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Реферат: Main Causes Of The Great Depression Essay
Applying for a job? Here are 9 keys to online resume success. Of Great Essay. At the onset of a shiny new year, many of us decide it#8217;s time to stretch our wings and seek a new job. With so many online resources available, you might assume that submitting several applications will surely garner at least a few results. These days, it’s highly likely that any job you apply for online will have an Applicant Tracking System (ATS) in place. Writing Personal School. What that means is that without the right keywords, font and format, your resume may just slip off into space without you even realizing it. Of Great Depression. These systems reject about 75% of hybrid cars cars essay candidates #8212; even potentially great candidates. But despite the flaws, employers continue to use them, because they can cut through all the clutter much quicker and easier than an actual human being.
But don’t get discouraged! If you know how to causes work the system, you can give yourself a much better chance of getting your resume past the hybrid cars essay, robots and onto the desks of the right people. When the system scans a resume, it sorts the content into four parts: education, contact info, skills and experience. So if you want your resume to causes make it past the robots and into thanks the hands of a human, you need to make sure the causes of great essay, system can recognize what it#8217;s looking for. For starters, carefully screen your resume for spelling and grammar errors these little mistakes pretty much guarantee your resume a one-way ticket to the garbage can. Bear in mind that simple formatting is the best way to get your resume past these electronic wardens. Here are some tips on how to best format your resume for online tracking systems: Bullets: Use bullets rather than paragraphs to describe your work experience. Bullets are easier for systems to navigate and easier for humans to read. Don#8217;t use complex tables, logos or graphics: They will confuse the system.
And unless you#8217;re a professional graphics designer, they#8217;ll likely look unprofessional and just clutter up your resume. Use text format (rather than PDF or Word): Submitting your resume in essay co uk simple text format is the best way to get it past the of great depression, robots and avoid any formatting errors when the system tries to sort through everything. It may not seem like a big deal, but using certain standard fonts can be the equivalent of essay wearing sweatpants to an interview. In fact, tracking systems will actually reject some resumes just based on causes of great depression essay font. Then if your resume does make it to the right person’s desk, experts say certain fonts will get them tossed out of the mix immediately. Do use: sans-serif fonts #8212; like Helvetica. The letter in Sans-serif fonts don#8217;t have the tiny #8216;feet#8217; like the #8216;T#8217; in Times New Roman. Other sans-serif fonts that typically get past the robots are Verdana and vs gas cars Tahoma.
Do not use: serif fonts. These are fonts like Times New Roman and Cambria. Screening softwares will often reject resumes with these fonts, as well as those with script fonts. Don#8217;t make the essay, font too small: Don#8217;t go any smaller than size 11 point font. Online application systems are scanning resumes for specific keywords, including those related to the specific job post. Personal Statements For Grad School. So yes, this means that you may need a custom resume for every job you apply for online.
Systems track and score resumes based on a combination of how well they match the of great, employer#8217;s specific keywords and the applicant#8217;s years of experience. Here are some ways to use keywords in meditations essay your resume: Mirror wording from the actual job description in your resume: While you do not want a word-for-word match of the job description, if a nurse job description calls for someone with triage experience or primary care experience, for example, be sure that your resume contains those keywords. Similarly, if the job description asks for specific software experience, include your experience with that software. Be specific: When these systems are scanning resumes for keywords, they#8217;re looking for specific words. Using super creative and alternative phrasing can end up working against you, as the system may not recognize them. Don#8217;t forget acronyms: Make sure to use full keywords and acronyms for any organizations, certifications and other industry-specific skills.
Again, if a nurse job is looking for experience in using electronic medical records, you should include that in your resume along with EMR to make sure the system doesn#8217;t miss it. Essay. Include basic and is a orwell advanced skills: If a job posting is looking for certain skills, include both the causes depression, basic and advanced ones that apply to you and the job. Explain all of your relevant skills in depth to make sure the personal statements for grad, system doesn#8217;t miss anything it may be looking for. Repeat the most important keywords: Don#8217;t shove them all into one section, but repeating the most important keywords and depression skills identified in the job posting can help the system recognize you as a good candidate. Spread keywords out throughout your resume: You don#8217;t want to list all the keywords in one section of your resume. Instead, give the meditations, job-related keywords some depth by using them throughout different sections. This will also be more appealing to causes of great any human who ends up reading your resume. Use online tools to determine important keywords: There are online resources that can help you determine which keywords in hybrid essay a job posting will likely be most important to a tracking system. Check out Wordle and causes of great essay TagCrowd. Just pop the job description in co uk and the causes, tool will tell you which keywords are most important to include in your resume. Essay Assistance Co Uk. Turns out, it#8217;s important to do your research not only before an interview, but also before you even apply.
Carefully review the job posting and essay incorporate the vs gas essay, relevant words into your job experience. Causes. Keywords from your industry and cars cars essay the job description itself are essential to getting your resume to causes depression the right person. Check out the company#8217;s website for meditations other words and phrases to use in your resume. Many companies will describe the workplace culture and causes depression essay lifestyle of marrakech is a short written orwell current employees on their website #8212; and including keywords around these values can improve your resume#8217;s score in an online tracking system. Causes. Also, if a company has a clear interest in a particular topic like sustainability or environmental issues or innovation (or whatever it is), if you#8217;ve ever done any volunteer work, been a member of a related organization or worked on any special projects related to personal statements for grad school that interest, make sure to include that on causes of great essay your resume. That may have relevance in screening process. Plus, it will be more appealing to for thesis thanks any hiring manager who ends up reading your resume. Take a look at the LinkedIn profiles of some of the company#8217;s current employees. How do they describe their job, experience, skills etc.? This may help you include relevant phrases in your resume that the employer may be looking for. Many systems search for a specific postal address, so it#8217;s important to include your address on your resume.
But remember, don#8217;t put it in the header or footer, as the system may ignore those sections completely. Lastly, if you#8217;re among the 400 million on LinkedIn, there are ways to make sure your bio isn#8217;t getting lost in the shuffle. Causes Of Great. When filling out the #8216;summary#8217; part of your profile, be sure to write at least 40 words or more, as anything less won#8217;t trigger inclusion in a search. While you#8217;re at is a written by george orwell, it, be sure to include those all-important industry keywords to generate matches most suited to your experience. Causes Of Great Essay. 8. Make your qualifications stand out. Employers are first looking for cars essay qualified candidates.
So you may want to causes depression replace a section that isn#8217;t as relevant #8212; like career objectives #8212; with a bulleted explanation of statements your specific qualifications that make you a good fit for that job. This will allow the system to recognize relevant keywords and it demonstrates what#8217;s most important to causes depression essay the employer #8212; that you#8217;re actually qualified for the position. Once you get an interview, then you can explain how your career objectives fit well with the acknowledgement for thesis thanks, position, the company etc. Causes Depression Essay. The system is first scanning for your work experience, and marrakech then dates associated with that experience, so don#8217;t confuse it. When describing your work experience, start with the name of your employer, your official title and causes of great then the date range.
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Causes of Depression - Essay
Non-Commissioned Officer in the US Army. The desire to serve the nation and protect the people as well as defend the Constitution is the primary duty of a soldier. The soldiers’job is depression, a tough one and hybrid cars, a big responsibility which consequently brings them to causes of great essay, risk their lives, wealth and family for the sake of the nation. In the US Army, serving the Americans are delivered in friend essay different nature, there are varied forms of duties and roles of the soldiers that they portray. Some are tasked to perform in combat and some are assigned for logistic support or maybe as non-combatants who are commonly called non-commissioned officers. The Merriam-Webster dictionary defined non-commissioned officer as “a subordinate officer (as a sergeant) in the army, air force, or marine corps appointed from among enlisted personnel”. (MW, 2007) A non-commissioned officer or also known as an NCO or Noncom, is of great depression, a member of the military force from enlisted rank who has not attended officer training program but performs as a lower-ranking support crew who also has authority over the other enlisted members.
The NCOs are tasked to provide logistical support that is co uk, mostly administrative or even technical in nature. Most of their duties are in of great depression essay training programs including capability building for personnel or advisory to the officer corps. The NCOs are usually ranging from the is a written by george orwell lower level positions of a sergeant for the US army, corporals for the US marine and warrant officers while for the navies NCOs are mostly belonging as petty officers. Most military units regard NCOs as the essay support system or the “backbone” of their services. Their services are crucial in the development and writing personal statements for grad, well-being of the military officers esp. regarding performance of their duties as officers.
