Date: 29.3.2017 / Article Rating: 5 / Votes: 591 #Roy porter student essay prize competition

Recent Posts

Home >> Uncategorized >> Roy porter student essay prize competition

Roy porter student essay prize competition

Oct/Wed/2017 | Uncategorized

International Group Services …

Roy porter student essay prize competition

Buy Essay Online Cheap -
History Of Medicine Essay …

Avid Scholarship Essay Writing 696560. This topic contains 0 replies, has 1 voice, and was last updated by roy porter student essay prize, eqolatirde 6 days, 6 hours ago. Avid Scholarship Essay Writing. AVID Scholarship Orange County Community …AVID Scholarship. The AVID Scholarship A student enrolled in the AVID program for a minimum of three years SAT Essay or Writing Score Avid Scholarship Essay Writing Wedding Organizer Scholarship Essay Example 1 College How to essay write a scholarship essay example one. I then became an student essay prize avid reader of newspapers and AVID Varsity Tutors Scholarship Essay AVID Varsity Tutors Scholarship Essay. High school is filled with students who are stressing about homework, projects, and getting ready to graduate Scholarships Every Orange County AVID senior has an nothing hoops research opportunity to apply for the AVID Community Scholarship. The scholarship deadline has passed. Student. Avid Scholarship Essays DOC AVID ESSAY: Wikispaces AVID.

Scholarship Essay. 18 March 2011. Personal Statement: How has AVID influenced my life and my high School career?Top 10 Tips For Writing Effective Scholarship Essays cite class=#8221;sb_crmb#8221;When you are faced with the challenge of scholarship essay writing , Avid scholarship essays Auditor UAESchool Community Council meets monthly to exchange ideas about writing a comparison, dissertation writing help uk how to avid scholarship essays improve student achievement at student competition, Avid scholarship essays Did you apply for the avid scholarship essays scholarship this year?. Essay Eksempel. avid scholarship essays average speed writing essay We avid scholarship essays design Avid Scholarship Essay HelpAvid Scholarship Essay Help. Scholarship Essay Example 1 Elsinore High School This will also help you with writing the roy porter student essay prize essay for mcdonalds case the Local Scholarship AVID | Proven Achievement. Lifelong Advantage.AVID’s mission is to close the achievement gap by roy porter student prize, preparing all students for college readiness and success in about culture, a global society. Writing the roy porter essay prize competition College essay can be tough!

Here are some tips to help you on your way. Mcdonalds Marketing. Choose a trait about roy porter student prize competition, yourself to show, but don#8217;t write it in you essay Writing An Essay For A Scholarship ·#032;PDF fileDownload and essay about culture, Read Writing An Essay For A Scholarship Writing An Essay For A Scholarship Come with us to roy porter essay prize read a new book that is coming recently. Mcdonalds Case Marketing Research. Financial Aid and Scholarships AVID Financial Aid and roy porter essay, Scholarships . Contest For Inn. Below are resources to roy porter essay prize competition help with Financial Aid and Scholarships . 7 Major Scholarship Scams Financial Aid Glossary 2014 Senior Scholarship Application 112213 (2) ·#032;PDF file AVID Scholarship Formal Essay Requirement To be completed by essay, the AVID senior WRITING PROMPTS: AVID Scholarship (only) Essay Scholarships – Weird Scholarships Essay Scholarships . who had an avid interest in writing . The scholarship is roy porter, only available specifically essay scholarships require an but net the science of shooting essay as a Writing the Introduction Paragraph Junior AVID This guide is for prize competition junior AVID students to use as a complimentary resource for the AVID elective class. When writing your college admission essay , Financial Aid EHS AVID EHS AVID . Search this site. College Resources; AVID ; English 12; Resources; En Espa&nol; Navigation. Writing A Comparison. Writing the College/ Scholarship Essay . AVID . AVID Avid Scholarship Essay Writing Avid Scholarship Essay Writing Scholarship Essay Example 1 Scholarship Essay Example 1 . At 13, I was an ordinary teenage girl. I had my favorite movie stars, my secret crushes, and I probably ate too much Avid Essay Contest avid essay contest id:0gvntad me5me. AVID Writing Contest Winners Avid Scholarship Essays Avid scholarship essays; Scholarship Essay Example 1 College Scholarship Essay Example 1 . Essay Prize Competition. At 13, I was an writing ordinary teenage girl. I had my favorite movie stars, my secret crushes, and I probably ate too much chocolate.

Avid Scholarship Essay Writing Avid Scholarship Essay Writing Scholarship Application Essay Writing .ComThis is roy porter essay competition, a practice scholarship essay I was assigned in my Avid class. Dell Scholars Program Scholarships.comcite class=#8221;sb_crmb#8221;The Dell Scholars Program places greater emphasis on a student#8217;s determination to succeed than just Scholarship Essay Contests; Writing College Essay – DPHS AVID Orange County Public …The college essay is a vital component of your application packet. college, essay , Writing Dr. Phillips High School AVID . 6500 Turkey Lake RoadFun and essay about culture, Unique Scholarships for High School Students ·#032;PDF fileFun and Unique Scholarships for High School Students . Prize. Essay Weekly Scholarship Science Fiction Writing Company Providing Scholarship : Avid leadership essay rotaryeclubbangalore3190.orgcite class=#8221;sb_crmb#8221; Avid leadership essay . You Melissa Read Memorial Scholarship Essay via high income Writing my essay a critique of a Disney film gotta love Avid application essay Beleco nagu dizaino studijaApply on avid application essay our site to leave your essay . Outdoor HQ#8217;s Annual Outdoor Living Scholarship is available to a comparison essay thesis all full-time students. The personal statement for roy porter essay prize competition scholarship essay _doc AVID . Essay Thesis. Scholarship Essay . 18 you can use these topics for the basis for the different paragraphs of the roy porter essay prize competition scholarship essay : Steps in for inn, Writing a how your avid essay Study Sets and Flashcards | QuizletQuizlet provides how your avid essay activities, flashcards and games. Start learning today for free! You must be logged in to reply to this topic. Roy Porter Student Essay Competition. Coastal House, Narberth Road, Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire, SA61 2XG.

01437 765 777 - [email protected] Copyright 2014 Five Frogs Triathlon Club. All Rights Reserved.

How to buy essay cheap with no worries -
Prizes – Society for the Social History of …

How to Write the Best Nursing Cover Letter. A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as important as a well crafted nursing resume. When done right, cover letters are a key factor in getting a nursing candidate’s foot in the door. Of course, nursing candidates understand this so they spend time researching how to write good cover letters. The problem is that the vast majority of readily available information on nursing cover letters is uniform and antiquated. As a result, the vast majority of nursing cover letters read exactly the roy porter student essay competition, same and fall well short of nothing of shooting research piquing the roy porter essay prize competition, reader’s interest.

So in this blog post, we’ll cover the basic items to review before sending a cover letter, summarize the conventional approach to nursing cover letters and discuss its shortcomings, and offer a unique formula that will wow employers and essay eksempel land you an interview. Covering the nursing cover letter basics. It’s critical to carefully review your cover letter for the basics before sending it out to professional contacts or prospective employers. Roy Porter Prize Competition. What are the basics? We’re referring to things like grammar and spelling. About Culture. As obvious as these basics may be, a very large percentage of cover letters include basic mistakes. Roy Porter Student. So be certain to review your cover letter for the following issues: Spelling : Yes, it’s a good idea to mcdonalds case research, use the spell checker. However, you must also carefully review your cover letter for errors that the spell checker won’t pick up.

For example, you may have typed “form” instead of “from.” And yes, some recruiters and hiring managers are that picky. Grammar : The best way to review grammar is to read your cover letter out loud and roy porter essay competition word-for-word. Thesis. If you’re unsure if the grammar is correct, then try to simplify the prize, caption in question. Simpler is usually better anyway. Correct Employer Information : Be sure you’ve used the correct employer name, address, contact person, and contact person’s title. About Culture. It’s easy to lose site of this when you’re applying for multiple jobs and essay prize using the same cover letter template. Date : Be sure to use the current date. We regularly see cover letters with last year’s date, most likely because the mcdonalds case, candidate used a template from roy porter student essay competition, their previous job search. Essay Godt. Your Contact Information : Make sure your contact information is current and correct. Congruence : Make sure that the roy porter student essay competition, information you provide in essay your cover letter matches the information you provide in your resume and/or job application.

General framing for your nursing cover letter. With the basic considerations out of the way, we can begin to frame or conceptualize the student prize competition, cover letter. But Net The Science Of Shooting Hoops Research. For starters, it’s important to consider your angle . Prize Competition. Are you responding to a job advertisement? Are you sending your cover letter and resume to a professional contact to be forwarded to someone involved in mcdonalds case study research the hiring process? Are you engaging in a general inquiry expressing interest in working for the organization in some capacity while having no professional contacts within the roy porter essay prize, organization and despite the contest, fact that there is no job advertised? Your angle should guide how you frame your cover letter and dictate a small but important set of information to student prize, include. Consider the following: Job Advertisements : If you’re applying to a job advertisement, then your cover letter should reference the advertisement, job ID if applicable, and america Job Title. Professional Contacts : If you have a professional contact within the organization, then your cover letter should include the name of the professional contact, their title, your relationship to the contact, and perhaps a few references to 2nd degree contacts and conversations you’ve had pertaining to the job in question and/or organization. General Job Inquiries : If you’re merely expressing a general interest in potential job opportunities with an organization, then be clear about what role(s) you’re interested in. The conventional approach to nursing cover letters:

Now that we’ve covered the student, basics and have an idea of how to frame the cover letter, it’s time to move on to the meat of the letter. A Google search for “nursing cover letter” returns pages from many reputable and seemingly authoritative sources. You’ll find pages from Ohio State University, Johns Hopkins,, Duke University, and many others. All of nothing the science of shooting hoops research paper these sources utilize virtually the same general cover letter template. Their general template recommends the following. First, start your cover letter with a brief introductory paragraph that quickly gets to the point. Student. Introduce yourself professionally, let the reader know why you’re writing and do so enthusiastically. You might also praise the employer on some recent accomplishment or milestone they’ve achieved. Second, include two to three “strength paragraphs.” These are paragraphs that describe your professional strengths.

The general recommendation is to describe how you’re a good fit for the position in question. It’s often suggested that you draw on the job description for details about what the employer is suggestions seeking. Then, describe how your skills and experience fit the criteria. In doing so, you might describe some past experiences and even offer some stats and numbers for emphasis. Finally, end the cover letter with a brief conclusion paragraph. Recap your interest in essay the job. Once again summarize why you’re a good fit. About America. Perhaps offer some well wishes and good sentiments. And let them know that you’ll attempt to contact them and they can contact you at their convenience to set up an student essay prize competition interview. What’s wrong with the godt eksempel, conventional approach to nursing cover letters? There are several problems with the conventional approach to student essay, nursing cover letters.

First, it does nothing to set you apart from the rest of the case study marketing research, candidates. Almost every single candidate is taking this approach. It’s so pervasive that cover letters for different candidates often read the same exact way. Everyone is drawing from the job description which is student prize usually very generic. Contest. As a result, they’re all explaining how their prior experience makes them organized or clinically experienced enough to do the job. Student Prize. Or how their orientation towards team work will help them fit right in. Contest. Once the recruiter or hiring manager has read this cover letter a dozen times, they’re simply tuned out. Second, the student, conventional approach fosters a tendency to contest for inn, summarize the resume. Candidates often use the same exact information included on prize competition, their resume when writing their cover letters to essay contest, describe why they’re a good fit for the job. This is essay competition a waste of mcdonalds study marketing valuable space and time, but it’s almost impossible to essay, avoid.

A resume is a summary of your work history and experiences as they pertain to your qualifications for essay godt eksempel the job in question. Meanwhile, the conventional approach to nursing cover letters is recommending that you describe why you’re qualified for the job. These are very closely related. Third, the conventional approach to nursing cover letters is a passive approach. It turns the student essay prize, candidate into a passive receiver of details provided by the employer and then asks that they reword their resume to address the details. Not only is this a poor stance for job seekers, it doesn’t consider the reality that employers routinely offer canned job descriptions that don’t really offer any actionable intelligence for the candidate. An alternative approach to nursing cover letters. The conventional approach was fine in 1986 but it’s not up to snuff for the information and networking age. Information is now so readily available that if you’re focused only on the job description when writing your cover letter, then you’re missing some major opportunities to separate yourself from the pack. Case Study Marketing. And separating from the student essay, pack is the primary goal of this alternative approach to nursing cover letters because it will greatly increase your potential for landing the interview. The question becomes, how do you find and use information regarding the targeted employer to craft an amazing cover letter?

You start by completely changing the guiding principle behind your approach to the cover letter. Remember, the guiding principle of the conventional approach is to thesis, draw from the job description to develop “strength paragraphs” that describe why you’re a good fit for the job. Again, this a passive approach that steers nursing candidates to rely on roy porter student competition, information provided by a job description that is often vague and confined to the minimum requirements. By contrast, our alternative approach is mcdonalds case study research based on sales and marketing principles. After all, a cover letter is a sales vehicle, plain and simple. You’re using it to sell yourself to the employer. This sales based approach to cover letters fosters an aggressive mind-set by recommending that you seek out student, additional information beyond the job description which will be used to america, help you develop your sales pitch.

Now there are many different approaches to selling things. We’re going to student prize, focus on perhaps the contest, most successful sales approach, “problem solving.” Essentially, you’re going to define a problem facing the employer and describe why you’re the solution . In doing so, you will draw on your skills and experience in roy porter student prize a much more natural way. Writing A Comparison Essay Thesis. And the exercise will almost certainly give the opportunity to offer information that isn’t included on your resume. Trust us, this is much easier than it sounds!! Start by researching the employer. Researching the employer is the first step in crafting your cover letter. Begin with a visit to the employer’s web site. Look for a blog or a “News Room.” If the employer has a very limited website with no blog or company news, then review the “About” page or anything you can find that will offer insight.

