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moscow essay INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF. RUSSIAN STUDIE S. RIVALRY BETWEEN MOSCOW AND ST PETERSBURG – THE CONTRASTING IDEOLOGIES OF CONSERVATISM AND WESTERNISM IN RUSSIA EMBODIED IN THE TWO CAPITALS. This paper argues that the religious papers two capitals of Russia, namely Moscow and St Petersburg, have each played a unique and defining role in the birth and development of the ideologies of Westernisation and conservatism in Russia. With their distinctive characters and ways of life, the two cities have constituted two poles in Russian political history as well as literature and art. This paper tries to give the reader a brief picture of both cities from an architectural, cultural, historical and above all political and ideological perspective. Thus, in an attempt to explore the different roles the two cities have played in Russian political history, the paper takes a brief look at the history and my life essay dynamics that shaped the distinctive ideologies of the two capitals.
Finally, the research paper tries to make a clear identification and comparison of the character and roles of the two capitals in Russian political life and history. Key Words: Moscow, St Petersburg, Autocracy, Conservatism, Moscow-Third Rome, Petrine Revolution, Westernisation, Slavophilism. There is no doubt that Moscow and St Petersburg are among the most popular tourist destinations in the world today. The two capitals of resume Russia, with their outstanding beauty and rich history, attract millions of tourists every year from all over the world. No place better represents Russia than Red Square (Krasnaya Ploshchad). Its name comes from the word “krasnyi”, which once meant “beautiful”, and has only come to mean “red” in papers, the contemporary Russian language. The name became official in the middle of the 17th century; previously it had been Trinity Square. Management Case. 
Trinity Cathedral, which is often known as the religious papers predecessor of St Basil’s, gave its name to the square. It was also known as “Fire Square”, due to the number of fires that swept away “medieval Moscow”. There is also a myth that it was named “red” because of the bloody executions that were publicly held in the square. Whatever its name means, one can witness thousands of years of essays history walking the religious research brick road of this plaza, which was long used by the Kremlin for amazing celebrations and religious papers especially military parades. The “Teatralnaya Ploshchad”, or Theater Square, which is located near Red Square, hosts the world-famous “Bolshoi Theater” and t he lesser known “ Maly Theater”. Walking south-west, you reach “Okhotny Ryad” to “Manezhnaya Ploshchad”, or Manezh Square.
The square centres on the statue of who changed Marshall Zhukov, the heroic commander of the Red Army in the Second World War. Religious Research Papers. The former Central Lenin Museum  provides the background. Entering Red Square through the Resurrection Gate, you see Kazan Cathedral on your left . The amazing State History Museum is located at the north end of the square. The enormous, elaborate facade occupying the east side of the square is the State Department Store, better known as GUM. The mighty towers of the Kremlin dominate the west side of the square. Lenin’s Mausoleum, which is located near the centre of the Square, is still open for visitors.
At the far end of resume Red Square, the colourful confusion of onion domes and tent peaks is the Cathedral of St Basil the Blessed , the papers 16th-century church that is probably Moscow’s most recognisable sight. The original name of the church is the food technology questionnaire Intercession of the Virgin Cathedral, named for the feast day on which the army of Ivan IV the Terrible captured the city of Kazan in 1552. One chapel was built over the grave of Vasily (Basil) the Blessed, whose name has stuck for the whole church. From here you can continue strolling south to the Moscow River for fabulous views of the gold domes of the papers Kremlin churches rising up over the red brick walls. The so-called Seven Sisters are perhaps the most recognisable contributions of the Stalinist period to the city.
Seven massive skyscrapers scattered throughout the sample resume city at about an equal distance from the Kremlin still echo the religious research papers Communist past of amazing sales resume Russia. St Petersburg, the undisputed cultural capital of religious Russia, is often referred to who changed my life as the “Venice of the North” with its beautiful canals, bridges and architecture. Religious Research. The city was intentionally planned and built by Peter the Great (1672-1725) as the window of Russia to the West. Since its foundation, St Petersburg pioneered the idea of “Westernisation” and became a fortress of its supporters. The location of the new capital — where the Neva River meets the Baltic Sea — also symbolised the liberation of thesis Russia from its obsolete traditions and revealed the process of the “Russian awakening”.
St Petersburg was created not only by architects, but by poets. Russia’s new capital  became an inspiration for the works of the greatest poets of Russia, from Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin to Marina Tsvetaeva. Russia’s greatest poet, Pushkin, drew a marvellous image of this beautiful city in his famous narrative poem “ - The Bronze Horseman” (1833): , , ,  I love you, work of Peter, I love your sober and harmonious outlook. Pushkin’s poem further describes how Peter the Great decided to “cut a window on Europe”. . 
Here nature instructs us, To cut a window on Europe. Today, St Petersburg still remains Russia’s “window to the West”. It is research papers, a common observation that far more English is spoken here than in Moscow, and St Petersburgers have a more welcoming attitude towards tourists. Food Coursework. St Petersburg is often considered compact and calm compared to urban and noisy Moscow. The Nevsky Prospekt features the best architecture of the city.
Standing on the Troitsky Bridge, one can see a great panoramic view of the city, where reflections of the palaces and main buildings shimmer on the Neva River. On the other side of the Neva is located the Peter and Paul Fortress, which was built to defend the city and religious papers was later used as a prison. Strategic. The magnificent spire of the Peter and Paul Cathedral with its winged angel blessing the city constitutes a great composition with the fortress and the Neva River. Along the left bank of the Neva there is a line of palaces culminating in the royal Romanov Winter Palace, which is currently home to the world-famous Hermitage Museum. The museum not only offers the most famous masterpieces of painters such as Rembrandt, da Vinci and Matisse, but also displays magnificent ballrooms and throne rooms, reminders of the days of imperial life. The museum offers such a grand collection of paintings that if a visitor stops in front of every exhibit for at least 30 seconds, a tour of the entire collection would take more than seven years (given an research, eight-hour viewing day). The beautiful Palace Square in front of the Hermitage features the Alexander Column. It was near the alliance strategic thesis Senate building where the rebel Decembrists faced the firing squads of the Emperor in 1825.
At night, St Isaac’s Cathedral and research the Senate building offer a magnificent view in the beams of projectors. The famous monument of Peter the Great, “the Bronze Horseman”, stands as a symbol of the city, reminding its viewers of Pushkin’s unforgettable poem. If you take a walk near the Neva at dawn, you will see the 13 beautiful drawbridges of Petersburg lifting up their hands to the heavens while beneath them slide vessels. Crossing the alliance Moika Canal one can reach the Yusupov Palace, where Grigory Rasputin was murdered. The bridge across the Griboyedov Canal offers a perfect view of Kazan Cathedral, which reminds visitors of a small-scaled version of St Peter’s Basilica in Rome. One of the most beautiful cathedrals of Saint Petersburg, the Saviour-on-the-Blood, was erected on the spot where Russian Emperor Alexander II was murdered on 1 March 1881. Petrodvorets (Peter’s Palace), t he Anichkov Bridge across the Fontanka Canal with Pytor Klodt’s four famous sculptures — wild horses with their tamers — adorning its four corners, the Mariinsky Theatre, Vasilievsky Island, the Old St Petersburg Stock Exchange between the Rostral Columns, Mikhailov Gardens, and the classical Russian Museum are only papers, some of the essays on the countless beauties that “the city of white nights” offers. This bright and lively Petersburg gives a completely different picture than Fyodor Dostoevsky’s image of Petersburg. In his masterpiece Crime and Punishment , Dostoevsky describes the city from the eyes of the religious research hero of his novel, Raskolnikov.
Dostoevsky’s Petersburg is a terrible, cold, merciless and suffocating city where lonely souls are lost inside the crowds. It is a city that kills the good inside and liberates evil from its chains. Dostoevsky’s criticism of Petersburg is not the sole example in Russian literature and chronic case political thought. The rivalry between the two capitals of Russia, Moscow and research Petersburg, has often been materialised in the works of famous writers. Gogol was perhaps the foremost among them.
Being the poles of the longstanding dispute between Slavophilism and Westernism, the two cities’ contrasting personalities have been apparent in their social composition, cultural outlook and even architectural styles. This great difference of atmosphere between the two cities is easily sensed by visitors. The two capitals, each playing its own role in Russian history and political thought, demonstrate the two different faces of Russia. In an attempt to identify the differences of character between the two cities, this paper will examine the reasons for the division of roles of the two capitals of Russia. The Birth of Moscow. Archaeological evidence indicates that the territory that is now Moscow has been occupied since the Neolithic epoch. The oldest settlements, dated at management three thousand years before our era, were discovered within the area of the present-day city. In the 8th and 9th centuries Slavic tribes started to occupy areas near the Moskva River. These were the tribes of the Kryvichi and Vjatichi, who are regarded as the kernel of the future Moscow population. The first reference to “the village of research Moscow” was made in an old Russian manuscript of 1147. In 1156, Prince Yuri Vladimirovich Dolgoruky erected timber walls on the present-day site of the Kremlin . He is regarded as the founder of the city of Moscow.  His monument, which is located near Tverskaya Street, is among the city’s most visited touristic attractions.
Surrounding forest belt provided the city a limited degree of protection from the thesis invaders. Its unique location adjacent to religious papers several rivers also helped it to become a trade centre. From the 10th to the 13th centuries, Kievan Rus’  (Russia of case Kiev) was the research dominant figure of the coursework Russian land, and it was well-integrated into the medieval economic system. The Tartar (or Tatar) invasion, which resumed in 1237 and lasted more than 250 years, tore Russia away from the West. The invasion, facilitated by papers, the breakup of Kievan Rus ’, was followed by the division of the East Slavic people into three separate nations: modern day Russia , Ukraine and Belarus . Despite having devastating consequences for Kievan Rus’, the Tartar rule played an important role in media, the rise of religious Moscow and subsequently the Russian Empire . Moscow became the seat of the grand dukes of sales resume Vladimir-Suzdal (1271), who later assumed the research papers title of grand dukes of Moscow. By 1325, Moscow’s princes obtained the sole right to rule over strategic the Russian territories and religious research collect tribute for my life essay the Golden Horde . During the rule of Dmitri Donskoi , the research first stone walls of the Kremlin were built (1367). With its location at the crossroads of trade routes and its leadership in the struggle against the Tatar rule, “ Muscovy” gradually achieved dominance over sales the neighbouring principalities. The head of the Russian Orthodox Church relocated to Moscow in the 14th century in recognition of the city’s growing authority.
The Prince of Moscow, Ivan III, rolled back the Tatar invaders , following which the city became the capital of the religious papers expanding Muscovite state. By the 15th century Moscow became the capital of the Russian national state, and in 1547 Grand Duke Ivan IV became the first to who changed my life essay assume the title of Tsar. The Moscow Kremlin, which was built in the beginning of the 15th century, is a benchmark of that epoch. During the period of expansion, the young state was thrown into chaos when Ivan IV passed away without leaving an heir. Religious. In the ensuing power struggle, the country was invaded by several foreign armies before the Russian people were able once again to gain control of Moscow and elect a new Tsar, marking the beginning of the Romanov dynasty (1613–1917). During the reign of Peter the Great, there was strong progress in the arts and sciences in Moscow, and in sales resume, Russia as a whole. In 1703 the first printed newspaper appeared ( Vedomosti ), and in 1755 Moscow University was opened. The large-scale growth of manufacturing in research papers, Moscow during the 17th century, which necessitated an outlet to strategic thesis the sea, was instrumental in religious research, Peter’s decision to food technology coursework questionnaire build St Petersburg on the Baltic. The capital was transferred to St Petersburg in 1712, but Moscow’s cultural and social life continued uninterrupted and the city remained Russia’s religious centre. Following the Battle of Borodino in August of 1812, Moscow was left to Napoleon’s troops.  However, before the arrival of the French in the city, it was burnt by religious research papers, the Moscovites  almost entirely.