The primary responsibilities are along administration and office management. There are also senior NCOs or whom they call Petty Chief Officers who mostly perform leadership concerns such as leading larger groups of members, mentoring of junior soldiers, and counselling senior members relative to their duties and responsibilities. Some NCOs perform the highest levels of service such as advisory in all concerns regarding the welfare or well-being and utilization of the enlisted members. As a Noncommissioned Officer, there is a difference in the way other people relate with greater expectations having to assume more responsibilities. Such change in the way people treat an NCO is brought about by the fact that an NCO is a member of a Noncommissioned Officer Corps known as the “backbone of the Army”. Causes Essay? (Pukansky, 1999) NCOs live by codes of honor as they perform in delivering their duties and personal for grad school, accomplishing the mission. These codes of honor are exemplified in the NCO Creed. It identifies the of great essay values or principles that are essential in effectively carrying out marrakech written by george responsibilities as noncommissioned officers and leaders. NCOs are committed to excellence in service. One of the creed statements talk about causes depression essay, professionalism “No one is more professional than I. ” As a professional, an NCO must live by the guiding standards and exhibit the my best in marathi army values that others may follow. Building leadership qualities is expressed in the creed. “I am the non-commissioned officer, a leader of soldiers”. Effective team work is also the causes battlecry of the NCOs apart from the other qualities that are expected from a leader that are essential in carrying out the role of an NCO.
NCOs are also expected to humbly recognize the roles of those members in the NCO corps who served and acknowledgement thanks to god, the relevance of the group in the development of the US Army. Causes Essay? The creed also called for selflessness by putting the my best friend essay in marathi language welfare and development of the others before oneself as part of its commitment to serve the army. Competence is another area that an NCO must believe in. The creed believes that “competence is my matchword”. Demonstrating high level of competence and proficiency breeds trust and confidence from the members of the army. An NCO is expected to display competence and causes essay, look for meditations essay opportunities to further develop the skills and talents that competent leaders possess.
The inherent role of an essay NCO must recognize the acknowledgement thanks to god welfare of the causes of great soldiers. This is one major responsibility that an NCO must recognize by heart. To serve the other soldiers and aim for their well being must come first and place their needs above one’s own. Essay? The NCOs are expected to guard the soldiers’ well-being and defend them at causes depression essay almost any cost. Apart from the above desired qualities, the NCO Creed believes that an NCO must also possess the following characteristics : to be fair and impartial when endorsing rewards and punishment, constantly and consistently provide communication to soldiers, exhibit loyalty to peers and seniors, display integrity and moral courage and most of all believe that NCOs are professionals and leaders. Writing Personal Statements For Grad? NCOs may neither have undergone officer training program in the military nor have commissioned official ranks as soldiers in the military force, however, they serve better purposes in the welfare and development of the soldiers. The NCO corps have been truly recognized by the many as the “backbone of the Army”. Hence, they are essential in the military workforce as drivers in motivating soldiers and bringing the whole US Army into excellence. b. ) Why should we, as leaders, live by the 7 Army Core Values (Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity, and Personal Courage) on a daily basis. Most of the American people look up to the army not only as protectors or professionals of causes depression arms but as men of integrity. These soldiers are expected by the people to exhibit values that are inherent in being nation protectors and defenders.
Lt. Gen. Jackson said “What is life without honor? Degradation is worse than death. ” This statement underpins the importance of integrity as a soldier. The US Army observed the seven (7) army values that an American soldier must live by. (US Recruiting, 2006) It is strongly believed that the cornerstone of the best military force is the values that they possess. The US Army is a values-based group that highlights the importance of teamship. Army Values will help build a strong, cohesive organization that, in turn, will become a source of statements strength and institutional knowledge for of great depression essay all the members of the military force.
The Army’s profession is neither easy nor ordinary. There is always a need for team work in dealing with complex and risky conditions. For the group to achieve the mission, there is a need for a need to set common goals and principles that will guide each soldier in performing their duties. These goals and guiding principles must reflect the values of a dignified soldier and the values of the nation. Since the whole nation is counting on each of the soldiers, the army values must be embodied in the daily undertaking of each individual and as soldiers getting ready for the future, these values shall guide the way. As former Army Chief of Staff General Dennis J. Reimer stated, “The Army is, at heart, a community of Active and marrakech short, Reserve Soldiers, civilian employees and their families. Communities thrive when people care about one another, work with one another and of great, trust one another. I believe today’s Army carries within it this spirit and sense of community. . . . I am optimistic about the future and convinced that because we hold tight to a strong tradition of commitment to one another, we are and will remain the best Army on statements school, Earth. ” (Forscom, 2007) A soldier’s loyal allegiance to protect the nation is coupled with core values which are deemed to be of depression equal importance to protecting the marrakech is a short essay written by george nation. These values is expressed via the acronym LDRSHP, these are : Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor and of great depression essay, Personal Courage.
These values are not only hybrid cars vs gas, statements on how soldiers should behave but serve as their personal identity. Depression Essay? These core values define who they are. The core values and assistance, their significance in the present soldier’s life are the following: first and foremost is Loyalty. Loyalty means genuine devotion to a person or other people _it maybe a unit or family or the army. Showing one’s support to a person, superior or even an activity despite its flaws or negative views from peers or subordinates calls for audacity and loyalty. A loyal soldier is one who supports or defends the leadership and stands up for other soldier. Depression? He/she will sacrifice for the leader, his country and its people. The US military core value states: “Bear true faith and allegiance to the US Constitution, the Army, your unit, and other soldiers. ” This shows unquestionable loyalty to its country and its heritage. A member of the army who exhibits loyalty prioritizes duties according to the highest where the for thesis thanks Constitution is its foremost consideration, the Army as the second priority including the unit, and lastly the causes of great depression essay self. An army who shows faithfulness to the organization always puts his own welfare the least of all. Showing allegiance also means carrying out the mission and orders from superior without showing personal critical perspective towards its superiors.
Another critical characteristic of a loyal soldier is its faithfulness towards his/her fellow soldiers that may consequently bring about confidence and trust from essay its fellow soldier. It is this kind of causes of great essay devotion that heightens cohesiveness or bond among the assistance co uk soldiers. An ideal exemplar of an action of loyalty is the case about Private Ernest West, a soldier in the L Company. Depression Essay? His story happened in 1952 concerning his selflessness and allegiance towards his fellow soldiers by rescuing them from an ambush. Private West, despite the difficulty he encountered during the attack wherein he suffered serious wounds losing one of his eyes.
His loyalty to his fellow armies inspired everyone in his infantry which brought him up towards the ladder of success. Another army core value is Duty. Duty is defined as a work that you are obliged to perform for moral or legal reasons. Hybrid Cars Vs Gas Essay? It means it is a legal or moral obligation to complete assigned task to the fullest of your ability. Causes Essay? An army must do what needs to be done without being told to do it. This requires willingness to accept full responsibility for a soldier’s actions.
Duty is not time bound such as putting in time to work from 8 a. m. to 5 p. m. in a day but it is a selfless service to one’s country, unit, family and people. The saying “I regret that I have but one life to give to my country” is an my best friend essay example of an indisputable commitment to duty. Being dutiful means carrying out its jobs to the best of one’s ability and sacrifice its needs in pursuing excellence. The duty which Private Sasser has showed is one of the most inspiring characteristics of duty. Sasser was in the force as a medical aide. His company was making an air assault when it was under attack by causes of great enemies which swept numerous casualties. He offered to assist the wounded without hesitation, despite the wounds he suffered during the encounter.
Sasser did not showed he was immobilized due to the serious wounds in his legs. Instead of essay accepting medical attention, he ran through a barrage of rocket and automatic weapons fire to causes depression, aid casualties of the initial attack and, after giving them urgently needed treatment, continued to search for writing personal other wounded. Despite two additional wounds immobilizing his legs, he dragged himself through the mud toward another soldier 100 meters away. Although in agonizing pain and faint from loss of blood, he continued to save the lives of causes of great essay other people. Statements? With this, he was conferred with the medal of honors. Causes Depression Essay? According to Gen. Bruce Clarke, despite of age or grade soldiers must be treated as mature individuals. Soldiers are engaged in a dignified occupation and honorable profession that they deserve to be treated with dignity and honor. Respect is an acknowledgement important value that an army must possess. The golden rule best exemplifies the idea of respect.
In the depression essay US soldier’s code, “Treat people as they should be treated. ” A soldier is expected to treat other people with dignity and respect. This allows him/her to hybrid cars cars essay, gain the same treatment from other people. Causes? This begins with a basic understanding that each and everyone is worthy to be respected as human beings. A leader of the army will not gain respect if he/she shows superiority over his subordinates. Respecting fellow soldiers means having faith towards them in fulfilling their jobs and duties without necessarily showing them who is the boss. Essay Co Uk? To show respect to causes essay, others, safety and welfare of others is its prime consideration. However, it is also important to nourish one’s self physically in order to promote health and well being of the school. Discrimination, harassment and cars vs gas essay, inequity are the opposites of depression essay respect which may block cohesiveness and trust towards each member of an organization.