The great news for nurses is that many hospitals and healthcare employers maintain regularly updated and highly detailed blogs and “News Rooms.” Check out this example from Swedish Medical in essay prize Washington state. There’s even a “Tag Cloud” on the right side that will help you locate information about godt eksempel, specific units and various specialties!! Next, find the employer on all the essay, major social media channels. Godt. Again, most employers are using these channels to disseminate information that is important to roy porter prize, them and their clientele. The easiest way to find a company’s social media channels is to locate the social media icon buttons on the company’s website. You know, the buttons that typically say something like, “Connect with us.” This approach is much better than going straight the social media outlet and searching for the company which usually returns poor results.

For example, we were easily directed to Swedish Medical’s Facebook Page by clicking on the Facebook button on their website. Writing Essay. However, a search for “Swedish Medical Center” on Facebook didn’t include the official company page within the top 50 results. Next, check with your own social networks to see if you’re connected to someone who works for the employer in question or knows someone who does . Don’t be afraid to post an student inquiry on your own social media accounts to find out if anyone you know has any connections to the employer in question. You might be surprised by godt, what you find. I’ve never been to essay prize, Washington state and I was able to find 6 2nd degree connections to thesis suggestions, Swedish Medical within my network in a minimal amount of time. You can also search for news articles on the employer on both national and local levels . For example, a search for “Swedish Medical” on the Seattle Post Intelligencer returned 419 results.

A search of roy porter essay Google’s News database returned 97 results. If you’re still not able to find any actionable intelligence after conducting these searches, then you can conduct a search for information on contest, the industry or market niche in question . Not every nurse is applying for roy porter student essay competition jobs at hospitals or other large healthcare organizations that have the about, resources to attract and maintain the kind of roy porter student competition media presence described above. You might be applying for jobs as a school nurse, or jobs at small addiction treatment centers, or some other form of writing essay thesis small employer. In these cases, check for an industry or niche association that advocates for the interests of employers in the industry or niche in question. At this point, you’re probably wondering what exactly you’re looking for competition while doing your research. Thesis Suggestions. You’re looking for information you can present as a problem, or potential problem, for which you are the solution . You see, almost everything can be presented as a potential challenge or problem facing an employer. For example, if a hospital just achieved Magnet Recognition, then maintaining it will be a challenge. The same goes for any award or recognition an roy porter essay competition employer has achieved.

Of course, you can also look for actual problems that an employer is facing. A Comparison. For example, an employer may have a high employee turnover rate, or they maybe in the process of attempting to achieve some goal or milestone, or they may be undergoing an roy porter student essay EMR conversion in the near future. Of course, you need to be able to nothing but net hoops research paper, convince the reader that you can help with the problems you define. So merely defining a problem isn’t enough. You need to define a problem for which you can convincingly sell yourself as the solution . Using the examples above, you may have worked with an employer who turned around their employee turnover problems, or with an employer who achieved the same goal or milestone, or you may have experience with the EMR that the employer is converting to.

In conducting your research, start at the base level and work your way out. For example, if you’re applying for a Staff Nurse position in a hospital’s Intensive Care Unit, then start with trying to find information that is pertinent to roy porter student, the unit. These problems will likely be in line with your expertise. From the unit level, work your way out to the industry level to identify a broader range of problems for which you may be the solution. America Culture. It’s very likely that you’ll find multiple problems to define, and that’s great. You can easily touch on two to three problems and describe how you’re the solution for each in roy porter student prize the span of case your 1 page cover letter. If you are unable to essay competition, find any problems to define after exhausting all of your research options, then you can use the job description provided by the employer (assuming there is one) to define problems. In doing so, you’ll write a much more powerful cover letter than you would have using the conventional approach described above.

Why is this alternative approach to contest for inn, nursing cover letters better? The problem/solution approach to cover letters is roy porter essay prize competition better than the mcdonalds, conventional approach for several reasons. First, you’ll differentiate yourself from the pack. Roy Porter Competition. Even if everyone were to use this formula (which they won’t), they’d all find and writing a comparison essay thesis define different problems and/or offer different solutions. Second, you’ll demonstrate that you’re knowledgeable about the employer. Third, your cover letter will read like it was written by a human instead of a robot. Your cover letter will actually be interesting to read!! Finally, you’ll be selling yourself to the employer as a solution to their problems as opposed to regurgitating key points from your resume. How to write the essay prize competition, best nursing cover letter.

To recap the steps: Consider your angle when framing your cover letter. This is described above under the heading “General framing for your cover letter.” Include an introduction paragraph that quickly lets the reader know why you’re writing. Define problems and describe how you are the solution. Sell your skills and experiences as solutions. Be sure to make use of all research options to find problems that are not included in the job description. Close the deal in a conclusion paragraph that describes the next step. Case Study Marketing Research. Let the reader know that you’d like to essay, discuss these issues in greater detail and learn more about the challenges they are facing. Offer your contact information and america culture let them know you’ll be contacting them. Review your cover letter for the basics described above under the heading “Covering the cover letter basics.” 5 Things that New Grad RNs and Experienced RNs Should Know About the Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us.

How to student prize competition, Write an Effective Nursing Resume Summary Writing an effective nursing resume summary is easier said than. But Net Of Shooting Hoops Research. 8 Things Every Nurse Ought to Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the roy porter student prize competition, norm for nursing jobs. We provide. Do you have a sample cover letter? I get the problem solving concept but would like to see an example of how to convey myself as a solution. My apologies, Sarah, but we do not have a sample cover letter. We’ll work on posting one though! Thank you Kyle! That helps a lot! Thank you for marketing these blog posts!

I’m trying to go back to work after staying-at-home for roy porter student prize three years with my kids (which seems like an the science of shooting hoops paper even tougher situation than being a new grad). Prior to that I had very minimal nursing experience (2 years total) in roy porter student prize competition two niche type jobs: school nursing and travel medicine. I’d like a job in essay godt mother/baby and know people on the unit. Trying to draw attention to the extensive CEU’s I’ve completed recently all related to OB. I’m also working on certification in a Neonatal Resusitation program (NRP). 1. Is the cover letter a good place to explain the large gap in work history (i.e. being a stay-at-home-mom)? Can I take a moment there to roy porter student essay prize competition, highlight social achievements since I don’t have any work achievements? 2. But Net The Science Hoops Research Paper. How do I sell myself as the solution when I have so little irrelevant nursing experience? (maybe there’s no answer for this)… what i do know is that the competing hospital in student prize competition the area just opened their own Labor and Delivery and essay are recruiting OB nurses from the hospital I’m applying to. Any advice is much appreciated! Great questions, Adrienne.

Yes, it’s okay to use a brief portion of your cover letter to address your experience as a stay-at-home mom. You may even use some of student prize competition what you’ve learned as a stay-at-home mom to about america, relate that you’re the solution to a problem the hospital faces, or a goal they’re trying to achieve. Often times, a hospital’s/unit’s challenges and goals require more than just technical skills. You may be passionate about something or have indirect experience that will be an asset to them. Roy Porter Student Competition. The important thing is to illustrate that you are aware of the employer’s challenges and goals and you understand that their employees play a pivotal role in addressing them.

I hope this helps!

Buy Essay Papers Here -
Roy porter essay prize - DAIRYTRAIN | …

Works of Martin Luther, with introductions and notes, Volume 1/Disputation on Indulgences. Disputation on Indulgences. A DISPUTATION OF. DOCTOR MARTIN LUTHER. POWER AND EFFICACY OF INDULGENCES. (THE NINETY-FIVE THESES) A Disputation on roy porter essay prize competition the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences [1] is the full title of the document commonly called The Ninety-five Theses. Godt? The form of the document was determined by the academic practice of the Middle Ages. In all the Mediaeval Universities the disputation was a well-established institution. It was a debate, conducted according to accepted rules, on any subject which the chief disputant might elect, and no student's education was thought to be complete until he had shown his ability to defend himself in discussions of this kind. It was customary to student set forth the subject which was to be discussed, in a series of about america culture theses, which were statements of opinion tentatively advanced as the basis of argument.

The author, or some other person whom he might designate, announced himself ready to defend these statements against all comers, and invited all who might wish to debate with him to a part in the discussion. Student Essay Prize Competition? Such an academic document, one out of many hundreds, exhaling the atmosphere of the Mediaeval University, is the Disputation, which by its historical importance has earned the name The XCV Theses. Mcdonalds Study Research? The Theses were published on the Eve of roy porter student prize competition All Saints (Oct. 31), 1517. They were not intended for any other public than that of the University, [2] and Luther did not even have them printed at first, though copies were forwarded to the Archbishop of Mainz, and to Luther's own diocesan, the Bishop of Brandenburg. The manner of their publication too was academic. They were simply posted on the door of the Church of All Saints—called the thesis suggestions Castle-church, to student distinguish it from its neighbor, the Town-church—not because more people would see them there than elsewhere, but because that church-door was the for inn customary place for posting such announcements, the predecessor of the black-board in the modern German University. It was not night, but mid-day [3] when the essay Theses were nailed up, and study marketing, the Eve of All Saints was chosen, not that the roy porter essay prize crowds who would frequent the next day's festival might read them, for they were written in Latin, but because it was the customary day for the posting of theses. Of Shooting? Moreover, the Feast of roy porter essay prize All Saints was the time when the precious relics, which earned the man who adored them, long years of indulgence, [4] were exhibited to worshipers, and the approach of this high feast-day put the thought of eksempel indulgences uppermost in the minds of everybody in Wittenberg, including the author of the Theses. [5] But neither the roy porter Theses nor the results which followed them could be confined to Wittenberg. Contrary to Luther's expectation and to his great surprise, [6] they circulated all through Germany with a rapidity that was startling.

Within two months, before the end of 1517, three editions of the Latin text had been printed, one at Wittenberg, one at Niirnberg, and one as far away as Basel, and copies of the essay thesis Theses had been sent to Rome. Numerous editions, both Latin and student essay prize competition, German, quickly followed. Luther's cotemporaries saw in the publication of the Theses the beginning of the Reformation, [7] and the judgment of essay godt eksempel modem times has confirmed their verdict, but the Protestant of to-day, and especially the essay competition Protestant layman, is almost certain to essay godt be surprised, possibly deeply disappointed, at their contents. They are not a trumpet-blast of reform; that title must be reserved for the great works of roy porter student prize competition 1520. [8] The word faith, destined to become the watchword of the Reformation, does not once occur in them; the suggestions validity of the Sacrament of Penance is roy porter student essay, not disputed; the suggestions right of the pope to student essay forgive sins, especially in reserved cases, is not denied; even the virtue of indulgences is admitted, within limits, and the question at issue is simply What is that virtue? To read the but net the science of shooting hoops research Theses, therefore, with a fair degree of comprehension we must know something of the time that produced them, and we must bear two facts continually in competition mind. We must remember that at this time Luther was a devoted son of the Church and servant of the pope, perhaps not quite the right frantic and raving papist [9] he afterwards called himself, but as yet entirely without suspicion of the extent to which he had inwardly diverged from the teachings of Roman theology.

We must also remember that the Theses were no attempt at a searching examination of the whole structure and content of Roman teaching, but were directed against what Luther conceived to be merely abuses which had sprung up around a single group of doctrines centering in the Sacrament of Penance. He sincerely thought that the teaching of the Theses was in full agreement with the best traditions of the Church, [10] and his surprise that they should have caused so much excitement is undoubtedly genuine and not feigned. He shows himself both hurt and astonished that he should be assailed as a heretic and schismatic, and mcdonalds, called by six hundred other names of ignominy. [11] On the essay competition other hand, we are compelled to admit that from the outset Luther's opponents had grasped far more completely than he himself the true significance of his purely academic protest. 2. Penance and Indulgence. —The purpose of the disputation which Luther proposed to hold was to clear up the subject of the virtue of nothing but net the science hoops research indulgences, and the indulgences were the most striking and characteristic feature of the religious life of the Church in the last three Centuries of the Middle Ages. [12] We meet them everywhere—indulgences for the adoration of student essay competition relics, indulgences for worship at certain shrines, indulgences for pilgrimages here or there, indulgences for contributions to this or that special object of charity. Luther roundly charges the indulgence-vendors with teaching the people that the indulgences are a means to the remission of sins. What are these indulgences? Their history is essay, connected, on student essay competition the one hand, with the of shooting hoops research history of the Sacrament of Penance, on the other with the history of the development of papal power. The Sacrament of Penance developed out of the administration of roy porter essay Church discipline. About? In the essay earliest days of the Church, the Christian who fell into sin was punished by mcdonalds case marketing, exclusion from the prize communion of the Church.

This excommunication was not, however, permanent, and the sinner could be restored to the privileges of Church-fellowship after he had confessed his sin, professed penitence, and performed certain penitential acts, chief among which were alms-giving, fasting and prayer, and, somewhat later, pilgrimage. These acts of penitence came to have the name of satisfactions, and were a condition precedent to the reception of absolution. They varied in duration and severity, according to the enormity of the offence, and for the guidance of about america culture those who administered the discipline of the Church, sets of rules were formulated by which the satisfactions or penances were imposed. These codes are the Penitential Canons. [13] The first step in the development of the indulgences may be found in the practice which gradually arose, of remitting some part of the enjoined penances on consideration of the performance of certain acts which could be regarded as meritorious. The indulgences received a new form, however, and became a part of the regular Church administration, when the roy porter student essay prize popes discovered the possibilities which lay in this institution for the advancement of mcdonalds case study marketing research their own power and the furtherance of roy porter prize competition their own interests. This discovery seems to date from the nothing the science of shooting time of the Crusades. The crusading-indulgences, granted at first only to student essay prize competition those who actually went to the Holy War, subsequently to those also who contributed to the expense of the expedition, were virtually the acceptance of this work as a substitute for any penance which the Church might otherwise require. Writing A Comparison Essay Thesis? As zeal for the Crusades began to wane, the prize competition indulgences were used more and a comparison essay thesis, more freely to stimulate lagging interest; their number was greatly increased, and those who purchased the indulgences with money far outnumbered those who actually took the roy porter student prize Cross.

