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English literature with creative writing- university courses

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arugmentative essay Definition : In this kind of essay, we not only give information but also present an with creative courses argument with the PROS (supporting ideas) and fifth-grade essay writing, CONS (opposing ideas) of an argumentative issue. We should clearly take our stand and write as if we are trying to persuade an opposing audience to adopt new beliefs or behavior. The primary objective is to persuade people to change beliefs that many of them do not want to literature creative courses change. Essay! Choosing an english literature creative university argumentative topic is not an easy task. The topic should be such that. X Marijuana should be considered illegal. (Not a good topic because it is too general. In some medical cases, marijuana is prescribed by the doctors and intellectual curiosity, the patients are encouraged to use it in with creative case of suffering from causes essay too much pain) #8730; Selling and using marijuana in public places should be considered illegal . X We should decide whether we want a bicycle or a car. ( our stand is literature with university not clear: do we support having bicycles or cars?) #8730; If we are under the age of 30 and want a healthy life, we should definitely get a bicycle instead of a car. Rousseau Discourse! X Are you one of those who thinks cheating is not good for students? ( a question cannot be an argument)

#8730; Cheating helps students learn. X Considering its geological position, Turkey has an important geopolitical role in the EU. Literature Creative! ( facts cannot be arguments) #8730; Considering its geopolitical role, we can clearly say that the EU cannot be without Turkey . it should be a topic that can be adequately supported (with statistics, outside source citations, etc.) X I feel that writing an rousseau essay argumentative essay is definitely a challenging task. ( feelings cannot be supported; we cannot persuade other people) If you believe that you can find enough evidence to support your idea and refute others effectively, you can choose challenging topics as well. You can enjoy writing about english creative university, such topics: Cheating is rousseau discourse inequality beneficial for literature with creative courses, students. Murat 124 is a very good choice for writing, conscientious drivers. English Literature Creative Writing- University! Stress is rousseau inequality good for the human body. Polygamy is creative university courses quite natural.

For women, there is no need for men. Organization : All argumentative topics have PROs and CONs . Before starting writing, it is imperative to sample resume make a list of english literature creative, these ideas and choose the most suitable ones among them for supporting and refuting. There are three possible organization patterns: CON idea 1 ----- Refutation. CON idea 2 ----- Refutation. CON idea 3 ----- Refutation. The sample essay has been written according to the third pattern. Critical Carol! Thesis: Do Reiki instead of taking medicine . People should trust medicine since it is effective and scientifically proven. Reiki is english literature with writing- university courses also scientifically proven and does not have side effects . Writing! (refutation method: insufficient claim) Serious illnesses such as HIV/AIDS and cancer cannot be treated without medicine. English Literature With Creative Writing- University Courses! Medicine also cannot treat serious illnesses if not diagnosed at an early stage . (refutation method: opponents are partially correct) Reiki, like alternative healing methods, requires a lot of time . Reiki requires less time if done regularly . Causes! (refutation method: opponents are completely wrong)

Supporting our ideas : This is the most important part when persuading others. We are asking some people to writing- university change their beliefs or actions. We should be supporting our ideas with such facts, statistics and/or authorities that there should not be room for any doubts. Here are some faulty supports we should avoid: Thesis: Leaving the university and starting to work is intellectual good for the adolescent because … Feelings, emotional arguments (… it makes one feel much better .) Irrelevant examples (wandering off the topic) (… he would then be able to take his girlfriend to expensive restaurants .) Oversimplification (… only then would he understand what it means to be an adult. ) Hasty generalizations (. it is a widely known fact that all adolescents look forward to earning money .) Unreliable, even false outside sources (… according to, 80% of working men wish they quit school when they were at university and started working at an earlier age. ) For more mistakes in the logic of arguments, see Fallacies. Refuting opposing arguments : Before we start saying that the opponents are wrong, we should specify their opposing ideas. Otherwise, it would be like hitting the other person with eyes closed. We should see clearly what we are hitting and with university courses, be prepared beforehand so that he cannot hit us back. We can do this by resume, knowing what we are refuting. e.g . X Some people may say that adolescents should not leave university education; however, they are wrong . ( what they say is not wrong.

Maybe their supporting idea is english with writing- university courses wrong /irrelevant /insufficient. We should state their supporting idea specifically to be able to refute it.) #8730; Some people may say that adolescents should not leave university education because they are not physically and psychologically mature enough to cope with the intellectual essay problems of the real world. However, they forget one fact: adolescents can vote or start driving at the age of 18 (in some countries even before that age!), which proves that they are considered physically and psychologically mature at that age . Language : Signposts gain importance in the argumentative essay. They enable the with creative courses readers to follow our arguments easily. When pointing out rousseau discourse opposing arguments ( CONs ): Opponents of this idea claim / maintain that … Those who disagree / are against these ideas may say / assert that … Some people may disagree with this idea. When stating specifically why they think like that : The put forward this idea because … They claim that … since … Reaching the turning point : On the other hand , When refuting the opposing idea, we may use the following strategies : compromise but prove that their argument is creative university courses not powerful enough: They have a point in thinking like that. To a certain extent they are right.

After seeing this evidence, there is no way we can agree with what they say . say that their argument is irrelevant to the topic: What we are discussing here is not what they are trying to prove. Their argument is irrelevant. HEALTH AND HEALING AT YOUR FINGERTIPS. Throw out the rousseau essay bottles and english literature creative university courses, boxes of drugs in 2014 your house. A new theory suggests that medicine could be bad for your health, which should at least come as good news to people who cannot afford to buy expensive medicine.

However, it is a blow to english literature writing- university the medicine industry, and an even bigger blow to our confidence in essay the progress of science. This new theory argues that healing is at our fingertips: we can be healthy by doing Reiki on a regular basis. English Literature With Creative! Supporters of resume, medical treatment argue that medicine should be trusted since it is effective and scientifically proven. They say that there is english no need for spiritual methods such as Reiki, Yoga, Tai Chi. These waste our time, something which is quite precious in our material world. Stress! There is medicine that can kill our pain, x-rays that show us our fractured bones or MRI that scans our brain for tumors. English With University! We must admit that these methods are very effective in the examples that they provide. However, there are some “every day complaints” such as back pains, headaches, insomnia, which are treated currently with medicine. When you have a headache, you take an Aspirin, or Vermidon , when you cannot sleep, you take Xanax without thinking of the side effects of these. When you use these pills for a long period, you become addicted to them; you cannot sleep without them. We pay huge amounts of money and become addicted instead of getting better.

How about a safer and more economical way of healing? When doing Reiki to yourself, you do not need anything except your energy so it is very economical. As for its history, it was discovered in sample msn Japan in english literature university the early 1900s and law day, its popularity has spread particularly throughout America and Western Europe . In quantum physics, energy is recognized as the fundamental substance of which the universe is composed. Reiki depends on the energy within our bodies. It is english literature with writing- courses a simple and causes stress, effective way of restoring the energy flow.

There are no side effects and literature with writing-, it is scientifically explained. Opponents of alternative healing methods also claim that serious illnesses such as HIV/AIDS and cancer cannot be treated without drugs. They think so because these patients spend the critical rest of their lives in the hospital taking medicine. How can Reiki make these people healthy again? It is very unfortunate that these patients have to live in the hospital losing their hair because of chemotherapy, losing weight because of the side effects of the medicine they take. Actually, it is english with writing- courses common knowledge that except for sample resume msn, when the cancer is diagnosed at english creative university courses an early stage, drugs also cannot treat AIDS or cancer. Most of the medicine these patients use are to ease their pain and curiosity, their sufferings because of the medical treatment they undergo. Instead of drugs which are expensive and have many side effects, you can use your energy to overcome the hardships of life, find an english literature writing- courses emotional balance, leave the stress of everyday life and let go of the everyday worries.

Most of the chronic conditions such as eczema or migraine are known to have causes such as poor diet and stress. Deep-rooted anger or other strong emotions can contribute to viral infections as well. Since balancing our emotions and curiosity essay, controlling our thoughts are very important for our well-being, we should definitely start learning Reiki and avoid illnesses before it is too late. Some people may still maintain that in english literature writing- courses our material world, everything depends on rousseau essay inequality, time. Literature Writing- University Courses! It is inequality even “lacking time” that causes much of the stress that leads to the illnesses we mentioned. English Literature Creative Courses! How would it be possible to find time to do Reiki to ourselves and the people around us when we cannot even find time to go to law day 2014 the theater? This is one good thing about Reiki; it does not require more than 15 minutes of our time.

There is no need for changing clothes or special equipment. It is a wonderfully simple healing art, an effective method of relaxation and stress-relief. Most important of all, it is less time consuming than medicine if we think of all the english literature with writing- courses time we spend taking medicine for some complaints and rousseau essay discourse inequality, taking some more for the side effects as well. Having said these, resistance to Reiki would be quite illogical. Literature With Creative Writing-! Reiki is essay 2014 natural and drug-free. What is literature writing- courses more, it is intellectual curiosity essay easy to learn by anyone, regardless of age and experience.

It can be used anywhere, anytime. It also enhances physical, mental, emotional and spiritual well-being and the benefits last a lifetime. It is definitely high time to get away from the drug boxes we store in english with our drug cabinet!

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How to create your focused, relevant CV. Three sections makes it easy and clear for the reader. EDUCATION: normally at creative university, the top (especially for recent graduates entering the jobs market for the first time). Include awards under each relevant education section, for essay, example, grant awards for a DPhil, school prizes, undergraduate prizes or high rankings (‘2nd in year’) EXPERIENCE (rather than “Employment”): this can include voluntary work, student society roles, internships, paid work etc INTERESTS or COMMUNITY ACTIVITY AND SKILLS should be included to indicate extra, diverse talents. Within this section, you might use sub-categories such as IT Skills (but only english literature creative writing- courses if they are specialist or unusual); Languages; Music; Sports etc. Remember that the CV is to essay 2014 get you the meeting or interview only, so don’t feel you have to writing- courses include every last detail – leave them wanting to 2014 learn more about you. Literature With Creative Writing- Courses! Specific things to leave out law day essay 2014, include: The words ‘Curriculum Vitae’ or ‘CV’ Date of birth and / or age Marital status, disability, children, partner, sexual preferences, sex, racial background, religion Home address Nationality – unless you want to english creative university courses show that you do have the Right to Work in the country in sample resume msn question Referees – this takes up space, they’ll assume you have them, there are probably other opportunities to record these details Basic IT skills: these days everyone can use the literature with writing- university internet, word processing, spreadsheets etc to a competent level – but do include any super-advanced qualifications in MS Office and of course any specialist software like C++, SPSS etc Areas of potential, personal contention, e.g. religious beliefs, political affiliation (though if you’ve worked for a political organisation this will obviously be mentioned under work experience) Soft interests such as ‘socialising with friends, cooking, reading, cinema’. If you do have deep and specialist interest in one of these, then give more details: ‘French films of 1940-1960’

Aim to create powerful bullet points, with each bullet focused on a single idea. Consider applying the ‘CAR’ mnemonic. Context : the fifth-grade essay organisation name, your job title and english literature with creative dates is sample resume often sufficient. Action Words that demonstrate you took responsibility are useful for starting the university bullet point, to highlight skills used – e.g. Fifth-grade Essay! analysed, created, recommended, managed or led. See our list of literature with creative university action words on essay, our Demonstrate You Fit the creative writing- university courses Job Criteria page for causes stress, more. Results can often be linked within an with creative courses, individual bullet point. The traditional – or ‘reverse chronological’ – CV is the most commonly used format. It often lists your education, experience and additional activities – with your most recent achievements first.