Selfless Service is beyond a soldier’s consideration of one’s self. The US army pledged to “Put the welfare of the nation, the Army, and your subordinates before your own. My Best Essay In Marathi Language? ” The sake of the nation comes first. The priority is always the needs of the country or the people. Serving one’s country is about putting one’s duty above one’s own interest or without having in mind what one can gain. When a soldier takes action it must be for the good of the others and depression essay, not to increase his/her standing. SPC Fitzmaurice received a medal of honor when he displayed selfless service in Vietnam on acknowledgement thanks to god, 23 March. The courageous deed was realized when he threw his personal safety above the others by shielding fellow soldiers.
Fitzmaurice suffered multiple wounds and partial loss of sight. SPC Fitzmaurice’s heroism in action at the risk of his life contributed significantly to the successful defense of the position and resulted in saving the lives of a number of his fellow soldiers. Doing one’s duty in the army is causes of great depression, doing service before one’s self. What it does mean for selfless-service is to complete one’s duty prior to its own comfort zones. The welfare or well being of the entire nation and the organization come before the soldier’s own. Selfless service may be confused with loyalty and duty as they are closely related. This is an indication on the importance of accepting all the Army values and ignoring none. Honor is said to be a guide for character and conduct. It is something one earns. As we know, one of the highest military awards is the medal of meditations essay honors.
This is conferred to causes of great, soldiers who displayed the virtue of living up to the values of the army. Honor starts with knowing what is ethically right and wrong and demonstrating what is right. This should begin with sincerity in one’s actions and maintaining integrity and writing personal statements for grad, honesty to one’s daily work as a soldier. It takes a good soldier to bring honor. As Gen. Jackson once said “What is of great, life without honor?
Degradation is worse than death. ” As the US army code puts it : “Do what’s right, legally and morally”. Integrity is a virtue a soldier should possess. This is something to be developed by conforming to moral ethics. A good soldier has moral standards and hybrid cars vs gas cars, truthful in adhering to these principles both in word and deed. It is depression essay, not enough to know what is right, but by demonstrating the right makes a soldier earn the trust and confidence of others. Military men of integrity act according to the dictates of the moral ethics and not according to decisions that is convenient for the moment or that temporarily works for a certain situation. A good soldier possesses personal courage i. e. in acknowledgement to god physical and moral planes. Bravery is one of the basic characteristic that a soldier must possess. Depression? A child when asked about bravery always cites a soldier as an example.
This means that courage is attached to the identity of a soldier. Building a noble character of essay co uk a soldier means developing a physical and moral courage that are required to combat the conflicts and causes of great depression essay, demands in their jobs. Writing? It means taking the risks in war despite the fear of being killed. As personal courage is not the absence of fear but it is the ability to causes essay, face danger and take action on what is assistance, needed. Personal courage does not only essay, mean the ability to combat the conflicts but it also embodies the idea about taking responsibility for marrakech short essay by george orwell the decisions and actions made. Courage also involves the ability to do self-assessment and confront new ideas, and even to the extent to change. Leaders are expected to make decisions that involve risk and often take a stand during times of stress. Personal courage has long been associated with the military force where several narratives about the dangers and hardships that soldiers have successfully faced are notable. Personal courage is essay, not the absence of fear but it is taking positive action in spite of the essay assistance fear. Physical courage means overcoming fears of bodily harm and still being able to do your duty. It’s the bravery that allows a soldier to operate in combat in of great essay spite of the hybrid cars cars fear of wounds or death.
It is what gets the soldier at airborne school out the aircraft door. It’s what allows an infantryman to assault a bunker to save his buddies or a medic to treat the causes of great essay wounded while under fire. With physical courage, it is a matter of enduring physical duress and, at times, risking personal safety. Private Silvestre S. Herrera is a good replica on the fighting spirit and courage which are duly recognized by the higher authorities. Private Herrera was conferred with the medal of honors last 2006 due to his courage and fighting spirit in battling the explosives that burst before him hitting his leg. Despite intense pain and the unchecked bleeding of his wounds he lay in the minefield, firing to suppress the enemy while others of friend essay in marathi language his platoon skirted the minefield to flank the enemy position. His courage and fighting spirit reflected honor upon causes essay his adopted nation and that of his birth. Private Herrera received the Medal of assistance Honor These values are not only a statement for how soldiers must behave; these are doctrines that tell them who they are. Army leaders emulate these values because they are the causes of great essay standard for action.
Such standard for behavior must remain to be the foundation of trust which the meditations Americans expects from the causes of great depression essay military (Snider and Watkins, 2000). In relation to this, the military principles rest on the foundation of the seven Army Values. These values reflect the standards to which the writing for grad school whole military force adheres to, regardless of its mission. In the same way as these Values lead the of great depression way thoughts are formed, words are acted, and professional principles of every soldier, so will those same values guide the actions of those who intends to writing personal for grad, support and essay, follow them. The Americans hold the entire military force to assistance co uk, a higher level, not only the front-line combatants. All the priorities time tabled for implementation and the efficiencies gained or the improvements in quality achieved are attainable in depression keeping with the Army Values. This transformation brings with it many challenges to overcome. However, it is assistance, still recommendable to continually evaluate if successes of the organization are due to adherence to these values. The United States Army serves around the world in the many forms of missions and roles. Although several reasons are known why they join the force, at causes of great essay some level one of them is the desire to serve the nation and the mechanism in perfecting their service is through these values.
Hence, these seven values are the main principles that must guide each soldier in their daily undertakings which will lead them towards excellence in service to the people and the nation. _____________________________ Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful. Friend Essay In Marathi Language? — Samuel Johnson References Don M. Snider and Gayle L. Watkins, “The Future of the Army Profession: A Need for Renewal and Redefinition,” Parameters (August 2000): 5-20. Field Arty (1989). A Brief History of the Backbone of the depression Army. (Aug. 1989) pp. 17-22.
Per. Condensed version of handout at SGM Academy. Forscom . (2007, June 27 updated). Call to Duty : Army Values. Retrieved August 7, 2007, from acknowledgement for thesis thanks to god http://www. forscom. army. mil/reeng/Army%20Part1%20Values. htm U. S. Army Recruiting Battalion. (2006, January 18 updated). Army Values Training for Future Soldier Training Program Soldiers.
Retrieved August 7, 2007, from http://www. usarec. army. mil/1stbde/1obn/FS/values. html Merriam-Webster Dictionary (2007). Retrieved from http://www. m-w. com/dictionary/noncommissioned+officer. htm on November 12, 2007 Pukansky, Michael W. (1999) The Army Chaplaincy. Reflections on Leadership. Of Great Essay? Retrieved from http://www. usachcs. army. Friend Essay In Marathi? mil/TACarchive/AC71M/reflections_on_leadership. htm on November 13, 2007. Haven#039;t found the Essay You Want? PhDessay is an educational resource where over 40,000 free essays are collected.
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Understanding Obama’s Auto Warranty Plan. On Monday morning, President Obama announced that the Treasury Department would back the warranties of new General Motors and Chrysler vehicles. “If you buy a car from Chrysler or General Motors, you will be able to causes depression get your car serviced and repaired, just like always,” President Obama said during a speech from the White House. “Your warranty will be safe. In fact, it will be safer than it’s ever been, because starting today, the United States government will stand behind your warranty.” The administration’s plan to stand behind new-car warranties for G.M. and Chrysler is intended to reassure consumers worried about buying domestic vehicles. And to a large extent, the plan should do exactly that. But people who already own a G.M. or Chrysler vehicle are not covered by essay, this program and depression essay, it also does not cover safety recalls, which can occur years after the warranty expires.
In a nutshell: The Obama warranty commitment program sets up special warranty accounts that will be used only friend language if the automaker runs out of of great depression money. If that happens, the government will “appoint a program administrator who, together with the writing statements U.S. Government, will identify an auto service provider to supply warranty services.” Those accounts will be funded with 125 percent of the expected warranty cost. The automaker will contribute 15 percent and the government 110 percent. Of Great Essay? The federal funds will come from the Troubled Asset Relief Program. That could be a lot of money (except, perhaps, by meditations, the government’s current standards). For example, G.M. paid $4.5 billion worldwide in 2007 on warranties and $3.9 billion during the causes depression essay first nine months of last year, according to a filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission. A Treasury spokesman said the marrakech is a essay written by george orwell warranties would cover all vehicles, even those sold overseas. And although the program does not cover safety recalls, he said even an automaker in Chapter 11 bankruptcy would be required to causes depression pay for for thesis thanks to god them. In the case of a defect, an automaker is typically on the hook for a safety recall for causes a decade.
A major recall could easily cost an automaker $50 million or more, said Clarence Ditlow, the executive director of the Center for Auto Safety. General Motors has promised it will stand behind its warranty, although it is not clear how that would happen should it simply lack the funds. Chrysler’s statement –- issued last month and not revised — simply says: “We are committed to serving our customers.” The government backing should reassure consumers, but there are plenty of questions, said Jon Linkov, managing editor of the automobile section at Consumer Reports magazine. For example, he said, if an essay, automaker goes out of business, how well and of great depression, how quickly would the new-vehicle warranty program work and who would do more sophisticated repairs? “I guess there are more questions out my best essay in marathi language there than answers,” Mr. Linkov said.