Failing in their purpose as an essay for inn, incentive to enlistment in roy porter the crusading armies, they showed their value as a source of income, and suggestions, from the beginning of the XIV. Century the essay prize competition sale of indulgences became a regular business. About the same time a new kind of indulgence arose to take the place of the now somewhat antiquated crusading-indulgence. This was the Jubilee-indulgence, and had its origin in the Jubilee of 1300. By the Bull Antiquorum Habet Fide, Boniface VIII. granted to all who would visit the godt shrines of the student prize Apostles in Rome during the year 1300 and during each succeeding centennial year, a plenary indulgence. [14] Little by little it became the custom to increase the number of these Jubilee-indulgences. Once in a hundred years was not often enough for thesis suggestions, Christians to roy porter competition have a chance for plenary forgiveness, and at last, unwilling to deprive of the privileges of the Jubilee those who were kept away from Rome, the popes came to research grant the same plenary indulgence to all who would make certain contributions to the papal treasury. [15] Meanwhile the Sacrament of Penance had become an integral part of the Roman sacramental system, and roy porter essay competition, had replaced the earlier penitential discipline as the means by which the Church granted Christians forgiveness for sins committed after baptism. Essay Eksempel? The scholastic theologians had busied themselves with the theory of this Sacrament. They distinguished between its material, its form and its effect. The form of the Sacrament was the absolution; its effect, the forgiveness of sins; its material, three acts of the student prize penitent: confession, contrition, and satisfaction. Confession must be by word of mouth, and must include all the eksempel sins which the sinner could remember to have committed; contrition must be sincere sorrow of the heart, and must include the purpose henceforth to avoid sin; satisfaction must be made by works prescribed by the priest who heard confession.

In the administration of the Sacrament, however, the essay competition absolution preceded satisfaction instead of following it, as it had done in the discipline of the but net hoops paper early Church. [16] To justify this apparent inconsistency, the Doctors further distinguished between the guilt and the penalty of sin. [17] Sins were classified as mortal and venial. [18] Mortal sins for which the student prize offender had not received absolution were punished eternally, while venial sins were those which merited only writing essay, some smaller penalty; but when a mortal sin was confessed and absolution granted, the guilt of the sin was done away, and with it the eternal penalty. And yet the absolution did not open the gate of roy porter heaven, though it closed the door of hell; the eternal penalty was not to be exacted, but there was a temporal penalty to be paid. The satisfaction was the temporal penalty, and if satisfaction was in arrears at death, the arrearage must be paid in a comparison essay thesis purgatory, a place of punishment for mortal sins confessed and repented, but unsatisfied, and for venial sins, which were not serious enough to bring eternal condemnation. The penalties of roy porter essay purgatory were temporal, viz., they stopped somewhere this side of eternity, and their duration could be measured in days and years, though the number of the years might mount high into the thousands and tens of thousands. It was at this point that the practice of godt eksempel indulgences united with the theory of the roy porter student Sacrament of Penance. The indulgences had to culture do with the satisfaction. Student Prize? [19] They might be partial, remitting only a portion of the penalties, measured by days or years of purgatory; or they might be plenary, remitting all penalties due in but net the science paper this world or the next. In theory, however, no indulgence could remit the guilt or the eternal penalty of sin, [20] and the purchaser of an indulgence was not only expected to student essay confess and be absolved, but he was also supposed to be corde contritus, i. e., truly penitent. [21] A rigid insistence on nothing but net of shooting hoops the fulfilment of these conditions would have greatly restricted the value of the indulgences as a means of gain, for the right to hear confession and student essay prize, grant absolution belonged to the parish-priests.

Consequently, it became the custom to endow the indulgence-venders with extraordinary powers. Essay Godt Eksempel? They were given the authority to essay prize hear confession and grant absolution wherever they might be, and to mcdonalds case study marketing absolve even from the sins which were normally reserved for the absolution of the higher Church authorities. The demand for contrition was somewhat more difficult to meet. But here too there was a way out. Complete contrition included love to God as its motive, and the truly contrite man was not always easy to find; but some of the scholastic Doctors had discovered a substitute for contrition in what they called attrition, viz., incomplete contrition, which might have fear for a motive, and which the Sacrament of Penance could transform into contrition.

When, therefore, a man was afraid of hell or of purgatory, he could make his confession to roy porter essay the indulgence-seller or his agent, receive from him the absolution which gave his imperfect repentance the value of true contrition, released him from the guilt of sin, and changed its eternal penalty to a temporal penalty, then he could purchase the plenary indulgence, which remitted the temporal penalty, and so in one transaction, in which all the demands of the Church were formally met, he could become sure of heaven. Thus the indulgence robbed the Sacrament of Penance of its ethical content. Furthermore, indulgences were made available for souls already in purgatory. But Net The Science Of Shooting Research Paper? This kind of indulgence seems to have been granted for the first time in 1476. It had long been held that the prayers of the living availed to shorten the pains of the departed, and the institution of roy porter prize competition masses for the dead was of essay thesis long standing; but it was not without some difficulty that the Popes succeeded in establishing their claim to power over purgatory. Their power over the souls of the living was not disputed.

The Power of the Keys had been given to Peter and transmitted to his successors; the Treasury of the Church, [22] i. e., the merits of Christ and of the Saints, was believed to student essay be at their disposal, and contest for inn, it was this treasury which they employed in the granting of indulgences; [23] but it seemed reasonable to suppose that their jurisdiction ended with death. Accordingly, Pope Sixtus IV, in 1477, declared that the power of the Pope over purgatory, while genuine, was exercised only per modum suffragii, by way of intercession. [24] The distinction was thought dogmatically important, but to the layman, who looked more to student competition results than to methods, the difference between intercession and jurisdiction was trifling. To him the important thing was that the Pope, whether by jurisdiction or intercession, was able to release the soul of america a departed Christian from the penalties of purgatory. It is roy porter prize competition, needless to essay godt eksempel say that these indulgences for the dead were eagerly purchased. In filial love and natural affection the indulgence-vender had powerful allies. Student Essay? 3. The Indulgence of 1515. Case? —The XCV Theses were called forth by the preaching of the roy porter student prize competition Jubilee Indulgence [25] of 1510, which was not placed on sale in central Germany until 1515. The financial needs of the thesis papacy were never greater than in the last years of the XV. and the first years of the XVI. Century, and they were further increased by roy porter essay prize competition, the resolve of Julius II. to erect a new church of St. Peter, which should surpass in magnificence all the churches of the world.

The indulgence of 1510 was an extraordinary financial measure, the proceeds of nothing but net of shooting hoops which were to pay for the erection of the new Basilica, but when Julius died in roy porter 1513, the church was not completed, and essay contest, the money had not been raised. The double task was bequeathed to his successor, Leo X. On the 31st of March, 1515, Leo proclaimed a plenary indulgence for the Archbishoprics of Magdeburg and Mainz, and appointed Albrecht, of Brandenburg, who was the incumbent of both sees and of the bishopric of Halberstadt as well, Commissioner for roy porter essay competition, the sale of this indulgence. By a secret agreement, of which Luther was, of course, entirely ignorant, one-half of the proceeds was to thesis be paid to the Fuggers of Augsburg on account of moneys advanced to student competition the Archbishop for the payment of the fees to Rome, and of the sums demanded in consideration of a dispensation allowing him to occupy three sees at the same time; the other half of the proceeds was to go to the papal treasury to be applied to essay the building of the new church. The period during which the indulgence was to be on sale was eight years. Prize Competition? The actual work of essay about culture organizing the indulgence-campaign was put into the hands of John Tetzel, whose large experience in the selling of indulgences fitted him excellently for the post of Sub-commissioner. The indulgence-sellers acted under the commission of the Archbishop and the directions of prize competition Tetzel, who took personal charge of the enterprise. The preachers went from essay about america, city to city, and during the time that they were preaching the indulgence in any given place, all other preaching was required to cease. [26] They held out the usual inducements to prospective buyers. The plenary nature of the indulgence was made especially prominent, and the people were eloquently exhorted that the roy porter essay prize purchase of indulgence-letters was better than all good works, that they were an suggestions, insurance against the pains of hell and of purgatory, that they availed for all satisfactions, even in the case of the most heinous sins that could be conceived. [27] Confessional letters [28] were one of the forms of this indulgence.

They gave their possessor permission to choose his own confessor, and entitled him to plenary remission once in his life, to absolution from sins normally reserved, etc. The indulgences for the dead were zealously proclaimed, and the duty of student essay purchasing for departed souls release from the pains of purgatory was most urgently enjoined. Nothing But Net The Science Of Shooting Research Paper? So great was the power of the indulgence to alleviate the roy porter student essay prize competition pains of purgatory, that the souls of the departed were said to contest pass into heaven the instant that the coins of the indulgence-buyer jingled in the money-box. [29] 4. Luther's Protest. Student Essay Prize Competition? —The Theses were Luther's protest against the manner in which this indulgence was preached, and against the false conception of the efficacy of indulgences which the people obtained from such preaching. They were not his first protest, however. In a sermon, preached July 27th, 1516, [30] he had issued a warning against the false idea that a man who had bought an indulgence was sure of but net the science of shooting paper salvation, and roy porter student competition, had declared the assertion that souls could be bought out of purgatory to be a piece of godt temerity. His warnings were repeated in roy porter student essay competition other sermons, preached October 31st, 1516, and February 24th, 1517. [31] The burden of these warnings is always the same: the essay about america indulgences lead men astray; they incite to fear of God's penalties and not to fear of sin; they encourage false hopes of salvation, and make light of the essay prize competition true condition of forgiveness, viz., sincere and genuine repentance. These warnings are repeated in the Theses. The preaching of indul- gences has concealed the true nature of repentance; the first thing to consider is what our Lord and Master Jesus Christ means, when He says, Repent. [32] Without denying the pope's right to essay the power of the student essay prize competition keys, Luther wishes to come into the clear about the extent of the pope's jurisdiction, which does not reach as far as purgatory. He believes that the pope has the right to remit penalties, but these penalties are of the same sort as those which were imposed in the early Church as a condition precedent to the absolution; they are ecclesiastical penalties merely, and do not extend beyond the grave; the a comparison essay true penalty of roy porter student essay prize competition sin is hatred of self, which continues until entrance into the kingdom of heaven. [33] The Theses are formulated with continual reference to mcdonalds case study research the statements of the indulgence-preachers, and of the Instruction to the Commissaries issued under the name of the prize competition Archbishop of Mainz. [34] For this reason there is little logical sequence in the arrangement of the Theses, and essay about, none of the attempts to discover a plan or scheme underlying them has been successful. [35] In a general way it may be said that for the positive views of Luther on the subjects discussed, Theses 30–37 and 42–52 are the most vital, while Theses 92–95 are sufficient evidence of the motive which led Luther to make his protest.

5. Conclusion. —The editors of this Translation present herewith a new translation of the Theses, together with three letters, which will help the student competition reader to understand the mind of Luther at the time of their composition and his motive in preparing them. The first of these letters is writing, that which was sent, with a copy of the Theses, to Albrecht of Mainz. Student Essay Prize Competition? The second and third are addressed respectively to Staupitz and mcdonalds case, Leo X., and were written to accompany the essay prize competition Resolutions, [36] an exhaustive explantion and defense of the Theses, published in 15 18, after the controversy had become bitter. 6. Literature. —(a) Sources. Essay? The source material for the history of indulgences is naturally widely scattered. The most convenient collection is found in Koehler, Dokumente zum Ablassstreit, Tubingen, 1900. For the indulgences against which Luther protested, see, beside the Editions of Luther's Works, Kapp , Schauplatz des Tetzelischen Ablass-Krams, Leipzig, 1720; Sammlung einiger zum pabstlichen Ablass gehorigen Schriften, Leipzig, 1721; Kleine Nachlese zur Erlauterung der Reformationsgeschichte, Leipzig, 1730 and 1733; also Loescher, Vollstandige Reformationsacta, I, Leipzig, 1720. (b) Secondary Works. Beside the general works in Church History and History of Doctrine, see the Lives of Luther, in roy porter student German especially those of Kostlin-Kawerau, Kolde, Berger and Hausrath; in English those of research Beard, Jacobs, Lindsay, Smith and McGiffert; also Boehmer , Luther im Lichte der neueren Forschung, 2d ed., Leipzig, 1910. On the indulgences in student prize competition their relation to the Sacrament of Penance, H. C. Lea, History of Confession and Indulgence, especially Vol. III, Philadelphia, 1896; Brieger, Das Wesen des Ablasses am Ausgang des Mittelalters, Leipzig, 1897, and essay america, Article Indulgenzen in PRE. 3 IX, pp.

76 ff. (Eng. in roy porter essay competition Schaff-Herzog v., pp. 485-88); Gottlob , Kreuzablass und Almosenablass, Stuttgart, 1906 (especially valuable for the origin of indulgences). On the indulgences and the XCV Theses, Koestlin, Luther's Theologie, Leipzig, 1883 (Eng. Trans, by Hay, The Theology of Luther, Philadelphia, 1897); Bratke, Luther's XCV Thesen und ihre dogmengeschichtlichen Voraussetzungen, Gottingen, 1884; Dieckhoff, Der Ablassstreit dogmengeschichtlich dargestellt, Gotha, 1886; Lindsay , History of the Reformation, I, New York, 1906; Tschachert , Entstehung der lutherischen und reformierten Kirchenlehre, Gottingen, 1910. Mcdonalds? On the financial aspects of the student competition indulgence-traffic, Schulte , Die Fugger in Rom, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1904. CHARLES M. Nothing But Net The Science Of Shooting Hoops? JACOBS. LETTER TO THE ARCHBISHOP ALBRECHT OF MAINZ. Roy Porter Prize? OCTOBER 31, 1517. To the Most Reverend Father in essay culture Christ and Most Illustrious Lord, Albrecht of Magdeburg and roy porter essay competition, Mainz, Archbishop and Primate of the Church, Margrave of Brandenburg, etc., his own lord and pastor in Christ, worthy of reverence and fear, and most gracious. The grace of study God be with you in prize all its fulness and power!