The sections of the traditional CV will normally be as follows: Personal information – such as contact details – but NOT date of curiosity essay birth, sex, marital status etc. Space may mean you should just list one contact detail, e.g. Oxford email address (not [email protected]), and your mobile number Education Experience – the core of your CV Additional skills Interests. This format makes it easy for english literature creative writing- university courses, employers to spot relevant information fast and gives a complete picture of sample msn a candidate in english creative writing- courses a clear and structured way. Remember, however, that you can alter the titles to suit the application you are making. For example, you could use the essay heading “Teaching Experience” instead of “Experience” if you are applying for a teaching job. Even if you don’t have much paid work experience, you can include voluntary work or contributions you have made to with writing- university clubs or societies (inside or outside Oxford). In a skills-based CV, the rousseau information is arranged to highlight relevant skills, with details presented under different skills categories. English Creative University! A concise summary of your work history normally precedes or follows your relevant skills section, to provide context.

This type of CV is used to highlight the transferability of law day 2014 your skills, and english literature writing- courses so is intellectual useful if you are applying to with university courses a role without direct experience. Essay Stress! We generally only recommend using this style if you have great experience, as a considerable amount of evidence is required to english with creative university courses make the skills sound meaningful. As such, it is normally used by: people changing career direction people transitioning from academia into fifth-grade, industry or other sectors. However, a similar style may be useful if you are applying to your first ever piece of work experience and literature with creative university have had few positions of causes stress responsibility, as it allows you to emphasise transferable skills you have gained from studying at Oxford. If you are heading to north America, then you might need a resume rather than a CV. They are very similar documents so use our CV guide, and supplement it with the information here to build a great CV into english literature creative writing- courses, a great resume. Default page size – A4 (21cm x 29.7cm) is replaced by Letter (21.59cm x 27.94cm) Use ‘Page Layout’ options in Word (or equivalent) to change the size of rousseau essay your document page Cut down a piece of literature writing- A3 paper to size when checking out how it prints. Spelling – insure / ensure the resume is writing oriented / orientated to the readers’ spelling conventions: Set your default language to US or Canadian English to english literature creative university courses use your spelling and grammar check Watch out for sample resume, common ‘Britishisms’ such as ‘analysed’ and ‘organised’ (both have a ‘z’ in North America) See Wikipedia’s page on spelling differences. Include a cover letter with a resume, unless you are told otherwise Write a considered and thoughtful thank you letter within 48 hours of any interview Convert your resume and cover letter into PDFs before sending them to an employer.

The academic CV is very different from a CV used for english, non-academic job applications. Fifth-grade Essay Writing! It focuses purely on your academic achievements and experience, and english literature creative writing- there is causes essay stress no page limit – although you should always keep it concise and relevant. First, look at the skills and competencies that the hiring department / research group requires. You can identify these from the english literature with creative person specification, the job advert, or your own research. Is this a research or teaching only job? Or will you be doing research, teaching and administration (typical for lectureships)? Do they highlight any particular skill areas, such as organisation or team work? Look at what you need to resume do to apply. With Creative Courses! CVs are usually accompanied by on joyce carol oates, cover letters, but they might also ask you to submit an application form, research and/or teaching statement.

Once you are clear what the employer wants, start to tailor your CV to the post. The following sections are typical for the academic CV: Personal Information . Start the english literature writing- CV with your name, address, telephone number and 2014 email address. Research Interests . Write bullet points or a short paragraph summarising your research. Education . Include degrees, possibly titles of theses, and the names of supervisors. Awards and creative writing- Funding . Include undergraduate/postgraduate prizes, travel grants, doctoral scholarships, early career fellowships, and grants you have led on or are named on. Research Experience . Include any post docs or fellowships and research assistant jobs. You might include more detail about essay 2014 your doctoral research in this section too. Teaching Experience . Note any lecturing, seminar, tutorial, supervising, demonstrating, mentoring experience, and potentially non-academic teaching.

Give details about the role and english university responsibilities – even if it was informal – such as level of students, class sizes and topics you taught. Admin Experience . Essay Inequality! Highlight any conferences/seminars/reading groups you’ve organised, committees you have sat upon, and any other relevant administration experience. Relevant Training . English Literature Writing- Courses! Include academic teaching training, research methods training etc. Relevant research/technical/laboratory skills . You may find it useful to list these under one heading if you find yourself repeating throughout various sections. Patents . Stress! Give details of the title, inventors, patent number and date granted. Professional memberships. Literature Writing- Courses! List these – e.g. the Royal Society of causes essay stress Chemistry or the literature British Association of American Studies. Include dates. Publications . Give full details as you would if citing them, and use a consistent style.

You may wish to essay stress highlight (e.g. English University Courses! bold/underline) your name. Conference presentations and posters . Essay! Highlight whether paper or poster and cite similarly to your publications with full author list, title, date and english with university location. Causes Essay Stress! Referees . Ideally these should all be academic referees. They should be people who know you well and who are known in your field. Make sure the CV is focused on with creative writing- university courses, academia. Curiosity Essay! Only include non-academic work experience or extra-curricular activities and interests if you feel they are very relevant to the post you are applying for. You might include languages and IT skills if they are relevant.

You might include your nationality in your personal details if you think it will be an advantage – e.g. English With Creative Courses! so that they know you are a European citizen and have the right to work in the UK. If you have limited or no published work, consider including works in progress. Clearly label publications as ‘forthcoming’, ‘under review’ or ‘submitted’ if they are in process, but not yet in critical on joyce oates print or accepted. If you are unconcerned about giving your ideas away before they go to a publisher, you could have a separate heading for ‘Working Papers’ that you are preparing for publication but have not submitted yet. Creative University! Include when and essay where you plan to submit them.

If you have been invited to give seminars or conference papers, highlight under a separate heading. Translate jargon/acronyms that others might not understand, especially if applying abroad. Make sure you read the “Top Tips” in “Standard CVs”, above, which are relevant to Academic CVs as well. Does your name stand out? (Write it at the top – no need to with writing- university say “Curriculum Vitae”) Can you be easily contacted using the rousseau essay information you’ve given? Are there particularly relevant courses/projects/extended essays you could mention? Are A-levels and GCSEs summarised on creative writing- courses, one or two lines each? Have you given an indication of the equivalence or grading system of any non-UK qualifications? Are section headings tailored to the recipient? (e.g.

Teaching Experience, Voluntary Work, etc.) Have you included greater detail on intellectual curiosity, more relevant experience? Have you tailored your achievements and skills to the job? Are your sentences punchy and concise? Have you followed the advice in our page on university, demonstrating you fit the causes essay job criteria? Is it clear what level of attainment you have in languages, IT, etc.? Are you able to use this section as another opportunity to demonstrate required competencies?

Have you indicated your level of commitment? Is this section headed “referees” and with creative courses not “references”? If you are giving contact details – have you asked your referees’ permission? Does the section take up too much space? If so, put their details on a single line – for example: Dr M. Misra, Keble College, Oxford, OX1 1AB, [email protected], 01865 377778. Does it look attractive at first glance? Would you want to read it? Would an fifth-grade essay, employer want to read it? Does it fit on to one or two full pages? Has it been checked for accurate and writing- university courses consistent grammar and spelling?

Many recruiters will dismiss even the law day essay 2014 most qualified candidate if there is english with university courses even one typo in the CV, cover letter or application form. Are fonts (type and size) consistent and not too small (11pt minimum)? Is the layout well balanced, with effective use of space, using the full width of the page? Broadly speaking, does the rousseau essay inequality most relevant information occupy the most space? Are dates reverse chronological if you are using this type of format? Have you quantified your achievements? Have you checked for gaps in your history? We recommend you explain any significant time gaps in your CV.

There is no right or wrong way of english literature with creative university presenting your personal circumstances. You may have been travelling, working on resume, an independent project (e.g. writing), been ill, or caring for others. If it helps, speak with a Careers Adviser to identify the most effective way for english with writing-, you to causes stress present your circumstances on a CV and/or cover letter as this will differ with each individual. Hold your CV at english literature creative university courses, arms-length – does it look easy to read? Fold it vertically and scan the left side in 3 seconds. – Will the reader get the gist of your application? – Are your strongest responsibilities and achievements immediately visible? Check for jargon and intellectual curiosity essay acronyms, and english creative writing- over-long bullets – edit vigorously Is it the critical oates right length?

– Some employers ( e.g. English Literature! investment banks) expect just one page, so check beforehand. – Aim for a maximum of two pages, except for an academic CV Save your CV as a PDF to essay writing ensure it keeps its beautiful formatting Finally, finally , take a break and literature with creative writing- courses then proofread – yes, again! Double check for carol oates, typos and literature writing- errors. Then send it off! It can take a number of revisions before you are happy with your CV, and sample getting independent advice can prove very helpful: it might all make perfect sense to you, but you could be surprised by the things that others may question or not understand.

Make an appointment and ask for feedback from a Careers Adviser. For sector specific advice about how to tailor your CV please refer to with creative writing- our sector information. Putting Together the Perfect Consulting CV – information sheet Careers Beyond Profit – How to essay Write a Winning CV – presentation slides CVs: A Brief Introduction – presentation slides. Our Resource Centre has a number of files and books on english with creative university courses, CV writing that you may find useful. The Careers Service subscribes to GoinGlobal on essay, behalf of Oxford students. It features around 40 country guides. You can get advice on your CV from literature creative university courses any of essay our Careers Advisers by booking an english literature creative, advice appointment. Most of our careers fairs also have CV Clinics, to get advice from recruiters.

Prospects: CV Writing – has sample CVs, sample covering letters, and tips on what to include TARGETjobs: Applications and law day 2014 CV Advice Academic CVs: 10 Irritating Mistakes – a Guardian article, 2013 Vitae: Researcher CVs: A specialist resource for english creative writing- courses, the professional development of researchers, including many example CVs for sample msn, careers inside and outside academia Vitae: Academic CVs: Information specifically on academic CV writing – more information on academic CVs. When: Tuesday 17 October, Exhibitors from literature with writing- courses 14.30-18.00 Where: Oxford Town Hall. Meet financial professionals – from accountants to actuaries, and from ombudsmen to bankers. Meet financial professionals – from accountants to actuaries, and from ombudsmen to bankers. Talk to critical essay oates over 50 organisations about their graduate schemes and internships. Get CV feedback from finance professionals in english literature with writing- university our 1-to-1 clinics.Come to our pre-fair talk: “Engaging with Organisations as a Disabled Student” (13.30-14.15 – register in advance on critical essay on joyce carol, CareerConnect).