Jeremy Anwyl, the chief executive of Edmunds.com, said he didn’t think there was much risk over causes depression essay, the warranty anyway. Is A Orwell? “This statement from the government makes the risk even less,” he said. “There is probably more risk for consumers around resale value.” Comments are no longer being accepted. Remember that the ‘bumper-to-bumper’ warranty does not cover the bumpers themselves. A dent in your bumper is of great depression NOT covered. I love American capitalism. If you buy a car and it breaks down the government will now guarantee to hybrid cars vs gas cars repair it. But if you get sick and you have no warranty (health insurance) – well, you are on your own.
Can’t let the of great depression ailing auto business fail but sick people are expendable. Nothing like getting your priorities right. The same fine folks that couldn’t roll out $40 coupons in time for the digital TV switchover will now “guarantee” your automobile warranty…I guess that P.T. Barnum said it best…step right up suckers, all of you fools that voted for Obama can now buy your GM new cars that will be covered by your Obama warranty…nothing to acknowledgement for thesis thanks worry about…wanna buy a bridge too chumps? When will America realize that GM (management AND unions) killed themselves long ago and are now a the nightmare of the depression living dead men walking around looking for bailouts…let’s mercifully pull the for thesis thanks plug before the zombies kill us too! Or shall we turn America into one big DMV? “Facts are stubborn things; and whatever may be our wishes, our inclinations, or the dictates of our passion, they cannot alter the state of facts and evidence.” — John Adams. I agree with John Conlin above and Jon Linkov, why and how would you ever expect the US Govt to service your car. Causes? That’s just insane – and Obama’s plan sounds like mumbo jumbo that could not have been imagined even by the best sci-fi writers of hybrid vs gas essay our time. With all the great choices world-wide for fuel-efficient (and not) vehicles – considering all those rotting in transport right now – why would anyone consider a GM or Chrysler purchase?
Well, thx for the entertainment NYT! Its kind of a stretch to causes of great essay blame this GM fiasco on Obama. Perhaps you’re trying to get your kicks in while everyone else is. If GM / Chrysler go, I guarantee you that the term rust belt will take on essay co uk a whole new meaning, and causes essay, dimension. Beware what you wish for. just like other statements out of Obama’s mouth, he will say later down the road, Oh that was just first 100 days in vs gas office rhetoric just as he now says, oh that was just campaign rhetoric as he reneges on many of his promises: 1. US out of Iraq. 3. tax cut for causes of great 90 something % of meditations citizens even non-taxpayers.
4. Of Great? Hillary is not qualified when it comes to meditations foreign affairs. 5. no lobbyists in his administration. 6. etc. (others feel free to ad to this list) Fine that the government will guarantee the depression warranty….but if the company goes bust what are the chances you’ll be able to find parts a few years down the road?? Is the essay co uk government going to guarantee that parts will be available? Detroit is in causes essay the miserable shape that it is in due to my best friend essay in marathi language the reasons I stated — the automobile manufacturer’s management and their unions. The management caved into the unions, and essay, neither paid attention to the idea of friend language building a better car that people actually wanted to buy. Causes Of Great Depression Essay? Free market capitalism is the goose that created the golden eggs that originally built Detroit and America.
But Obama and his team are doing their best to writing personal statements school kill it as fast as they can. The concept of government bailing out failed businesses epitomize the thinking that has made Detroit and the rest of the “rust belt” into pathetic zombies that want to feed off those businesses and taxpayers that can and depression essay, do want to essay assistance co uk compete in the free market…pulling the plug on the already dead automakers would be a kindness, and is the only way that once great cities like Detroit have a chance to avoid total collapse. Whatever the government subsidizes we get more of…whatever the government taxes we get less of…take a look around with eyes wide open and you will see countless examples… “The inherent vice of capitalism is the unequal sharing of blessings; the inherent virtue of socialism is the equal sharing of essay miseries.” — Winston Churchill. the american dream is marrakech is a short essay written by george tarnished,the democracy of american is tarnished, the democracy are breaking the rule of market. need improvement right now! Isuzu, Chris Craft and depression essay, many RV, Boat makers have gone this route with no problems.
What happens to those of us who purchased extended factory warranties? Are we out of luck? This whole situation is scary! The resale value of meditations essay my Dodge will be about five bucks! Guess I should send my repair bills to causes of great essay the white house?? Is this another way for the new government to take away our rights and force us to drive eco friendly cars after there are no parts or service available for our current vehicles? Time to marrakech is a short essay by george orwell buy a crate engine and put it away until needed! Please don’t let your spite for the unions and US car companies prevent you from causes of great depression seeing the cars cars big picture. Causes Of Great Depression? The US auto industry is essay circling the drain, and essay, so is the last of the country’s major manufacturing. Without manufacturing, we will eventually be doomed. Just a nation of buyers, in debt, who don’t make anything.
Free trade does not work when major industrial powers export millions of vehicles to the US and accept no significant import vehicles from us. Marrakech Short Essay Written? And if you say it is because our vehicles are inferior, then you don’t really understand cars. We need a long-term PLAN with GOALS for our manufacturing economy and a system of causes depression essay trade that allows imports only in some measure of equality with the marrakech short orwell trading partners import numbers. That’s fair. Unfortunately, it’s probably too late. Causes Of Great? We are headed for higher taxes, higher interest rates, major inflation, and a lower standard of living due to high quality manufacturing and engineering jobs being replaced by low quality service industry jobs. Our leadership is a terrible disappointment…on both sides of the aisle. Anyone who doesn’t believe this to be the strangest thing a sitting US president has ever done is either insane or ignorant.
This is truly weird. This is getting insane. I never thought I would see the day when the co uk Federal government would be handling my car’s problems. Why don’t the causes of great depression Feds just start making cars and my best friend, cut out the depression essay auto makers altogether? I can see it now. At least, there would be plenty of new car names to go around like the “Congress,” a box-looking subcompact that would get 45 mpg, and the ultimate in prestige and modern comfort, the “Senator,” that would get a non-green 12 mpg. Seriously, when do we start getting back to survival of the cars essay fittest? So if I read this right, the US government will be guaranteeing the warranty on GM cars sold in Russia? Do GM car dealers now become subject to income earning caps since they are receiving TARP funds?
I agree with you and I think Obama is actually trying to fix that as well, but I still agree. The trouble with this entire economic crisis is our business leaders have lost all integrity and have all embraced unethical business practices. They surround themselves with large groups of ‘yes men’ who would agree with their boss to make them feel better so that they keep their jobs, where in causes all actuality nobody has the guts to tell their boss the truth and essay assistance co uk, say, you know what, our company is broken and we have to figure out a way to depression fix it. They all just sit there and spin reality no different than the language media does within their own organizations. It is pathetic and it is wrong. Somebody has to have the courage to causes of great essay stand up and tell the truth and our business leaders need to have the guts to accept it and meditations, actually do something with the information instead of firing someone who speaks it and not bury their heads in the sand when they hear it. The truth hurts, but you gotta start somewhere. I just received in the mail a coupon for a free tire rotation – from Joe Biden.
One thing that this issue has brought to causes depression mind, is that ALL companies selling cars in my best friend in marathi the United States (and probably Canada) should be obligated to pay a small portion of their sales into a fund (much like banks with the FDIC or companies with the pension guarantee fund) that would serve as a backstop in future cases where this might arise. Of course the FDIC stopped collecting premiums from banks for a while (because they were collecting too much money. Yeah right). Imagine the potential for abuse when the US government is on causes the hook for most of the cost of hybrid cars vs gas essay warranty repairs. It sounds like the gravy train just rolled in for service departments all over depression essay, the world. Marrakech Is A By George? And who is going to causes of great depression essay execute a future expensive safety recall? A company that buys the assets of a defunct car company is not required to do safety recalls. #16, you have it backwards: It ‘s not the business leaders that have no integrity, it’s the politicians like The Obamessiah, Pelosi, Reid, Dodd, Frank, etc… The Commucrats lost all integrity when they took charge in 2006 (Pelosi/Reid/Dodd/Frank) and my best in marathi, DID NOTHING to fix the banking industry, as President Bush begged them to do. Of Great Essay? They sat on their collective Commucrat hands and led us down the path to get to where we are now.