Spare me, Most Reverend Father in essay Christ and Most Illustrious Prince, that I, the dregs of humanity, have so much boldness that I have dared to think of a letter to the height of your Sublimity. Student Essay Prize? The Lord Jesus is my witness that, conscious of my smallness and baseness, I have long deferred what I am now shameless enough to do,—moved thereto most of all by the duty of fidelity which I acknowledge that I owe to your most Reverend Fatherhood in Christ. Nothing The Science Hoops Paper? Meanwhile, therefore, may your Highness deign to cast an eye upon one speck of dust, and for the sake of your pontifical clemency to heed my prayer. Papal indulgences for the building of St. Roy Porter? Peter's are circulating under your most distinguished name, and as regards them, I do not bring accusation against the outcries of the essay preachers, which I have not heard, so much as I grieve over roy porter student essay prize competition, the wholly false impressions which the people have conceived from them; to essay for inn wit,—the unhappy souls believe that if they have purchased letters of indulgence they are sure of roy porter student prize their salvation; [38] again, that so soon as they cast their contributions into the money-box, souls fly out of purgatory; [39] furthermore, that these graces [i. e., the graces conferred in essay thesis the indulgences] are so great that there is no sin too great to student essay prize competition be absolved, even, as they say — though the thing is impossible—if one had violated the Mother of God; [40] again, that a man is contest for inn, free, through these indulgences, from all penalty and guilt. [41]

O God, most good! Thus souls committed to your care, good Father, are taught to roy porter competition their death, and the strict account, which you must render for thesis, all such, grows and increases. For this reason I have no longer been able to keep quiet about this matter, for it is by no gift of a bishop that man becomes sure of roy porter competition salvation, since he gains this certainty not even by the inpoured grace [42] of God, but the Apostle bids us always work out our own salvation in fear and trembling, [43] and Peter says, the righteous scarcely shall be saved. [44] Finally, so narrow is the way that leads to nothing but net of shooting paper life, [45] that the Lord, through the prophets Amos [46] and Zechariah, [47] calls those who shall be saved brands plucked from the burning, and everywhere declares the difficulty of salvation. Why, then, do the preachers of pardons, by these false fables and promises, make the people careless and fearless? Whereas indulgences confer on us no good gift, either for roy porter prize, salvation or for sanctity, but only take away the external penalty, which it was formerly the custom to impose according to the canons. Thesis? [48] Finally, works of piety and love are infinitely better than indulgences, [49] and roy porter prize competition, yet these are not preached with such ceremony or such zeal; nay, for the sake of preaching the indulgences they are kept quiet, though it is the first and the sole duty of all bishops that the people should learn the Gospel and the love of Christ, for Christ never taught that indulgences should be preached. How great then is the horror, how great the essay peril of student essay prize competition a bishop, if he permits the Gospel to be kept quiet, and nothing but the essay eksempel noise of indulgences to be spread among his people! [50] Will not Christ say to student prize competition them, straining at godt, a gnat and swallowing a camel [51] [52] In addition to this. Most Reverend Father in the Lord, it is said in the Instruction to the Commissaries [53] which is issued under your name. Most Reverend Father (doubtless without your knowledge and consent), that one of the chief graces of indulgence is that inestimable gift of God by roy porter student essay competition, which man is reconciled to God, and all the penalties of purgatory are destroyed. [54] Again, it is said that contrition is but net hoops paper, not necessary in those who purchase souls [out of purgatory] or buy confessionalia. [55] But what can I do, good Primate and Most Illustrious Prince, except pray your Most Reverend Fatherhood by the Lord Jesus Christ that you would deign to look [on this matter] with the eye of fatherly care, and do away entirely with that treatise [56] and roy porter student prize competition, impose upon the preachers of pardons another form of preaching; lest, perchance, one may some time arise, who will publish writings in which he will confute both them and that treatise, to the shame of the science hoops paper your Most Illustrious Sublimity.

I shrink very much from thinking that this will be done, and yet I fear that it will come to pass, unless there is some speedy remedy. These faithful offices of my insignificance I beg that your Most Illustrious Grace may deign to accept in the spirit of a Prince and a Bishop, i. e., with the greatest clemency, as I offer them out of a faithful heart, altogether devoted to you, Most Reverend Father, since I too am a part of your flock. May the Lord Jesus have your Most Reverend Fatherhood eternally in His keeping. Amen. From Wittenberg on the Vigil of All Saints, MDXVII. Student Competition? If it please the Most Reverend Father he may see these my Disputations, and godt, learn how doubtful a thing is the roy porter student essay opinion of indulgences which those men spread as though it were most certain. To the Most Reverend Father, Brother Martin Luther. DISPUTATION OF DOCTOR MARTIN LUTHER ON THE POWER AND EFFICACY OF INDULGENCES. OCTOBER 31, 1517.

Out of love for the truth and the desire to bring it to light, the following propositions will be discussed at Wittenberg, under the presidency of the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and of Sacred Theology, and Lecturer in Ordinary on writing essay thesis the same at that place. Wherefore he requests that those who are unable to be present and debate orally with us, may do so by roy porter competition, letter. In the Name our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. 1 . Our Lord and nothing the science hoops research, Master Jesus Christ, when He said Poenitentiam agite, [57] willed that the whole life of believers should be repentance.

2 . This word cannot be understood to mean sacramental penance, i. e., confession and roy porter student prize competition, satisfaction, which is administered by the priests. 3 . Yet it means not inward repentance only; nay, there is no inward repentance which does not outwardly work divers mortifications of the flesh. 4 . Nothing The Science Of Shooting Hoops? The penalty [58] [of sin], therefore, continues so long as hatred of self continues; for this is the true inward repentance, and continues until our entrance into the kingdom of heaven. 5 . The pope does not intend to student essay remit, and cannot remit any penalties other than those which he has imposed either by his own authority or by culture, that of the Canons. [59] 6 . The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring that it has been remitted by God and by assenting to God's remission; though, to be sure, he may grant remission in cases reserved to his judgment. If his right to grant remission in student prize such cases were despised, the thesis guilt would remain entirely unforgiven. 7 . God remits guilt to no one whom He does not, at the same time, humble in all things and bring into subjection to His vicar, the priest. 8 . The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and, according to prize them, nothing should be imposed on the dying. 9 . Therefore the Holy Spirit in writing essay the pope is kind to us, because in his decrees he always makes exception of the roy porter essay prize competition article of death and of necessity. [60] 10 . Ignorant and wicked are the doings of those priests who, in the case of the dying, reserve canonical penances for essay contest for inn, purgatory. 11 . This changing of the canonical penalty to the penalty of purgatory is quite evidently one of the student tares that were sown [61] while the bishops slept.

12 . In former times the canonical penalties were imposed not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition. 13 . Essay? The dying are freed by death from all penalties; they are already dead to canonical rules, and have a right to be released from them. 14 . The imperfect health [of soul], that is to say, the imperfect love, of the dying brings with it, of necessity, great fear; and the smaller the love, the greater is the prize fear. 15 . This fear and horror is sufficient of itself alone (to say nothing of other things) to constitute the research penalty of purgatory, since it is very near to the horror of despair. 16 . Hell, purgatory, and heaven seem to differ as do despair, almost-despair, and the assurance of safety. 17 . With souls in purgatory it seems necessary that horror should grow less and love increase. 18 . It seems unproved, either by reason or Scripture, that they are outside the state of merit, that is to say, of increasing love. Essay Prize? 19 . But Net Hoops Research Paper? Again, it seems unproved that they, or at least that all of them, are certain or assured of their own blessedness, though we may be quite certain of it.

20 . Therefore by full remission of all penalties the pope means not actually of all, but only essay, of those imposed by himself. 21 . Therefore those preachers of indulgences are in error, who say that by essay thesis, the pope's indulgences a man is freed from every penalty, and essay prize competition, saved; 22 . Whereas he remits to essay america culture souls in purgatory no penalty which, according to the canons, they would have had to pay in this life. 23 . If it is at all possible to grant to roy porter student essay prize any one the remission of all penalties whatsoever, it is certain that this remission can be granted only to marketing research the most perfect, that is, to the very fewest. 24 . It must needs be, therefore, that the greater part of the student essay prize competition people are deceived by that indiscriminate and high-sounding promise of release from penalty. 25 . The power which the pope has, in a general way, over purgatory, is just like the power which any bishop or curate has, in a special way, within his own diocese or parish.

26 . A Comparison Essay Thesis? The pope does well when he grants remission to souls [in purgatory], not by the power of the keys (which he does not possess), [62] but by way of intercession. 27 . Essay Prize Competition? They preach man [63] who say that so soon as the penny jingles into the money-box, the soul flies out [of purgatory]. [64] 28 . It is certain that when the the science of shooting research penny jingles into the money-box, gain and prize competition, avarice can be increased, but the result of the intercession of the Church is in the power of God alone. 29 . Who knows whether all the souls in purgatory wish to be bought out of it, as in the legend of Sts. Severus and Paschal. [65] 30 . No one is sure that his own contrition is sincere; much less that he has attained full remission. 31 . Rare as is the man that is truly penitent, so rare is also the man who truly buys indulgences, i. e., such men are most rare. Essay Thesis? 32 . They will be condemned eternally, together with their teachers, who believe themselves sure of student essay prize their salvation because they have letters of pardon. [66] 33 . Men must be on their guard against those who say that the pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to Him; 34 . Essay America? For these graces of pardon concern only the penalties of sacramental satisfaction, and these are appointed by man. [67] 35 . They preach no Christian doctrine who teach that contrition is not necessary in those who intend to student essay prize buy souls out of purgatory or to buy confessionalia. [68] 36 . Every truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even without letters of pardon. 37 . Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has part in all the blessings of Christ and the Church; and this is granted him by God, even without letters of pardon. 38 . Thesis? Nevertheless, the remission and participation [in the blessings of the student prize competition Church] which are granted by the pope are in no way to be despised, for they are, as I have said, [69] the writing essay thesis declaration of divine remission. 39 . It is most difficult, even for roy porter student essay prize competition, the very keenest theologians, at one and the same time to a comparison essay thesis commend to the people the essay abundance of a comparison thesis pardons and [the need of] true contrition. 40 . True contrition seeks and loves penalties, but liberal pardons only relax penalties and cause them to roy porter essay prize be hated, or at least, furnish an occasion [for hating them]. 41 . Apostolic [70] pardons are to be preached with caution, lest the people may falsely think them preferable to other good works of love.

42 . Case Study Marketing? Christians are to be taught that the pope does not intend the buying of pardons to roy porter student essay prize be compared in any way to works of america mercy. Roy Porter Student Essay Competition? 43 . Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better work than buying pardons; 44 . Because love grows by works of love, and man becomes better; but by pardons man does not grow better, only more free from penalty. 45 . Christians are to be taught that he who sees a man in need, and passes him by, and gives [his money] for pardons, purchases not the indulgences of the pope, but the indignation of God. 46 . Christians are to be taught that unless they have more than they need, they are bound to keep back what is necessary for about, their own families, and by no means to roy porter student essay prize competition squander it on pardons. 47 . Christians are to be taught that the buying of pardons is a matter of free will, and not of commandment. 48 . Christians are to be taught that the pope, in granting pardons, needs, and godt, therefore desires, their devout prayer for roy porter, him more than the money they bring. 49 . Christians are to be taught that the pope's pardons are useful, if they do not put their trust in them; but altogether harmful, if through them they lose their fear of God. [71] 50 . Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the pardon-preachers, he would rather that St. Peter's church should go to ashes, than that it should be built up with the skin, flesh and bones of his sheep. 51 . Christians are to be taught that it would be the pope's wish, as it is his duty, to give of his own money to very many of those from whom certain hawkers of but net the science of shooting hoops research pardons cajole money, even though the church of St. Peter might have to be sold.

52 . The assurance of salvation by letters of pardon is vain, even though the commissary, [72] nay, even though the pope himself, were to stake his soul upon it. 53 . They are enemies of roy porter student essay prize competition Christ and of the pope, who bid the Word of God be altogether silent in some Churches, in order that pardons may be preached in others. 54 . Injury is a comparison thesis, done the Word of God when, in the same sermon, an equal or a longer time is student, spent on pardons than on this Word. [73] 55 . It must be the intention of the pope that if pardons, which are a very small thing, are celebrated with one bell, with single processions and ceremonies, then the Gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies. 56 . The treasures of the Church, [74] out of essay which the pope grants indulgences, are not sufficiently named or known among the people of roy porter student prize Christ. 57 . Essay Contest For Inn? That they are not temporal treasures is roy porter student, certainly evident, for many of the vendors do not pour out such treasures so easily, but only gather them. 58 . Nor are they the merits of Christ and the Saints, for even without the pope, these always work grace for the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell for the outward man. 59 . St.

Lawrence said that the treasures of the Church were the Church's poor, but he spoke according to the usage of the word in his own time. 60 . Without rashness we say that the keys of the Church, given by Christ's merit, are that treasure; 61 . Mcdonalds Study Marketing Research? For it is clear that for the remission of student essay prize penalties and of reserved cases, the power of the pope is for inn, of itself sufficient. Student? 62 . The true treasure of the Church is the Most Holy Gospel of the glory and the grace of God. 63 . But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to be last. 64 . On the other hand, the essay contest treasure of indulgences is student essay prize, naturally most acceptable, for it makes the last to be first. 65 . Therefore the treasures of the Gospel are nets with which they formerly were wont to fish for men of riches.

66 . The treasures of the indulgences are nets with which they now fish for the riches of men. 67 . The indulgences which the preachers cry as the greatest graces are known to be truly such, in so far as they promote gain. 68 . Yet they are in truth the very smallest graces compared with the grace of God and the piety of the Cross. 69 . Bishops and curates are bound to admit the essay culture commissaries of roy porter essay competition apostolic pardons, with all reverence. 70 . But still more are they bound to strain all their eyes and attend with all their ears, lest these men preach their own dreams instead of the commission of the pope.

71 . He who speaks against the truth of apostolic pardons, let him be anathema and accursed! 72 . But he who guards against the lust and license of the pardon-preachers, let him be blessed! 73 . The pope justly thunders [75] against those who, by any art, contrive the injury of the traffic in pardons. 74 . Mcdonalds Study Marketing Research? But much more does he intend to thunder against roy porter student essay prize competition, those who use the contest pretext of pardons to roy porter student prize competition contrive the injury, of holy love and truth. 75 . To think the papal pardons so great that they could absolve a man even if he had committed an a comparison essay, impossible sin and violated the prize Mother of God — this is madness. [76] 76 . Writing A Comparison Essay Thesis? We say, on the contrary, that the essay competition papal pardons are not able to remove the very least of venial sins, so far as its guilt is concerned. [77] 77 . It is said that even St. Peter, if he were now Pope, could not bestow greater graces; this is blasphemy against St. Peter and against the pope.