Fires and hunger forced the French army to leave Moscow.  After the alliance thesis liberation of the city, a commission was authorised for the reconstruction of papers Moscow. The present-day appearance of the Moscow city centre is rooted in those times. Thus, the Alexandrov Garden and thesis Theatre Square appeared with the Bolshoi and Maly theatres, as well as the buildings of research papers Manezh and the First Gradskaya hospital. Towards the who changed my life essay end of the 19th century it became the second industrial centre in Russia (after St Petersburg), partially due to the rapid growth of railway communication. The first telegraph line was constructed in 1852, connecting the two Russian capitals. The first telephone lines were organised between Moscow and Petersburg in the late 1890s. The 19th century is considered as the research papers golden age for arts and essays on the reformation in europe science, and Moscow was the intellectual birthplace of religious papers many famous Russian artists, writers like Pushkin, Gogol’, Tolstoi, Chekhov and Herzen. The 19th century also marked the development of the Slavophile movement, whose “holy” centre was Moscow. The process of rapid industrialisation and the formation of the labour class helped the communistic ideas of Karl Marx to spread among the essay working classes and intelligentsia in Moscow.
The Krasnaya Presnya rebellion of 1905 and the July strikes of 1914 were the important milestones in the revolutionary process, which was finalised by the “Great October” Revolution of 1917. In 1918 the Soviet government, headed by V. Lenin, transferred the capital back to Moscow and fostered spectacular economic growth in the city. The Soviet Union was announced on 30 December 1922 by religious research papers, the All-Russia Communist Party of Bolsheviks (VKPB) with Moscow as its capital. During World War II, Moscow was the goal of the German offensive. The German troops were stopped only 35–40 kilometres (near today’s Sheremetyevo Airport) from the chronic pain case city’s centre. Moscow’s architecture changed drastically with the construction of Soviet-style blocs to answer the increasing need for housing. The most active construction process took place during the rule of Nikita Khrushchev in the 1960s. These small-sized flats, which are often referred to research as “Xrushovki” in the Russian language, were constructed quickly to resume meet the religious research papers urgent demand and are, therefore, far from being beautiful or diverse. Due to chronic management case inadequate public funds, Moscow’s infrastructure suffered after the 1991 demise of the Soviet Union.
In the late 1990s many ambitious reconstruction projects were launched and Moscow experienced a real-estate boom. Today, with its gigantic size, huge population and unbearable traffic jams, Moscow is considered one of the most expensive metropolises of the world. Muscovite Russia – The Centre of Autocracy and Absolutism. The political evolution of Russia has occurred in religious papers, an opposite direction compared to that of the West due to geographic, political and cultural reasons. After the conquest of Siberia, the borders of Russia were extended vastly, covering an immense territory and making her the largest kingdom on media earth in the 17th century. Religious Research Papers. This vast territory was exposed to the threat of essays reformation Mongol and Turkic tribes. These conditions created a suitable environment for the development and justification of the concept of “ autocracy” in Russia. This feeling of insecurity led in research papers, Muscovite Russia to the development of a “military dictatorship”. The entire Russian nation consisted of serfs: the development of a privileged aristocracy and a class of self-governing burghers was impeded.
The absence of private property led to essay the complete concentration of power in research papers, the hands of Russia’s rulers. Until the 19th century, Muscovite Russian cities were mainly made up of rural populations engaged in agriculture and lacking powers of self-government. The consequence of these conditions in medieval Russia was the technology coursework absence of an independent nobility and private property. Thus, the lack of these two key institutions, which served to limit the religious research papers powers of who changed essay kings in the West, helped the Russian rulers to consolidate their absolute power. Another contributing factor to the rise of an extreme form of autocracy was the Orthodox religion. Byzantine dogma held politics to be the responsibility of the rulers and religious research this helped the emergence in Russia of a form of pain management case monarchy that, in its powers, exceeded anything known in the West even in the age of absolutism. European travellers to Muscovy perceived its rulers as possessing unlimited authority and research disregarding private property rights.
The Russian monarchy emerged as a sovereign power in the second half of the chronic studies 15th century. Until then, Russian rulers had been vassals of both Byzantium and of the Mongol-Tartar Golden Horde. The capture of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453 ended Russia’s dependence on the Byzantine Empire. Shortly afterward, the Golden Horde fell apart. Research. As a result, by 1480, in the reign of Ivan III, the rulers of Muscovy could claim, at first cautiously and food technology coursework then boldly, the title of “samoderzhets”, a translation of the Greek “autokrates”, which meant sovereign: that is, a ruler dependent of any external power. The term “Tsar”, an papers, adaptation of sample resume media Caesar, now also began to gain currency: it was formally adopted in 1547.  During the century that followed, the religious papers rulers of Muscovy came to claim imperial prerogatives on the grounds that they were the world’s only Orthodox sovereigns and, as such, the world’s only true Christian rulers. However, from the 1470s onward, Russia’s rulers were also addressed by another term, one which survived until 1917: “gosudar”, commonly translated as “sovereign”.
This terminology provides a clue to the patrimonial nature of emergent Russian absolutism. Once they had shaken off Mongol domination, the rulers of Moscow suddenly became sovereigns. They considered their realm as patrimonial property, property inherited from who changed their fathers, for which Russians used the term “votchina”. Thus, it comes as no surprise that both Ivan III (1440–1505) and his son Basil III (1479–1533), like Ivan I before them, continued to refer to papers Muscovy as their “patrimony” (votchina).  During the reigns of Ivan III, Basil III and who changed essay Ivan IV, neither privileged status nor private property were tolerated. Thus, the kind of aristocracy seen in Western Europe could not be created. The Boyar Duma (1547-1711), often referred to as “the boyars”, was a royal council. Its officials were invited by the Tsar.
The Duma was not able to take the initiative to religious convene and it dealt only with matters that were submitted by food technology questionnaire, the Tsar himself. In sum, the Duma was unable to limit the authority of the Tsars. The “Zemskie sobory”, or Land Assemblies, which are considered to have been founded in 1549 or 1550, were also unable to restrain the Muscovite rulers. Religious Papers. The majority of food coursework questionnaire their deputies were government officials appointed by the crown. Their sole purpose was to strengthen the research government’s control over the provinces. Thus, the Assemblies never became politically influential institutions like their European counterparts. In this patrimonial state, the monarchs were free to on the in europe legislate and were confronted by neither private property nor established social estates, which, by their existence, set limits to authority. The Birth of the Conservative Ideology: Muscovy – The Third Rome. In the 330s, Emperor Constantine deserted the Tiber for the Bosphorus and built there a “New Rome”, which became the religious papers centre of the seven ecumenical councils and the home of the Orthodox emperors and patriarchs.  In line with the decision of the Council of Constantinople held in management, 381, the Byzantines themselves actually regarded their state as the research “New Rome”.
For over sample a thousand years, the “New Rome” dedicated itself to the duty of preserving three great heritages: the classical Greek, imperial Rome and the church fathers. During that time the religious papers empire and the church became so inextricably interrelated that the clergy could not imagine Christianity without the emperor. A corollary of this was the chronic case studies concept that the empire must endure as long as Christianity itself.  In search of Western military assistance against the Ottoman threat, Byzantium agreed at the Council of Florence-Ferrara in 1439 to rejoin the Catholic Church. Papers. Thus, the primacy of the Pope was acknowledged and sample media all doctrinal issues dividing the two churches were conceded by the Byzantium. This accord was denied and considered as a betrayal of religious papers faith by the Russian Orthodox Church. According to Orthodox theology, there could be no Christian church without a secular power to protect it and enforce its teachings; there had to be a “Third Rome” with its own emperor. Chronic Pain Management Studies. When Constantinople was conquered in 1453 by the Ottomans, Russia remained the only rightful claimant to the status of Third Rome.  This notion, in turn, led to the development of the theory of Moscow - The Third Rome formulated apparently sometime in the 1530s by the monk Filofei (Philotheus).  Filofei articulated his theory in one terse sentence: “Dva Rima padosha, a tretii stoit, a chetvertom ne byti”: “Two Romes have fallen, the third stands, and a fourth there will not be.”  Implicit in that statement was the belief that Russia was destined to religious research papers rule the world and that the Russian Tsar was the resume ruler of all humanity.
The responsibility of preserving the world’s cultural heritage was now on the shoulders of Muscovy. Even in the 19th century, this religious mission remained one of the main springs of Pan-Slavist thinking. With the preparation of The Book of Degrees of the Royal Genealogy ( Stepennaia kniga ) by Metropolitan Macarius  in religious research, 1560–1563, Ivan IV was presented as the legitimate heir of the Roman and Byzantine emperors. With the support of the Church, the Russian rulers were now endowed with unrestrained power and the Church itself came under the full authority and control of the Tsars. The rulers of Moscow appointed the highest of dignitaries and removed them at will. This voluntary subordination of the Russian Church to the state led to the bureaucratisation of the clergy and spared Russia the kind of struggle between the ecclesiastical and management secular authorities that had afflicted Catholic Europe through much of the Middle Ages. The highly bureaucratised Russian Church also became hostile to all independent religious thought and condemned all sorts of independent thinking.
Thus, at the beginning of her new autonomous existence, Muscovy was given a sharp thrust towards conservatism and an admonition to watch warily against perverting influences from the outside, especially from Western Europe.  St Petersburg – Russia’s Window to religious research Europe. The name of St Petersburg has been changed three times in history due to the changing political climate in Russia. However, the resume media city is still called simply “Peter” by its residents. Petersburg did not grow up like other towns. Neither commerce nor geopolitics can account for its development. Rather, it was built as a work of art. Religious. Petersburg was conceived as a composition of natural elements – water, stone and sky. Amsterdam and Venice were early inspirations for the layout of the palace-lined canals and sample embankments. Peter the Great was eclectic in his architectural tastes and borrowed what he liked from Europe’s capitals.
The austere classical baroque style of Petersburg’s churches, which set them apart from Moscow’s brightly coloured onion domes, was a mixture of St Paul’s cathedral in London, St Peter’s in Rome and the single-spired churches of Riga, in what is now Latvia. Religious Papers.  Important capitals of sample media Europe like London, Paris or Vienna were built over several centuries with the accumulation of religious research a great heritage, tradition and culture, reflecting different styles of diverse periods. However, Petersburg was completed within only fifty years and essays reformation according to religious papers one single set of principles. According to Orlando Figes, St Petersburg was more than a city. Alliance Thesis. It was a vast, almost utopian, project of cultural engineering to reconstruct the Russian as a European man.  For Dostoyevsky, it was the “most abstract and intentional city in the whole round world”.  In fact, every detail of the city was intentionally designed for the refusal of “medieval Muscovy” and to compel the Russians to adopt a more European way of life. As Peter conceived it, to become a citizen of Petersburg was to religious papers leave behind the “dark” and “backward” customs of the Russian past in Moscow and to enter, as a European Russian, the modern Western world of progress and enlightenment.  Laying the basis of a modern European state, Peter did not forget the pain case noble class. By establishing a Table of Ranks, which ordered the nobles hierarchically according to their offices, he turned all nobles into servants of the research papers Crown. He also allowed commoners to be given noble status for amazing sales their service to the state. Thus, Peter’s new aristocracy was defined entirely by its position in the civil and military service, and rights and religious research papers privileges were set accordingly.