The fair booklet will be available online one week before the fair. Visiting employers include: Alta Advisers The Analyst Research LLP Aon AQR Capital Management Ardian Asian Development Bank Bain Capital Credit Bank of New York Mellon (BNY Mellon) Barclays Bernstein The Blackstone Group BNP Paribas BP Cambridge Associates Capital One Centrica Plc Deloitte The D. E. Shaw Group Deutsche Bank AG d-fine Ltd Duff Phelps Evercore EY Financial Conduct Authority FTI Consulting GIC Glencore UK Ltd Goldman Sachs International GSA Capital Harris Williams Co. HSBC ICAEW Institute and Faculty of Actuaries Investec Kraft Heinz LCP Lloyds Banking Group London Stock Exchange Group Macquarie Maven Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group (MUFG) Nomura Optiver OxFORD Asset Management PIMCO PJT Partners Procter Gamble PwC Redington Ltd Ruffer LLP Schroders Investment Management Shell Societe Generale Standard Life Stewart Investors UBS XL Catlin Zopa Ltd. When: Wednesday 18 October, Exhibitors from 14.30-18.00 Where: Oxford Town Hall. Explore consultancies – from global companies to boutique firms. Get CV feedback from consultants in our 1-to-1 clinics. Meet nearly 60 organisations including all the major names in the sector – from english literature creative Accenture to ZS Associates. The fair booklet will be available online one week before the fair. Visiting employers include:

2020 Delivery Accenture Alfa AlixPartners UK Ltd. American Express Applied Predictive Technologies (APT) A.T. Intellectual Curiosity! Kearney Bain Company The Boston Consulting Group UK LLP Brainlabs Digital Cambridge Economic Policy Associates (CEPA) Capco Capgemini Consulting Capital One Carnall Farrar Chartwell Consulting Ltd CIL Management Consultants Compass Lexecon Corporate Value Associates Credo Business Consulting Deloitte Efficio Elixirr EY FTI Consulting GALLUP Integration Javelin Group Kraft Heinz L.E.K. Consulting Lifescience Dynamics Marakon Mars Co McKinsey Company NERA Economic Consulting Newton Europe NMG Consulting OCC Strategy Consultants Oliver Wyman Oxford Economics Ltd PA Consulting Parthenon-EY Prophet Brand Strategy PwC QuantSpark QuintilesIMS RBB Economics RealFoundations, LTD. Redshift Strategy Restaurant Brands International Roland Berger Solon Management Consulting SSG Health Strategy TWS Partners Limited White Space Strategy XY ZS Associates. Upcoming Career Workshops for writing-, Researchers. Career Management for Research Staff and DPhils. Looking to manage your career more effectively? This workshop has been designed specifically for University Research Staff at all levels and at any stage in their career, who want to step back and spend a few productive hours focusing on identifying their ideal job and future possible career paths within, or beyond, academia. An interactive mix of short individual exercises and small informal group discussions will help you to build a clearer picture of the key factors relating to your career and personal circumstances and to explore career pathways.

The session will cover: reflections on where your career is right now; creating your ideal job; job satisfaction and career motivations; identifying your values and transferable skills; how to identify possible career pathways and move forward effectively. You will be encouraged to draw your insights together to rousseau discourse begin a realistic personal career plan and to english literature with creative consider your next steps. [email protected] Oxford Careers Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend this fair are invited to critical on joyce carol oates book this pre-fair event. Depending on the number of english literature with creative writing- bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the fifth-grade essay writing most out writing- university courses, of the fifth-grade writing fair. Further information on the fair can be found on literature with creative courses, the Oxford Careers Fair page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. [email protected] Finance Careers Fair. When: Tuesday 17 October, 13.30 – 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to Fair in Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Research students and discourse inequality staff planning to attend this fair are invited to book this pre-fair event. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the creative writing- most out of the msn fair.

Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. [email protected] Management Consulting Careers Fair. When: Wednesday 18 October, 13.30 – 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to Fair in Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page.

The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Want to work in english with university courses the public sector? If you are interest in careers anywhere within the public sector, in addition to our first presentation on Monday 9 October at sample, the Careers Service on the Civil Service Fast Stream (14:15 – 15:30) you should make plans to join us at the Oxford Careers Fair on 14 October. A clutch of leading public sector employers will be at with creative writing- university, the fair throughout the day, and our panel session Making a Difference – graduate careers with social impact will bring together representatives from Times Top 100 employers Teach First, the NHS Leadership Academy, the resume Civil Service Fast Stream, Frontline and english literature with writing- courses the National Graduate Development Programme for local government (NGDP). The organisations will showcase their leadership development opportunities in a variety of exciting public sector roles and you can discover more about the importance of the key transferable skills in the sector. Each employer will give a short presentation about the key skills they look for, followed by a QA panel session. Making a Difference – graduate careers with social impact will start at 13:20. You do not need to book a place, but please bear in rousseau essay discourse mind that spaces will be allocated on a first-come, first-served basis. As popular events may fill early, please arrive in good time! The new iteration of the HOLT Valuation Challenge is online. It provides you with the literature writing- university opportunity to win outstanding prizes that could kick-start their careers in finance:

Compete to secure an interview spot with Credit Suisse HOLT and their affiliates. Win access to select courses to further develop their specialization in critical essay carol finance. The competition is open to all students (BA, MA, MBA and PhD). The HOLT Valuation Challenge is an online competition in which you will become familiar with the english literature creative Credit Suisse HOLT methodology. By participating in the Challenge, your financial knowledge will expand, resulting in better skills in sample resume msn your future career.

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WHAT#039;S WRONG WITH CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY? : The arguments against CSR. Like the iceberg, most CSR activity is invisible. It is often an english with writing- courses, active attempt to increase corporate domination rather than simply a defensive 'image management' operation. Rousseau? 76. CSR is supposed to be win-win. The companies make profits.

This section explores how CSR diverts attention from english university courses, real. CSR as Public Relations. CSR also helps to greenwash the company's image, to cover up negative impacts by saturating the media with positive images of the company's CSR credentials. As Deborah Doane points out in 'From Red Tape to Road Signs', CSR enables business to claim progress despite the lack of evidence of verifiable change 78. Since much of the business case for CSR depends on corporations being seen to be socially responsible, CSR will continue to be little more than PR for curiosity essay, as long as it is easier and cheaper to spin than to change. A prominent case against Nike in the US Supreme Court illustrates this point.

When, in 2002, the Californian Supreme Court ruled that Nike did not have the right to lie in defending itself against criticism, chaos ensued in the CSR movement. Activist Marc Kasky attempted to sue the company over a misleading public relations campaign. Creative? Nike defended itself using the First Amendment right to free speech. Rousseau? The court ruled that Nike was not protected by the First Amendment, on the grounds that the publications in question were commercial speech79. The case proceeded to the US Supreme Court. Legal briefs were submitted to the Supreme Court by english with writing- courses, public relations and advertising trade associations, major media groups, and sample msn, leading multinationals, arguing that if a company's claims on human rights, environmental and social issues are legally required to literature with writing- courses, be true, then companies won't continue to make statements on these matters. The submission from ExxonMobil, Monsanto, Microsoft, Bank of. This case simply reinforces the criticism that CSR is nothing more than a PR exercise. Corporations would not be so concerned about rousseau potential legal actions if they valued truth, transparency and english literature with creative writing- university, accountability as much as they claim. The submissions to the court show how important it is for corporate America to defend itself against a legal ruling which would make it more difficult for law day, companies to make false and misleading statements to english literature with courses, defend their image. The point is further illustrated by the conflict between what a company says in on joyce public and in literature with writing- courses its dialogue with NGOs, compared to what it is saying behind closed doors when it is lobbying government or through industry mouthpieces like the resume msn International Chamber of Commerce or the Confederation of British Industry.

That CSR is english with criticised as being a PR stunt is unsurprising, bearing in mind that most CSR workers in companies sit in fifth-grade the communications and PR departments81, and considering that the english literature creative writing- strategies of CSR - dialogue with NGOs, codes of conduct, social reports - were all designed and developed by PR companies such as Burson-Marsteller, E.Bruce Harrison and Hill and curiosity, Knowlton82. CSR is literature with university a clear part of the industry's attempts to essay, co-opt the environmental movement. This strategy has been outlined in detail by Ronald Duchin, senior vice- president of PR spy firm Mongoven, Biscoe and Duchin (MBD). MBD works to divide and conquer activist movements. Activists, he explained, fall into english with creative university four distinct categories: 'radicals,' 'opportunists,' 'idealists,' and 'realists.' He outlined a three-step strategy: isolate the radicals; 'cultivate' the idealists and 'educate' them into becoming realists; then co-opt the realists into agreeing with industry83. CSR has created a language shift, a re-brand and a new caring.

Like the iceberg, most CSR activity is invisible. It is often an essay, active attempt to literature with creative university courses, increase corporate domination rather than simply a defensive 'image management' operation. 76. CSR is a strategy for avoiding regulation. Companies are essentially holding the government to ransom on. These arguments, however, simply serve to expose the sham of. If regulation distracts from best practice, then companies cannot be acting 'responsibly' because they believe it to msn, be morally right to do so ? only literature with creative writing- university courses because they are trying to get an causes essay stress, advantage over their competitors. The argument that regulation would hinder voluntary efforts on the part of the company to improve their behaviour has been readily accepted by a government keen to avoid its regulatory duties when it comes to curbing corporate power. The UK Department for International Development (the department charged with tackling global poverty, not the one set up to defend industry) dismissed the idea of an literature creative writing-, international legally binding framework for multinational companies saying that it would 'divert attention and energy away from encouraging corporate social responsibility and essay writing, towards legal processes.'86 As this quotation shows, without any evidence for its effectiveness, the government is choosing CSR over making corporate exploitation and abuse illegal. Regulation, including rules on: how corporations can be structured, as well as on the impacts they can have on the environment and society, and their dealings with their workforce and other stakeholders, is the only way that a democratic society can control what is literature with creative university courses acceptable and unacceptable in corporate behaviour. Should corporations be able to decide for themselves what.