78 . We say, on of shooting research paper the contrary, that even the present pope, and any pope at all, has greater graces at his disposal; to wit, the Gospel, powers, gifts of healing, etc., as it is written in I. Corinthians xii. 79 . To say that the cross, emblazoned with the papal arms, which is set up [by the preachers of indulgences], is of equal worth with the Cross of Christ, is blasphemy. 80 . The bishops, curates and theologians who allow such talk to be spread among the people, will have an account to render. 81 . This unbridled preaching of roy porter competition pardons makes it no easy matter, even for learned men, to rescue the study research reverence due to the pope from slander, or even from the shrewd questionings of the laity. 82 . To wit:—Why does not the pope empty purgatory, for the sake of holy love and roy porter essay, of the dire need of the souls that are there, if he redeems an infinite number of godt souls for the sake of essay prize competition miserable money with which to build a Church? The former reasons would be most just; the latter is most trivial. Suggestions? 83 . Again:—Why are mortuary and anniversary masses for the dead continued, and why does he not return or permit the withdrawal of the endowments founded on their behalf, since it is wrong to pray for the redeemed? 84 . Again:—What is this new piety of roy porter essay prize God and the pope, that for writing, money they allow a man who is roy porter prize, impious and their enemy to buy out of purgatory the pious soul of a friend of God, and do not rather, because of that pious and beloved soul's own need, free it for pure love's sake? 85 . Again:—Why are the penitential canons, [78] long since in actual fact and through disuse abrogated and dead, now satisfied by the granting of indulgences, as though they were still alive and in force? 86 . Again:—Why does not the pope, whose wealth is to-day greater than the thesis suggestions riches of the richest, build just this one church of St. Peter with his own money, rather than with the money of poor believers?

87 . Again:—What is roy porter student prize, it that the pope remits, and what participation [79] does he grant to those who, by perfect contrition, have a right to full remission and participation? 88 . Suggestions? Again:—What greater blessing could come to the Church than if the pope were to do a hundred times a day what he now does once, [80] and bestow on every believer these remissions and roy porter essay, participations? 89 . Essay Contest For Inn? Since the pope, by roy porter student essay prize, his pardons, seeks the salvation of souls rather than money, why does he suspend the indulgences and pardons granted heretofore, since these have equal efficacy? [81] 90 . A Comparison? To repress these arguments and scruples of the laity by force alone, and not to resolve them by roy porter student essay prize competition, giving reasons, is to expose the Church and the pope to the ridicule of their enemies, and to essay make Christians unhappy. 91 . If, therefore, pardons were preached according to the spirit and mind of the pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved; nay, they would not exist. 92 . Away, then, with all those prophets who say to roy porter student the people of Christ, Peace, peace, and there is no peace! [82] 93 . Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, Cross, cross, and there is no cross! [83] 94 . Christians are to be exhorted that they be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through penalties, deaths, and hell; 95 . And thus be confident of entering into about culture heaven rather through many tribulations, [84] than through the assurance of peace. LETTER TO JOHN STAUPITZ ACCOMPANYING THE RESOLUTIONS TO THE XCV THESES. To his Reverend and Dear Father.

Professor of Sacred Theology, Vicar of the Augustinian Order, Brother Martin Luther, I remember, dear Father, that once, among those pleasant and wholesome talks of thine, with which the Lord Jesus ofttimes gives me wondrous consolation, the word poenitentia [85] was mentioned. We were moved with pity for many consciences, and for those tormentors who teach, with rules innumerable and unbearable, what they call a modus confitendi. [86] Then we heard thee say as with a voice from heaven, that there is no true penitence which does not begin with love of righteousness and essay competition, of God, and that this love, which others think to be the end and the completion of penitence, is thesis suggestions, rather its beginning. [87] This word of roy porter thine stuck in me like a sharp arrow of the mighty, and from that time forth I began to compare it with the texts of Scripture which teach penitence. Thesis Suggestions? Lo, there began a joyous game! The words frollicked with me everywhere! They laughed and gamboled around this saying. Before that there was scarcely a word in all the student essay Scriptures more bitter to me than penitence, though I was busy making pretences to God and trying to case research produce a forced, feigned love; but now there is no word which has for me a sweeter or more pleasing sound than penitence, For God's commands are sweet, when we find that they are to be read not in books alone, but in student essay the wounds of our sweet Saviour. After this it came about that, by thesis, the grace of the learned men who dutifully teach us Greek and Hebrew, I learned that this word is in Greek metanoia and roy porter student essay competition, is derived from meta and noun, i. e., post and mentem, [88] so that poenitentia or metanoia is a coming to one's senses, and is a knowledge of one's own evil, gained after punishment has been accepted and error acknowledged; and this cannot possibly happen without a change in our heart and our love. All this answers so aptly to the theology of Paul, that nothing, at least in my judgment, can so aptly illustrate St. Paul. Then I went on and saw that metanoia cap be derived, though not without violence, not only from a comparison thesis, post and mentem, but also from trans and mentem, [89] so that metanoia signifies a changing [90] of the mind and heart, because it seemed to indicate not only a change of the heart, but also a manner of changing it, i. e., the student grace of God. For that passing over of the mind, [91] which is true repentance, is but net the science of shooting, of very frequent mention in the Scriptures.

Christ has displayed the true significance of that old word Passover; and long before the Passover, [92] Abraham was a type of it, when he was called a pilgrim, [93] i. e., a Hebrew, [94] that is to student essay prize competition say, one who passed over into Mesopotamia, as the Doctor of Bourgos [95] learnedly explains. With this accords, too, the title of the Psalm [96] in case study research which Jeduthun, i. e., the pilgrim, [97] is introduced as the singer. Depending on these things, I ventured to think those men false teachers who ascribed so much to works of penitence that they left us scarcely anything of penitence itself except trivial satisfactions [98] and laborious confession, because, forsooth, they had derived their idea from the Latin words poenitentiam agere, [99] . which indicate an action, rather than a change of heart, and are in no way an equivalent for the Greek metanoia. While this thought was boiling in my mind, suddenly new trumpets of indulgences and bugles of remissions began to peal and to prize bray all about essay eksempel us; but they were not intended to arouse us to keen eagerness for battle. In a word, the doctrine of true penitence was passed by, and they presumed to praise not even that poorest part of penitence which is called satisfaction, [100] but the remission of that poorest part of penitence; and they praised it so highly that such praise was never heard before. Then, too, they taught impious and false and heretical doctrines with such authority (I wished to say with such assurance) that he who even muttered anything to the contrary under his breath, would straightway be consigned to the flames as a heretic, and condemned to eternal malediction. Roy Porter Student Essay? Unable to meet their rage half-way, I determined to enter a modest dissent, and to call their teaching into question, relying on the opinion of all the doctors and of the whole Church, that to render satisfaction is better than to secure the a comparison thesis remission of satisfaction, i. e., to buy indulgences. Nor is there anybody who ever taught otherwise. Therefore, I published my Disputation; [101] in other words, I brought upon my head all the curses, high, middle and low, which these lovers of money (I should say of souls) are able to send or to have sent upon me. For these most courteous men, armed, as they are, with very dense acumen, since they cannot deny what I have said, now pretend that in my Disputation I have spoken against the power of the student essay Supreme Pontiff. [102] That is the reason. Reverend Father, why I now regretfully come out in public.

For I have ever been a lover of my corner, and prefer to look upon the beauteous passing show of the great minds of writing essay thesis our age, rather than to be looked upon and laughed at. But I see that the bean must appear among the cabbages, [103] and the black must be put with the roy porter essay white, for the sake of seemliness and loveliness. Thesis? I ask, therefore, that thou wilt take this foolish work of mine and forward it, if possible, to the most Excellent Pontiff, Leo X, where it may plead my cause against the designs of prize those who hate me. Not that I wish thee to share my danger! Nay, I wish this to be done at my peril only.

Christ will see whether what I have said is His or my own; and without His permission there is essay about america culture, not a word in roy porter essay prize the Supreme Pontiff's tongue, nor is the heart of the eksempel king in his own hand. [104] He is the student competition Judge whose verdict I await [105] from the writing essay thesis Roman See. As for those threatening friends of mine, I have no answer for them but that word of Reuchlin's—He who is poor fears nothing; he has nothing to lose. Fortune I neither have nor desire; if I have had reputation and honor, he who destroys them is always at work; there remains only one poor body, weak and wearied with constant hardships, and if by force or wile they do away with that (as a service to God), [106] they will but make me poorer by perhaps an hour or two of life. Enough for me is the most sweet Saviour and Redeemer, my Lord Jesus Christ, to Whom I shall always sing my song; [107] if any one is unwilling to sing with me, what is roy porter student essay prize, that to me? Let him howl, if he likes, by himself. The Lord Jesus keep thee eternally, my gracious Father! Wittenberg, Day of the Holy Trinity, MDXVIII. LETTER TO POPE LEO X, ACCOMPANYING THE RESOLUTIONS TO THE XCV THESES. Most Blessed Father, wisheth everlasting welfare. I have heard evil reports about myself, most blessed Father, by which I know that certain friends have put my name in very bad odor with you and yours, saying that I have attempted to belittle the power of the keys and of the Supreme Pontiff. Therefore I am accused of essay contest for inn heresy, apostasy, and perfidy, and am called by six hundred other names of ignominy.

My ears shudder and my eyes are astounded. But the one thing in which I put my confidence remains unshaken—my clear and quiet conscience. Moreover, what I hear is nothing new. With such like decorations I have been adorned in my own country by those same honorable and truthful men, i. e., by competition, the men whose own conscience convicts them of wrongdoing, and who are trying to put their own monstrous doings off on me, and to contest for inn glorify their own shame by bringing shame to me. But you will deign, blessed Father, to hear the true case from me, though I am but an uncouth child. [108] It is not long ago that the preaching of the roy porter student prize competition Jubilee indulgences [109] was begun in our country, and matters went so far that the preachers of indulgences, thinking that the protection of your name made anything permissible, ventured openly to teach the most impious and heretical doctrines, which threatened to suggestions make the essay competition power of the Church a scandal and a laughing-stock, as if the decretals De abusionibus quaestorum [110] did not apply to them. Not content with spreading this poison of theirs by word of mouth, they published tracts and scattered them among the people. In these books—to say nothing of the insatiable and unheard of avarice of about culture which almost every letter in them vilely smells—they laid down those same impious and heretical doctrines, and laid them down in such wise that confessors were bound by their oath to be faithful and insistent in competition urging them upon the people.

I speak the truth, and none of them can hide himself from the heat [111] thereof. The tracts are extant and they cannot disown them. These teachings were so successfully carried on, and the people, with their false hopes, were sucked so dry that, as the Prophet says, they plucked their flesh from off their bones;refMic. 3:2ref but they themselves meanwhile were fed most pleasantly on the fat of the land. There was just one means which they used to quiet opposition, to wit, the godt protection of your name, the threat of burning at the stake, and the disgrace of the name heretic. It is incredible how ready they are to threaten, even, at times, when they perceive that it is essay prize competition, only their own mere silly opinions which are contradicted. As though this were to quiet opposition, and not rather to essay for inn arouse schisms and seditions by sheer tyranny! None the less, however, stories about the avarice of the priests were bruited in the taverns, and evil was spoken of the power of the keys and roy porter essay prize, of the Supreme Pontiff, and as evidence of this, I could cite the common talk of this whole land.

I truly confess that I was on fire with zeal for Christ, as I thought, or with the heat of youth, if you prefer to have it so; and yet I saw that it was not in place for me to make any decrees or to do anything in these matters. Therefore I privately admonished some of the prelates of the Church. By some of them I was kindly received, to others I seemed ridiculous, to godt still others something worse; for the terror of your name and the threat of Church censures prevailed. At last, since I could do nothing else, it seemed good that I should offer at least a gentle resistance to them, i. e., question and discuss their teachings. Student Prize? Therefore I published a set of theses, inviting only the more learned to dispute with me if they wished; as should be evident, even to my adversaries, from the Preface to the Disputation. [112] Lo, this is the fire with which they complain that all the world is now ablaze! Perhaps it is because they are indignant that I, who by godt eksempel, your own apostolic authority am a Master of Theology, have the right to conduct public disputations, according to the custom of all the Universities and of the essay prize whole Church, not only about indulgences, but also about God's power and about culture, remission and mercy, which are incomparably greater subjects. I am not much moved, however, by the fact that they envy me the privilege granted me by the power of your Holiness, since I am unwillingly compelled to yield to them in things of far greater moment, viz., when they mix the dreams of Aristotle with theological matters, and conduct nonsensical disputations about the majesty of roy porter student essay God, beyond and against mcdonalds case study marketing research, the privilege granted them. It is a miracle to me by what fate it has come about that this single Disputation of mine should, more than any other, of mine or of any of the teachers, have gone out into very nearly the whole land. It was made public at our University and for our University only, and it was made public in such wise that I cannot believe it has become known to all men.

For it is a set of theses, not doctrines or dogmas, and student essay prize competition, they are put, according to custom, in an obscure and enigmatic way. Otherwise, if I had been able to thesis foresee what was coming, I should have taken care, for my part, that they would be easier to understand. Now what shall I do? I cannot recant them; and yet I see that marvelous enmity is inflamed against me because of their dissemination. It is unwillingly that I incur the public and perilous and various judgment of roy porter essay prize competition men, especially since I am unlearned, dull of brain, empty of scholarship; and that too in this brilliant age of ours, which by its achievements in letters and learning can force even Cicero into the corner, though he was no base follower of the public light. Mcdonalds Case Research? But necessity compels me to be the goose that squawks among the swans. And so, to soften my enemies and to fulfil the desires of many, I herewith send forth these trifling explanations of my Disputation; I send them forth in order, too, that I may be more safe under the defense of your name and essay prize competition, the shadow of your protection. In them all may see, who will, how purely and simply I have sought after and cherished the essay power of the roy porter student prize Church and reverence for the keys; and, at the same time, how unjustly and falsely my adversaries have befouled me with so many names.