The obsessive regulations introduced by Peter and the “obligatory imitation” of the European way of life gave St Petersburg the image of a hostile and oppressive place. Criticism of coursework questionnaire St Petersburg as a threat to the Russian way of religious life started to play a central role in Russian literature. Food Coursework Questionnaire. This criticism was above all seen in Gogol’s novels. Gogol’s Petersburg was a cold and papers cruel city with lonely, haunted figures.  In Dostoevsky’s novel Crime and Punishment (1866), it was the strategic thesis home of criminals and murderers like Raskolnikov.  The northern capital was an insular world teeming with ambition, where politics, culture and social life were inseparable and a careless remark could make or break a career. The city was, as Peter had intended, Russia’s “window to Europe”. Diplomats and emigres played important roles in the society. Ethnic non-Russians filled the upper reaches of government; there were also European tutors and governesses, foreign-language newspapers, Catholic and Protestant churches and foreign scholars in religious research papers, the Imperial Academy of Sciences; finally, many foreign merchants and well-travelled Russian naval officers lived in the empire’s largest port city. Its location, its European architecture and its Germanic name further strengthened its identity as a bridge between Russia and Europe.  Looking from the architectural perspective, St Petersburg’s characteristic was a perfect synthesis of the Italian and Russian baroque styles. The harmonious network of strategic thesis avenues, squares, canals and parks, which were mostly planned and built by Italian architect Bartolomeo Rastrelli, gave an religious research papers, architectural unity to the city.
Water, through the perfectly designed canals and the Neva River, added lightness to the heavy baroque style and movement to the buildings set along its edge. While the strategic golden spire of the Admiralty became the religious topographical centre of the city, Falconet’s equestrian statute of Peter the Great, The Bronze Horseman, became the “new emblem” of questionnaire Russia’s destiny. Rivalry between Moscow and St Petersburg: A Comparison of the Distinct. Characters of the Two Cities. A) Architectural Distinctions. As St Petersburg was intentionally built for the sole purpose of papers forcing the Russians to adopt the European way of life, its architecture also resembled an adoption of the Western cities. Its style was dictated by strategic, European fashion, whereas Moscow had a distinct rural atmosphere. Following the religious research construction of alliance St Petersburg, the research population of Moscow fell drastically.
It had been reduced to a provincial capital and coursework maintained that image until the middle of the 19th century. According to the Empress Catherine, Moscow was a symbol of papers fanaticism while St Petersburg symbolised progress and civilisation. Essays On The. When in the early 1770s a part of Moscow had to be burned due to research papers the Black Death, which swept through the city, Catherine saw an opportunity to reconstruct Moscow in the European style. However, this grand project could not be realised due to financial insufficiencies. When the flames of the big fire of 1812 swallowed the city, a large construction process started. This was another chance to rebuild the city in a European style following the example of St Petersburg. Alliance. Yet during this grand reconstruction process, the planners of the city did not try to imitate Western cities. They rather successfully mixed the European design with the distinctive Russian style. Moscow’s architectural character was defined largely by the Russian provinces.
Being located on research papers the crossroads of Europe and the Asiatic steppe, it had absorbed these diverse influences and created its own distinctive style. The streets of Moscow reflected a mixture of oriental customs, colours and motifs. The poet Konstantin Batiushkov saw the city as a “bizarre mix” of East and West. In the who changed essay image of religious Moscow one could still make out the influence of Genghiz Khan. Essays. Moscow’s semi-oriental nature was given full expression in the so-called neo-Byzantine style of architecture that dominated its reconstruction in the 1830s and 1840s. The architecture mixed elements of the neo-Gothic and medieval Russian styles with Byzantine and classical motifs.  The city also imposed its style on religious research its provinces. Many provinces, Kazan being the most remarkable example, adopted the architecture of coursework questionnaire Moscow as a model. Moscow’s role as the cultural capital of the Russian provinces was thus confirmed.
B) Europeanisation versus Isolation. In an religious, attempt to achieve his ambitious goal to create a continental military power and sample resume a European Russia, Peter the Great travelled to European cities. Hiding his identity, he worked as an ordinary shipbuilder in Holland to learn new maritime technologies. Following his return, he started an enforced adaptation process of European models of navy, military schools, law and Table of papers Ranks (civil service), which he believed to be necessary for Russia to become a modern European state. Pioneering the Westernisation process, Peter dressed in Western clothes, shaved his beard and did not strictly follow the religious duties of the Orthodox Church. He hated everything that Moscow symbolised: archaic culture, superstition, religious fanaticism and sample resume resentment of the West. The Petrine Revolution  in Russian culture and religious research politics created a contrast between Moscow and St Petersburg. While St Petersburg symbolised everything about Westernisation, Moscow was the symbol of the historical and cultural isolation of Russia from Europe.
The Renaissance and the Reformation, which swept the whole of alliance Europe, did not have any influence on research Muscovy. It took no part in maritime discoveries or the scientific revolutions of the chronic management studies early modern era. It had no great cities in the European sense, no universities or public schools apart from monastery academies and no real middle class. The projection of Russia into Europe has always been the “raison d’etre” of St Petersburg. It was not simply Peter’s “window on Europe” – as Pushkin once described the capital – but an open doorway through which Europe entered Russia and the Russians made their entry into the world. 
C) Contrasting Ideologies. Russia’s cultural turn away from research papers Europe accelerated during the reign of Nicholas I.  The Tsar and his ideologists felt sympathy towards the alliance Slavophile doctrine that associated Russia with the eastern traditions of Byzantium. This departure of Russia from the European tradition led to the re-emergence of Moscow as the “genuine capital” of Russia. This conscious rejection of Europeanisation and religious return to the ancient native traditions was soon mythologised as a national renaissance. The ideological confrontation between the who changed Westernisers and the Slavophiles laid the basis of the opposition between Moscow and St Petersburg. For the Westernisers, Petersburg was the symbol of their Europe-oriented ideas for Russia. The Slavophiles, however, idealised Moscow, whose way of life was more provincial and was closer to the habits of the Russian people. For them, the customs and traditions of the religious research papers old Rus’ were embodied in Moscow, reflecting the real Russian character. D) The Role of Religion.
Muscovy was the religious centre of Russia while St Petersburg symbolised a modern secular European state. Reflecting the spiritual traditions of the Eastern Church back to Byzantium, Moscow resembled the medieval culture of who changed my life essay central Europe. The dominance of the research papers church impeded all sorts of secular movements that had taken shape in Europe with the Renaissance and Reformation. The focal point of the Russian Orthodox Church was the icons, and it was hostile to the development of other forms of art like literature, painting, sculpture or instrumental music. St Basil’s of Red Square symbolised the management triumphant restoration of the Orthodox traditions of Byzantium and set in stone the imperial mission of Moscow as the capital of the religious crusade that was set out in the doctrine of Moscow as the Third Rome. The double-headed eagle of the Byzantine emperors, which is currently the symbol of Russia, was added by Moscow’s princes to their coat of arms. As was explained above, the support of the Russian Orthodox Church was fundamental to Moscow’s emergence as the research papers mother city of Holy Rus’. The Church marked the enemies of Moscow as the enemies of Christ.
The union of Moscow and Orthodoxy was cemented in the churches and the monasteries. Moscow was a centre of the Old Believers, who radically opposed reform in the Russian Church. Moscow’s messianic destiny as the strategic thesis Third Rome and the last true seat of Orthodoxy was the centre of religious their faith. Living in amazing sales resume, enclosed communities, they were hostile to research the influences of the West and any innovations from the food technology coursework questionnaire outside world. They regarded Peter as the Antichrist, and thus St Petersburg was considered by them as “the kingdom of the Devil”. E) The Images of the Two Cities in Russian Literature. The liberation of the nobles from obligatory state service in 1762 opened the door to Europe for the curious Russian gentry. Visiting European capitals like London, Paris, Amsterdam and Vienna, they started to question Russia’s place in Europe. The virtues of the religious research papers distinctive Russian character started to be reflected especially in travel writing. Dostoevsky used the terms “corrupt, materialist and management egoistical” to describe Europe.  This lexicon started to be frequently seen in the works of Russian writers, the religious research papers Slavophiles being the foremost among them. Food Coursework Questionnaire. For Dostoevsky, it was Russia’s messianic mission and religious papers destiny to save the fallen West.
In the eyes of these writers, St Petersburg, as the symbol of the European Russia, was the centre of corruption, foreign artifice, alien conventions and strategic pretension. They idealised Moscow as the religious research symbol of sample media real Russian character and soul, uncorrupted by civilisation or artificial European influences. Especially in the national narrative of the 19th century, the old romantic ideal of native soil placed Moscow at the centre of the image of “pure Russia with real Russian virtues”. In sum, Moscow, in a sense, became the antithesis of religious St Petersburg in Russian literature. F) The Impact of the French Revolution and War with France. During the reign of Catherine II, the influence of French culture on coursework the upper class of St Petersburg was felt even more strongly. The “Voltaireanism” of research papers Catherine gave St Petersburg society a rationalist and sceptical view of life that was at odds with the sentimentalism and mysticism common in Moscow.  However, everything changed with the French Revolution. The bloodshed caused by the Jacobin reign of terror following the sales revolution of 1789 created dismay and reaction among the Russian gentry, who believed in the supremacy of religious French culture and idealised the who changed my life essay French way of life. The belief that France was the centre of civilisation, progress and enlightenment soon faded away. The once Francophile nobility became opponents of France, consciously striving to liberate themselves from the research papers intellectual empire of the sample resume French. The use of French words, which was once common among Russian nobles, was now creating reactions even in the salons of St Petersburg.
The Russian government finally broke off relations with revolutionary France. Moscow’s importance increased and its place as a symbol of everything “Russian in the real sense” was further strengthened following the religious research papers French revolution. When Russia went to management case war with France in 1805, Moscow’s indisputable place as the “heart of Russia” was confirmed. Before the Battle of research papers Borodino, Napoleon Bonaparte is believed to have said: “If I take Kiev, I will take Russia’s legs, if I take Saint Petersburg, I'll take its head. But if I take Moscow, I’ll take its heart”. G) The Role of the Noble Classes.
With Moscow being the former capital of Russia, the majority of its elite and intelligentsia was brought up in an ancestral patriarchal tradition. Despite being distant from St Petersburg, this elite, through friends and relatives serving in the St Petersburg bureaucracy and military ranks, had a sensible influence in politics. While the St Petersburg aristocracy represented the European fashion, the presence of media wealthy nobles and research papers the provincial gentry brought to Moscow the amazing resume traditional attitudes of the countryside. Governmental measures emanated from Petersburg, but the way to understand and evaluate them, and to judge them, was determined in Moscow, along with their moral power. Much more than Petersburg, Moscow remained the centre of the country’s spiritual life, and it approached politics with a defiant spirit of nationalism and fronde  . Dominance of Moscow in Current Politics in Russia: The Victory of Autocracy Over. The foundation of St Petersburg and the enforced process of Europeanisation (or Westernisation) caused by the Petrine Revolution in Russian culture created an uncertainty on the part of the Russian nation about its place in papers, Europe. This ambivalence, embodied in the characters of its two capitals, is still continuing in resume, Russia today. Living in the crossroads of Europe and Asia, the Russians have never been quite sure if they belong to the East or to the West.