As Joel Bakan puts it, 'no one would seriously suggest that individuals should regulate themselves, that laws against rousseau essay inequality murder, assault and creative university courses, theft are unnecessary because people are socially responsible. Fifth-grade Essay Writing? Yet oddly we are asked to believe that corporate persons ? institutional psychopaths who lack any sense of moral conviction and who have the power and motivation to cause harm and devastation in the world ? should be left free to govern themselves.'87. Lobbying against literature writing- university courses regualtion. The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) has lobbied against: any binding emission targets in the Kyoto Protocol at the climate summits; the implementation of the Convention on writing Biodiversity; the inclusion of the precautionary principle in the Biosafety Protocol; and the Basel Convention banning the export of hazardous waste88. As a key organisation in the UN Global Compact, the ICC vigorously defended its position that the english literature with UN should in no way measure or regulate the way the companies live up to essay, the principles they have promised to english literature writing- university courses, follow89. Business Action for Sustainable Development (BASD) was launched in 2001 jointly by the ICC and critical oates, World Business Council on english literature creative courses Sustainable Development (WBCSD) to 'ensure maximum participation of the business community' in the Johannesburg Earth Summit in law day 2014 2002. BASD succeeded in thwarting efforts to english literature with, achieve binding international regulation of corporations through its promotion of law day voluntary mechanisms. BASD's chairman Mark Moody-Stuart (former CEO of Shell) argued that promoting a positive image of english creative writing- corporations was urgent, 'as others see the need for legislation and codes with teeth to make sure that business. is compelled to adopt certain standards and procedures'90. Lobbying for regulation. Environmental managers from BT and John Lewis (which owns Waitrose) complained that without tighter standards that everyone has to conform to, their companies put themselves at a disadvantage if they try to go green. 'All that counts', the man from John Lewis said, 'is cost, cost and cost.' If he?s buying eco-friendly lighting and his competitors aren?t,

Yes, I heard the cry of the unicorn: a corporate executive, welcoming a European directive. And from the rousseau essay discourse government? Nothing. Elliot Morley, the english literature with writing- university courses minister for climate change, proposed to do as little as he could get away with. The officials from the causes essay Department of literature creative writing- university courses Trade and Industry, to a collective groan from the men in suits, insisted that the measures some of the fifth-grade essay writing companies wanted would be ?an. Former Shell CEO Philip Watts put it this way, '. having thus prepared themselves it is in english with writing- those Chief Executive Officers? interests to advocate societal and governmental changes in the right direction to speed up trends. The smart CEOs not only are going to orient companies towards sustainability, but also are going to orient society towards sustainability.'96. Similarly John Browne, CEO of BP, has called for critical on joyce carol oates, 'the help of governments to establish the appropriate framework of incentives to move toward climate stabilisation'97. Jules Peck of WWF commented that companies are 'showing signs of discontent with trade associations that do not adequately represent their interests.

For many pioneering companies environmental regulation or economic instruments would reinforce their competitive position by pushing other companies to english creative writing-, internalise more of sample msn their environmental costs.' But before we get too excited at the prospect of english literature with university companies jumping the fence and joining campaigners in the push for essay discourse inequality, progressive regulation, let's take a step back and ask a few questions. What kind of regulation do they want? Why do they want it? Will it be effective? Can corporate power really be channelled in such a way as to support efforts to creative writing- courses, control corporate power? First, there is a difference between regulation and financial. Secondly, these companies are calling for regulation because. Where regulation is being called for it is sample resume msn only in literature creative writing- courses areas that supports the company's competitive advantage. For example, retailers Boots, Marks and Spencer, H M and Electrolux have lobbied to support the EU REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of resume Chemicals) Directive99.

While this has been highly useful in combating the huge lobbying power of the chemical industry (REACH has seen the largest ever corporate lobbying campaign in Europe100), the retailers are not lobbying in the public interest any more than BASF and the other chemical companies which have lobbied against the legislation101. Instead, the writing- courses retailers want: to ensure that the costs of REACH are imposed on the chemical producers and not retailers; to push for on joyce oates, better regulation to minimise their own financial risk as end-users and retailers of literature writing- harmful chemicals; to reap the rewards of having already sought to reduce harmful chemicals in their manufacturing processes and retail products in response to consumer demand; and to law day, rebuild consumer trust in chemicals. It is, again, a hard-nosed business position. So companies are likely to support regulation when it supports their business strategy or capitalises on areas where they have invested, but they are unlikely to courses, support the kind of across-the-board regulation called for by the corporate accountability movement. Because companies will only lobby for rousseau essay discourse, the type of regulation that makes them more competitive, any regulation they support will be counterweighted by lobbying from competitors who would lose out if regulation is brought in. The powerful trade associations such as the CBI and ICC will tend to come out on literature creative writing- university the side of the majority of companies who will be against regulation. The supposedly 'progressive' companies which are lobbying for regulation remain members of the trade associations because membership protects their broader interests. Is it possible to divide these powerful business lobbies against each other? Truly progressive regulation can only sample msn be implemented if public awareness and activism can rival the business lobby. This means mobilising people power on a grand scale to launch a major attack on english literature with creative writing- corporate power. The market has no morality102.

Hand in hand with pushing for further deregulation or pushing for favourable regulation (as above), companies are effectively capturing the issue space around major social and environmental problems and seeking to propose solutions which fit within a market-centred worldview. CSR asserts the carol classic free market line that the market will. Market-based 'solutions' distract us from this. If society's primary approach to tackling major social and environmental problems is to enable the powerful interests that caused the problems to profit from their resolution, then the very intention of solving these problems is subsumed to the interest of profit. Case Study: Carbon trading as a solution to cliamte change. The perversity of market mechanisms is exemplified by literature with university, carbon trading: allowing corporations to avoid reducing their emissions by buying carbon credits. As Tony Blair chillingly said in his address to the World Economic Forum, 'if we put forward, as a solution to climate change, something which involves drastic cuts in growth or standards of living, it matters not how justified it is, it simply won't be agreed to'[my italics]106. By this guiding orthodoxy, real solutions to the climate crisis are out, and market mechanisms are in. Carbon trading relies on the idea that once a price is assigned to fifth-grade essay, the earth's carbon cycling capacity, markets will be able to respond.

Negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol quickly moved from productive discussions about the nature of the climate crisis and the need for action to the issue of how corporations could profit from 'solutions'. Rather than legislating to with creative university, cut emissions, Kyoto creates property rights: privatising the earth's capacity to absorb greenhouse gases. These emissions rights have an estimated market value of $2.345 trillion, the 'largest invention of monetary assets by voluntary international treaty in intellectual curiosity essay history'107. Writing-? Rights to emit are handed out directly to the Northern countries based on their historical level of emissions, meaning that those that have polluted most in the past get the most free rights to emit. Most nations receiving these rights are in turn passing large quantities of them, for free, to private companies in heavy industrial sectors.108 In addition, companies can fund energy-saving or carbon sequestration projects (storing carbon through, for example, planting trees) in developing countries to 'offset' their carbon emissions and create new carbon credits. Campaigners have catalogued a large number of concerns about the carbon trading system109.

They have shown that the idea of 'sequestering' carbon by curiosity, planting trees to 'offset' emissions from burning fossil fuels does not equate to keeping the carbon reserves in the ground. Jutta Kill of SinksWatch argues that 'even in literature writing- courses purely economic terms, a market in credits from ?carbon-saving? projects will fail. You simply can?t verify whether a power plant?s emissions can be ?compensated for? by critical carol, a tree plantation or other project. Ultimately investors are bound to lose confidence in the credits they buy from such projects'110. That governments chose to adopt an untested, logically flawed and bureaucratically complex international trading system to address emissions reductions, rather than tried and tested methods such as taxation and regulation, represents an unprecedented triumph for with creative university courses, the corporate capture of the debate on fifth-grade essay writing climate change. Companies successfully staved off the threat that tackling climate change in a socially equitable way would represent to their profit margins. Larry Lohman of The Cornerhouse argues that '. English Literature With Writing- University Courses? Kyoto-style carbon accounting systems [tend] to marginalize non-corporate, non-state and non-expert contributions toward climatic stability. The Kyoto Protocol?s market system. not only cannot succeed in slowing the upward flow of fossil carbon into the overflowing above-ground carbon dump, but is stress also entrenching institutions and english creative writing- courses, procedures that are likely to stand in the way of constructive approaches to climate change.'

Can the consumer really change the market? Firstly statistics suggest that consumers are not, in rousseau essay inequality fact, consuming ethically, even when they are concerned about the social impact of products. In a Co-operative Bank survey, 89% of British consumers said they were concerned about social and environmental impacts, but only 18% said they reflect this in purchasing decisions111. According to literature, a MORI poll, fewer than 5% were what they called 'global watchdogs' making purchasing decisions on primarily ethical grounds112. But, even if consumers did primarily choose products on ethical grounds, this does not address the fundamental issue: the volume at intellectual curiosity, which we consume and the throwaway culture that goes with our over-consumption. The idea of ethical consumption also pre-supposes that consumers have access to unbiased information, but with millions spent by companies on advertising, much of the available information is heavily biased. The principal purpose of advertising is to make the product seem more essential, more important, more exciting or, in this case, more ethical than it really is. Writing- University Courses? Since few consumers closely scrutinise a company's ethical claims, companies are able to get away with misleading messages even when they are refuted by independent sources.

Therefore, consumers are not truly empowered. Although corporations and government constantly refer to consumer power, consumers are often poorly informed and isolated; moreover, they have many vested interests in the system which means that their scrutiny is frequently limited to rousseau discourse, comparatively superficial issues. In some ways they are complicit with CSR, because they would like to believe it. Noam Chomsky points out that corporations use advertising to mould the consumer's desires and lifestyle, to the consumer's own detriment. Writing- University Courses? He says, 'the ideal is to have individuals that are totally dissociated from one another. whose sense of value is ?Just how many created wants can I satisfy???113. So the rousseau essay disenfranchisement of english literature writing- university consumers is a key part of corporate advertising strategies.

Through CSR, companies are trying to appeal to law day essay 2014, ethical consumers but also to undermine the principle of ethical consumption. Consumers' primary concerns are cost and convenience. Because of this, consumers are unlikely to act on social issues in the same way that enfranchised citizens would if called on to make democratic decisions about what a corporation should and should not be allowed to do. Ethical consumption is often presented as democratic. Companies are responding directly to creative writing- courses, the concerns of the public. If the public were concerned then they wouldn't buy the product. But does this argument stand up? The idea that consumers will 'vote with their pounds' is actually anti-democratic. It means that decisions are made on the basis of purchasing power.

Individuals' access to power is curiosity decided according to the size their wallets. But what about those who are too poor to participate in the consumer economy? The power to decide what is and with creative, is not acceptable in corporate practice should not reside just with rich consumers, but also workers, producers and communities globally who are affected by that practice. Focusing on ethical consumption lets the corporations off the hook. It's easy for corporations to critical essay carol oates, deflect responsibility for inaction onto consumers who they have pushed into apathy. English Literature Writing- University Courses? But if they use the language of responsibility, then there must be an associated obligation, with or without consumer demand. Race to the top. In a report detailing the reasons for the collapse of the project, the law day essay authors deliver a sound critique of the supermarkets' analysis of CSR and contend that self regulation is not sufficient to create a significant shift toward sustainability in the sector115. The authors criticise the supermarkets attempts to conflate 'public good' with 'customer value', to keep ethics as a niche consumer choice rather than a corporate standard, to use their controlling position in the market to pass on with creative university courses responsibility and cost for sustainability initiatives down the supply chain whilst taking the credit.

They conclude that for many civil society organisations, the demise of essay discourse inequality RTTT is a signal that only 'command-and-control' regulation can tame the supermarket sector and literature writing- university, that at least 'in such a relentlessly consumer-oriented industry, self-regulation and voluntary initiatives are only likely to be appropriate for concerns that are aligned with the mainstream consumer interest. The RTTT project reveals that the notion that the essay oates consumer will vote with their money is deeply flawed, that the consumer and the citizen are not one and the same, and that companies like supermarkets, that are highly consumer-focused, may listen to consumers when it suits them but the broader concerns of the citizen, in both the North and in literature the South, are ignored. Aside from being distinctly undemocratic, this model also means that the scope for change is limited to the concerns related to consumer choice. Corporate Citizenship: With responsibilities come rights. This kind of language shift creates a tangible shift in attitudes. Corporate citizenship buys companies access to public finance for risky projects abroad.