For if I had been such a one as they wish to make me out, and if I had not, on thesis the contrary, done everything correctly, according to my academic privilege, the Most Illustrious Prince Frederick, Duke of Saxony, Imperial Elector, etc., would never have tolerated such a pest in his University, for he most dearly loves the Catholic and Apostolic truth, nor could I have been tolerated by prize competition, the keen and learned men of our University. But what has been done, I do because those most courteous men do not fear openly to involve both the Prince and the University in the same disgrace with myself. [113] Wherefore, most blessed Father, I cast myself at the feet of your Holiness, with all that I have and all that I am. Quicken, kill, call, recall, approve, reprove, as you will. In your voice I shall recognize the suggestions voice of Christ directing you and speaking in you. If I have deserved death, I shall not refuse to essay prize competition die. For the earth is the writing a comparison thesis Lord's and roy porter prize, the fulness thereof. [114] He is essay, blessed forever.

Amen. May He have you too forever in His keeping. Amen. ^ Disputatio pro declaratione virtutis indulgentiarum. ^ Luther says, Apud nostros at propter nostros editae sunt. Weimar Ed., I, 528. On the whole subject see Letters to Staupitz and the Pope, below. ^ Cf. Weimar Ed., I, 229. ^ The Church of All Saints at Wittenberg was the repository of the great collection of student relics which Frederick the Wise had gathered. A catalogue of the collection, with illustrations by Lucas Cranach, was published in 1509.

The collection contained 5005 sacred objects, including a bit of the crown of thorns and some of the Virgin Mother's milk. Adoration of case marketing research these relics on All Saints' Day (Nov. 1st) was rewarded with indulgence for roy porter student, more than 500,000 years. So Von Bezold, Die deutsche Reformation (1890), p. 100; see also Barge, Karlstadt, I, 39 ff. ^ Luther had preached a sermon warning against the danger of indulgences or the Eve of writing essay All Saints (1516). See below. ^ See below, Letter to roy porter Leo X. ^ Weimar Ed., I, 230. ^The Address to the Christian Nobility and the Babylonian Captivity of the Church. ^ Introduction to the Complete Works (1545); above, p. Mcdonalds Case Study Marketing Research? 10. ^ See Letter to Staupitz, below. ^ See Letter to Leo X, below. ^ Cf.

Gottlob , Kreuzablass und Almosenablass. p. i. ^ See Theses 5, 8, 85. ^ Non solam plenam et largiorera, imo plenissimam omnium suorum concedemus et concedimus veniam peccatorum. Mirbt , Queilen, 2d ed., No. 243. ^ This custom of putting the roy porter student essay competition Jubilee-indulgences on a comparison essay sale seems to date from the year 1390. Cf. Lea , Hist, of essay competition Conf. and Indulg., III ,206. No mention is here made of the essay about america culture indulgences attached to adoration of relics, etc. Roy Porter Student Prize? On the development of this form of indulgence see Lea, Hist, of Conf. and Indulg., III, 131–194, 234–195, and about america culture, Gottlob , Kreuzablass und Almosenablass, pp. 195-254. ^ See Thesis 12. ^ See Theses 4–6, Note 2. ^ For Luther's opinion of this distinction, see the Discourse Concerning Confession elsewhere in the present volume. ^ Not even the poorest part of penance which is called 'satisfaction,' but the remission of that poorest part of penance. Letter to Staupitz, below. ^ There is ample proof that in student competition practice the indulgences were preached as sufficient to secure to the purchaser the entire remission of sin, and the form a culpa et poena was officially employed in many cases (Cf.

Brieger , Das Wesen des Ablasses am Ausgang des MA. and PRE 3 IX. 83 ff., and Lea , History of Confession, etc., III, 54 ff.). Mcdonalds Case Study Marketing? It is difficult to withstand the conclusion that even in roy porter student prize competition theory indulgences had been declared to be efficacious for the removal of the guilt of sin in essay godt the presence of God, Lindsay , History of the Reformation, I, 226. ^ It is on the basis of this theory that Roman Catholic writers on student prize competition indulgences declare them to be extra-sacramental, i. e., outside the Sacrament of Penance. So, e. g., Kent , in The Catholic Encyclopedia, Art. Indulgence. ^ See Theses 56-58. ^ The doctrine of the Treasury of the Church grew up as a result of the indulgences. Nothing Hoops Research Paper? It was an attempt to answer the question, How can a satisfaction, which God demands, be waived?

The answer is, By the application of roy porter student essay prize competition merits earned by but net the science paper, Christ and by the Saints who did more than God requires. These merits form the Treasury of the Church. Cf. Seeberg , PRE 3 XV, 417; Lea , Hist of Confession, etc., III, 14–28. ^ See Thesis 26. ^ i. e. A plenary indulgence similar to those granted for pilgrimage to Rome in roy porter essay Jubilee-years. See above, p. 18. ^ See Theses 53-55. ^ See Thesis 75. ^ See Thesis 35. ^ See Thesis 27. ^ Weimar Ed., I, 63 ff.; Erl. Ed., I, 101 ff. ^ Weimar Ed. , I, 94 ff., 138 ff.; Erl.

Ed., I, 171 ff., 177 ff. ^ See Thesis 1. ^ See Thesis 4. ^ See Letter to Archbishop, below. The text of this Instruction in Kapp, Sammlung, etc. (1721), pp. 117-206. Tschackert has surmised that even the number of the Theses was determined by the number of the paragraphs in this Instruction. There were 94 of essay these paragraphs, and of the Theses 94 + 1. Entstehung d. luth. u. ref. Roy Porter Student Essay Prize Competition? Kirchenlehre (1910), p. 16, note i. ^ The following, based on an unpublished manuscript of Th. Brieger, is an interesting analysis of the contents and subject-matter of the Theses. For the sake of brevity the minor subdivisions are omitted: Introduction. The ideas fundamentally involved in the conception of poenitentia (Th. 1–7). I. America Culture? Indulgences for souls in purgatory (Th.

8–29). 1. Prize Competition? Canonical penalties and the pains of purgatory (Th. 8–19). 2. The relation of the Pope to writing a comparison thesis purgatory (Th. 20–29). II. Indulgences for the living (Th. 30–80).

1. The content and student prize competition, nature of the essay preaching of indulgences (Th. 30–55). 2. The treasury of the Church (Th. 56–66). 3. The duty of the regular church-authorities in the matter (Th. 67–80). 1. Roy Porter Essay? The objections of the laity to the indulgence-traffic (Th. 81–91). Thesis? 2. The evil motive of the traffic in indulgences, with special reference to the statements of student prize competition Th.

1–4 (Th. 91–95). H. Hermelink , in Kruger 's Handbuch der Kirchengeschichte (1911), III, 66. ^ Weimar Ed., I, pp. 525 ff. ^ In the original editions the word Jesus appears at nothing but net the science of shooting, the head of each of the works, and the present editors have retained the roy porter essay competition use, which was apparently an act of case study obedience to the command, Whatsoever ye do, in student prize competition word or in deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus (Col. 3:17). ^ See Theses 18-24, 32, 52. ^ See Thesis 75. ^ See Thesis 27. ^ See Theses 5, 6, 20, 21. ^ Gratia infusa, meaning the writing thesis working of God upon the hearts of men, by roy porter essay prize competition, means of which their lives become pleasing to God. Cf. Loofs ' Dogmengeschichte, 4th ed., pp. 562 ff. ^Phil. 2:12 ^I Pet. 4:18 ^Matt. 7:14 ^Amos 4:11 ^Zech.

3:2 ^ See Thesis 5. ^ See Theses 41–47. ^ See Theses 52-55. ^Matt. 23:24 ^ See Thesis 80. ^ See above, Introduction, p. 22 f. ^ See Theses 21, 33. ^ See Thesis 35, and writing a comparison essay, Introduction, p. 22. ^ viz., The Instruction to prize the Commissaries. ^Matt. 4:17. Greek, ???????i??; English, repent; German, Bussetun. The Latin and essay about america, German versions may also be rendered, Do penance; the Greek, on the other hand, can only roy porter competition, mean Repent. ^ The Roman theology distinguishes between the guilt and the penalty of sin. See Introduction, p. 19. ^ Decrees of the Church, having the force of law. The canons referred to here and below (Cf.

Theses 8, 85) are the thesis suggestions so-called penitential Canons. See Introduction, p. 17. ^ Commenting on this Thesis in the Resolutions, Luther distinguishes between temporal and eternal necessity. Necessity knows no law. Death is the necessity of necessities (Weimar Ed., I, 549; Erl. Roy Porter Essay Prize? Ed. op. var. arg., II, 166). ^Matt. 13:25 ^ This is not a denial of the power of the keys, i. e., the power to forgive and to retain sin, but merely of the study marketing assertion that the power of the keys extends to purgatory. ^ i. e., Merely human doctrine. ^ An alleged statement of the indulgence-vendors. See Letter to Mainz and Introduction. ^ Luther refers again to prize competition this story in the Resolutions (Weimar Ed., I, p. 586). The story is that these saints preferred to remain longer in writing a comparison essay purgatory that they might have greater glory in heaven.

Luther adds, Whoever will, may believe in these stories; it is roy porter student essay competition, no concern of mine. ^ Luther uses the terms pardon and indulgence interchangeably. ^ For meaning of the term satisfaction, see Introduction, p. 19 f. ^ Privileges entitling their holder to choose his own confessor and relieving him of certain satisfactions. See Introduction, p. 22. ^ See above, Thesis 6. ^ i. e., Papal. ^ Cf. Essay? Thesis 32. ^ The commissioner who sold the letters of indulgence. ^ The best texts read illi, on it, i. e., the Word of roy porter student essay God. The Erl. Ed. has a variant, verbis evangelicis, the culture words of the Gospel (op. var. arg., I, 289). ^ See Introduction, p. 20, note 2. ^ i. e., Threatens with the thunder-bolt of excommunication. ^ See Letter to Mainz, above, p. Roy Porter Student Competition? 26. Mcdonalds Study Research? For repetition and defense of the statement against which Luther here protests, see Disp.

I. Jo Tetzelii, Th. 99-101; Loescher , I, 513. ^ Cf. Thesis 6. ^Thesis 5 and note. ^ Cf. Theses 36, 37. ^ The letter of indulgence entitled its possessor to absolution once in life and in the article of death. ^ During the time when the Jubilee-indulgences were preached, other indulgences were suspended. ^Ezek. 13:10 ^ In a letter to Michael Dressel, 22 June, 1516, Luther had written: It is not that man, therefore, whom no one disturbs who has peace—which is, indeed, the peace of the world—but he whom all men and all things harass and who yet bears all quietly with joy.

You say with Israel: Peace, peace, and there is no peace; say rather with Christ, Cross, cross, and there is no cross. For the cross ceases to be a cross as soon as you say joyfully: Blessed cross, there is no tree like you ( Preserved Smith , Luther, p. 32). ^Acts 14:22 ^ Penitence, repentance, penance, are all translations of this word. See above, p. 29 , note 1. ^ The modus confitendi, or way of confession is the teaching of what sins are to be confessed to the priest and roy porter prize competition, how they are to be confessed. The subject is discussed fully by Luther in his Discussion of Confession, below, pp. 81 –102. ^Ps. 120:4 ^ Gr., ????, Lat., post, Eng., after; Gr. ??u?, Lat., mens, Eng., mind. ^ The Greek ????, can also be translated by the Latin trans, which, in compounds, denotes movement from one place, or thing, or condition to another. ^ Lat. transmutatio, the act or process of changing, not simply a change (mutatio). ^ Transitus mentis. ^Ex.

12:11 ^I Cor. 5:7 ^ The derivation of the term Hebrew is still disputed (v. PRE 3 VII, p. 507). Luther conceives it to the science of shooting hoops paper mean transitor, one who passes through or across the land, a pilgrim. Cf. Genesis 12:6. ^ Burgensis, i. e., Paul of student competition Bourgos (1353-1435). ^Ps.

39 ^ Another bit of Mediaeval philology. ^ See Introduction, p. 19 . ^ Cf. Thesis 1, and foot-note. ^ Here again, as above, we have the double sense of poenitentia. A Comparison Essay? Satisfaction is a part of sacramental penance. Luther's charge is that in preaching the student essay remission of this part of the Sacrament the doctrine of true penitence (cf. Thesis 1) is of shooting, passed by. ^ The Ninety-five Theses. Student? ^ Tetzel's reply to the Theses (Disputatio II, Jo. Tetzelii), 1517. Loescher , I, pp.

517 ff. ^ A Latin adage, chorcorus inter olera. ^Ps. 138:4 (Vulgate) ^Prov. 21:1 ^John 16:2 ^Ps. 104:33 ^Jer. 1:6 ^ See Introduction, pp. 18 , 21 . ^ i. e., The papal laws regulating the methods of collectors of church-funds. ^Ps. 19:6 ^ The Ninety-five Theses. ^ See Tetzel's IL Disputation, Theses 47, 48.

Loescher , I, p. 522. ^Ps. 24:1. This work was published before January 1, 1923, and a comparison, is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago. This work was published before January 1, 1923, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.

Write My Paper For Me -
Call for Submissions: Society for the …

?Country of origin, consumer’s Perception and Brand Image Essay. The impact of country of origin (COO) on the consumer’s perception of student prize competition, products has been one of the most widely studied areas of international marketing. Increasing globalization of today’s business has resulted in unprecedented problems for manufacturers, marketers, and consumers (L. Y. Lin Chen, 2006). The country of essay eksempel, origin (where a product is made) touches both consumer evaluations of the product as well as the firm’s decision to manufacture its goods in certain countries and student how to brand (Parkvithee Miranda, 2012).

Country-of-origin or in other words the “Made in” is mcdonalds case marketing, a concept which states that people constitutes attitudes and believes shaping the perceptions to products from roy porter student essay competition, specific countries and this influences purchase and consumption behaviors in international markets. The “Made In” image is the picture, the reputation, the mcdonalds case study, stereotype that businessmen and consumers attach to roy porter, products of a specific country (Bilkey and Nes, 1982; Gaedeke, 1973; Johansson, 1989; Nagashima, 1970, 1977, Zain and but net the science research paper Yasin, 1997). Country-of-origin image (COI) has a strong influence on consumer behavior in the global market, as it is associated with mass communication, personal experience, as well as brand image. COI is roy porter student prize competition, defined as the consumer’s perception formed of a certain product offering according to marketing research, this offering’s country of origin (Samiee, 1994; Peterson and Jolibert, 1995, Leonidou et al, 1999). The country, the type of product, and the image of the company and its brands all influence whether the roy porter essay prize competition, country of origin will engender a positive or negative reaction. Nothing The Science Hoops? A variety of generalization can be made about roy porter prize, country of origin effects on thesis products and brands.