During the reign of Peter, the upper classes of St Petersburg were forced to research imitate the European way of life, while Moscow remained the symbol of real Russian character and soul. During the ideological clash of the sample Cold War era, Russia remained isolated from Europe, reminiscentof the days of medieval Muscovy. Since the collapse of the former Soviet Union in 1991, Russian academics, policy-makers, philosophers and bureaucrats have been trying to develop a new concept that could play a guiding role in religious, building a new and powerful Russia. In the essay current debate on how to accomplish the revival of Russia as a great power, the Westernisers and the conservatives constitute two opposing poles. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, there have been important developments that strengthened the position of the conservative camp against the Westernisers. Papers. The war in Chechnya, the eastward enlargement of NATO along Russia’s western borders, the my life American military bases in Central Asia, the orange revolutions liberating ex-Soviet countries from Moscow’s orbit, Washington’s missile defence shield project that includes some central and religious research papers eastern European countries, the violent terrorist attacks of Chechen radicals in various Russian cities, the war in Georgia and pain management case most recently the incidents of December 2010 played an important role in the rise of conservative and nationalist feelings.
The increasing involvement of the Russian Orthodox Church in politics has also played an important role in the strengthening of conservatism in papers, Russia. The Russian Orthodox Church, whose centre has been Moscow since 1325–1326  , played the key role in empowering the sample Russian Tsars with unrestrained and religious research papers indisputable strength, and this fact contributed to the strengthening of conservative Muscovy. Today, we observe that t he Putin administration receives the open support of the Orthodox Church, an echo of the type of cooperation between the alliance strategic thesis Church and the Tsars of Muscovite Russia. This revival of the Russian Orthodox Church and religious its increasing influence in current Russian politic marks the studies defining role of Moscow, and thus the conservative orientation of the Russian state. The influence of the conservative nationalist circles inside the Kremlin no doubt plays a defining role in the anti-Western authoritarianism and autocracy that is currently prevailing in Russian politics. Putin, a cautious personality with a KGB background, has a circle of advisers comprised of tiny groups with strong nationalist ideology.
The best known of these groups is the “Siloviki” (men of power), which deals with issues of national security and religious research papers international affairs. The Siloviki are mostly officials with military or KGB backgrounds who dominate the country’s security and intelligence ministries and food technology coursework questionnaire believe in absolute state control of economic, political and social life in Russia. They are mostly from St Petersburg since Putin usually recruits from his native city when filling key posts in research papers, the state apparatus and sales resume state-controlled corporations. It is ironic that the Siloviki, despite having mostly St Petersburg origins, do not reflect the Western-oriented ideology of their native city. The leader of the Petersburg Siloviki – and the third most powerful man in Russia after Putin himself and President Dmitry Medvedev – is Deputy Prime Minister Igor Sechin, who is sometimes referred to as the “Russian Richelieu”  because of his control over a diverse network of officials and bureaucrats. Following the advent of President Dmitry Medvedev, the concerns of the Siloviki network started to research papers grow. Food Technology Coursework. Medvedev, despite being a protege of the Siloviki and a native of St Petersburg, does not have a KGB background. He is a civilian who represents a more liberal portrait than the aggressive rhetoric and tone of Putin’s Siloviki.
President Medvedev, in his first days in office, stripped Defence Minister Sergey Ivanov of papers his title as “First Deputy Prime Minister”. This sudden demotion of Defence Minister Ivanov was regarded as a challenge to the Siloviki. Medvedev continued his liberal approach by amazing sales resume, inviting pro-democracy activists to the Kremlin for tea and giving interviews in the liberal media. Whereas the Prime Minister defined the democrats as “jackals begging around foreign embassies,” President Medvedev treated them with marked respect. Religious Research. Medvedev’s push for chronic pain management case modernisation, innovation and the rule of law, juxtaposed against religious the sound resistance shown by the Siloviki to the “Europeanisation” of politics in Russia, reminds us of the on the days of Peter the Great when St Petersburg symbolised modernisation and civilisation while Moscow was the symbol of conservatism and anti-Europeanism. The victory of Putin in the Presidential elections of 4 March 2012 brings us to the conclusion that the conservative camp, whose ideology is largely shaped by religious research, Orthodoxy, autocracy, nationalism and to some extent Slavophilism, will preserve its control over the Russian state and politics in the foreseeable future. Thus, it seems possible to envisage that the “central” place of Moscow as the “heart” of Russia and pain its conservative ideology, which is largely dominating Russian politics today, will remain unchanged in the near future. According to Tolstoy, every Russian considered Moscow as a mother.  Tolstoy’s understanding of Moscow’s central place for the Russians is even more clearly defined in a Russian proverb, “Petersburg is our head, Moscow is our heart - - , – ” .  .. , .. Papers. , , , 2010 , p. 138.  The V.I.
Lenin Museum was founded on the decision of the 13th Party Congress on 31 May 1924 as a department of the Lenin Institute. On 15 May 1936, the Central Museum of V.I. Lenin was opened for visitors. In the almost 70 years of its existence the Lenin Museum was a powerful centre of propaganda for the ideas of Marxism-Leninism and for the formation of intellectual and emotional fidelity to the Communist Party’s policy and activity. On 12 November 1993 by presidential decree, the Central Lenin Museum ceased to exist as an independent historical and who changed essay cultural institution. At present, the Lenin Museum is a branch of the State Historical Museum and has no exhibition.  In 1713, Peter the Great moved the Russian capital from religious research papers Moscow to St Petersburg.  , .. , - , 10 , . , , — , 2.2 30 2002 , p. 284, http :// www . rvb . ru / pushkin / toc . htm .  .. Media. , - , p . 285.  , 1153 . , , , - , , 2010 , p. 24.
 Kievan Rus’ ( Russian : ? ) is the name used by Russian historian Nikolai Karamzin for the medieval state of Rus. The state existed from approximately 880 to sometime in the middle of the 13th century, when it disintegrated. It was founded by research, East Slavic tribes and chronic management case Scandinavian traders ( Varangians ) called “ Rus ’” and was centred in Novgorod . Research Papers. The state later included territories stretching south to the Black Sea , east to the Volga and west to the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania .  , 1812 , , 2009 , p. 165.  Count Rostopchin denied accusations that he had ordered the blaze ignited to drive out the French. The fire was most likely accidentally begun by French looters and was fanned by fanatic patriots among the few Russians who had remained behind when Napoleon entered the city. Whatever the cause, the fire sparked an anti-French uprising among the peasants, whose raids, along with the cruel winter, helped force Napoleon’s retreat.  See details in , 1812 , pp. 181-223.  Richard Pipes, Russian Conservatism and Its Critics: A Study in Political Culture, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 2005, p. 13.  Pipes, Russian Conservatism and Its Critics: A Study in Political Culture, p. 14.
 According to the Appolinarian doctrine, taught by Bishop Appolinarius the Younger, bishop of Laodicea in Syria during the 4th century, Jesus was not a man but the “word of God dwelling in amazing resume, the human body”. This transgression caused the religious research capital of true Christianity to shift to strategic thesis Constantinople, where it made its home for the next nine centuries. Research Papers. This doctrine was condemned as heresy by Roman councils in 377 and in 381 and who changed essay also by the Council of Constantinople in 381. In spite of its repeated condemnation, Apollinarianism persisted into research papers, the 5th century. At that time its remaining adherents merged with the Monophysites, who held that Christ had a divine nature but no human nature, a view articulated in the second half of the 4th century by Bishop Appolinarius,  Thornton Anderson, Russian Political Thought: An Introduction, Cornell University Press, New York, 1967, p. 72.  The first to claim their capital as the heir of technology questionnaire Byzantium were the Bulgarians, who as early as the 14th century designated the capital of their empire, Tyrnovo (Tirnova), as the “New Rome.” This claim lapsed in 1393 when Tyrnovo fell to the Turks.  , - 1500- , , - , , 2010 , p. 88.  Pipes, Russian Conservatism and Its Critics: A Study in Political Culture, p. Religious Research. 39.  Anderson, Russian Political Thought: An Introduction, p. 74.
 Orlando Figes, Natasha’s Dance: A Cultural History of Russia, New York, 2002, pp. 7-8.  Figes, Natasha’s Dance: A Cultural History of Russia, p. Media. 10.  Figes, Natasha’s Dance: A Cultural History of religious research Russia, p. 10.  , , 1866,  Alexander M. Martin, Romantics, Reformers, Reactionaries: Russian Conservative Thought and Politics in essays reformation, the Reign of religious papers Alexander I, Northern Illinois University Press, DeKalb, 1997, pp. 57-58.  Figes, Natasha’s Dance: A Cultural History of Russia, p. 154.  See details in James Cracraft, The Petrine Revolution in Russian Culture, Belknap Press, London, 2004.  Figes, Natasha’s Dance: A Cultural History of Russia, p. Food Coursework Questionnaire. 61.
 .. , - , 2010.  Martin, Romantics, Reformers, Reactionaries: Russian Conservative Thought and Politics in the Reign of Alexander I, p. 58.  Martin, Romantics, Reformers, Reactionaries: Russian Conservative Thought and research Politics in the Reign of Alexander I, p. 59.  In 1299, Maksim, the Metropolitan of Kiev, moved his seat from Kiev to Vladimir to escape the Tatar menace, thus making Vladimir the seat of the amazing sales resume Russian Orthodox Church. It remained there until the reign of Metropolitan Pyotr (1306-1326), when contacts between the head of the religious research papers church in Vladimir, and who changed essay the Moscow Princes and Grand Princes became closer. Religious. In 1325-26, Metropolitan Pyotr (who was canonised in 1339) moved his seat from Vladimir to amazing Moscow, thus making Moscow the ecclesiastical center. In the same year, Ivan I (Kalita) laid the foundation stone of the Cathedral of the Dormition, which was the first cathedral to be built in the Kremlin. It was consecrated on 4 August 1427.  Cardinal Richelieu was born in Paris on 9 September 1585. He became the prime minister of France in 1624.
Richelieu argued that the state is above everything, and that religion is a mere instrument to religious promote the policies of the state. When Richelieu rose to power, France’s King Louis XIII had not yet solidified his authority in France. My Life. Richelieu severely punished nobles who plotted against research the king and alliance strategic replaced his enemies in the government. In addition, he expanded the king’s authority in the provinces through the religious use of who changed my life essay royal agents. Religious. Richelieu insisted that the my life essay king apply the law with severity; otherwise, the religious state could not survive.
He emphasised that rigorous punishment of even small crimes would forestall greater ones. Through this reasoning, Richelieu provided his sovereign a rationale for the harsh rule he knew to be requisite for strengthening and maintaining the authority of the French State. Anderson, Thornton. Russian Political Thought An Introduction, Cornell University Press, New. , . ( , , , , , , 1854, , . On The Reformation. , 1866, , . 1153 ., , . , - , , 2010. Figes, Orlando.
Natasha’s Dance A Cultural History of Russia, New York, 2002, p.7-8. M. Martin, Alexander. Romantics, Reformers, Reactionaries Russian Conservative Thought and. Politics in the Reign of Alexander I , Northern Illinois University Press, DeKalb 1997. .., i .. , , 2010. Pipes, Richard. Religious. Russian Conservatism and Its Critics A Study in Political Culture, Yale. University Press, New Haven and London, 2005, p.13. , - , . , . , 1867, , i , , - . 1500- , , - . , , 2010, p .88. .. , - I : , 2010.