It is an OUTRAGE that my 2 year old car will not have it’s warranty honored because the friend essay in marathi language Obamessiah says so. Just another way the government is wasting money… Let’s say Joe Schmo walks into a dealership tomorrow to get his truck fixed, if he is paying for the work himself he pays the standard labor rate for the dealership which sometimes depends on state, and depression, various things. In Marathi Language? Now if he is bringing his truck in to of great be fixed, under warranty, the labor rate goes up anywhere from $20-$100 an hour. Joe doesn’t care or notice in my best friend essay some cases, because, he’s not paying for it. I always thought that was a crime in depression essay itself having two prices for meditations the same work. S.U.V.s in of great depression the plural has no apostrophe, editors. Re: # 6 – Anthony in Manhattan… You hit the nail right on essay the head. Obama continues to causes essay pay lip service to Americans looking for assistance real leadership. Instead, while he made impressive speeches throughout the campaign pressing the need to find “change we can believe in”…he has sold American taxpayers down the causes depression essay river with his long string of broken campaign promises and outright deceptive lies to deflect from his real intentions of promoting massive government control over our lives, much like the European Union has overtaken national sovereignty in the name of universal governance. Obama stated in the press conference the cars White House/Administration did not want to be in management of the car business, but then lays out a plan to “guarantee” car warranties on causes of great depression new purchases?
What is the real truth? And since he has walked away from helping Chrysler survive, pushing the company into another foreign car company – like the last “merger of equals” with Daimler worked out personal SO well before…he is effectively trying to kill the domestic auto industry by picking winners and losers. That can only create more problems down the causes of great depression essay road for my best friend essay in marathi language the network of auto dealers, suppliers, etc that are closely tied to all three auto companies. Does he want to destroy the remaining domestic manufacturing left in this country? Wake up America — Obama is pushing his left-leaning Socialist / Communist agenda on gullible taxpayers in causes depression the name of “long-term economic improvement”….How much longer can we afford to play into personal for grad school, his Orwellian doublespeak??
I’m patiently waiting to see if Obama will be covering the old Circuit City warranty on my 65 inch DLP TV. Circuit City went out of causes of great business and I’m left holding the bag. When I purchased my first Toyota 1981, I asked the salesman about the warranty and the service department. His answer was. “I don’t know.
No one ever comes back.” I never saw him again. Subsequent Japanese automobile purchases always came with the meeting of the (some sort of) “Manager” who informed me (“Hard Sell”) of the available extended warranties along with the necessity of proper maintenance. My response is. Thanks? “This really is not for me, I am only keeping the car to about 150,000 miles.” Will someone please tell me what I am missing about the joy and rapture of these Private Clubs (aka Service Departments) where people meet and wait to have something corrected which should have been built correctly at of great essay inception? A team of New York Times contributors blogs about news, trends and all things automotive. Check back for insight, photos, reviews of cars and more. And remember to essay join the conversation — you can comment on the cars, offer your own reviews, and causes depression, post questions in essay our reader comment area. A New Parking Spot for Wheels Coverage. The regular features of this blog, including Monday Motorsports, the Wheelies news briefs and reports on auto industry developments including vehicle recalls and technology updates, can now be found on the Automobiles Web page.Readmore… Video: Acura Brings 4-Wheel Steering to the RLX. You may not be able to tell the difference while you’re driving, but Acura’s new 4-wheel steering system moves the front and rear wheels in concert to improve high-speed steering response.Readmore…
Video: G.M. Tries Diesel Again, This Time With an Efficient Chevy Cruze. General Motors hasn’t offered a diesel passenger car since the diesel-powered Chevette chugged unceremoniously into its lineup in 1986. But the company is back with its efficient Chevrolet Cruze Turbo Diesel.Readmore… Toyota to Recall 803,000 Vehicles for Air Bag Problem. Toyota announced a recall on Thursday of causes essay 803,000 Camry, Avalon and Venza models for a problem related to air bags caused by spider webs.Readmore…
Placing Reality on Hold, at Least Temporarily, in a Ferrari FF. A journey across sunny Italy, sampling “the most sublime noise ever to enter the ear of man” — the throaty engine of a Ferrari, in this case the FF GT. Readmore…
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Causes and Effects of the Great Depression | Ideal Essay…
americaism+essays Disrupting the Discourse of Conquest: The Suppression of Sepúlveda. First Impressions: Title Pages and First Contacts. (1) Theodor DeBry's late 16th century Columbus Landing in Indias depicts a propagandist vision of American Indians receiving their conquerors, one that is desperately in need of a deconstructive reading. Foregrounded are shy but welcoming renditions of the causes of great, noble savage, bearing sophisticated specimens of gifts attesting to an astounding degree of aboriginal metallurgy. Columbus swaggers forward to language plant the staff of conquest, the snide expression on his face approaching lewdness as he appraises the scantily clad natives. But an even more telling narrative occurs on the margins, where one glimpses several diminutive native bodies in the throes of what looks like panic. Causes Of Great? Overwhelmed by this invasion of loud and obtrusive machinery, they run in circles, imploring the heavens for deliverance. Is this marginalized representation a nod to the discourse of the essay written orwell, Indian as a superstitious, unlettered barbarian, the pole that normally opposes the noble savage myth among the depression essay, warring factions of conquest justification? Through the writing personal statements for grad school, hindsight of the causes depression, twenty-first century eye, the is a short essay written by george, antics of these wild natives would appear to be a most appropriate reaction of truly forward-thinking, rational minds. Truth be told, the real barbarians were at the gates . . . . Causes Of Great? The Debate: Submissive Sheep or Fierce Barbarians (Not Much of a Choice)
(2) The 1550 debate on Native American capacity and cars essay, rights that took place at Valladolid, Spain, involved two principal participants: Bartolomé de las Casas and Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda. A well-known figure in Spanish colonial discourse whose prolific body of work has been circulated and analyzed for the last five hundred years, Las Casas has been touted as The Apostle of the depression essay, Indians, a lone voice crying out for Indian rights in a wilderness of Spanish brutality. The second participant, Sepúlveda, is lesser known, perhaps justly so, when one considers his Aristotelian-derived argument on the natural slavery of the American Indian. Banned by the Spanish crown, seldom translated and underrepresented among historical and literary criticism of the discourse of the period, Sepúlveda's works have gathered dust in assistance co uk, the crypt reserved for the outmoded, the heretical, and the threatening. (3) Ostensibly an argument over the justification of war in the conquest of the New World, the Valladolid debate hinges upon conflicting interpretations of causes of great essay New World inhabitants. Las Casas, following in the tradition of the noble savage school founded by Columbus, whose journal Las Casas abstracted, draws a portrait of the Native American as non-threatening and ripe for Christian plucking: God created these simple people without evil and without guile. They are most obedient and faithful to meditations their natural lords and to the Christians whom they serve. They are most submissive, patient, peaceful and virtuous.
Nor are they quarrelsome, rancorous, querulous, or vengeful. Moreover they are more delicate than princes and die easily from work or illness. They neither possess nor desire to possess worldly wealth. Surely these people would be the causes depression essay, most blessed in the world if only they worshipped the essay assistance, true God. (qtd. in Hanke, First Social Experiments 20) Sepúlveda, rather, follows the causes of great depression, barbarian school of thought in acknowledgement to god, assessing Native intelligence and capacity. Although concerned about reputed barbarity and crimes against nature, Sepúlveda, too, diminishes the native threat by diminishing the causes depression essay, native people but in a more blatantly offensive way: In prudence, talent, virtue, and humanity they are as inferior to the Spaniards as children to adults, women to men, as the wild and cruel to the most meek, as the essay assistance, prodigiously intemperate to the continent and of great, temperate, that I have almost said, as monkeys to men. (Sepúlveda, qtd. in Hanke, All Mankind 84) Sepúlveda's qualification here reflects the prudence that causes him to leave this comment from Demócrates Segundo out of the summary that will become his Apología ( Defense ), the text considered at Valladolid. Tellingly, the lack of parallelism that links natives, women, children, and animals with wildness and cruelty while positing adult men as meek and temperate conflates might, meekness, and virtue, providing an essay, essential and essentializing piece of the faulty logic that underpins conquest justification. While neither of the texts quoted above contributed specifically to the Valladolid debate, they are instructive in causes depression, terms of establishing a conquest climate profoundly influenced by notions of Eurocentric superiority. In this sense, Sepúlveda's comments reflect dominant ideology more accurately and obviously and are therefore more threatening to the politics of justification.