Consumers tend to have stereotypes about products and student essay countries that have been formed by experience, hearsay, and myth (Piron, 2000, p. 308; Roth and about culture Rameo, 1992, p.479). Stereotypes of roy porter prize competition, country and the preference of customer influence the purchase intention. Study Marketing Research? Political system, culture and the economy of the student, country can be a cause of sensitivity to about america culture, people (Teo, Mohamad, Ramayah, 2011). For instance, in 2006, protestors across the Muslim world demonstrated against the publications of cartoon images “Prophet Mohammed” in roy porter student prize a Danish newspaper therefore many boycotted Danish products and many supermarkets in essay contest Cairo removed Danish products from student prize, their shelves. The question that this paper will attempt to godt, answer is “To what extent does the country of essay prize competition, origin image affect consumer perceptions, brand image and purchase intentions”. Previous research indicates that consumers’ and businesses’ evaluations are based on their assessment of writing a comparison thesis, product cues, which may be intrinsic (taste, design, performance) or extrinsic (brand name, country of origin). Roy Porter Student Essay Prize? Buyers often make judgments about product quality and nothing but net hoops research paper purchase value on the basis of extrinsic cues, especially when it is difficult to evaluate the intrinsic value of a product. This justifies the reason behind using the country of origin as an extrinsic cue in order to judge any foreign product. This paper also aims to fill the gap between the impact of country of origin on the brand image, consumer’s perception and purchase intention, more specially; the research objective is to develop a better understanding of the effect of positive and negative country of origin image on consumer’s buying decisions. The impact of COO applies to products in general, classes of products, specific types of products, specific brands, image among developed countries, between developed and less developed countries, or among less developed countries (Bilkey and Nes, 1982; Prendergast, Chan and Tsang, 2010, p.181). Essay Prize? Country image is ‘‘the overall perception consumers’ form of products from a particular country, based on thesis their prior perceptions of the country’s production and marketing strengths and weaknesses’’ (Roth and Romeo, 1992; Koubaa, 2008, p.140).

Brand-image has been described as part of branding strategy at student essay prize, the country level (Meenaghan, 1995; Koubaa, 2008, p.141). Consumers tend to recall the stored information about the brand and the country in question and then they relate the brand name with the COO to form a brand image and infer the product evaluation (Scott and the science of shooting hoops research Keith, 2005; Koubaa, 2008, p.141). Brand image is the reasoned or emotional perceptions consumers attach to a specific brand. It consists of functional and symbolic brand beliefs (Dobni and Zinkhan, 1990; Koubaa, 2008, p.141). Brand image is made up of brand associations. Essay Prize? ‘‘Brand associations are the category of brand’s assets and liabilities that include anything ‘‘linked’’ in memory to study research, a brand’’ (Aaker, 1991; Koubaa, 2008, p.141). “The ‘essence’ of the brand is a single simple value, easily understood and valued by consumer” (Arnold, 1992, p. 17; Pappu, Quester and essay prize competition Cooksey 2006, p.697).When brands are competing in the international arena, marketing managers should understand how to america, maintain the core essence of roy porter essay prize competition, their brand across international boundaries. Examining how country of essay for inn, origin impacts brand image and its associated dimensions (e.g. perceived quality, brand associations) should reveal the means to protect or enhance the core essence of a brand. The country of origin of a product is an important marketing element known to roy porter student, influence consumer perceptions as well as behavior. Conversely, an inferior country of origin could tarnish a brand name (Thakor and Katsanis, 1997; Pappu, Quester and Cooksey, 2006, p.697). That is, if the country of origin of a brand were to change from a country towards which consumers have favorable associations (e.g. the writing, USA), to a country towards which consumers have less favorable associations (e.g. Mexico), the brand names in question could be tarnished and the consumer-based equity of these brands erodes.

Johansson (1989) speculated that consumers may, depending their circumstances, regard the essay prize competition, country cue as a silent attribute of the about america, product in question and that this attribute may influence the roy porter student, consumer through affective processes, as in the case of individuals who hold strongly patriotic feelings about their own country (Han, 1988; Knight and Calantone, 2000, p.129), or through behavioral intentions via processes such as social norms (Fishben and Ajzen, 1975; Knight and study Calantone, 2000, p.129). Johansson’s (1989) model is an important accompaniment to the empirical work of Han (1989). Household and organizational buyers’ perceptions of the quality and purchase value of products are more favorable when these products are designed and/or assembled in developed countries than when they are designed and/or assembled in a newly industrializing country. A basic premise of the COO effect is that consumers’ image of a given product’s COO influences their subsequent evaluations of the product (e.g. Gurhan-Canli and Maheswaran, 2000; Josiassen and Assaf, 2010, p.296) as well as their subsequent behavioral intentions to purchase or repurchase the product (e.g. Ouellet, 2007). According to Johansson, country of origin is an extrinsic information cue allowing buyers to make inferences about the intrinsic value of a product (Ahmed and Astous, 1995, p.38). Consumers are more likely to essay prize competition, purchase products manufactured by countries having distinctive images for mcdonalds case study research that product(s) rather than countries that do not possess a good reputation for producing the same product(s) (Roth and Romeo, 1992; Chuang and Yen, 2007; Ozmen, 2004; Ahmed, Zbib, Sikander and Noujaim, 2012, p.110). The values which consumers associate with a brand are significantly associated with both the macro- and micro-images of the COO of the prize, brand (Pappu et al., 2007; Ahmed, Zbib, Sikander and Noujaim, 2012, p.110).

According to godt, Cordell, consumer preferences are more product specific for industrialized than less developed countries. COO becomes of less significance when the product is widely known (Cordell, 1992; Ahmed, Zbib, Sikander and Noujaim, 2012, p.110). The image of countries as origins of products is one of many extrinsic cues, such as price, brand name that may become part of a product’s total image. Country image in respect of student competition, customer purchase intention is godt eksempel, one of the roy porter prize, most significant subjects among marketers for supporting their manufactured goods. The attention to this issue is essay godt, because many researchers have demonstrated that a country’s image influences the prior purchase decision of customers. Roy Porter Student Essay Prize? These kinds of investigation about country image and godt other related subjects dates back over three decades in developed countries (YAMOAH, 2005). According to Laroche et al. (2005) country image and product beliefs affect product evaluations simultaneously regardless of consumers’ level of familiarity with a country’s products. A product’s COO can have a significant effect on consumer’s purchase and consumption decisions. Further, causal observation indicates the importance of COO in many consumer goods, such as clothing, cars, and food products.

For instance, some luxury products (e.g. perfumes, fashion clothing) are strongly and roy porter competition positively tainted by being labeled ‘‘Product of France”. Most of the case marketing, researchers agree that the “Country of Origin Image” has a significant impact on consumers’ evaluations of product quality and willingness to buy a product (e.g. Bilkey and Nes, 1982; Han and Terpstra, 1988; Maheswaran, 1994) Conceptual development and hypotheses. In this study, Country of origin is the independent variable of interest while the dependent variables include 3 main dimensions (perception, brand image and purchase intention) as shown in Figure 1. Each of these dimensions is expected to student essay prize, be affected by the country of nothing research paper, origin image. Since the roy porter competition, proposed model is being tested for a certain product category therefore, there relation between COI and the 3 main dependent variables will be affected by the product category in question. In other words we can say that Product category will moderate this relation.

Country of origin image (COI) The history of country image dates back to essay, 1970, when Nagashima wrote about it in an academic paper. In a statement about country image he defined it as a “special image, stereotype and standing, which customers have in their mind about specific country, this picture can be shaped by historical, economical and traditional variables” (L. Y. Lin Chen, 2006). In addition, country image is roy porter, one of the writing essay, first variables that researchers test when it comes to foreign product as well as international business and consumer behavior studies (Kotler, 2011). Studying issues concerning country image has been prominent in roy porter international business for many years (Laroche, Papadopoulos, Heslop, Mourali, 2005). In our research we investigate COI as an independent variable in study marketing order to monitor its effect on buyer’s decision making process which involves two main factors consumer’s perception and purchase intentions and also to examine its influence on the brand image through examining the student competition, brand’s perceived quality and brand associations. Brand image is the science of shooting hoops research paper, defined as ‘‘a set of perceptions about a brand as reflected by the brand associations held in roy porter competition consumers’ memory’’ (Hsieh and study research Lindridge, 2005; Koubaa, 2008, p.140). Brand image is determined not by roy porter essay prize competition only the brand’s perceived quality, but also by a host of mcdonalds case, other factors such as product characteristics, packaging, advertising, price and schemas of the typical user. Scholars define purchase intention as personal action tendencies according to brand.

They have also concluded that intention is different from attitude. While attitude means evaluation of products, intention is the person’s motivation in the sense of roy porter student essay competition, his or her intention to perform behavior. Another definition declares that purchase intention is the individual’s awareness to make an attempt to buy a brand (Shabbir, M. S., Kirmani, S., Iqbal, J., Khan, B. 2009). In a very competitive global market consumers are facing a variety of alternatives when they decide to buy a certain product therefore it is important to consider COI as a factor that can influence the consumer’s purchase intentions. Individual act and react on the basis of their perceptions, not on the basis of objective reality.

Thus, perceptions are much more important. Essay America? Perception can be described as “How we see the world around us”. Perception is defined as the process by roy porter essay which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets stimuli in to a meaningful and for inn coherent picture of the roy porter prize competition, world. Customers are individuals, and each customer perceives things differently in the same situation. Perception of the product is more important than the product itself (Dave, 2013).

Consumers have associations toward entities such as products, places, brands and countries of origin. These associations can have direction and strength. Mcdonalds Case Research? For example, Farquhar and Herr (1993) argued that product category-brand associations can be bi-directional. That is, consumers may recall a product category when they think of a brand name and they may recall a brand name when they think of a product category. Product category-country associations, which refer to consumers’ ability to evoke a country when the product category is mentioned, are of student essay prize, interest when examining the relationships between country of origin and our 3 main dependent variables. Nothing But Net Of Shooting Hoops Research? Since consumers are known to roy porter prize competition, associate countries with certain product categories and essay contest vice Versa (Terpstra and Sarathy, 2000), consumers’ “product category-country” associations appear to be bi-directional. Based on the literature review and our research objectives, a conceptualized model for this research was developed and is shown in roy porter student essay prize competition Figure 1. Previous research results support the following relations: CI directly and essay positively impacts brand image (Roth and Romeo, 1992; Hsieh et al, 2004). CI directly and positively impacts purchase intentions (Laroche et al, 2005). Brand image directly and positively impact purchase intentions (Esch et al, 2006).

Hypotheses. H1: COO image significantly affects how consumers perceive the products H2: COO image has a significant influence on the formulation of the brand image H3: The country-of-origin asserts a significant impact on student essay prize the consumer’s purchase intention. H4: Product category will moderate the effect of COO image on the purchase intentions, consumer’s perceptions, and essay thesis brand image. We expect that the roy porter, perceived quality levels of a brand will vary by the country of origin of the brand. That is, the perceived quality level of Ericsson made in mcdonalds study marketing research Sweden is roy porter essay prize, likely to be higher than the perceived quality level of writing essay, Ericsson made in Mexico or Hungary, for the product category “mobile phones”. Furthermore, consumers’ perception of the quality of products is known to be product-category specific (Kaynak and competition Cavusgil, 1983; Pappu, Quester and Cooksey 2006, p.701) Furthermore, consumers’ product category is believed to moderate the effect of the country of origin on consumer-based brand image. For example, the thesis, consumer’s perception of a brand made in prize a country with positive COO image in a certain product category (e.g. car/Germany) is likely to be substantially higher than that for the same brand made in a country with a negative COO image in that same product category (e.g. car/Mexico), in cases where consumers perceive substantive differences between the two countries in terms of their product category associated with COO (Pappu, Quester and Cooksey 2006, p.702). As concerns brand-origin effects, Takhor and Lavack (2003) declared that brand-origin is one such cue that plays potentially important role in determining a brand’s image.

Samiee et al. About Culture? (2005) found that consumers classify brands with their COO basing on the brand pronunciation or spelling and student prize its similarity with the writing essay, brand-origin language (Koubaa, 2007, p.142). When the brand is created, it comes out to consumers in roy porter prize competition association with its brand origin (Koubaa, 2007, p.143). Farquhar and Herr (1993) claimed that brand image will have different dimensions in consumer’s mind (Koubaa, 2007, p.143). Because brands have different perceptions among consumers across brands and across countries of production, and consumers are likely to be different as they have different backgrounds and are under different circumstances of suggestions, consumption; we expect that brand image will differ across brands and across countries of production (origin) (Koubaa. , 2007, p.143). Nowadays, the international trade market is very competitive and there are many new ideas on the market to attract customers. In this case, customers have many alternatives for buying products; however, there are many elements that have an effect on product success and customer purchase intention.

Other researchers believe that purchase intention is “what we think we will buy” (Park, J. 2002). It also describes the feeling or perceived likelihood of purchasing the products that are advertised, moreover, purchase shows the level of roy porter student essay, loyalty to products. Other scholars like Daneshvary and Schower (2000) believe that purchase intention has a relationship with demographic factors like age, gender, profession and education (Lu, M. 2007). There is another statement that shows that particular features of products, perception of consumers, country of origin and perception of essay contest, country of origin, all have an influence on customer purchase intention (C. Roy Porter Student Prize Competition? L. Wang, Li, Barnes, Ahn, 2012). Case Study Marketing Research? Purchase intention can also be defined as the decision to act or physiological action that shows an roy porter competition individual’s behavior according to the product (X. Wang Yang, 2008; Rezvani, Dehkordi, Rahman, Fouladivanda, 2012, p.208). Respondents were asked in the end of the questionnaire to deliver some personal information related to gender, age, income and education. Thirty eight respondents participated in the investigation.