* An?l Cicek - Dr., Head of Department at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Turkey; completed his post-doctoral research studies at the University of Latvia as a part of the Jean Monnet Scholarship Program and achieved Russian language certificate TRKI–III (advanced level) from the University of St Petersburg. © 2010 , IJORS - INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RUSSIAN STUDIES.
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The 95 Theses of Martin Luther (1517) Dennis Bratcher, ed. Martin Luther was a German priest whose disillusionment with the abuses of the 16th century Roman Catholic Church sparked the Reformation. He was born in 1483. At the encouragement of religious papers, his father, he was determined to sales become a lawyer. However, in 1507 after nearly being struck by research papers, lightening, he decided to become a monk. Amazing Sales Resume! He entered a monastery in 1505 and was ordained a priest in 1507. Luther was assigned to research papers teach at the University of Wittenberg in 1508, where he would spend his entire career. Always an avid student, he earned his doctorate in theology four years later. In 1510 he visited Rome and chronic management studies, was appalled by the behavior of church officials and the sale of indulgences. In Catholic theology, an indulgence is the research, remission of the physical and temporal punishment for sins that is my life, endured in Purgatory after death, even though the legal guilt has been pardoned by absolution.
In Luther’s era, indulgences were being sold by religious research, the Church to sample raise money for refurbishing the Basilica of St. Peter in Rome. The slogan attributed to the Dominican friar Johann Tetzel epitomized the sale of indulgences: As soon as the papers, coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs. (see Thesis 27). In light of his discouragement with the Church, as Luther studied and lectured on Psalms, Hebrews, and Romans he came to new insights about chronic management repentance, salvation, and the role of faith. Especially from religious research, his study of on the reformation in europe, Romans, he began to understand that salvation is religious research papers, a gift of God by grace through Christ received by faith alone ( sola fide ). He also came to believe that there should be a clear distinction between law, obedience and salvation by obedience to the will of alliance strategic thesis, God by religious research papers, law, and gospel, forgiveness of sins and salvation based on the sacrificial death of sample resume, Jesus.
In 1517 Luther, informed by his growing belief that salvation is by faith alone, presented his concerns to Church officials in the form of ninety-five theses, a series of statements that presented a logical argument against the sale of religious papers, indulgences. An account arose later that he nailed the theses to the door of the castle church at who changed my life essay, Wittenberg as an act of defiance. However, as fiery and religious research papers, acerbic as Luther could sometimes be, most historians agree that the account is legendary. Historical research suggests that he sent a letter along with the 95 theses, which included an invitation to discuss the issues openly, to Archbishop Albert of Mainz. Luther wrote the ninety-five thesis with deference to the leadership of the pope. However, he had challenged the authority of the pope to offer the sale of indulgences. In a charged political climate, it was seen by some as an attack on the papacy and therefore on essays the Church. Luther was summoned to Rome to answer charges of papers, heresy.
Luther did not respond to the summons, which led to an escalating controversy between Luther and who changed essay, those who defended the absolute authority of the papacy. Luther continued writing about salvation by religious research papers, faith alone as well as other reforms that he saw needed to occur in essay the church. As a result, the rift between Luther and those who wanted to defend the authority of the papacy, as well as to protect the religious, lucrative source of income from the sale of indulgences, fueled a growing controversy. Finally in 1520, the pope issued an ultimatum that Luther must recant some of strategic, his writings or face condemnation as a heretic. Research! Luther responded with typical bluntness that the die is cast, that he sought no reconciliation with Rome, and called the decisions of the pope a swamp of heresies. In 1521 he was called before an Imperial Diet (an official assembly) at Worms, a city in essays in europe southwest Germany, to papers defend his views and recant. Luther refused and as a result was excommunicated as a heretic and the Edict of sales, Worms issued by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the urging of Church officials banned his writings and in effect called for his execution.
To escape arrest Luther took refuge in Wartburg castle under the protection of Frederick of Saxony, Luther's sovereign. There he translated the New Testament Bible into research, German and began working on translating the who changed essay, rest of the Bible, as well as writing numerous articles explaining his theology. Because of ongoing political and religious turmoil in Germany, the religious research, Edict of Worms was never enforced. Over the next few years Luther gained in popularity and since the emperor was preoccupied with other concerns, Luther eventually returned to Wittenberg. He was instrumental in reforming church worship as well as laying the groundwork for the Reformation, which essentially rejected the authority of the Pope and canon law, which is the alliance, accumulated body of laws, rules, regulations, and traditional dogmas that governed the religious, practices of the Church. Martin Luther continued working for Church reform until his death on February 18, 1546, at age 63. Reformation In Europe! -Dennis Bratcher. The English translation is adapted from Works of Martin Luther , ed. and trans. by Adolph Spaeth, et al. , A. J. Holman Company, 1915, Vol. 1, pp. Religious Papers! 29-38. Disputation of Doctor Martin Luther on the power and efficacy of Indulgences.
Out of love for the truth and the desire to bring it to light, the following propositions will be discussed at Wittenberg, under the presidency of the coursework questionnaire, Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and of Sacred Theology, and duly appointed Lecturer on these subjects at that place. He requests that those who are unable to be present and religious research papers, debate orally with us, may do so by sales, letter. In the religious, Name our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. 1. Our Lord and Master Jesus Christ, when He said Repent, willed that the essays on the reformation, whole life of believers should be repentance.
2. This word cannot be understood to mean the sacrament of penance, that is, confession and satisfaction, which is administered by religious papers, the priests. 3. Yet it does not mean inward repentance only; for there is no inward repentance that does not produce outwardly various mortifications of the flesh. 4. The penalty [of sin], therefore, continues so long as hatred of self continues; for this is the true inward repentance, and coursework questionnaire, continues until our entrance into the kingdom of heaven. 5. The pope has neither the will nor the power to remit any penalties other than those which he has imposed either by his own authority or by that of canon law. 6. The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by religious papers, declaring that it has been remitted by God and by assenting to God's remission; though, to be sure, he may grant remission in cases reserved to his judgment.
If his right to grant remission in such cases were despised, the guilt would remain entirely unforgiven. 7. Pain Management Case Studies! God remits guilt to religious research papers no one whom He does not, at the same time, humble in all things and bring into subjection to His representative, the priest. 8. The penitential canons apply only to the living, and, according to alliance thesis them, none applies to the dead. 9. Religious! Therefore the Holy Spirit acting in sample resume media the person of the pope manifests grace to us, because in his [the pope’s] decrees he always excludes the research, dead and food technology, cases of hardship. 10. Ignorant and wicked are the religious, actions of those priests who impose canonical penances on the dead in purgatory. 11. Essays! This changing of the canonical penalty to the penalty of purgatory is quite evidently one of the tares that were sown while the bishops slept. 12. In former times the canonical penalties were imposed not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition. 13.
The dying are freed by religious papers, death from all penalties; they are already dead to canonical rules, and have a right to be released from them. 14. The imperfect piety and love of the dying brings with it, of necessity, great fear; and the smaller the case studies, love, the greater is the fear. 15. This fear and horror is religious research, sufficient in itself alone (to say nothing of essays on the, other things) to constitute the penalty of purgatory, since it is religious, very near to the horror of despair. 16. There seems to be the same difference between hell, purgatory, and sales, heaven as there are between despair, almost-despair, and the assurance of safety. 17. The horror of religious, souls in purgatory should grow less and love ought to increase. 18. Pain Management! It seems unproven, either by reason or Scripture, that they are outside the state of merit, that is to say, of increasing love.
19. Again, it seems unproven that they, or at least that all of them, are certain or assured of their own salvation, though we may be quite certain of religious research, it. 20. Therefore by sales, full remission of all penalties the pope means not actually of all, but only of those imposed by himself. 21. Therefore those preachers of research, indulgences who say that by the pope's indulgences a man is freed from every penalty and resume, saved are in error; 22.
Indeed he cannot pass on to souls in purgatory any penalty which canon law declares should be paid in this life. 23. If it is at all possible to grant to research papers anyone the essays reformation in europe, remission of all penalties whatsoever, it is certain that this remission could be granted only to the most perfect, that is, to very few. 24. Therefore it must be the case that the greater part of the religious research papers, people are deceived by in europe, that indiscriminate and highsounding promise of religious research, release from resume, penalty.
25. The power which the religious papers, pope has, in general, over amazing resume purgatory, is just like the power which any bishop or curate has, in particular, within his own diocese or parish. 26. The pope does well when he grants remission to souls [in purgatory], not by the power of the keys (which he does not possess), but by way of religious research, intercession. 27. There is no divine authority for preaching that so soon as the penny jingles into the money-box, the soul flies out who changed my life [of purgatory]. 28.
It is certain that when the penny jingles into the money-box, gain and avarice can be increased, but the result of the intercession of the Church is in the power of God alone. 29. Who knows whether all the souls in research purgatory wish to be bought out of it, as in my life essay the legend of Sts. Severinus and Paschal.* [*This legend tells of two saints who were willing to remain in torment in purgatory to suffer for others.] 30. No one is sure that his own contrition is sincere; much less that he has attained full remission.
31. The man who sincerely buys indulgences is as rare as the man that is truly penitent; that is, such men are most rare. 32. They will be condemned eternally, together with their teachers, who believe themselves sure of their salvation because they have letters of pardon. 33. Research Papers! Men must be on their guard against those who say that the pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to Him; 34. Sales Resume! For these graces of religious research, pardon concern only the penalties of sacramental satisfaction, and these are appointed by man. 35. It is not according to Christian doctrine to preach and teach that contrition is not necessary for management case studies those who intend to buy souls out of purgatory or to buy confessional licenses.
36. Every truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of religious, penalty and guilt, even without letters of pardon. 37. Resume! Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has part in religious research all the blessings of Christ and chronic management, the Church; and this is granted him by God, even without letters of pardon. 38. Nevertheless, the remission and participation [in the blessings of the Church] which are granted by research, the pope are in no way to sample resume be despised, for as I have said, they are the declaration of divine remission. 39. It is most difficult, even for the very best theologians, to commend to the people the research, abundance of pardons while at the same time encouraging true contrition. 40. True contrition seeks and loves penalties, but generous pardons only relax penalties and cause them to pain case studies be hated, or at least, furnish an occasion [for hating them].
41. Papal pardons should be preached with caution, lest people falsely think they are preferable to other good works of love. 42. Christians should be taught that the pope does not intend the purchase of pardons to religious be compared in any way to works of mercy. 43. Christians should be taught that he who gives to strategic thesis the poor or lends to religious papers the needy does a better work than buying pardons; 44. Because love grows by works of love, and a man becomes a better man; but by pardons he does not grow better, only escapes penalty. 45. Christians should be taught that he who sees a person in need, and passes him by, and strategic thesis, then purchases pardons, purchases not the religious papers, indulgences of the pope, but the essays reformation in europe, indignation of papers, God.
46. Christians should be taught that unless they have more than they need, they are bound to keep what is necessary for their own families, and should by no means squander it on pardons. 47. Christians are to be taught that the buying of essays reformation, pardons is a voluntary matter, and not a legal requirement. 48. Christians should be taught that in granting pardons the pope needs and research, desires their devout prayer for him more than the reformation in europe, money they bring. 49. Christians are to be taught that the pope's pardons are useful only religious papers if they do not put their trust in them; but altogether harmful, if they lose their fear of God because of them.
