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Gay Rights Adam and Eve; not Adam and Steve, is the argument that many heterosexuals tend to use. I have also heard the same . old story argued of Sodom and Gomorrah so much that I could possibly recite it word for word. If anyone were to seriously put their prejudices aside and look at that story, they would see that the sin was RAPE, not homosexuality. Andrew Jackson Removal Act Essay? I believe that everyone should have equal rights and that includes gay rights . Homosexuals deserve equal treatment legally and socially. Fight. Bisexuality , Gay , Homosexuality 1772 Words | 5 Pages. same sex marriage is you start off a essay, unconstitutional. Banning an issue doesn't make it go away.
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Civil union , Heterosexism , Homophobia 2016 Words | 5 Pages. Gay Rights March On Washington Famous Speech by Urvashi Vaid April 25, 1993 Hello lesbian and andrew jackson removal act essay, gay Americans. I . am proud to stand before you as a lesbian today. With hearts full of love and the abiding faith in justice, we have come to Washington to speak to essay ap biology, America. We have come to speak the andrew jackson indian removal act essay, truth of cell essay, our lives and silence the andrew removal act essay, liars. We have come to challenge the cowardly Congress to end its paralysis and exercise moral leadership. Essay? We have come to defend our honor and win our equality. Andrew Jackson? But most. Bisexuality , Christian right , Gay 1143 Words | 3 Pages. our troubled youths. Cell Ap Biology? The Arguments Against Gay Rights A decade ago, 59 percent of the interviewed population thought that . gay and lesbian couples should not be able to marry.
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Bisexuality , Heterosexism , Homosexuality 2849 Words | 7 Pages. May 2014 Gay Rights Movement and Proposition 8 “It takes no compromise to give people their rights . it takes no . money to respect the individual. It takes no political deal to give people freedom. It takes no survey to remove repression.” This was a quote from an American politician who became the first openly gay person to be elected to public office in California, Harvey Milk, and he believes that gay rights is a right that must be set for the equality of men and jackson indian act essay, women. The gay rights movement. Bisexuality , Heterosexism , Heterosexuality 1142 Words | 4 Pages. 18 December 2013 Gay Marriage in the United States Gay marriage has divided the how do essay, American people for over a decade. Yet such . a sharp divide has occurred recently.
Only a decade ago, gay marriage was nothing but an afterthought on the plates of many U.S. leaders. Removal Act Essay? Many Liberal Democrats did not even support or condone the idea that same sex couples should be able to marry. However in early times, same-sex marriage was not considered exotic and in commonapp.org essay questions, many cultures, it was encouraged. It was not until. Civil union , Defense of Marriage Act , Homosexuality 1734 Words | 5 Pages. Words and phrases like “faggot,” “dyke,” “no homo,” and “so gay ” are used casually in everyday language, despite promoting the continued . alienation, isolation and — in some tragic cases — suicide of andrew indian act essay, sexual and cover for sap bi consultant, gender minority. The word faggot is used over 10 million times a year on Twitter. The countless times that those sexuality slurs are used on andrew jackson indian act essay, social media doesn't even compare to the use of them in day to dream short essay, day conversations with your friends during passing periods. How would it make. Bisexuality , Gay , Heterosexism 1083 Words | 3 Pages. 5/25/12 Gay Marriage Gay marriage has been a very controversial topic between Democrats, Republicans, and people in jackson removal act essay, the . You Start Off A? world as a whole.
Democrats favor equal rights for andrew the lesbian, gay , bisexual, and transgender community (LGBT) and believe that these people should have the right to teachers classification, marry and adopt children just as easily as a heterosexual couple would. Republicans, however, believe marriage should be between a man and woman and for that reason they do not support gay marriage or the. Bisexuality , Gay , Heterosexuality 1449 Words | 4 Pages. freedom of people is a topic which may attract people’s attention. It is andrew act essay, meaningful. (3). The speaker uses dramatic statistical evidence and an . emotionally charged illustration to support the teachers classification essay, second main point of the speech. 14. Gay marriage and gay rights : should this be allowed or not. Critical thinking , Logic , Persuasion 802 Words | 3 Pages. Gay Rights: The New Civil Rights Movement?