Regarding gender, the nothing the science research paper, sample was selected randomly. Females’ percentage was 57.9 while the males’ percentage was 42.1. As for the income category 15.8 percent earned less than 5000 LE per month, 34.2 percent earned between 5000 LE and 10000 LE while 50 percent earned more than 10000 LE per month. And for the education 5.3 percent of the respondents were high school graduates, 71.1 percent are bachelor degree holder, 23.7 percent are master degree holders. Our choice of COI stimuli and our variables (BI, CP and PI) was guided by our conceptual framework, specifically we wanted to test and compare the effect of COI on the three variables shown in figure (1) to enhance the generalizability of our results. To test our hypothesis we asked Egyptian consumers to roy porter student competition, answer a questionnaire (see appendix) with regards to the latest purchased items. In addition to hypothesis advanced in this study we explore the essay contest, reliability of the measurements of each variable to conduct a reliable computation regarding each variable in student prize the questionnaire.

Reflective scales were to operationalize the constructs in our conceptual framework. Except for the demographic indicators (gender, age, income and education) 1. Essay? economic development. 2. Political structure. 4. standard of living. 5. Product made in this country is reliable. 6. Products made in this country of good quality. 7. Products made in his country Prestigious. 8. It is great to have a products from this country. Khosrozadeh Shirin and Heidarzadeh Hanzaee Kambiz, (2011), P.614 Consumer perception.

1. Important/ not important. 2. Overall quality. 4. Roy Porter Prize Competition? Technological sophistication. Gray A. Contest? Knight Roger J. Calantone (1999) P. Roy Porter Student Essay Competition? 144. 1. Essay Godt? brand X offers high quality. 2. brand X offers reliable products. 3. I feel proud to products from brand X.

4. I trust the company which makes brand X. (Aakar,1991, 1996; Yoo et al. 2000) 1. the possibility I will buy this product. 2. the possibility I recommend this product. Khosrozadeh Shirin and Heidarzadeh Hanzaee Kambiz, (2011), P.614 Product category. 1. Expensive/ inexpensive. 2. Student Prize Competition? Good quality/bad quality. 3. I look for the COO to case study marketing research, choose the best product available in a product class Ravi Pappu, Pascale G. Quester, Ray W. Roy Porter Student Essay? Cooksey, (2005) Country of origin image. We used Khosrocadeh Shirin 9-items scale.

The 9-items of the scale measure the extent to which the respondent perceives a particular product category from a particular country to be a good purchase choice, of high quality better than the same product category originating from other countries. The COI is formed according to the economic level of the country, the political system of the essay godt, country, the essay prize competition, standard of living and thesis suggestions finally the technological advancement of that country. The items are anchored with strongly agree and strongly disagree. Roy Porter Essay? The scale displays lower reliability (? = 0.66). The Science Hoops Research? In comparison with the previous studies reliability, our scale measurements are lower (Alpha = 0.83). We used five items scale from Ali Riza (April 2006). Roy Porter Student Essay Competition? The items measure the importance of looking for COI as an external attribute. It also measures the perceived quality of the product from a certain country, so as the consumer’s association of essay godt, COI with the technological sophistication of the roy porter essay, product, and finally if they don’t have knowledge about the product’s COO; whether they will refuse to purchase the product or agree to purchase this product. The items anchored strongly agree and strongly disagree, the scale displays a good reliability (Alpha = 0.75). Essay For Inn? In comparison with the previous studies reliability, our scale measurements are lower (Alpha = 0.92).

We mapped the brand image depending on two main indicators; brand perceived quality and brand associations using Aaker, 1991, 1996; Yoo et al. , 2000. Seven items scale including the brand’s good quality, reliability, durability, its excellent features and prestige. Items was anchored with strongly agree and strongly disagree, the roy porter student prize competition, scale displays a good reliability (Alpha = 0.74). In comparison with the previous studies reliability, our scale measurements are higher (Alpha = 0.70). The purchase intention was examined using Khostozodel Shirin. Mcdonalds Case Study? Two items scale including the possibility of the purchase and essay prize the recommendation of the purchased product.

Anchored with very low and very high, the scale displays a very good reliability (Alpha = 0.89). In comparison with the previous studies reliability, our scale measurements are higher (Alpha = 0.87). The research investigated the product category variable using Ray W. Writing A Comparison Essay Thesis? Cooksey, 2005. Roy Porter Essay? Scale with four items including the value of certain product category relative to the COI, the importance of this product category and whether it depends on the COI or not was also investigated. And finally the thesis, choice of the roy porter student essay, product class according to the COI. Ray W. Of Shooting Hoops Research? Cooksey research suggested that four items scale are adequate when measuring this moderating variable. It was examined according to five-point likert scale, ranging from roy porter prize, strongly disagree to strongly agree. The scale displays a very poor reliability (Alpha = 0.5) which was very close to the researcher’s reliability (Alpha = 0.56)

Correlation coefficient of Pierson was applied to study the relation between constructs. The results are listed in Table 3. As it is stated in the table, Pierson coefficients between constructs are significant at 95% confidence level. Several of the but net of shooting hoops paper, constructs in the research were correlated. The highest correlation was 0.36, which was between the COI and brand image, and also between the consumer’s perception and brand image. This correlation appears to be weak, positive and student essay prize competition significant, while the lowest correlation was 0.08, which was between COI and consumer’s perception. This correlation appears to case marketing, be weak, positive and insignificant.

Correlations between our independent variable “COI” and the other 3 main dependent variables are as follows: there is a weak and positive yet insignificant correlation between the COI and consumer’s perception (0.08). The previous studies findings concerning this correlation were (0.48) which is higher than our correlation. These analyses were conducted by (Knight, Calantone, 1998, p.136). When comparing the correlations between COI and brand image with the previous studies, we found that our correlation was significant, positive and weak amounted to (0.36) while (Ahmed, Zbib, Sikander, Noujaim, 2012, p.118) concluded that it was (0.344) which is lower than our correlation. Table (3) shows that there is a significantly weak positive correlation between country of origin and purchase intention with (0.28) while the previous studies correlation was (0.375) by (Shirin, Kambiz, 2011) there correlation was weak significant and student essay positive. COI has a weak and positive yet insignificant correlation with product category amounted to (0.14). Thesis? It also has an insignificant weak positive correlation with brand image and student competition purchase intention while, it has a negative weak correlation with consumers’ perception. According to the previous studies; the interaction between COI and product category was insignificant at essay, (correlation less than 0.05).

Indicating that the product category will moderate the relation ship between the COI and consumer’s perception, brand image and roy porter purchase intention (Pappu, Quester, Cooksey, 2006, p.705) Two new significant correlations were deduced from the analysis; the brand image has a significant, weak, positive correlation with the purchase intentions (0.27) and also with the consumer perception (0.36). The prior correlation corresponds with previous studies (0.53) which states that “Brand image directly and positively impacts purchase intentions” (bu Esch et al. 2006). In light of our findings it appears to us that; COI has a positive impact on a comparison focal country’s brand image.

This would be the case for essay prize competition Germany that has a strong reputation for cars in general (product) but also produces strong brands like BMW or Mercedes. Alternatively, a country like Turkey may develop a strong reputation for writing a comparison essay a certain type of product, such as carpets, but lacks the relevant skills to turn this product-related capability into strong and well-known brands (strong product image/weak brand image) Conceptually interesting are also cases where a country, such as Austria, manages to develop strong brands, for example Red Bull or Swarowski, but is not at all well known for its expertise in the respective product categories (weak product image/ strong brand image). Roy Porter Student Competition? It would be of immediate benefit for companies operating in such countries to analyze whether image advantages accrued by strong brands can also be used to support other less well-known brands in these product categories. To test the hypotheses of the research, we used the mcdonalds marketing, correlation analysis in table 3 as an indicator.

This testing resulted in several significant correlation and other insignificant ones and this analysis enabled us to reject and accept our previously stated hypothesis statements. Roy Porter Student Essay Prize Competition? Hypothesis H1 stated that COO image significantly affects how consumer perceives the product. Thesis? The major substantive finding from the correlation analysis is that the essay prize competition, correlation between the 2 variables is insignificant therefore H1 is essay, rejected. This finding doesn’t confirm the predictions of previous researchers that the country of origin image significantly impacts the consumer perceptions (including two important dimension consumer’s attitude and beliefs). Gary A. Knight and Roger J. Student Essay Prize? Calantone (1999,p.131) stated that COI is a significant antecedent of attitudes and beliefs which form the suggestions, consumer’s perceptions related to the product in question and this appear to be insignificant in our hypothesis testing.

Hypothesis H2 predicted the existents of a significant influence of the COI and the brand image. Our findings support this hypothesis therefore H2 will be accepted. The correlation confirms that the COI is directly related to the brand image which supports the previous studies findings (Roth and Romeo, 1992; Hsieh et al, 2004) which stated that CI directly and positively impacts brand image. Hypothesis H3 stated that the country of origin asserts a significant impact on the purchase intention. The result of the correlation analysis shows a statistical significant relation between the two variables which supports our hypothesis therefore H3 is accepted. This finding confirms with the roy porter student essay competition, predictions of previous researchers that CI directly and positively impacts purchase intentions (Laroche et al, 2005) and also with “the country of origin has a significantly positive impact on case study purchase intention” stated by ( Shirin; Kambiz, 2011 p.605).

Hypothesis H4 offered that the product category will moderate the relation between the COI and consumer perceptions, brand image and purchase intentions. The results supported the predictions made in H4,therefore H4 is accepted. This confirms with the pervious studies findings (Pappu, Quester and Cooksey, 2005 p.705). The verification of the hypotheses in this paper leads to five conclusions: (1) Country-of-origin image has an insignificant influence on roy porter essay prize consumer perceptions (2) Country-of-origin image has a significantly positive influence on brand image; (3) Country of origin image has a significantly positive influence on nothing the science of shooting research paper purchase intentions; (4) Brand image has a significantly positive influence on both consumer perceptions and purchase intentions; (5) product category moderates the relation between COI and the other 3 variables. The country-of-origin effect is an environmental factor that firms have to deal with whenever they trade in non-domestic market. Yet we can do little to change COI since it is defined by roy porter a set of historical and the science hoops research paper cultural attitudes rather than by anything lying within the control of an individual firm. The good news, however, is that consumer place (COO) below such things as quality and reliability as factor influencing purchase decision for instance Mercedes make good cars but don’t necessarily transfer such positive impression to essay prize competition, other German products. Our findings confirms that consumers use a product’s COO as a cue in purchase decisions but this cue can be superseded by the brand image which proves to godt, have a significant relation with the student essay competition, purchase intentions.

Also COI insignificantly contribute to the consumer’s perceptions of a certain products this means that other information about the product reliability, quality or brand image will take precedence over COI in thesis determining how people perceive a certain product. So where does this leave us? Companies cannot ignore COO effect but equally they should not rely on those effects in the promotion of their brands because for roy porter student prize competition instance simply being an Italian clothing brand may be an advantage but it isn’t enough for the firm to rely solely on it when promoting its products. Any advantage from COO needs reinforcement through the marketing process this justifies the weak positive correlation between the COI and the brand image. In conclusion, COI is essay godt eksempel, just one of many factors that influence the consumer’s decision to purchase or not to purchase a particular brand. Roy Porter Student Essay Competition? And, yet again we find that consumers do not place a huge emphasis on essay contest where a product comes from- unless they have nothing else on which to base a decision. “The origin of a product has never been more important in roy porter essay prize competition the minds of consumers” (Winter, 2004, p. 46). “Ninety three percent said it is good to know the origin of products such as where it came from and who made it. People are no longer content to thesis suggestions, pay for something superficial and hollow” (Winter, 2004, p. 46). Holt et al. Competition? (2004, p. Eksempel? 96) Elaborated on this sentiment by stating that consumers expect global brands to tell the myth from the prize competition, particular places that are associated with the brand. In this research we are presenting both point of nothing the science of shooting research, views supporting and against the idea that COI is considered an important external attribute that buyers take into competition account when making a purchase decisions. The research did not attempt to support a certain point of view that is why the predicted hypotheses were not initially directional.

One of the limitations of the study was the number of samples collected. In our research we managed to thesis suggestions, collect 38 questionnaires which are relatively small in comparison to our population. Student? More over the age range and income level range were narrow ranges also the reliability of the measurements imitated from previous papers of 2 variables including product category and COI was very weak; future studies shall consider such limitations. Adamantios Diamantopoulos, Bodo Schlegelmilch, Dayananda Palihawadana,(2011), The relationship between country-of-origin image and brand image as drivers of purchase intentions. Ahmed, d’Astous, (1994), Comparison of country-of origin effects on household and organizational buyers’ product perceptions. Alexander Josiassen, A. Assaf, (2009), Country-of-origin contingencies: their joint influence on contest for inn consumer behavior. APIL, (2006), Foreign Product Perceptions and Country of Origin Analysis.

across Black Sea; Studies on Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Russia, and Turkey. Gerared P. Prendergast and Alex S.L. Tsang, (2010), The interactive influence of country origin of brand and product involvement on roy porter student essay prize purchase intention. Hong, S. and contest for inn Wyer, R.S. Student Essay Competition? (1989), “Effects of essay, country-of-origin and roy porter essay prize product attribute information or product evaluation: an information processing perspective. Kamal Ghalandari and essay Abdollah Norouzi , (2012), The Effect of Country of essay prize competition, Origin on Purchase Intention: The Role of Product Knowledge. Katja Jarvelainen, (2012), Effects of Country of Origin on but net the science of shooting research Consumer Product Evaluations. Khosrozadeh Shirin, Heidarzadeh Hanzaee Kambiz, (2011), The Effect of the Country-of-Origin Image, Product Knowledge and Product Involvement on Consumer Purchase Decisions. Knight, Calantone, (1999), A flexible model of consumer country- of- origin perceptions. Pappu, Quester, Cooksey, (2005) Consumer-based brand equity and country-of-origin relationships. Piron, (2000), Consumers’ perception of the country of student essay prize, origin effect on purchase intentions of (in) conceptions products.

Rezvani, Rahman, Fouladivand, Habibi,(2012), A Conceptual Study on the Country of Origin Effect on Consumer Purchase Intention. Schaefer, (1995), Consumer knowledge and contest for inn country of origin effects. Zafar U. Ahmed, Imad J. Zbib, Arif Sikander, Ralph Gilbert Noujaim, (2012), Does country of brand origin (COBO) matter for roy porter competition the Lebanese consumers? University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 10 April 2016.

Let us write you a custom essay sample on essay about america ?Country of origin, consumer’s Perception and Brand Image. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. 3422 Old Capitol Trail, Suite 267, Wilminton, DE 19808, USA.