50. Christians should be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the pardon-preachers, he would rather that St. Peter's church be reduced to ashes than be built up with the skin, flesh and bones of his sheep. 51. Christians should be taught that it would be the pope's wish, as it is his duty, to give of his own money, even though the church of St. Peter might have to be sold, to who changed many of those from whom certain hawkers of pardons cajole money. 52. Papers! The assurance of management, salvation by letters of pardon is useless, even though the commissary, or indeed even though the pope himself, were to papers stake his soul upon it. 53. They are enemies of Christ and essays on the reformation, of the religious research papers, pope, who forbid the Word of God to be preached at all in some Churches, in order that pardons may be preached in others. 54.
Injury is done the word of food technology coursework questionnaire, God when, in the same sermon, an religious research, equal or a longer time is spent on alliance thesis pardons than on this word. 55. Papers! It must be the essays in europe, intention of the pope that if pardons, which are a very small thing, are celebrated with one bell, with single processions and ceremonies, then the Gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies. 56. Research Papers! The treasures of the Church, out of technology, which the religious research, pope grants indulgences, are not sufficiently spoken of or known among the alliance, people of Christ. 57. That they are not temporal treasures is certainly evident, for many of the vendors do not grant such treasures freely, but only collect them.
58. Nor are they the merits of Christ and the Saints, for religious even without the media, pope, these always work grace for the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell for the outward man. 59. St. Lawrence said that the religious papers, treasures of the amazing sales, Church were the Church's poor, but he used the term in religious papers accordance with the custom of his own time. 60. Without rashness we say that the keys of the Church are that treasure, given by Christ's merit; 61. For it is clear that the sample resume media, power of the pope is of itself sufficient for the remission of penalties and of reserved cases,
62. The true treasure of the Church is the research papers, Most Holy Gospel of the glory and the grace of God. 63. But this treasure is naturally most odious, for alliance it makes the first to religious be last. 64. On the other hand, the treasure of indulgences is amazing sales, naturally most acceptable, for it makes the last to be first. 65. Therefore the treasures of the Gospel are nets with which they formerly desired to fish for men of wealth. 66.
Now, the treasures of the indulgences are nets with which they fish for the wealth of men. 67. The indulgences which the preachers cry as the greatest graces are in fact truly such only when they promote financial gain. 68. Yet they are in truth the very smallest graces compared with the grace of God and the piety of the Cross.
69. Bishops and curates are bound to receive the commissaries of papal pardons, with all reverence. 70. Research Papers! But they are under greater obligation to sales watch closely and listen carefully lest these men preach their own imaginings instead of the commission of the pope. 71. He who speaks against the validity of apostolic pardons, let him be anathema and religious, accursed! 72.
But he who guards against alliance thesis the lust and license of the religious research papers, pardon-preachers, let him be blessed! 73. The pope justly thunders against those who, by food technology coursework questionnaire, any means, contrive the injury of the traffic in pardons. 74. But much more does he intend to thunder against those who use the pretext of research, pardons to who changed essay contrive the injury of holy love and religious papers, truth. 75. It is folly to think that the food technology coursework, papal pardons are so powerful that they could absolve a man even if he had committed an impossible sin and research, violated the Mother of God. 76. We say, on the contrary, that the papal pardons are not able to remove the very least of venial sins, so far as its guilt is concerned. 77. It is said that even St.
Peter, if he were now Pope, could not bestow greater graces; this is blasphemy against technology coursework questionnaire St. Peter and against papers the pope. 78. We say, on who changed my life the contrary, that even the present pope, and any pope at all, has greater graces at his disposal; specifically, the Gospel, powers, gifts of healing, etc., as it is research papers, written in on the in europe 1 Corinthians 12. 79. To say that the religious, cross emblazoned with the papal arms, which is on the reformation in europe, set up [by the preachers of indulgences], is of equal worth with the Cross of Christ, is blasphemy. 80.
The bishops, curates and theologians who permit such assertions to be spread among the people will be held accountable for it. 81. This unbridled preaching of religious papers, pardons makes it difficult even for learned men to defend the respect due the pope from false accusations, or even from the astute criticisms of the in europe, laity; 82. For example: -- Why does not the pope empty purgatory, for the sake of religious research, holy love and of the dire need of the strategic, souls that are there, if he can redeem an research papers, infinite number of souls for the sake of miserable money with which to build a Church? The former reasons would be most just; the essays, latter is papers, most trivial. 83.
Again: -- Why do funeral and anniversary masses for the dead continue to be said? Why does the pope not return or permit the repayment of the endowments founded on their behalf, since it is media, wrong to pray for those now redeemed? 84. Again: -- What is this new piety of God and the pope, that for money they allow an impious man who is their enemy to buy out of purgatory the devout soul of religious research, a friend of God, when they do not allow that pious and beloved soul to be redeemed without payment for pure love's sake or because of its need of who changed essay, redemption? 85. Again: -- Why are the penitential canon laws long, which in research actual fact and practice are long obsolete and dead, now satisfied by the granting of indulgences, as though they were still alive and in management case effect? 86.
Again: -- Why does not the pope, whose wealth is today greater than the wealthiest of the wealthy, build just this one church of St. Peter with his own money, rather than with the money of poor believers? 87. Again: -- What is religious, it that the pope dispenses to people, and what participation does he grant, to those who have a right to strategic full remission and participation because of their perfect repentance? 88.
Again: -- What greater blessing could come to the Church than if the pope were to do a hundred times a day what he now does only once, and bestow on every believer these remissions and participations? 89. Since the pope seeks the religious research papers, salvation of souls rather than money by his pardons, why does he suspend the indulgences and pardons granted before now, since these have equal efficacy? 90. Coursework Questionnaire! To repress these arguments and scruples of the laity by religious research papers, force alone, and media, not to research papers resolve them by giving reasons, is to expose the Church and the pope to the ridicule of their enemies, and to make Christians unhappy. 91. If, therefore, pardons were preached according to the spirit and mind of the pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved; indeed, they would cease to amazing exist. 92. Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, Peace, peace, where there is no peace! 93. Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, the cross, the religious research papers, cross, where there is no cross!
94. Christians are to be exhorted that they be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through penalties, deaths, and hell; 95. And thus be confident of entering into heaven rather through many tribulations, than through the assurance of peace. Note: The Latin version is here numbered to correspond to the English translation. Disputatio pro Declaratione Virtutis Indulgentiarum. Amore et studio elucidande veritatis hec subscripta disputabuntur Wittenberge, Presidente R. P. Martino Lutther, Artium et S. Pain Case Studies! Theologie Magistro eiusdemque ibidem lectore Ordinario.
Quare petit, ut qui non possunt verbis presentes nobiscum disceptare agant id literis absentes. In nomine domini nostri Hiesu Christi. Amen. 1. Dominus et magister noster Iesus Christus dicendo `Penitentiam agite c.' omnem vitam fidelium penitentiam esse voluit. 2. Quod verbum de penitentia sacramentali (id est confessionis et satisfactionis, que sacerdotum ministerio celebratur) non potest intelligi. 3. Non tamen solam intendit interiorem, immo interior nulla est, nisi foris operetur varias carnis mortificationes. 4. Manet itaque pena, donec manet odium sui (id est penitentia vera intus), scilicet usque ad introitum regni celorum. 5. Papa non vult nec potest ullas penas remittere preter eas, quas arbitrio vel suo vel canonum imposuit.
6. Research Papers! Papa non potest remittere ullam culpam nisi declarando, et approbando remissam a deo Aut certe remittendo casus reservatos sibi, quibus contemptis culpa prorsus remaneret. 7. Nulli prorus remittit deus culpam, quin simul eum subiiciat humiliatum in who changed essay omnibus sacerdoti suo vicario. 8. Religious Research Papers! Canones penitentiales solum viventibus sunt impositi nihilque morituris secundum eosdem debet imponi. 9. Inde bene nobis facit spiritussanctus in on the reformation in europe papa excipiendo in suis decretis semper articulum mortis et necessitatis. 10. Indocte et male faciunt sacerdotes ii, qui morituris penitentias canonicas in purgatorium reservant.
11. Zizania illa de mutanda pena Canonica in penam purgatorii videntur certe dormientibus episcopis seminata. 12. Olim pene canonice non post, sed ante absolutionem imponebantur tanquam tentamenta vere contritionis. 13. Morituri per research papers mortem omnia solvunt et legibus canonum mortui iam sunt, habentes iure earum relaxationem.
14. Imperfecta sanitas seu charitas morituri necessario secum fert magnum timorem, tantoque maiorem, quanto minor fuerit ipsa. 15. Hic timor et horror satis est se solo (ut alia taceam) facere penam purgatorii, cum sit proximus desperationis horrori. 16. Videntur infernus, purgaturium, celum differre, sicut desperatio, prope desperatio, securitas differunt. 17. Necessarium videtur animabus in purgatorio sicut minni horrorem ita augeri charitatem. 18. Sample Resume Media! Nec probatum videtur ullis aut rationibus aut scripturis, quod sint extra statum meriti seu augende charitatis.
19. Nec hoc probatum esse videtur, quod sint de sua beatitudine certe et secure, saltem omnes, licet nos certissimi simus. 20. Igitur papa per research papers remissionem plenariam omnium penarum non simpliciter omnium intelligit, sed a seipso tantummodo impositarum. 21. Errant itaque indulgentiarum predicatores ii, qui dicunt per amazing sales pape indulgentias hominem ab omni pena solvi et salvari. 22. Religious Research! Quin nullam remittit animabus in who changed essay purgatorio, quam in hac vita debuissent secundum Canones solvere.
23. Si remissio ulla omnium omnino penarum potest alicui dari, certum est eam non nisi perfectissimis, i.e. paucissimis, dari. 24. Falli ob id necesse est maiorem partem populi per indifferentem illam et magnificam pene solute promissionem. 25. Qualem potestatem habet papa in purgatorium generaliter, talem habet quilibet Episcopus et Curatus in sua diocesi et parochia specialiter. 26.
Optime facit papa, quod non potestate clavis (quam nullam habet) sed per papers modum suffragii dat animabus remissionem. 27. Hominem predicant, qui statim ut iactus nummus in cistam tinnierit evolare dicunt animam. 28. Certum est, nummo in cistam tinniente augeri questum et avariciam posse: suffragium autem ecclesie est in who changed my life arbitrio dei solius. 29. Quis scit, si omnes anime in purgatorio velint redimi, sicut de s. Severino et Paschali factum narratur. 30.
Nullus securus est de veritate sue contritionis, multominus de consecutione plenarie remissionis. 31. Religious! Quam rarus est vere penitens, tam rarus est vere indulgentias redimens, i. e. rarissimus. 32. Damnabuntur ineternum cum suis magistris, qui per literas veniarum securos sese credunt de sua salute. 33. Cavendi sunt nimis, qui dicunt venias illas Pape donum esse illud dei inestimabile, quo reconciliatur homo deo. 34.
Gratie enim ille veniales tantum respiciunt penas satisfactionis sacramentalis ab homine constitutas. 35. Non christiana predicant, qui docent, quod redempturis animas vel confessionalia non sit necessaria contritio. 36. Quilibet christianus vere compunctus habet remissionem plenariam a pena et culpa etiam sine literis veniarum sibi debitam. 37. Quilibet versus christianus, sive vivus sive mortuus, habet participationem omnium bonorum Christi et Ecclesie etiam sine literis veniarum a deo sibi datam. 38. Remissio tamen et participatio Pape nullo modo est contemnenda, quia (ut dixi) est declaratio remissionis divine.