Forging Empire through Literature: Framing Texts of the Debate. (6) Beginning with the marrakech is a short essay by george, papal bull Romanus Pontifex , which established a benign European paternalism as the essay, motivation for imperialist conquest, and Inter caetera , itself inspired by Columbus's noble savage school (Muldoon 40), the discourse of conquest has built its structure upon the rock of Christian superiority. Such was the basis for the founding of the Spanish colonial encomienda system, an embodi[ment of] the essay, ironic thesis that in administering the pope's Petrine responsibility to essay save the Indians, the Spanish Crown had to enslave them (Williams 84). By placing Indians under the charge of Spanish masters in forced labor situations, the hybrid essay, Spanish Crown hoped to quell both resistance and indifference to conversion tactics through a sort of mandatory quasi-assimilation. Native resistance and indifference, the sort of obstacles considered by Sepúlveda as a hindrance to of great essay conquest, become cogs on which to turn the wheel of justification discourse, as this excerpt from the personal statements for grad school, Laws of causes of great depression Burgos attests: Should the natives attempt to oppose the settlement [of a colony], they shall be given to personal statements school understand that the intention in forming it, is to teach them to of great depression essay know God and his holy law, by which they are to be saved; to preserve friendship with them, and teach them to meditations live in a civilized state. Of Great Essay? . . . They shall be convinced of this by mild means, through the interference of religion and priests, . . . and if, notwithstanding, they do withhold their consent, the settlers . . . shall proceed to make their settlement . . . Meditations Essay? without doing them any greater damage than shall be necessary. (qtd. in Williams 87-88) Shortly after the enactment of the Burgos code, a charter of conquest known as the Requerimiento emerges as the most ironic example of the discursive clash between Old World theory and New World practice. Drafted in 1513 by Juan López de Palacios Rubios, this document embodies Eurocentrism writ large, in that it exhorts its uncomprehending auditors to surrender or die but does so through the guise of depression Christian missionary zeal: [W]e ask and require that you [ . Marrakech Is A Essay Written? . . ] acknowledge the Church as the ruler and superior of the whole world and the high priest called Pope and in causes of great, his name the king and queen [ . . . ] our lords, in his place, as superiors and marrakech is a essay orwell, lords and kings of these islands and this mainland [ . . . ], and causes depression, that you consent and my best essay in marathi, permit that these religious fathers declare and preach to you. [. . . ] [I]f you do not do this or if you maliciously delay in doing it, I certify to you that with the help of God we shall forcefully enter into your country and shall make war against you in causes of great, all ways and manners that we can, and shall submit you to co uk the yoke and obedience of the Church and of their highnesses [ . Essay? . . ], and we shall take away your goods and shall do to you all the harm and acknowledgement for thesis thanks to god, damage that we can, [ . . . Causes Of Great Depression? ] and we protest that the deaths and thanks, losses that shall accrue from causes of great depression essay, this are your fault . . . . (Parry 288) The practice of reading this warning aloud exemplifies the travesty of attempting to justify conquest. As Lewis Hanke imagines in his evocative recreation of to god this practice, Captains muttered its theological phrases into their beard on the edge of sleeping Indian settlements, or even a league away before starting the formal attack, and at times some leather-lunged Spanish notary hurled its sonorous phrases after the Indians as they fled into the mountains. (qtd. in Williams 92) James Muldoon notes the causes depression, perversion of Inter caetera in the Requerimiento's fusion of conversion and conquest: In effect, the Requerimiento enabled the Spanish to occupy the Americas by friend essay, employing a legal ritual that allowed them to adhere to the letter of Innocent IV's opinion on infidel dominium while missing its spirit (27).
Ironically, the suppressed discourse of Sepúlveda recognizes the futility of such practices, dismissing them as useless and inexpedient: to depression introduce this warning as necessary were nothing else than to basicly [sic] hinder the pious expedition, bringing salvation to the barbarians, and consequently to impede their conversion, which is the purpose of the war ( Defense 30-31). In this way, a justifier who has never been to the New World forms a kinship with his colonizing brethren in terms of essay a practical dismissal of the niceties of causes of great justification. (7) As conquest discourse heats up in the years immediately preceding the Valladolid debate on Amerindian capacity, the yawning gulf between theory and practice gapes even wider. Francisco de Vitoria interprets the essay assistance, Law of Nations to mean that neither mortal sin in general or [. . . ] the particular sin of unbelief justifies seizing dominium from the depression, Native Americans (246). Additionally, Vitoria's arguments against princely and papal authority with regard to the subjection of infidels threaten to sever the thread of logic spun by that most strident champion of Spanish imperialism, Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda (Pagden 18). While the language of both the papal bull Sublimus Deus and the New Laws of 1542 paid lip service to language a chimeric ideal of Indian dominium , such dominium was inherently rejected the moment the first colonizers set foot on what would become American soil. (8) The 16th century Spanish theologian and royal historian Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda was educated at the University of Alcalá and established himself as a learned translator and commentator on depression essay Aristotle at the College of San Clemente in Bologna, later serving the papal court in Rome. Returning to Spain in 1536, Sepúlveda was appointed as an meditations, historian to the Spanish Crown. (9) The two most widely discussed pieces of Sepúlveda's written corpus in Spanish conquest scholarship are the books Demócrates Primus o De la conformidad de la milicia con la Religión Cristiana [ First Demócrates or On Militant Conformity with Christian Religion ] and Demócrates Segundo (also known as Demócrates Alter ) o De las Justas Causas de la Guerra contra los Indios [ Second Demócrates or On the Just Causes of War Against the Indians ]. Written as dialogues in which a character named Demócrates argues with a character named Leopoldo, the first of these attempts to justify Charles V's religious wars against the Turks and of great essay, the second aims to do the friend, same with regard to the Spanish conquest of the causes of great, New World. The text representing Sepúlveda's side in the Valladolid debate, Defense of the Book on friend essay language the Just Causes of War, is Sepúlveda's summary of the ideas contained in Demócrates Segundo . (10) While Demócrates Segundo is available in Spanish, thanks to the scholarly efforts of 20th century translator and Sepúlveda specialist Angel Losada, the dearth of English translations of any of Sepúlveda's works attests to not only depression, his marginalization as an unpopular thinker in contemporary terms but also to friend in marathi active suppression of his works in the 16th and 17th centuries. In preliminary documents framing his Defense , Sepúlveda laments the condemnation of of great essay his book Demócrates Segundo by the Universities of Salamanca and Alcalá, pronouncing such disapproval not really a judgment from the University, but an artificial tampering by a few corrupters [ No se trató realmente de un juicio de la Universidad, sino de un artificio amañado por unos cuantos corruptores ] (Sepúlveda, Apología 58).
Noting that there were discussions about suppressing Sepúlveda's book prior to to god the Valladolid debate (179), Bernice Hamilton surmises that the University ban on depression essay Sepúlveda probably resulted from the widespread influence of Vitoria, two of whose students held the chairs of St. Thomas at Alcalá in 1548 (175). (11) According to Hamilton, The only well-known work in our field which seems to have been totally suppressed in the period [the 16th century] was Sepúlveda's Democrates Alter [ Secundus ], which argued that the essay in marathi language, Indians of the causes depression, New World were natural slaves, and was suppressed on hybrid cars essay grounds of a moral disapprobation which we might well share today (10). But rather than credit the depression essay, moral sensibilities of meditations essay 16th century Spanish thinkers, it makes more sense to surmise that they viewed this work as too potentially inflammatory, perhaps for its truthfulness in terms of conquest practice. (12) The suppression of Sepúlveda continues into the 17th century. In his discussion of the 17th century Spanish justifier Juan de Solórzano y Pereira, James Muldoon adds the following: (13) Solórzano said that he himself did not possess a copy of Sepúlveda's book, because Philip II had banned its circulation. The stated reason for this censorship, curious in that the author provided a strong defense of the conquest, was that the book had not been printed at the royal press. The real reason, according to Solórzano, was that Sepúlveda's work contained material that was not suitable for the general public to hear. (27) (14) What was deemed unsuitable for general consumption is the causes depression, revelation of the contradiction at essay, the heart of justification literature: the twisting of authoritative precedent through a Eurocentric, imperialist mentality, compounded in of great essay, Sepúlveda's works by an appeal to an expedient pragmatism that threatens to expose the hypocrisy of the theoretical discourse and thus blow down the entire house of cards. (15) In his journey from is a essay orwell, Spanish encomendero to Apostle of the causes essay, Indians, Bartolomé de las Casas experienced a conversion inspired by the bearing of horrific witness to Spanish atrocities upon Native Americans. Unlike Sepúlveda, Las Casas lived and worked among Indians in the New World, first as their subjugator and later as their would-be liberator.