Companies which sign up to the OECD guidelines and complete environmental impact assessments gain finance and export credits through public bodies such as the World Bank's International Finance Corporation116 or the essay European Bank for Regional Development117. Corporate citizenship also legitimises the presence of english creative university courses corporations in international forums and, often, their lobbying activities. Corporations have a presence at all the important world summits from the sample msn G8 to the WSSD. Their involvement is bought by english literature with creative writing- university, their 'commitment' to CSR and 'sustainability', and gives them the opportunity to dominate the agenda and put across their view of essay how the world should be run. The power and resources of the english corporate citizen are such that real human citizens? concerns are marginalised. CSR as Public Private Partnerships. Through privatisation to government by corporations.

'Governments are a fundamental actor in law day 2014 governance, but increasingly non-state actors from business and civil society are seen to play key roles.'120. The old adage from literature creative, Milton Friedman that 'the business of business is business' is proving untrue. Increasingly the business of business is stress power and with courses, control. While this has always been the case, the means and reach are now greater. Essay? As social commentator Leslie Sklair put it, 'global capitalism has to be politically active to maintain its project'. 121 CSR is taking us on with courses a trajectory towards increased private takeover of government functions. Causes Essay? It is not simply a form of literature with creative writing- university courses PPP but a progression towards corporations taking on the role of essay 2014 governance. SustainAbility argues that CSR has evolved as a 'pragmatic response where government has failed or been weak122'. But CSR has been a mechanism in the weakening of literature writing- university government. It is a strategy borne out of the Thatcher/Reagan era of stress minimising government intervention and of policies driven by literature with writing- courses, and on behalf of the corporations. CSR both weakens and sidelines democratic decision making.

It announces that democratic decision making in the form of regulation is essay carol unnecessary, and english literature with creative university, replaces the (dis)enfranchised citizen with the 'stakeholder'. (See section on dialogue). SustainAbility's report, 'Gearing Up: From Corporate Responsibility to Good Governance and Scalable Solutions', argues that a window of opportunity is essay stress opening up for corporations, through their corporate responsibility initiatives, to take on a governance role in achieving sustainable development.123 The report claims to 'assess examples of private sector leadership in preparing the ground or timely and effective public policy responses'124 and envisages greater corporate involvement in creative writing- university decision-making at the international level. According to the report, we can expect to see a shift from specific CSR projects to wider governance impacts and a change in the relationships between government, business and rousseau, civil society. Case studies include carbon trading and Anglo American's programme of providing anti-retroviral treatment to staff125. These examples show how, in the context of emasculated state power, unaccountable corporations are gradually gaining influence over governance and decision-making, as well as taking over of the delivery of services. The authors of the report see a turning point where business will either embrace this opportunity, or suffer the backlash against corporate globalisation. Campaigners should be aware of the role CSR plays in positioning companies to capitalise on this. 'The gap between the literature creative writing- market and the community will be closed. The only question is how and in which direction. rollback, a shift away from globalisation, is the 2014 more likely outcome unless we manage to strengthen the fabric of global community. Ironically nobody is better positioned or has better capacity to literature with creative university courses, play the lead role today than business itself.'126. Access to 'emerging markets?

'Emerging markets' is the current business jargon for developing countries. The terminology betrays the essay writing fact that they view these countries purely in terms of literature creative writing- university economics. Corporate partnerships with both Northern and Southern governments represent an opportunity for both policy influence and market penetration, with companies that lead in CSR gaining preferential access to developing country markets127. The term 'corporate social innovation' has been coined to rousseau discourse, describe business practices aimed at 'supporting' sustainable development128. Case Study: Business Action for Africa.

The 2005 G8 Summit saw unprecedented corporate involvement. In the run up to the Summit, Tony Blair set up the Commission for Africa (CfA) to advise the G8 on promoting development in Africa. A key part of the CfA was the business contact group, Business Action for Africa, a lobby group of the with writing- university courses leading multinationals in Africa including Shell, Anglo American, SAB Miller, British American Tobacco, Diageo and others.129. Just as BCSD, and later BASD, shifted the debate at the Earth Summit and World Summit on Sustainable Development from essay stress, how to solve global environmental problems to how to make them a business opportunity, BAA has succeeded in turning debate from english creative writing-, how to eradicate poverty in Africa to rousseau essay discourse inequality, how corporations can benefit from the aid money being invested in the continent. This comes as little surprise since government and business attitude to 'development' comes from the same ideological standpoint ? that poverty can be tackled by increasing economic growth and english literature creative university, attracting foreign investment that will trickle down to the poorest; while the negative impacts of 2014 corporate activity can be controlled, or conveniently ignored, Business did well at the G8. As Haiko Alfeld, director for Africa of the World Economic Forum put it, ?business has an enormous interest if $25 billion per literature creative writing- university year is to flow into Africa. clearly that will unleash enormous potential and business opportunities on sample resume the continent.? BAA's carefully worded recommendations to the G8 and African leaders included130: Investment in major infrastructure to facilitate trade.

Replacing national markets with regional markets - reducing the national economic sovereignty of African countries. With Creative University Courses? Streamlining the aid delivery process and involving the private sector. National governments stepping back from 'those areas in. The overwhelming message of the group?s concluding statement. For Graham Mackay, Chief Executive of SAB Miller, the importance of increasing private sector dominance in Africa was clear. ?Aid won't go on forever,? he said.

131. c/o Freedom Press. Angel Alley, 84b Whitechapel High Street. London, E1 7QX, United Kingdom. (replace [at] with @) Corporate Watch is run on a tight budget and we need your support to keep going! Even small amounts will help us stay independent and sustainable.

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5 Ways to Spruce Up Your Resume Right Now. Are you currently searching for employment, or want a new job? Don’t wait for the new year to come. You need to start your search now. Begin by sprucing up your resume and giving it a revamp. There are many resume samples and resume templates you can find on the Internet to english creative university courses, give yourself some inspiration and a leg up. However, you can also easily do it yourself by following these 5 steps. Writing. 1) Delete meaningless and silly words: Problem: Your resume is filled with words like “passionate,” “driven,” “results-oriented,” “team-player,” etc: It’s tempting to fill up your resume with “confidence inspiring” words, but doing so will only hurt your resume. Even if you have a significant amount of relevant experience, populating your resume with words like “passionate, “driven,” or “results-oriented” will only serve to dilute and pollute it. Why?

Those words don’t mean anything without context. Generally speaking, people are using these words to english with creative writing- university courses, put lipstick on a pig. Your resume should be direct and to law day 2014, the point. As with all good writing, it’s important to literature with creative university, “show, not tell.” If your resume is law day simply “telling” the hiring manager that you’re passionate, driven, and results-oriented, that literally means nothing to them. Solution: Delete these words wherever you see them, and literature with creative, replace them with actual job duties and accomplishments: Suggestion 1: Instead of telling the hiring manager that you’re “passionate,” give them an example of a project that you spearheaded to increase company profits #8212; that kind of essay stress information relays your passion much more clearly. English With Creative Writing- University Courses. Suggestion 2: Instead of telling the hiring manager that you’re “driven,” give an example of how you went above and beyond the call of duty complete a project or support another teammate.

Problem: Your resume has no numbers specifying your achievements and fifth-grade essay, the scope of your responsibilities: If you haven’t used numbers to describe your work experiences, you’re still doing too much “telling” and literature with, not enough “showing.” Without numbers to causes, help define the scope of your abilities and accomplishments, your resume will be vague, unclear, and boring. Even information like the size of the establishment you worked in english, can provide the hiring manager with valuable insight into your previous work experience, and give your resume a little more character. Solution: Wherever possible, specify your job description bullet points with numbers: Suggestion 1: If you helped increase company sales, write by fifth-grade writing how much. English Literature With Creative. Suggestion 2: If you managed employees or trained new employees, write down how many. Suggestion 3: If you saved the company money, write down how you did it, and law day, how much you saved.

Suggestion 4: Did you manage a budget? Write down how big it was. 3) Remove unrelated and old experience: Problem(s): It’s nearly 2015 – your experience from over a decade ago may not be relevant, even if it’s in the same industry. Meanwhile, if you’re applying for english with, a job that has no relation to your previous work experience, you’ve probably included totally irrelevant information. Carol. Hiring managers are looking for relevant resumes – period. As a rule of thumb, your resume should only be 1-2 pages long. If you’re including experience that is over english literature writing- university, a decade old, it’s likely that your resume is either really long, or you’ve been out of work and stress, need some information to pad your resume with. English Literature With Writing-. If you’re trying to switch careers, writing a resume can be tricky. Many of the skills and intellectual, abilities you have won’t be relevant for a different career track, and including unrelated job responsibilities will weaken your resume.

You will need to get creative and find places where your knowledge, skills, and abilities overlap in a new career. English Literature Courses. Solution: Delete experiences older than a decade. If you are changing careers, delete your irrelevant experience, or modify it to emphasize the 2014, transferable skills. Suggestion 1: If you’ve been out of work, use a combination style resume to conceal your work experience gaps while relaying your relevant experience. Suggestion 2: Read the hiring manager’s job description carefully, and english creative courses, consider whether you current skill knowledge and sample, skill set overlaps with their requirements. Present the writing- courses, best spin possible on fifth-grade your resume – even if you don’t have the skills yet, you may be easily trainable because you have foundational skills (such as software skills, customer service skills, management skills, etc.) 4) Make a new version of with creative university courses your resume for each job: Problem: You wrapped up writing your resume and think you’re finished. Actually, you’ve still got work to do.

Your resume needs to inequality, be ultra-specific, and ultra-targeted. If the key to buying property is english university courses “location, location, location,” then the key to getting an interview is “relevance, relevance, relevance.” Crafting your resume so that it adheres as closely as possible to the hiring manager’s expectations is the key to getting their attention and landing an interview. Solution: Write multiple versions of your resume, each of which targets a specific company. Suggestion 1: Find the hiring manager’s job description, and sprinkle their keywords and phrasing into your resume. Sample Resume Msn. NOTE: This does not mean plagiarizing or copying what they’ve written – simply strategically employing important keywords to capture their attention. Suggestion 2: Draft your resume so that the skills and abilities they are calling for english with creative writing- university, are towards the top of your resume, where they’ll instantly be seen. 5) Add some color and a stylized font: Problem: Your black and white resume, with Times New Roman font, while acceptable, may not be putting your best foot forward.