39. Difficillimum est etiam doctissimis Theologis simul extollere veniarum largitatem et contritionis veritatem coram populo. 40. Contritionis veritas penas querit et amat, Veniarum autem largitas relaxat et odisse facit, saltem occasione. 41. Caute sunt venie apostolice predicande, ne populus false intelligat eas preferri ceteris bonis operibus charitatis. 42. Docendi sunt christiani, quod Pape mens non est, redemptionem veniarum ulla ex parte comparandam esse operibus misericordie. 43. Docendi sunt christiani, quod dans pauperi aut mutuans egenti melius facit quam si venias redimereet.
44. Quia per opus charitatis crescit charitas et fit homo melior, sed per who changed my life venias non fit melior sed tantummodo a pena liberior. 45. Religious Research Papers! Docendi sunt christiani, quod, qui videt egenum et neglecto eo dat pro veniis, non idulgentias Pape sed indignationem dei sibi vendicat. 46. Docendi sunt christiani, quod nisi superfluis abundent necessaria tenentur domui sue retinere et nequaquam propter venias effundere. 47. Coursework Questionnaire! Docendi sunt christiani, quod redemptio veniarum est libera, non precepta.
48. Docendi sunt christiani, quod Papa sicut magis eget ita magis optat in veniis dandis pro se devotam orationem quam promptam pecuniam. 49. Docendi sunt christiani, quod venie Pape sunt utiles, si non in cas confidant, Sed nocentissime, si timorem dei per eas amittant. 50.
Docendi sunt christiani, quod si Papa nosset exactiones venialium predicatorum, mallet Basilicam s. Petri in cineres ire quam edificari cute, carne et ossibus ovium suarum. 51. Docendi sunt christiani, quod Papa sicut debet ita vellet, etiam vendita (si opus sit) Basilicam s. Petri, de suis pecuniis dare illis, a quorum plurimis quidam concionatores veniarum pecuniam eliciunt. 52. Vana est fiducia salutis per religious literas veniarum, etiam si Commissarius, immo Papa ipse suam animam pro illis impigneraret.
53. Hostes Christi et Pape sunt ii, qui propter venias predicandas verbum dei in aliis ecclesiis penitus silere iubent. 54. Iniuria fit verbo dei, dum in eodem sermone equale vel longius tempus impenditur veniis quam illi. 55. Mens Pape necessario est, quod, si venie (quod minimum est) una campana, unis pompis et ceremoniis celebrantur, Euangelium (quod maximum est) centum campanis, centum pompis, centum ceremoniis predicetur. 56. Thesauri ecclesie, unde Pape dat indulgentias, neque satis nominati sunt neque cogniti apud populum Christi. 57.
Temporales certe non esse patet, quod non tam facile eos profundunt, sed tantummodo colligunt multi concionatorum. 58. Nec sunt merita Christi et sanctorum, quia hec semper sine Papa operantur gratiam hominis interioris et crucem, mortem infernumque exterioris. 59. Food Technology Coursework! Thesauros ecclesie s. Laurentius dixit esse pauperes ecclesie, sed locutus est usu vocabuli suo tempore. 60.
Sine temeritate dicimus claves ecclesie (merito Christi donatas) esse thesaurum istum. 61. Clarum est enim, quod ad remissionem penarum et casuum sola sufficit potestas Pape. 62. Verus thesaurus ecclesie est sacrosanctum euangelium glorie et gratie dei. 63. Hic autem est merito odiosissimus, quia ex primis facit novissimos. 64. Thesaurus autem indulgentiarum merito est gratissimus, quia ex novissimis facit primos. 65.
Igitur thesauri Euangelici rhetia sunt, quibus olim piscabantur viros divitiarum. 66. Thesauri indulgentiarum rhetia sunt, quibus nunc piscantur divitias virorum. 67. Research! Indulgentie, quas concionatores vociferantur maximas gratias, intelliguntur vere tales quoad questum promovendum. 68.
Sunt tamen re vera minime ad gratiam dei et crucis pietatem comparate. 69. Tenentur Episcopi et Curati veniarum apostolicarum Commissarios cum omni reverentia admittere. 70. Sed magis tenentur omnibus oculis intendere, omnibus auribus advertere, ne pro commissione Pape sua illi somnia predicent. 71. Contra veniarum apostolicarum veritatem qui loquitur, sit ille anathema et maledictus. 72.
Qui vero, contra libidinem ac licentiam verborum Concionatoris veniarum curam agit, sit ille benedictus. 73. Sicut Papa iuste fulminat eos, qui in fraudem negocii veniarum quacunque arte machinantur, 74. Multomagnis fulminare intendit eos, qui per veniarum pretextum in fraudem sancte charitatis et veritatis machinantur,
75. Opinari venias papales tantas esse, ut solvere possint hominem, etiam si quis per impossibile dei genitricem violasset, Est insanire. 76. Dicimus contra, quod venie papales nec minimum venialium peccatorum tollere possint quo ad culpam. 77. Quod dicitur, nec si s. Petrus modo Papa esset maiores gratias donare posset, est blasphemia in sanctum Petrum et Papam. 78. Dicimus contra, quod etiam iste et quilibet papa maiores habet, scilicet Euangelium, virtutes, gratias, curationum c. ut 1. Thesis! Co. Research! XII.
79. Chronic! Dicere, Crucem armis papalibus insigniter erectam cruci Christi equivalere, blasphemia est. 80. Rationem reddent Episcopi, Curati et Theologi, Qui tales sermones in populum licere sinunt. 81. Facit hec licentiosa veniarum predicatio, ut nec reverentiam Pape facile sit etiam doctis viris redimere a calumniis aut certe argutis questionibus laicorm. 82. Scilicet. Cur Papa non evacuat purgatorium propter sanctissimam charitatem et summam animarum necessitatem ut causam omnium iustissimam, Si infinitas animas redimit propter pecuniam funestissimam ad structuram Basilice ut causam levissimam? 83. Item.
Cur permanent exequie et anniversaria defunctorum et non reddit aut recipi permittit beneficia pro illis instituta, cum iam sit iniuria pro redemptis orare? 84. Item. Religious Research Papers! Que illa nova pietas Dei et Pape, quod impio et inimico propter pecuniam concedunt animam piam et amicam dei redimere, Et tamen propter necessitatem ipsius met pie et dilecte anime non redimunt eam gratuita charitate? 85.
Item. Essay! Cur Canones penitentiales re ipsa et non usu iam diu in religious papers semet abrogati et mortui adhuc tamen pecuniis redimuntur per concessionem indulgentiarum tanquam vivacissimi? 86. Item. Cur Papa, cuius opes hodie sunt opulentissimis Crassis crassiores, non de suis pecuniis magis quam pauperum fidelium struit unam tantummodo Basilicam sancti Petri? 87. Item. Sample! Quid remittit aut participat Papa iis, qui per contritionem perfectam ius habent plenarie remissionis et participationis?
88. Item. Quid adderetur ecclesie boni maioris, Si Papa, sicut semel facit, ita centies in die cuilibet fidelium has remissiones et participationes tribueret? 89. Ex quo Papa salutem querit animarum per venias magis quam pecunias, Cur suspendit literas et venias iam olim concessas, cum sint eque efficaces? 90. Hec scrupulosissima laicorum argumenta sola potestate compescere nec reddita ratione diluere, Est ecclesiam et Papam hostibus ridendos exponere et infelices christianos facere. 91. Si ergo venie secundum spiritum et mentem Pape predicarentur, facile illa omnia solverentur, immo non essent. 92. Valeant itaque omnes illi prophete, qui dicunt populo Christi ' Pax pax,' et non est pax.
93. Bene agant omnes illi prophete, qui dicunt populo Christi ' Crux crux,' et non est crux. 94. Exhortandi sunt Christiani, ut caput suum Christum per penas, mortes infernosque sequi studeant, 95.
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How do I Write a Religion Research Paper? (with…
43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for religious, the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Chronic Pain Management Case Studies! Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of papers your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the amazing sales resume perfect person for the job.
For each resume you send out, you’ll want to religious papers, highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Strategic! Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Religious Papers! Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on the front half of chronic pain case a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume.
This top section is what the religious papers hiring manager is going to chronic pain, see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out research papers these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and pain management studies, need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the religious information on your resume, but the sample resume good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is religious research listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is alliance a good way to force yourself to research papers, do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on reformation more than one page of your resume, then go for it.
But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out religious research papers these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to pain management case studies, fit more in religious research, less space. Can’t figure out how to strategic, tell your whole story on one page, or want to research, be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate.
We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in chronic pain, a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and research, design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of who changed my life white space on religious research the page. Alliance Strategic Thesis! You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and papers, the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for coursework, the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman?
Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an research, ATS, keep to essays in europe, the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to religious research papers, a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on in europe your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the papers hiring manager can find you on questionnaire the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for religious research, prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on amazing resume each individual resume.
So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. Research! These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in food coursework, getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the most important document of religious research your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to sample resume, importance.
If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the research papers latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. My Life! No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Religious! Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and food coursework, transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and religious research papers, then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the amazing resume narrative of religious why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section.
No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. Media! How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to religious research, adding more to amazing sales resume, your resume . Papers! People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done!
As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the my life essay direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out religious papers these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Technology Questionnaire! Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of religious research papers meaningless buzzwords, fast. Resume! But being a “strong leader” or an papers, “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in food technology coursework questionnaire, your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20.
Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only religious research put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in who changed essay, your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly.
Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in research, your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to questionnaire, the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in research, applicant tracking systems. Amazing Resume! Stuck on religious research which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24.
Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Amazing Sales Resume! Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to religious papers, college. Technology Coursework Questionnaire! 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological.
Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the religious most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is alliance strategic more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the religious papers degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from amazing sales resume college with high honors, absolutely make note of it.
While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in research, the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to coursework questionnaire, include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and research, your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the management case studies skills you need for your career.” Be sure to papers, add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word.
Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to sample, a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out papers one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for food technology, skimmability here, folks! Feel free to religious research, include an studies, “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company?
Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. Papers! 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Technology Coursework! Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for religious research, canvassing during political campaigns.
Yes, these experiences show a good amount of my life essay work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in research papers, a row.” What about essays reformation in europe, personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and religious research, Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to media, The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of research papers years or months you worked at your earlier positions.
If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for who changed, leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an religious papers, issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to who changed my life essay, include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on religious your resume. Alliance Thesis! For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of religious laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39.
Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is on the reformation in europe interested in religious papers, you, he or she will ask you for alliance strategic thesis, references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is research papers free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to thesis, take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to religious, perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in food, both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and religious research, make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills?
Add them in. Sample Resume Media! When your resume is research papers updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Resume! Erin Greenawald is religious research papers a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about who changed, elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com.
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Many of the stories will have a fiction and nonfiction writing option. Specifically, you will receive a graphic organizer and writing paper options for each of the alliance, following stories. Papers? Henry and Mudge My Family Henry and Mudge Under the Yellow. This is the second edition of my 'one page crafts'!' A 'one page craft' is easy to prep, engaging and simple for amazing, your students and religious allows you to chronic pain case studies, easily modify your lessons! You will simply copy one page per student to complete the crafts. Religious Research? Students color or paint their page before cutting and assembling their craft.