Deified in some scholarly circles and vilified in thanks to god, others for his promulgation of the Black Legend of the of great essay, barbarous Spanish conquistador, Las Casas's prolific body of cars work has been widely translated and discussed, due largely to its humanistic appeal, which is, indeed, more than considerable given its era and causes depression, circumstances. However, seldom critiqued is the Eurocentric, Christian-centered superiority that manifests itself in Las Casas's main praise of Native Americans as docile and essay, submissive, ripe for causes depression essay conversion. (16) Among the Las Casas works on Native Americans available in English translation are his History of the Indies and his Brief Account of the Devastation of the essay assistance co uk, Indies , also known as The Spanish Cruelties. His response to Sepúlveda, entitled In Defense of the Indians , was translated to English by Stafford Poole in 1974. (17) As stated above, the of great depression, Sepúlveda text of the personal for grad, Valladolid debate is Sepúlveda's own summary of ideas contained in causes depression, his book Demócrates Segundo . Sepúlveda's summary is entitled Defense of the essay, Book on the Just Causes of War [ Apología del Libro de las Justas Causas de la Guerra ]. Las Casas's response to Sepúlveda's relatively short summary is a book-length treatise entitled In Defense of the Indians . To confuse matters slightly, both texts are referred to in Spanish as Apología , which translates as Defense . Not a debate in causes of great, the traditional sense of the word, the proceedings at Valladolid consisted not of the meditations essay, two men arguing face-to-face but in the council's analyses of causes of great depression Sepúlveda's Apología [ Defense ] vs. Las Casas's Apología [ Defense ]. The Justifying Text: No Apology. (18) The structure of Sepúlveda's Defense is writing personal for grad school, somewhat problematic in terms of the linear flow of its organization. Sepúlveda begins with the seven arguments of his opponents, follows that with his own general argument, made in four main points, then returns to the seven opposing arguments to address them sequentially. Depression Essay? The result is that the point-by-point response seems somewhat tacked on, less a developed argument than an exercise in semantics. Writing Statements? But the overall tone that emerges from Sepúlveda's discourse is one of depression pragmatic expediency, a motivation that allows him to dismiss appeals to morality and ethics in meditations essay, much the same ways that the of great essay, actual practice of conquest does. Hybrid Cars? Seven Objections of the Unjustifiers. (19) The seven objections to which Sepúlveda responds may be paraphrased as follows: 1) Wars are only justified if they avenge injuries, and in this case the barbarians had afflicted the Christians with no injury (6). 2) War as a means of spreading Christianity is unjust. Of Great Depression Essay? 3) This war is contrary to the example of Christ (7).
4) Conversion is better accomplished through proselytizing than by war. 5) No prior warning was issued. 6) One cannot do evil to my best friend essay in marathi language achieve good. 7) The Church and the Pope have no jurisdiction over infidels. (20) Sepúlveda's first argument appeals to the doctrines of St. Causes Depression Essay? Thomas Aquinas and to Aristotle's theory of natural slavery to suggest that Native Americans are barbarians and therefore must submit to meditations Spanish governance: “For those are frankly called barbarians,” as Thomas maintains, “who are lacking in causes of great depression essay, rational power either on meditations account of an environment from which dullness for the most part is found or due to some evil habit by which men become like brutes,” and causes of great essay, furthermore races of meditations essay this sort by right of nature ought to obey those who are more civilized, prudent, and outstanding so that they may be governed by causes of great essay, better customs and usages. (9) Referring to the precedence of written by george orwell Roman rule, Sepúlveda suggests an inevitability to of great depression essay the process of conquest as a sort of ongoing natural law. (21) Sepúlveda's second point justifying war is the charge that these barbarians commit crimes against the law of nature, namely, idolatry and human sacrifice. Attempting to friend essay find some traction on causes of great depression the slippery slope of the argument that all mortal sins are contrary to the law of nature (15), since obviously members of the conquering race could not claim sinlessness, Sepúlveda here makes an interesting move: that nation is to be understood as not keeping the law of nature in which any mortal sin is not considered a shameful act, but rather publicly approved, such as the murder of innocent people who were sacrificed in many localities and hybrid essay, prevalent idolatry, which is the most serious of sins, is approved among these barbarians. (15) Thus Sepúlveda acknowledges a degree of autonomy of native customs and cultures which he uses against itself by suggesting that a society that sanctions a certain behavior can be held liable for infractions against natural law, while a society that outlaws such practices complies with natural law, regardless of the infractions of that society's individuals (i.e., the Spaniards). Similarly, with regard to conquest discourse as a whole, the causes essay, implication seems to be that a society can cover itself by adopting an official practice that qualifies conquest while allowing individuals to operate in an unchecked fashion. Additionally, this second argument contradicts the first by is a short essay, acknowledging that these barbarians are subjected to their own institutional forms of culture. (22) In making his third point, that Spanish intervention will save thousands of potential victims of human sacrifice, Sepúlveda stresses a monstrosity so abhorrent that it leads upright men to doubt whether the natives can be converted (17).
Yet throughout he maintains conversion as the single goal of conquest, a perfect illustration of the way in which conquest discourse pays lip service to high ideals, while conquest practice is driven by less lofty motivations and assumptions. (23) Sepúlveda develops his fourth point at causes, great length, the controversial argument that the driving need to save Native souls even against their will justifies the use of force. Written Orwell? It is here that Sepúlveda makes an appeal to expediency that aligns his argument more closely with conquest practice as opposed to conquest theory. Repeated references to causes of great the removal of obstacles to the propagation of the faith take on ominous significance when one considers how often the obstacles removed were the individuals themselves. In this section Sepúlveda counters charges of his methods as being antithetical to Christ's example by appealing to a might-makes-right philosophy and the increased power of the essay assistance, Church and Christian princes. According to Sepúlveda, as practice has taught and continues to teach, force is the most expedient means to subdue people. (24) Although he does not refer to the Requerimiento specifically, Sepúlveda dismisses the requirement of providing prior warning as a useless hindrance to conquest. Correctly recognizing the travesty inherent in shouting legalities in Spanish at uncomprehending natives, and even acknowledging that no one is of great depression essay, likely to submit under such circumstances, Sepúlveda proposes eliminating the co uk, practice of prior warning, anticipating and causes essay, reflecting actual conquest practice. Sepúlveda's Response to writing school the Seven Objections. (25) In responding specifically to the seven arguments of his opponents, Sepúlveda recycles several of his previous assertions and adds some creatively flawed new ones.
To the first charge that no injury has been committed, Sepúlveda responds that God has been injured by causes of great, native idolatrous practices, and co uk, that the Spanish have been injured by native resistance. In countering the second, third, fourth, and fifth objections he simply reiterates his previous points about the removal of causes of great depression obstacles, might makes right, and expediency. His reasoning is most strikingly circular in his response to the sixth objection, that it is impossible to wage war without committing sin. Dismissing this as simply an anti-war statement that is therefore implicitly preposterous, Sepúlveda goes on to argue that since the essay, benefits of conquest to the Natives outweigh its evils, it is of great depression essay, those who argue against colonization who mistreat the Indians: those who attempt to obstruct this expedition so the my best in marathi language, barbarians would not come to the Christians' terms do not humanely favor the barbarians as they themselves wish to seem but cruelly begrudge them most of the greatest goods (40). Sepúlveda sidesteps altogether the seventh objection questioning papal and causes essay, princely authority over infidels, citing the lives and deaths of the Apostles to maintain that it is properly of the apostolic duty to language give assistance to convert them to belief in causes of great depression, Christ, preach the gospel to them, and to try according to one's ability everything that is conducive to most suitably rendering this service (41). Ambiguous language like according to one's ability and most suitably provide practitioners of conquest with tons of leeway. Las Casas's Response: A Brief Account. (26) Las Casas's response to essay co uk Sepúlveda is causes depression, lengthy and intricate, but a brief discussion of a few of his points will suffice here to establish the tenor of the opposing argument.
In countering Sepúlveda's first charge of Indian barbarism, Las Casas identifies four distinct types of barbarians, the first of which he defines by barbaric behavior: First, barbarian in hybrid cars vs gas, the loose and broad sense of the word means any cruel, inhuman, wild, and merciless man acting against human reason out of anger or native disposition, so that, putting aside decency, meekness, and humane moderation, he becomes hard, severe, quarrelsome, unbearable, cruel, and plunges blindly into crimes that only the wildest beasts of the forest would commit ( In Defense 28-29). In an astute move, Las Casas turns the tables of discourse on the barbarian: Indeed, our Spaniards are not unacquainted with a number of these practices. On the essay, contrary, in the absolutely inhuman things they have done to those nations they have surpassed all other barbarians (29). (27) In countering Sepúlveda's second charge regarding Indian crimes against natural law, Las Casas goes so far as to suggest that even cannibalism is not intrinsically evil in cases of necessity and extreme hunger. Writing Personal School? Elsewhere, in his Brief Account of the Devastation of the Indies , Las Casas tells the lurid tale of a human abattoir sanctioned by Spanish conquerors in causes, which natives are forced to perform cannibalism. While as unverifiable as other charges of essay Native cannibalism, this account may serve as a metaphor for of great essay the way in which the meditations, Native is figuratively made a cannibal by propagandist accounts of barbarianism. (28) Las Casas troubles the logic of causes Sepúlveda's third argument on conquest as the salvation of the innocent by considering its practical execution, noting that in my best essay in marathi, an actual war it is causes depression, impossible to separate the marrakech written orwell, oppressed from the depression, oppressors. Finally, the acknowledgement for thesis, overarching premise of of great depression Las Casas's position is his opposition to Sepúlveda's most controversial position: that conversion can and should be effected by force.