It’s not a problem per-se, but a black and law day essay, white resume with standard font doesn’t really have a lot of english literature creative “oomph.” You could increase your chances of on joyce getting noticed by english with creative writing- university styling up your resume a little bit. But don’t go overboard! Solution: Using a different font and adding a splash of color to your black and writing, white resume can be a good way of making it “pop” out from creative writing- university courses your competition. 2014. Suggestion 1: Use a binary color scheme – black and another color is good enough. Use the color on your headings and keep your bullet points black. English With Writing- Courses. Suggestion 2: Keep it classy. Red, blue, and orange with comic sans won’t get you a job, unless you’re applying for a position at a clown college. If you follow these suggestions, your resume will be ready for 2015. Don#8217;t hesitate to apply now #8212; get in causes essay, before everyone else makes their new years resolutions! Author: Mark Slack is literature creative writing- a resume expert and causes, career adviser consulting for the smartest resume template creator, He is an avid hiker and english literature with creative writing- university courses, biker, and is fluent in Mandarin.

You can follow him at @MarkWSlack. This post is discourse written by a guest author. If you are interested our sponsored content options, check out the the Advertising Page - we look forward to hearing from you!

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Essay on Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, it’s meaning, nature, role and literature with creative writing- university courses, other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. It is found in all societies, past and present. Causes Stress? All the preliterate societies known to us have religion. Religion goes back to the beginning of the culture itself. It is a very ancient institution. There is no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of man in response to certain felt needs of men.

While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of societies. It is the foundation on which the normative structure of society stands. It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon english literature with political and economic aspects of life. It is sample, said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious. Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the great religions of the world. Religion is english with writing- university courses, concerned with the shared beliefs and practices of essay discourse inequality human beings. It is the human response to those elements in the life and environment of mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. English With Writing- University Courses? Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in nearly all societies. Majumdar and Madan explain that the curiosity essay, word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio.

This is english with creative, derived from two root words. The first root is Leg, meaning “together, count or observe”. The second root is Lig, meaning ‘to bind’. The first root refers to belief in and practice of “signs of Divine Communication”. The second root refers to the carrying out those activities which link human beings with the supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of all religions. Central to sample msn all religions is the concept of faith. Religion in this sense is the organisation of faith which binds human beings to english literature writing- university their temporal and transcendental foundation.

By faith man is distinguished from other beings. It is essentially a subjective and private matter. Faith is something which binds us together and sample, is therefore, more important than reason. Pfleiderer defined religion as “that reference men’s life to a word governing power which seeks to grow into a living union with it.” According to writing- university James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in “Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life”. As Christopher Dauson writes, “Whenever and wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and resume, higher than man’s own, there is religion, and the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is literature with creative courses, filled in the presence of such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the root of worship and prayer.” Arnold W. Green defines religion as “a system of on joyce carol beliefs and symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to writing- courses an unseen supernatural realm beyond the sample msn, known and beyond the controllable.” According to Maclver and Page, “Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power.” As Gillin and Gillin says, “The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs.” Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to their own conceptions.

As a matter of fact the forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is difficult to english literature with creative agree upon law day essay 2014 a definition. Literature University Courses? Some maintain that religion includes a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to fifth-grade writing deal with those powers. Others regard religion as something very earthly and materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends. Sumner and Keller asserted that, “Religion in history, from the earliest to very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at english with all but of rites, rituals, observance and ceremony”. Religion, in fact, is not a mere process of mediations about man’s life; it is also a means of preserving the values of life. While it is possible to define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism.

In sociology, the word religion is used in a wider sense than that used in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of life. According to Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and (b) psychological. The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the feet. The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and sample resume msn, beliefs. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the “religion thrill”. If we analyse the great religions of the world, we shall find that each of literature with creative courses them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of sample salvation. The first basic element of religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers. These powers are believed to influence human life and control all natural phenomena.

Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods. Writing-? There are even others who do not call them by any name. They simply consider them as forces in their universe. Thus, belief in the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of intellectual religion. There are certain holy or sacred elements of religion. These constitute the heart of the religion.

There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred. But a thing is holy or sacred not because of a peculiar quality of thing. English Literature University Courses? An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of a tangible thing is not observable to the senses. Sacred things are symbols.

They symbolize the things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the rousseau discourse, kind of animal the cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is imagined to represent. Religious ritual is “the active side of religion. It is behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and sacred- objects”. It includes any kind of behavior (such as the wearing of special clothing and english literature writing-, the immersion in certain rivers, in law day essay, the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in public. It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc. Failure to courses perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy).

They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. It is believed that the sample msn, powers of the literature creative courses, other world cherish these principles. Causes Essay? The violation of these principles creates man’s sense of guilty. It may also bring upon him the disfavour of the supernatural powers. If the behaviour is not in accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is english with university courses, considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the fifth basic element of religion. Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. Intellectual? In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of english writing- life, the essay, realisation of an inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in his life.

The ultimate end of life is to attain Moksha. The Buddhist hopes to attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and entering Nirvana. The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for man’s sins. In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. It is more or less coherent system of beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities. Religion is interwoven with all aspects of with courses human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions.

Prior to the advent of what may be called as “the age of intellectual essay reason”, religion has been the chief supporter of the spiritual and moral values of life. English With Writing- University? It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Hence, it is obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for the wider society. These functions of religion are discussed bellow. 1. Religion Helps in law day essay 2014, the Struggle for Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in the struggle for societal survival. English With Creative University Courses? Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and early development of rousseau essay inequality seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean. Religion in english literature creative, each of these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in an unfavourable environment, by giving explanations to certain aspects of the human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role.

By relating the empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the individual a sense of security in this rapidly changing world. This sense of security of the individual has significance for the society. Since religion helps man to forget the suffering, disappointments and sorrows in this life’, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning. 2. Religion Promotes Social Integration: Religion acts as a unifying force and hence, promotes social integration in several ways. Religion plays an important part in essay discourse, crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and norms. It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour. Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments.

It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from english literature with writing- university courses members of other groups, communities or nations. By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for the values and sample msn, this symbol becomes the rallying point for english literature with creative writing- all persons who share the same values. The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for example, is a rallying point which gives cohesion to Hindu society. Religion performs its function of integration through social control. It regulates the resume msn, conduct of writing- university courses individuals by enforcing moral principles on causes stress them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against them for university courses violation. 3. Religion helps to knit the Social Values of a Society into fifth-grade essay a Cohesive Whole: It is the ultimate source of english literature with writing- university social cohesion. The primary requirement of sample society is the common possession of social values by which individuals control the actions of self and english literature creative university, others and through which society is perpetuated. These social values emanate from religious faith.

Religion is the fifth-grade writing, foundation upon which these values rest. Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to men; people should be honest and virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion. It is religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and english writing- university courses, requires him to accept limitations upon his wants and desires. All the religions have preached love and non-violence. They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance. 4. Religions Acts as an causes essay, Agent of Social Control: It is one of the english literature creative, means of informal means of social control. Religion not only defines moral expectations for members of the causes essay stress, religious group but usually enforces them. It supports certain types of social conduct by placing the powerful sanctions of the supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of social behaviour as offences not only against society but also against God. Hence, any violation of the acceptable norm is punishable not only by God but by society.

Hinduism gives sanction to the caste system which regulates social relations of various classes in India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to render services to english literature creative writing- university the needy and poor and promote their welfare. It develops philanthropic attitude of people. Help and assistance are rendered to poor and destitute persons due to religion inspiration. It is believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of resume religion by way of giving alms and assistance to the helpless and needy persons.

In this way religion promotes the welfare of individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to literature writing- university art and culture. The priests laid the rousseau essay, foundations of medicine. Magic supplied the roots of observation and experimentation from which science developed. It also inculcated the habit of charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and literature creative writing- university, Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to soothe the man in times of his suffering and disappointment. In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of all hopes and achievements. The things for which he strives are in some measure always denied to him. When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for has been swept away, man naturally wants something to resume console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in ritualistic exchanges of condolence.

On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. Faith in God compensates him and sustains his interest in life and creative, makes it bearable. In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to writing accept his lot on earth. 8. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands one’s self to infinite proportions.

Man unites himself with the infinite and feels ennobled. Through unity with the infinite the self is creative university, made majestic and triumphant. Man considers himself the noblest work of God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions. Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the great religions of the essay discourse inequality, world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and family. Political institutions are often sanctioned by religion: the emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the kings of France were supposed to rule by divine right. Religious rites are performed on many occasions in relation to with creative university vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and kinship interests and with political institutions. Religion is the central element in critical on joyce oates, the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the spread of education, the accumulation of capital and the creation of a leisure class.

For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and political life. Even today religion is called upon to support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures. In addition to literature with writing- positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions. Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. Intellectual Curiosity? Sumner and with creative writing- university, Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O’ Dea and others have pointed the dysfunctions of religion. The dysfunctions of religion are as follows. 1. Essay Inequality? Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes: According to Thomas F. English Literature Courses? O’ Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to be beneficial to the welfare of the society. All protests and conflicts are not always negative. Protests and conflicts often become necessary for essay bringing out changes.

Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. With Creative Writing- University Courses? By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms. 2. Hampers the Adaptation of rousseau essay Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and norms emanate from religious faith. English Literature Creative Writing-? Some of the norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by religion. This can “impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of society to changing conditions.” For example, during the medieval Europe, the Church refused to intellectual curiosity essay grant the ethical legitimacy of money lending at interest, despite the great functional need of this activity in a situation of developing capitalism”. Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking. Similar social conflict is literature creative courses, evident in the case of birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world.

3. Religion may Foster Dependence and sample msn, Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility. For example, a good number of literature with writing- university courses people in India prefer to critical essay on joyce carol take the advises of priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures. But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in the field. In its course of development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and with creative, animal sacrifice etc. As religion interprets misfortune and suffering in writing, this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the existing social structure. Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to fate. It is this control function of religion that caused Marx to call religion as “the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of with creative writing- university courses soulless conditions. It is the opiate of the people.” By sanctifying norms and legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the source of many superstitions.

These superstitions have caused harm to human being. Superstitions like evil spirits and ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. hinder the welfare of human beings. Religion results in inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines. It is stress, deeply related with conflicts. Wars and battles have been fought in the name of religion.

Sumner and english with university courses, Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of rousseau discourse money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in with creative writing-, the name offerings. It leads to waste of human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people. It creates a gap among them.

In the name of God and essay 2014, religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to english literature creative writing- courses people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to essay the reality. They have faith without reasoning which is blind. English Literature Creative Writing-? On the contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Bigotry and fanaticism have led to law day essay 2014 persecution, inhuman treatment and misery in the past. Religion preserves traditions. It preaches submission to english literature writing- the existing conditions and maintenance of status quo. Religion is not readily amenable to social change and progress. 12. Religion Retards Scientific Achievement:

Religion has tried to writing prevent the scientists from literature discovering new facts. For example, it tried to suppress the doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic. They think that all events in life is due to some divine power and hence due to fate. As a result, his power and potentiality is undermined. Thus, religion affects the creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion.

For Marx all that was fundamental in the science of society proceeded from the material and especially the economic sphere. For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at this point is to resume limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the english literature with creative courses, impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Marx’s sense of the matter is sample resume, more profound. Merely changing beliefs is not enough. The transformation of an entire social order is required, for belief is deeply rooted in the social relations of men. Religion, writes Marx, “is the ‘self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the literature creative writing- university courses, world. Man is the world of man, the state, and society.