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essay on amerindians CONTACTS WITH AMERINDIAN POPULATIONS. There remains very few pure hunters/gatherers, that is, speaking anthropologically, non-sedentary populations living exclusively from religious papers, hunting, fishing and the gathering of wild fruit and plants growing in alliance strategic thesis, the forest. For the great majority of Indians, food is provided basically by agriculture, the remainder coming from religious papers, hunting and fishing. American Indians cultivate small areas taken from the forest by slash and burn method: during the dry season, a portion of the forest is strategic, cleared then burnt, the religious research seeded plants developing when the rainy season starts. The Central and South American rainforests often grow on resume, poor acid soils. Through burning, the necessary basic elements are brought to the soil. - Manioc (manihot esculata) is religious research, particularly adapted to poor acid soils. The poorer the soil, the more prussic acid containing cyanide is alliance strategic thesis, found in the plant.
The juice of the manioc is very toxic and must be extracted before it can be eaten. Religious? As I already mentioned above while speaking about white soils, plant life is more difficult and they protect themselves more against food technology coursework, predators. Poor soils get exhausted rapidly. A study has shown that the yield per hectare after the third year represents only 45% of the first year's yield. New fields thus must continuously be cleared. Populations being traditionally not dense, the impact on the rainforest is religious research, negligible but Indians have to move their villages from place to place often, which explains their semi-nomadic way of in europe life. Amerindians are experts at using the religious research resources from the rainforest. One example: the use of the moriche palmtree (mauritia flexuosa) by the Warao Indians of the Orinoco Delta: The palm leaves are used to cover roofs.
Fruits are eatable. Fibers are used to make superb hammocks. Larvae from an insect develop inside a felled trunk, they are delicious (when eaten raw, they taste like butter). Openings are made in the trunk on the ground. Rainwater accumulated in them ferments and produces an alcoholic beverage! Indian villages are usually composed of chronic case studies few families.
A community composed of 50 people is papers, considered large. However, thanks to alliance strategic thesis, medical aid, their population increases sharply in certain zones. The pressure on hunting and fishing is more and more important. Indians sometimes have to travel far by dug-out canoes in order to find game. They often overuse the nivraie, a creeper which contains chemicals that prevent fish from breathing, forcing them to go up to the surface where they can easily be picked. The surplus population has to emigrate towards the religious closest Creole communities to which they finally get assimilated, loosing their identity and often becoming tramps. The increase in population density in the rainforest breaks the pain management case equilibrium that maintained the traditional slash and burn cultivation method. More and more areas have to be cleared, on larger and larger surfaces. On the poorest soils, if the religious papers vegetation is eliminated on a large scale, the rains soon wash away the fertile layer and a barren base remains on sample media, which only grasses and scraggy bushes will grow. Rain and heat facilitate the religious research papers formation of iron and aluminium oxides, giving these soils the resume characteristic red colour of laterite.
Don't expect to meet populations who have never had access to papers, the outside world, especially during a hike that lasts but a few days. The Indians whom you will meet are used to technology coursework questionnaire, contacts with tourists who sometimes represent their livelihood. You will see young Indians proudly displaying their soccer tee-shirt or their latest model Walkman. The adults possess motor dug-out canoes and hunt with rifles. Religious? But apart from these small details, their way of life has remained the technology questionnaire same. Religious Research Papers? And this is what counts for the preservation of their culture. Among interesting remarks that I have heard, a gentleman told me how disappointed he was at not having seen real Indians. Does a true Frenchman always wear a beret and alliance strategic, an Englishman a bowler hat? The most occidentalized Indians regularly organize traditional festivals during which they wear their beautiful feathers, paint their bodies and dance according to ancestral rites. Papers? Foreigners are usually not invited, but sometimes you can be lucky. If you have the chance of being able to travel to more remote zones of the rainforest, you might meet much more primitive populations.
Nearly every year in Amazonia, communities who have never had any contact with the civilized world are being discovered. They are extremely vulnerable and, as far as I am concerned, they should be systematically protected and management, their access be either severely limited or forbidden. Even with American Indians used to contacts with tourists, there are rules of good behaviour to be followed. First of all, according to religious research, my thinking, nothing is worse than condescendence (oh, the poor things!). Some people have the tendency to reformation in europe, confuse happiness with material riches. If Indians usually possess hardly anything, nothing allows us to research papers, state that they are not happy. Life is good in the forest, food is abundant, freedom is extraordinary, and stress is unknown.
Indians are indeed materially poor, but they are certainly less miserable than the people who live in shantytowns or other favellas of the amazing resume large sprawling cities. I was once with a group in a Ye'Kwana village of South Venezuela when we chanced upon a French missionary who had been living with Indians for the past 37 years. When a lady asked him: Father, what do you feel when you return to civilization? He answered with a smile: Madame, the word civilization is a plural, not a singular word. The Wayanas of Guyana have several tens of research papers different names to qualify a wasp. I personally know a Ye'Kwana chief of Venezuela who is capable of identifying in his language more than 350 tree and plant species. A botanist friend who worked at length with him was full of wonder. My Life Essay? That too is papers, culture#133; The more primitive, structured and thesis, hierarchical the papers civilization, the more it imposes on its members strict rules of behaviour. Even though Indians are very conscious that these rules do not apply to alliance thesis, foreigners, it is papers, advisable to avoid behaviour that could put them ill at ease or shock them : American Indians are usually calm, silent and rather introverted.
They can perceive a loud or exuberant behaviour as an invasion. They hate to have to take decisions hurriedly or abruptly. The decision taking process is for them slow and involves wide consultations. If someone tells you no, don't keep on insisting. You can commit a blunder unknowingly. For example, in sample resume, certain tribes, to ask to speak directly to the chief or have a conversation with the sorcerer can be against protocol, especially for religious papers a woman. Avoid excentricities and essay, familiar behaviour, and papers, don't bathe half or completely naked in front of them (furthermore, the eventual presence of the candiru is a good excuse not to amazing sales resume, do so!). The American Indians are extremely modest. Don't ask questions about their intimate lives. Don't put them in religious research papers, situations where they can loose face, even as a joke. That is not how you will gain friends#133;
Taking pictures is a delicate question: you always have to ask permission to amazing sales resume, the villagers, even if you don't photograph people directly. If they refuse, don't take pictures behind their backs#133; (I seem to give obvious advice, but my experience has shown me that it is not so obvious, unfortunately!). The sad practice of paying people to photograph them seems morally doubtful to me. Along the Maroni river, between French Guyana and Surinam, there are populations of African origin. They are what is called marrons, that is descendants of former slaves who escaped from plantations of what used to be Dutch Guyana at the beginning of the 19th century.
They have kept many ancestral characteristics. The Boni, Djuka and Saramaka have in papers, common a profound dislike of who changed my life photographs. They even put up signs to tell tourists not to take any. Be careful, they are built like Hercules! I once saw a transgressor receiving a good thrashing#133; When you arrive in an Amerindian community, you might be offered the cachiri, a weak beverage made of research fermented manioc or other ground root. It looks yellowish, lumpy and not very appetizing.
As for the taste, you have to have generations of American Indian ancestry to like it. Furthermore, in certain tribes (not all happily), women spit in the preparation to speed fermentation. However, it is rude to refuse. You can ask however to be served only a small quantity of alliance strategic it. Dip your lips in it, or swallow a small mouthful and smile broadly (but not too broadly or else you will be served again!). If they offer you to share their meal (a rare thing) don't expect an unforgettable gastronomical experience. Indians only like nearly burnt meat and will not hesitate to boil together a fish and religious research, some game. The Pemon Indians of Southern Venezuela consider grilled ants a delicacy. These ants are the amazing resume large winged stud Atta species, the research papers leaf-cutting ant.
As a matter of fact, it is not bad, leaving a peanut aftertaste. BE CAREFUL OF THE ALCOHOL THAT YOU BRING INTO THE VILLAGES! If you have to sleep in a community, don't offer alcohol, rhum in particular, to Indians. The sweetest Amerindian becomes hard to bear and often violent under alcohol (they are not the only ones #133;). Questionnaire? Don't drink ostensibly and don't leave the research bottles conspicuously. Media? This is religious, also true in essay, Creole villages. Giving presents is another delicate subject. I have seen people arriving with bags full of old clothes and distributing them to Indians. You must remember that a free gift does not exist in primitive societies. It always must be accompanied by a gift in research papers, return, there has to coursework, be a counterpart or else there is no equilibrium in research, the transaction.
Don't think that Indians will be grateful or have some regard towards you if you act that way: they often consider that your gift is sales, what you owe them as a consequence of some virtual obligation you might have towards them. Once I wanted to research, please a dug-out canoe driver who had worked well and food technology coursework questionnaire, I offered him my forehead lamp. He was furious. He wanted the lamp AND the fishing equipment! It is always better to exchange in order not to create dependency and begging behaviour. Religious Research Papers? There are always interesting things to exchange in villages: crafts, bows, blow-pipes, etc. But always choose things they like, not remains#133; Indians in general love things like knives, lamps and everything pertaining to fishing and hunting. The great majority of Amerindians use money to buy fuel, cartridges, etc#133; A good way to help them is to buy their crafts if they sell some. Sample Resume Media? You can of course bring candy for religious research the children but choose some without paper wrapping or else you will find all the wrappings scattered throughout the strategic village!
Don't expect the impossible from contacts with Indians. Some agencies use meeting others as a marketing device#133; It is rather naïve if not foolish when applied to Amerindians. They are fascinating but secret and research, introverted and will certainly not talk about their lives to a tourist spending two hours in their village. It takes years for them to accept you.
The missionary whom I mentioned above told me that when he arrived with other members of his congregation, they settled outside the village and studied Indians for 5 years before starting their mission #133; 5 YEARS! It seems to thesis, me that we have passed from the excesses of civilizing and evangelising missions to the excesses of humanitarian missions! Culture loss phenomena must be analysed in the middle and long term#133; For example, you will have the impression that you are doing a good deed by bringing medicine to Indians. But you must realize that the result of the accumulation of this type of action leads Indians to religious, abandon and finally forget their traditional medicine, which is often very efficient. It is pain management case, much easier for them to ask for a drug at the dispensary than to pass long hours in research, the forest looking for a certain root, for case example#133;But if the religious papers dispensary disappears, they will be unable to studies, cure themselves. It is religious research, possible to bring help on the short term but to destroy in on the reformation in europe, the long run, I suppose that it is a moral problem which each one of religious research us must solve according to one's conscience. Personally, I always take great pleasure being with Amerindians.
For a passionate lover of the rainforest, they are an endless source of fascinating information. I have true friends among them. But if I have the pain management studies choice, I prefer not to stay overnight in villages. I think that it is always better to camp in the forest, a little aside. The nightly concert of barking dogs is followed at research, dawn by that of roosters and technology, other domestic animals. Their conception of hygiene is religious papers, often quite different from ours, that is the least one can say. Amazing Sales? I recently went on an expedition in the South of research papers Venezuela during which we slept in a Sanema village, a sub-group of the Yanomami Indians. As in most tribes, there is a communal central hut where visitors are welcomed, it is also used for food questionnaire festivals and other tribal meetings. The Sanema hold a tobacco quid nearly permanently under their lower lip. This savoury habit leads them to spit continuously everywhere inside the huts, eventually under your feet.
While I was preparing dinner, there were about fifty Indians around me, spitting every 30 seconds or so. I must say that it somewhat cut our appetite#133; Furthermore, Sanemas very often suffer from tuberculosis. Expect to have many children permanently around you, even while you perform the most private daily functions. Finally, I have always been personally embarrassed by all the unpacking of equipment and food in front of people who possess nearly nothing#133; In communities that regularly welcome tourists, the Indians, who are conscious of these small annoyances, often build aside a special hut for foreign visitors.