Arguing throughout his many treatises for a kinder, gentler conversion, Las Casas never once questions the Christianizing mission itself, thus paradoxically maintaining the very Eurocentrism that promotes forcible conquest. (29) I have posited Sepúlveda as the loser in the Valladolid debate due to the subsequent suppression of his work cited above. However, neither side can be said to have conceded. As Lewis Hanke relates, The judges at Valladolid, probably exhausted and confused by the sights and sounds of this mighty conflict, fell into argument with one another and reached no collective decision. Las Casas later stated that the decision had been favorable to his viewpoint, although unfortunately for cars the Indians the measures decreed by the Council were not well executed, and Sepúlveda wrote to of great depression a friend that the judges thought it right and lawful that the barbarians of the New World should be brought under the dominion of the assistance co uk, Christians, only one theologian dissenting ( All Mankind Is One 113). Although he does not concede, Las Casas here perhaps recognizes that Sepúlveda's views will win the day in the New World. Bolstering his argument by attacking Sepúlveda's attempts to legitimize his views through publication, Las Casas mentions that Sepúlveda offers as a confirmation of depression essay his contagious opinion, that is, a work on Indian affairs which its author, a certain Oviedo, calls A General History ( In Defense 343). Las Casas here properly recognizes the contagious nature of Sepúlveda's theory as epitomizing the tenets of actual conquest practice. Conclusion: Sepúlveda's Theory as Conquest Practice. (30) The reluctance on the part of the Spanish Crown and universities to legitimate Sepúlveda's work by approval or publication suggests the theorists' need to dissociate themselves from the dirty practice of essay assistance co uk conquest, about which Sepúlveda's work is not only surprisingly accurate but strikingly non-apologetic. A brief quotation from the depression, Oviedo work mentioned above will suffice to establish a link between Sepúlveda's derogatory opinion of Amerindians and that of a conquistador in for thesis thanks, the field. Eerily echoing Sepúlveda's offensive comparison of Natives, women, children, and monkeys, Oviedo's prejudice bleeds through his words: [The Indians are] naturally lazy and vicious, melancholic, cowardly, and in general a lying, shiftless people. Depression Essay? Their marriages are not a sacrament but a sacrilege.
They are idolatrous, libidinous and commit sodomy. Their chief desire is to eat, drink, worship heathen idols, and commit bestial obscenities. What could one expect from a people whose skulls are so thick and hard that the Spaniards had to take care in fighting not to strike on the head lest their swords be blunted? (qtd. in Hanke, The Spanish Struggle 11) Here Indian hard-headedness is literalized as an obstacle to conquest, echoing the rhetoric that appropriates resistance as justification. (31) A final account from the field of conquest provided by marrakech is a, Lewis Hanke illustrates another facet of the rhetorical bind that ensnares the Native American. Hanke writes, It was difficult to depression essay inculcate habits of honesty and sobriety, stated Juan de Ampies, because when Spaniards beat them [Indians] or cut off their ears as punishment, the guilty ones were not held in less repute by their fellows ( First Social Experiments 30). In its refusal to comprehend a culture unwilling to essay adopt Christian notions of shame and communal ostracism, the Eurocentric discourse perverts the solidarity of the Native Americans into a lack of reason and virtue.
Thus the real loser of the Valladolid debate on the justification of New World conquest was the Native American, forced to be identified as either noble (submissive) savage or fierce (resistant) barbarian, either a tabula rasa awaiting conversion or an obstacle to essay the propagation of the faith. Essay Assistance Co Uk? Either choice meant annihilation, the one of culture, the other of existence. Hamilton, Bernice. Political Thought in Sixteenth-Century Spain: A Study of the Political Ideas of Vitoria, DeSoto, Suárez, and Molina . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963. Hanke, Lewis. All Mankind Is One: A Study of the Disputation Between Bartolomé de Las Casas and Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda in of great depression, 1550 on the Intellectual and Religious Capacity of the American Indians . DeKalb: Northern Illinois UP, 1974. ---. Aristotle and the American Indians: A Study in Race Prejudice in the Modern World . My Best Essay In Marathi Language? Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1959. ---. The First Social Experiments in of great depression essay, America: A Study in the Development of Spanish Indian Policy in the Sixteenth Century . Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1935. ---. The Spanish Struggle for Justice in the Conquest of America . Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1949.
Las Casas, Bartolomé de. In Defense of the Indians . Ed. Trans. Stafford Poole. DeKalb: Northern Illinois UP, 1974. ---. A Short Account of the Destruction of the acknowledgement for thesis to god, Indies . Ed. and trans. Nigel Griffin. New York: Penguin Books, 1992. Losada, Angel. Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda a través de su Epistolario y Nuevos Documentos . Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1949.
Muldoon, James. Of Great? The Americas in the Spanish World Order: The Justification for assistance Conquest in the Seventeenth Century . Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1994. Nader, Helen. Rights of Discovery: Christopher Columbus's Final Appeal to King Fernando: Facsimile, Transcription, Translation Critical Edition of the John Carter Brown Library's Spanish Codex I . Providence: John Carter Brown Library, 1992. Pagden, Anthony. Spanish Imperialism and the Political Imagination: Studies in of great depression essay, European and Spanish-American Social and Political Theory 1513-1830 . New Haven: Yale UP, 1990. Parry, John H., and Robert G. Keith, eds. New Iberian World: A Documentary History of the Discovery and Settlement of Latin America to the Early 17th Century . Writing For Grad School? New York: Times Books, 1984.
Sepúlveda, Juan Ginés de. Apology for the Book On the Just Causes of War . Trans. and Ed. Lewis D. Epstein. Bowdoin College, 1973. ---. Demócrates Segundo o De Las Justas Causas de La Guerra Contra los Indios . Trans. Angel Losada.
Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto Francisco de Vitoria, 1951. Sepúlveda, Juan Ginés de, and Bartolomé de Las Casas. Causes Of Great Depression? Apología . [ Defense .] Trans. Angel Losada. Madrid: Editora Nacional, 1975. Vitoria, Francisco de. Writing Personal Statements For Grad? Political Writings . Ed. Anthony Pagden and Jeremy Lawrance.
Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1991. Williams, Robert A., Jr. Of Great? The American Indian in Western Legal Thought: The Discourses of Conquest . New York: Oxford UP, 1990.
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We may also use web beacons (small graphic images on a web page or an HTML e-mail) to monitor interaction with our websites or e-mails. Web beacons are generally invisible because they are very small (only 1-by-1 pixel) and the same color as the background of the web page or e-mail message. Web Browsing Activity. When accessing our Website, We automatically collect certain information about Your computer and Your visit, such as your IP address, browser type, date and time, the web page You visited before visiting our Website, Your activities and purchases on our Website, and other analytical information associated with the causes of great, Website. Information From Other Sources. We may also obtain information about You from other sources. For example, We may receive credit information from third-party sources before initiating Your service. We may also purchase or obtain Personal Information (for example, e-mail lists, postal mail lists, demographic and marketing data) from others. HOW WE USE INFORMATION WE COLLECT ABOUT YOU. We use the information We collect for a variety of business purposes, such as:
To provide and essay, bill for Services You purchase; To deliver and confirm Services You obtain from us; To verify Your identity and maintain a record of of great depression, Your transactions and essay, interactions with us; To provide customer services to causes of great depression You; To create, modify, improve, enhance, remove or fix our Services and essay, their performance; To identify and suggest products or services that might interest You; To make internal business decisions about depression essay current and future Service offerings; To provide You customized user experiences, including personalized Services offerings;
To protect our rights, interests, safety and property and that of our customers, service providers and acknowledgement for thesis thanks, other third parties; and. To comply with law or as required for of great depression, legal purposes. We may use Personal Information for investigations or prevention of fraud or network abuse. We may use information we collect to contact You about our and/or third-party products, services, and my best, offers that We believe You may find of interest. We may contact You by telephone, postal mail, e-mail, or other methods. You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. We may help advertisers better reach our customers by causes of great, providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from other companies. This information is co uk, used by advertisers to determine which ads may be more relevant to depression essay You. Hybrid Vs Gas. However, we do not share Personal Information outside of our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent.
WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. Causes Of Great Depression. We may, however, disclose Your information to unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about You to third-parties with Your consent. We may obtain Your consent in essay, writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the terms of disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives.
We encourage You not to share Your password. If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of causes of great essay, a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of essay, company assets, or in the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and causes depression, collect for services and for thesis thanks to god, products (including to collection agencies in order to obtain payment for our products and causes depression, services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes.
How We Communicate Changes to This Policy. We may update this Policy at any time to provide updates to or clarification of causes depression essay, our practices. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification). You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of any changes. This web site is owned and in marathi language, operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. A Referral is an causes of great individual who requests a service via the writing personal statements school, referral link given by a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referral’s total order price.
All money earned with the Referral Program is stored on your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the money to causes the Bonus Balance and use it to for thesis purchase a service. Causes Of Great Depression. It is possible to transfer the sum to the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).