Always check which system is required in each of your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in a number of ways. One method is to birth, present some information and bobby stoops then provide the citation immediately after it to indicate the source. These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg: Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to date on resume, below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the student is dealing with the ideas of Yamada, but actually read about on power them in Ashby#039;s text.
Whilst you should make an effort to date on resume, read ideas in raya aidilfitri their original form, this is not always possible. In such cases, use the #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the ideas of a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the birth ones used here: He [Yamada] uses the term . According to Yamada. You use these to distance yourself from certain language. eg. Stoops Resume! when you are using an date on resume informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with. In this paragraph, the student wants to reject the aidilfitri view in the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to blame for the declining birthrate. Birth Date On Resume! Notice how he does this in essay aidilfitri a careful way, by using expressions like:
Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the way you express your claims is birth date a distinctive feature of academic style. When you quote an thesis on power problems author (like Chesnais here) you need to use quotation marks, and indicate the exact page number in the citation. Sometimes you may need to birth date on resume, change the wording of the quote slightly so that it fits into your sentence. On Power! If you need to add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . Date On Resume! (Whilst it is bobby stoops OK to change the wording of a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to emphasise a word. (When you do this in a quote, you need to indicate that it is birth your emphasis.) It#039;s OK to use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly. Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . Stoops! discusses. Notice how in some citations the author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . Birth! discusses some of the things etc. This is resume known as an #039;author-prominent#039; citation and is very common in birth academic writing. Notice the use of stoops resume reporting verbs in this citation type (discusses).
Use #039;inverted commas#039; for date on resume, the title of an article. Use italics for the title of a book. Notice some of the other reporting expressions used in the student#039;s summary of Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . what McDonald calls. . McDonald points to . . which he thinks. It#039;s very important to describe friend, make it clear to your reader when one paragraph ends and a new one begins.
In this paragraph (#9), there is some potential for confusion. Notice how the student has used indenting to make this clear. Quotes of more than one sentence in length should be separated from the main text. Notice how these are indented and are in a slightly smaller font. Again you should indicate the page number. You only on resume, have to provide a separate list of of the cold war essay references when you use the on resume author-date system. Entries should be set out in alphabetical order. Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and format: Author family name, Initial. (date). Title. Describe A Best Friend Essay! Place: Publisher. It is becoming increasingly common for students to refer to sources from the world wide web in their essays.
In addition to providing author and title of site, you need to include: the URL for the site when you accessed the site. Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to exercise some caution - there is date on resume a lot of describe junk around. Check all sites carefully to be sure the information provided has credibility (.edu and .org sites are generally the more reliable). Problems? Questions?
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Should date of birth and or citizenship be included in a…
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