This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world. Religion is the compendium of essay that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and with creative writing- university courses, justification. It is the fantastic realization of the human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to God in intellectual essay, the form of worship, he takes from literature with university courses himself. That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to project what is his to a supernatural being. But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is not religious forms – against which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of existence. The abolition of causes essay stress religion as the “illusory happiness” of the people is required for their real happiness, declared Marx. But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. “The demand to give up the illusions about english literature courses, its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion”. Marx’s criticism of religion is thus deeply connected with the criticism of right and the criticism of politics. As Marx put it… “The criticism of heaven transforms itself into the criticism of earth, the criticism of religion into the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of oates politics”.

Marx was an english with writing- university, atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for all who look up to religion for resume msn salvation. This is amply clear from literature writing- university his following observation: “The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the highest essence of resume msn man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in english literature university courses, which man is debased, enslaved abandoned…” Change is the very essence of a living thing. Essay? A living religion must grow, must advance and must change. No form of english university religion is static. In some cases the change may be slow and minor, in others relatively rapid and major. Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and eternal. Hence, there is also an element of censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from simple to complex, (ii) from complex to simple and (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in the simple form of tribal religion.

For example, with the gradual spread of Vaishnavism in chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of complex form of religion, specially of rituals and ceremonies. Buddhism for intellectual instance, came as a revolt against the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and also beyond the literature with creative courses, common man’s reach. Rousseau Essay Inequality? In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to simplify the complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism. Mixing of more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation.

The most excellent example is of Sophism. It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism. Literature With University Courses? Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by Buddhism and Suphism. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of life, played a dominant part. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by intellectual, natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as a power over man and his society loses its importance. English Literature Creative University Courses? This movement is law day 2014, sometimes referred to as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in with creative writing- university, which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. In Europe, secularisation is held to be the outcome of the social changes brought about by urban, industrial society.

It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to decline in carol, modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in literature writing- courses, Western societies. Religion in Western societies has tended to place less emphasis on dogma and more on social values. It has tried to intellectual curiosity essay reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge. As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of life is worth preserving and it must seek to organise. The masses and guide their activities for the benefit of the society rather than for the purpose of pleasing the God.

Secularism as an english creative writing- courses, ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. However, the process of secularisation has affected the domination of religious institutions and symbols. The process of secularisation was started in India during the British rule. But the process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and rousseau discourse inequality, reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and secular education gradually affected various aspects of religion in India. Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from religiosity to secular way of life. But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in our society. First, organised Christianity plays an important political force in Europe and North America. Second, the vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation.

All these criticisms are formidable indeed. But it should be noted that the diversity of english literature creative courses religious sects and cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and not a dominant feature of social life. It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about secularisation. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind were very much influenced by it. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by critical essay on joyce oates, natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of english university courses God as power over man and rousseau discourse inequality, his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to english with creative writing- university courses as secularization. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism.

‘Secularisation’, in the words of essay discourse Peter Berger, refers to ‘the process by which sectors of society and culture are removed from the domination of religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the development of rational thinking and a rational world view. Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an english with writing- university courses, ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional. Sample Resume? Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon english literature creative university courses them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and physical world which results from the development of physical, biological and social sciences. He says that this knowledge is based on reason rather than faith. He claims that science not only explained many facts of life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of its explanation in law day essay 2014, practical results. The term ‘secularisation’ has been used in different ways.

Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the meaning of the writing- university courses, concept. Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. The range of meaning attached to the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary. There are two meanings of the word current in modern and modernizing India and essay, even in the whole of this subcontinent. One of the two meanings is found by consulting any standard dictionary.

But there is the difficulty in finding the other, for it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of secularizing the State. The word secular has been used in this sense, at least in the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an area in public life where religion is not admitted. One can have religion in one’s private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within one’s home or at creative writing- one’s place of causes essay stress worship. With? But when one enters public life, one is expected to leave one’s faith behind.

In contrast, the non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions. In the Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in the English language. Rousseau Essay Discourse Inequality? It is held that India is not Europe and hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in Europe. What does it matter if secularism means something else in Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. English Literature With Writing- University Courses? Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily.

The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the word. Indian meaning of critical essay on joyce carol oates secularism is debated in its Western genealogies. New meaning is acquired by the word secularism in India. The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and secularism in the Indian languages, by neologisms such as ‘Dharma-nirapekshata. This is translation of those English words and dharma-nirapekshata is used to refer to the range of meanings indicated by english literature with writing- university courses, the English term. The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is rousseau inequality, standardly used in talking about the role of literature with creative writing- courses religion in a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the outcome of vested interests inherent in our political system. Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in terms of practice of causes any religion by any citizen. Besides, the State is not to give preference to any religion over another. But this term is irrelevant in a democratic structure and it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in literature creative courses, the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the law day, State, permits the practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to give preference to any religion and the principle of neutrality). Indian secularism has been inadequately defined ‘attitude’ of goodwill towards all religions, ‘Sarvadharma Sadbhava’.

In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on the part of the State. Hence, the original concept will not admit the Indian case with its range of references. Well-established and well-defined concept of secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Western or Indian model. To Herberg, ‘authentic religion’ means an emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the english university, theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society. If there is any trend of decline in stress, any aspect of literature creative writing- university religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the process of secularisation. Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and rousseau inequality, institutions lose social significance. Religion in America is literature creative writing- university courses, subordinated to the American way of life.

It means that religious belief and causes stress, practices have tended to decline. Secularism is taken to mean that one’s religious ideals and with creative courses, beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism. There are other aspects of secularism. Secularism is related to rationalism and empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and blind beliefs. In this manner, the process of secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of secularisation implies the transformation of religious institutions as a whole.

There is the need to writing secularise the religious institutions. This means less emphasis on creative writing- university supernatural power, lack of critical theological doctrine, and desirability to compromise with religious beliefs and values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in the context of changing society. In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of with creative writing- university courses ‘desacrilisation’ . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the world. Action is not directed by religious beliefs. People in a modern society increasingly look upon the world and their own lives without the benefit of religious interpretation. As a result there is a ‘secularisation of consciousness’. Berger argues that the ‘decisive variable for secularisation is the process of rationalisation’. That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality.

Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of discourse religion. English Literature With University Courses? It is based on testing of arguments and beliefs by rational procedure, on asserting truth by essay, means of factors which can be quantified and creative, objectively measured. Religion is based on faith. Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the basis of religion. Causes Essay Stress? It removes the mystery, magic and authority of religion. English Literature Creative Writing- University? A secular man lays more emphasis on intellectual curiosity physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of secularisation as the most important component of the english literature university courses, process of modernisation is occurring in essay, different forms in various contemporary societies. Like modernisation, this process is good and desirable for the welfare of english literature university courses mankind. Finally, it is both a product and a process. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

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Here Are The Most Ridiculous Laws In Every State. This iconic (read: horrifying) scene in last year's megahit Wolf of Wall Street shows Jordan Belfort and company tossing a little person at a Velcro-covered target. English Literature With Creative? Fortunately for Leo's character, they weren't in the Sunshine State. In Florida, owners of fifth-grade commercial establishments (where alcohol is english with creative, sold) may be fined up to $1,000 if they participate in or permit any contest of dwarf-tossing. The law makes sense, but the essay 2014, fact that the state has to spell it out might make you scratch your head. We've all heard urban legends and english literature with creative writing- university courses rumors about critical essay carol absurd laws in America, but you can't believe everything you read on the Internet. Sites like €” which rarely link to states' current statutes or may misinterpret them €” only perpetuate the english with creative writing- university courses, myths. We decided to undertake some legal legwork and identify the strangest statute still on the books in every state. Alabama residents commit unlawful bear exploitation if they purchase, possess, or train a bear for the purpose of rousseau essay discourse bear wrestling. It's a Class B felony, punishable by a fine, confiscation of the bear, and restitution to a humane society for animals.

Apparently, man versus bear wrestling took hold in the early 1800s €” a byproduct of Greco-Roman displays of masculinity. A person cannot get drunk in a bar and remain on the premises. English Literature Writing- University Courses? (Kind of defeats the essay, purpose of a bar, doesn't it?) The statute states an intoxicated person may not knowingly enter or camp out where alcohol is sold €” so maybe if you're inebriated enough, you can get away with it. In 2012, police in Alaska reportedly started aggressively enforcing the english with writing- university, law, sending plainclothes officers to bars to identify and arrest suspects. No one can feed garbage to pigs without first obtaining a permit, which requires annual renewal. You can, however, swap out the trough for a waste basket if the swine are raised for your own consumption. A pinball machine can't give more than 25 free games to a player who continues to win. Some restaurant-gaming chains €” like Chuck E. Cheese €” are exempt from certain anti-gambling statutes because they award free games, toys, and novelties that don't constitute an exchange of valuable things. A frog that dies during a frog-jumping contest can't be eaten. This health code likely made its way into the books to protect competitors at the Calaveras County Fair and Frog Jumping Jubilee, an 80-year-old tradition in the gold mining town of Angels Camp. Each year, tourists and experienced jockeys compete to see how far their bullfrogs can leap. You have to essay, get a permit to modify the weather.

Weather modification is english, not only possible, but it's actually a lucrative business. In select states, it's legal to perform activities that produce artificial changes in the composition or behavior of the atmosphere €” such as burning silver iodide, which carries into essay stress the clouds to stimulate rain. The permit requirement ensures minimal harm to the land and maximum benefit to writing-, the people. In Connecticut, letting other people copy your academic work isn't just a no-no in oates school €” it's also illegal. The general statutes explicitly prohibit selling a term paper, essay, dissertation, etc . at any education facility supervised by the state. The punishment isn't specified, but it's probably more than detention. It's a Class B misdemeanor to english with creative university courses, sell, barter, or offer the fifth-grade, fur of a domestic dog or cat. Any products made in creative writing- whole or in part from the hair, say a coat of 101 Dalmatians, also result in a fine of $2,500 and a ban on intellectual owning a dog or cat for 15 years after conviction. Grumpy cat is still grumpy though. Owners of commercial establishments where alcohol is sold may be fined up to $1,000 if they participate in or permit any contest of creative dwarf-tossing.

In 1989, Florida outlawed this Australian bar fad of essay tossing little people when it caught on in southern parts of the state. A Florida state legislator tried to repeal the law in 2011 but wasn't successful. Those engaging in llama-related activities, such as riding, training, or goofing around at english university courses, a county fair or performance, are accountable for any and all personal injuries incurred. The llama professional is immune from rousseau, liability for with university courses harm or death with few exceptions. Injured participants have a shot in court if they were just spectating from an authorized area.

The urban beautification initiative dates back to 1927, when an essay, all-white circle of literature with creative Hawaii's power wives created the Outdoor Circle Club and lobbied for the ban. Causes Essay Stress? Today, the group exists as a watchdog on english literature creative writing- university ever-threatening, jumbo-size advertisements. Cannibalism is strictly prohibited and punishable by up to 14 years in prison in Idaho. But it's okay to willfully ingest the flesh or blood of a human being in life-or-death situations, if it's the only apparent means or survival. The only discourse inequality, state to declare cannibalism illegal, Idaho erected the ban in 1990 as a reaction to spreading fear that eating humans would pop-up in english with writing- ritualized practices. Urban legend says it's a crime to causes, possess more than $600 worth of salamanders. (That's 75-plus salamanders, according to english literature with courses, fair market value.) In reality, it's illegal to keep any variety of aquatic life in excess of $600 in Illinois if it was captured or killed in violation of the state's law.

Liquor stores can't sell cooled water or soda, but they can sell uncooled soda. In fact, they can't sell milk either. The code specifically lists what types of critical essay on joyce carol beverages (and at what temperatures) permit-holding businesses can have in stock. Anyone trying to english literature courses, pass off margarine (or oleo or oleomargarine) as real butter is guilty of msn a misdemeanor. The great butter vs. margarine battle rages on english with courses though, so we understand Iowa's desire for intellectual transparency.

Liquor may not be sold by the glass in with writing- university courses 26 counties. Essay Stress? In Kansas €” a state that outlawed alcohol sales until 1948, a full 15 years after Congress repealed Prohibition €” individual counties may, by with university courses resolution or petition, prohibit the causes essay stress, sale of booze in public places where 30% or less of their gross comes from the sale of food. There's no place like home to get tipsy. Every legislator, public officer, and lawyer must take an oath stating that they have not fought a duel with deadly weapons. When it entered the Kentucky Constitution in 1849, the law was meant to english literature with creative courses, deter men who might aspire to msn, public office from english with, participating in essay carol oates the once-rampant Southern tradition.

Some evidence suggests, however, that trial-by-combat might technically be legal on creative writing- university courses a federal level even today. According to rousseau essay, the public health and safety codes, this Creole stir-fry, made with rice, meat, and vegetables, may be prepared for literature with creative writing- university courses public consumption in sample resume the open, using iron pots and wood fires. An early version of the literature with writing- university, chance game of fifth-grade Bingo, called Beano, is legally regulated in this New England state. The legal rules dictate that a person conducting or assisting in the conduct of the game may assist players by playing their cards while they take a restroom break. This allowance does not apply in high-stakes Beano, which apparently, is english literature with creative writing- university courses, also a thing. A person who sells non-latex condoms by critical essay on joyce carol oates means of a vending machine is guilty of a misdemeanor and english with creative writing- university subject to rousseau inequality, a fine up to english with creative writing- courses, $1,000. Whether you're in Gillette Stadium or Fenway Park, you'll probably never hear just half of the Star Spangled Banner. Singing or playing the national anthem other than as a whole and separate composition is punishable by a fine no more than $100. You'll pay the same price for dancing (at all) to it, too.

A statute on the books since 1931 makes adultery a felony €” punishable by a maximum of four years in prison and stress a $5,000 fine. In 2012, Portage police Sgt. James Myers was fired for on-the-job misconduct, including allegedly cheating on his wife and furthering a relationship with a local waitress using a city-issued cellphone and email account while on with creative writing- the clock. He was neither fined nor imprisoned, suggesting Michigan doesn't take the law too seriously. In Minnesota, any game in critical on joyce which participants attempt to capture a greased or oiled pig is illegal. English Literature Creative Writing-? The same laws also prohibits turkey scrambles. Let's assume legislators were more concerned with animal cruelty than human stupidity. Using profanity in front of two or more persons in a public place might land you in the county jail for up to 30 days. Or you could pay a hefty fine to the state swear jar, no more than $100. While this law appears to be a direct assault on the First Amendment, it's thought to have been conceived in intellectual essay order to protect the public.

If any bull or ram over the age of 1 year old runs rampant for more than three days, any person may castrate the animal without assuming liability for damage. Three town residents must attest in writing that the animal is loose, and its owner must fail to reclaim or confine the beast after notice is given. Guiding sheep onto a railroad track with intent to injure the writing- university courses, train, not the sheep, can stick you with a whopping fine up to $50,000 and a stay at the state prison not exceeding five years. The locomotive corporation or owners of the inequality, railroad must be harmed, in addition to Dolly and friends. No person who is afflicted with a venereal disease can marry. While it's nearly impossible to enforce, this health code could prevent marital bliss for literature with creative university more than 8,000 Nebraskans who reported cases of chlamydia or gonorrhea to inequality, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2012. In the only state where prostitution won't get you arrested in most counties, using x-rays to determine shoe size could.

That may sound strange, but a device with that exact purpose actually exists: a shoe-fitting fluoroscope also known as a pedoscope or foot-o-scope. With the knowledge that exposure to radiation harms people in awful ways, this practice went by the wayside. But at one point, the english literature with creative writing-, state had to spell it out. Anyone who didn't get the message is guilty of a misdemeanor. As of 1973, it's illegal to carry away or collect seaweed at night. Breaking most of the general provisions about fish and game will land you a violation €” with an essay writing, unspecified punishment. Seaweed is routinely used in fertilizer and animal feed. It's also considered a good source of alginate, which gives liquid solutions a thicker texture (think Jell-O).

Just last year, Maine and english literature with creative writing- university its fisherman grappled over resume a similar set of regulations. In the Garden State, anyone wearing a body vest a.k.a. bullet-proof armor while committing murder, manslaughter, robbery, sexual assault, etc. is guilty of another crime. And attempting to flee while wearing this unlawful piece of clothing, after committing the initial act, bumps up the crime from third-degree to second- or first-degree. As stated in the New Mexico Constitution, idiots can't vote in state elections. Traditionally, the word idiot has referred to someone (rather politically incorrectly) mentally disabled or with an IQ below 30. But read the english literature with creative writing- university, comments section on any website, and you'll see the term is more loosely applied now. The vagueness in these statutes could cause problems someday. Currently, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Ohio uphold the rousseau essay, same idea in their constitutions. Even if you have a mental disability though, if you understand what voting means, federal law protects your right to literature with, cast a ballot, according to fifth-grade writing, the National Alliance on english university Mental Illness. It's unlawful for three or more people wearing masks to gather in public for a demonstration or a march. Law Day Essay? Originally enacted in english creative writing- 1845, it entered the causes essay stress, books when local tenant farmers disguised themselves as Native American and attacked and english literature with university killed their landlords.

The law includes exceptions for masquerade parties and similar events. For certain organizations in North Carolina, bingo games can last only up to five hours. The state's administrative code even contains a few more explicit restrictions on the game: only one in a 48-hour period and no more than a $500 prize. Our best guess as to the motivation behind this law? Retirement homes needed to crack down on geriatric bingo sharks. All members of essay 2014 North Dakota's Dry Pea and literature with creative university Lentil Council must be citizens. The organization was created in 1997 to to promote the fifth-grade essay, dry pea, lentil, chickpeas, lupins, and fava bean industries, and english with creative writing- university courses the legislature clearly didn't want someone with just a green card wielding all that power.

A national version of the Dry Pea and Lentil Council also exists. But North Dakota obviously decided it needed a more state-focused group. Every operator of an underground coal mine must provide adequate supply of toilet paper with each toilet. This law clearly makes sense, but the fact that it exists at all raises some questions about sample msn basic human decency.. According to the most recently updated version of the Oklahoma statutes in 2013, McCarthyism is alive and well. We quote: It is here now found and declared to english with university, be a fact that there exists an law day essay 2014, International Communist conspiracy which is committed to the overthrow of the government of the United States and of the several states, including that of the literature with creative university courses, State of critical essay Oklahoma, by force or violence . English With Creative University? In Oregon, leaving a container of urine or fecal matter on the side of the road is a Class A misdemeanor. And you can't throw it from the vehicle either.

Again, we understand the logic. But who tried to leave urine or excrement on the side of the road in the first place? Human trafficking in resume msn general violates too many international laws to count. With Writing-? But Pennsylvania felt the need to specify that you can't barter a baby. But if you do find yourself swapping goods or services for your precious bundle, it's only a misdemeanor, which is usually punished less harshly than felonies. Rhode Islanders who bite off someone else's limb will face no more than 20 years in prison (but no less than one) €” but only rousseau, if they maimed the victim on english with creative purpose. If you fall and your teeth accidentally dismember somebody, you will have a legitimate defense. Don't worry.. A male over the age of rousseau essay discourse 16 can't seduce a woman by falsely promising to marry her. If found guilty, he'll be charged with a misdemeanor, fined at the court's discretion, and/or imprisoned for no longer than one year €” with a decent number of exceptions.

For example, if the woman was already married or considered lewd or unchaste (which the law doesn't define), the court can't convict the english with writing- university courses, male of the essay, misdemeanor. The offender will also walk if no one can corroborate the woman's testimony. And no law exists with the gender roles reversed. Agricultural producers may set off fireworks and other explosives to safeguard their sunflower crops. Crows and other birds can wreak havoc on english literature with courses a blossoming field, and pyrotechnics are farmers' first defense €” so long as they're not used within 600 feet of an occupied home, church, or schoolhouse. If you do, the fish and wildlife commission will charge you with a Class C misdemeanor (punishable by fine only.) White deer, as people often call these mammalian anomalies, are extremely rare. Only about one in every 30,000 deer is born albino. Some even consider the animal the modern unicorn and believe it has magical powers. In Texas, people wishing to run for office must acknowledge the Supreme Being. Inequality? If not, they could be subjected to religious tests.

In other words: No atheists allowed. In Utah, no one may hurl a missile at a bus or bus terminal €” except elected or appointed peace officers or commercial security personnel. Anyone outside those positions is guilty of a third-degree felony. The Vermont legislature created a law that prohibits outlawing clotheslines €” proof that governments don't always abuse their powers. The same statute also states that no law can ban solar collectors, listing both items as energy devices based on renewable resources. Except for english literature university married couples, sex is completely banned in Virginia. Sample Resume Msn? No matter your age or your partner's, breaking this law results in english literature with creative writing- university a Class 4 misdemeanor. Doors to nearly all public buildings must open outwardly. Anyone who violates this will face a misdemeanor charge.

The statute does explain why though: to avoid congestion during emergencies, like fires. Don't attempt to substitute a hunting dog for a ferret in West Virginia. Anyone who hunts, catches, takes, kills, injures, or pursues a wild animal or bird with a ferret will face a fine of no less than $100 (but no more than $500) and no less than 10 (but no more than 100) days in jail. Not to essay inequality, stereotype, but in with university courses Wisconsin (also known as America's Dairyland), many different kinds of state-certified cheeses (Muenster, cheddar, Colby, Monterey Jack) must be highly pleasing. In Wyoming, you can't cut, sever, detach, or mutilate more than one-half of a sheep's ear. Fifth-grade Essay? Violations are felony offenses, punishable by english literature writing- up to five years in prison. But less than one-half? Totally fine.

And if the essay, sale document or title approves said mutilation, go ahead then. SEE ALSO: Here's What All 50 State Names Actually Mean. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru. Here Are The Most Ridiculous Laws In Every State. This iconic (read: horrifying) scene in literature with creative courses last.

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