Gay Rights : The New Civil Rights Movement? Everyone in the world at jackson act essay one time or another has had to essay, fight for . something they wanted. Whether it was a job, a relationship, or just something at the corner store. Now, imagine fighting every day of andrew removal act essay, your life for something that almost everyone but you has: your rights . Back in the 1960’s, the Civil Rights Movement was in full swing. Marches on Congress, civil protests, even boycotts, and though at the time, many viewed it as pointless and simply an annoyance. Bisexuality , Gay , Heterosexism 2008 Words | 5 Pages. Argumentative Essay on Gay Marriage. Argumentative Essay : Should Gay Marriage be Legalized?
Gay marriage has been a critical topic in in the shrew, many . Jackson Indian Act Essay? countries since 1924. Around the year 2000, countries such as America and india is my, the UK started approving gay marriages, although not everyone agreed with this decision. Still in jackson, 2013, homosexuals are fighting for you start college essay their right to get married to someone of their same sex. Andrew Act Essay? People against gay marriage feel that if it was to cell ap biology, be legalized, the importance of marriage would fade away and some people would. Civil union , Homosexuality , Love 855 Words | 3 Pages.
GAY RIGHTS IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO. ? GAY RIGHTS IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO Gay and lesbian teens are two to three times as more likely to commit teen . suicide than other youths and about thirty percent of andrew removal, all completed suicides have been related to sexual identity crisis (Bullying statistics.org). Commonapp.org Essay Questions? Hilary Clinton states that, Gay rights are human rights (United Nations Human Rights ). Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, sex, ethnicity, color, religion, language or any other status: we are all equally. Bisexuality , Gay , Homosexuality 1357 Words | 5 Pages. The History of the Gay Rights Movement.
The History of the Gay Rights Movement Heather Alexander Dr. Kelly Hall . Strayer University November 30, 2012 The History of the removal act essay, Gay Rights Movement at india dream short “The Gay Rights Movement, also referred to as homosexual rights movement or gay liberation movement, is a civil rights movement that advocates equal rights for andrew jackson indian gay men, lesbians, bi-sexual, and transsexuals. The organization seeks to. Bisexuality , Gay Liberation , Homosexuality 995 Words | 3 Pages. ? Igniting the Gay Rights Movement Although many regard the 1969 Stonewall Riots as the beginning of the gay . rights movement in American, the mild tolerance of homosexual behaviors during WWII and the opportunities soldiers had to letter bi consultant, explore their sexuality was really what began the modern fight for andrew jackson LGBT rights to be recognized. The blossoming gay bar network in Germany gave those fighting overseas a chance to explore the queer social life, as well as the increased urban populations in America. Bisexuality , Gay , Homosexuality 2490 Words | 12 Pages. of America. Ap Biology? —Lord L. Jean, executive director, Los Angeles Gay and Lesbian Center, 2000^ . The gay rights movement has been an ongoing struggle dating back to andrew removal act essay, the 1920s.
Still in cell essay ap biology, 2014 there is still a stigma attached to gay and lesbian relationships. Our country was founded on equality for all people, yet we still have such bigotry towards gay and lesbians. Everyone has the right to pursue their happiness no matter what or who may make that. Bisexuality , Gay , Heterosexuality 904 Words | 4 Pages. homosexual the andrew jackson act essay, original bill also prohibited the promotion of gay rights and called for the punishment of in the shrew, anyone who funds or . sponsors homosexuality or abets homosexuality. The bill has not been passed and andrew, it still in process but those who are homosexual right now are being judge and given a life sentence for being gay they are still discussing the fact of the death penalty however foreign donors have threatened to in the of the shrew, cut aid if gay rights are not respected. In this case there is removal, a lot of foreign. Bisexuality , Gay , Heterosexism 781 Words | 3 Pages. Equal Rights for the Gay Community. Jones International University Equal Rights for deception taming of the shrew the Gay Community Dr.
Craig Jonas Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the andrew indian, . Requirements for HUM201 Peace and Conflict Studies By Samantha Meche Kinder, La 2/24/2012 Abstract In this country there is a flawed assumption that gay people enjoy the same civil right protections as everyone else and there are a lot of stereotypes about gay relationships. Living as a gay individual in this country can be extremely overwhelming and short, scary. Civil union , Heterosexism , Homophobia 1421 Words | 5 Pages. The Gay Family in America Each individual's journey through life is andrew indian removal act essay, unique. Some will make this journey alone, others in india is my dream short, loving . Andrew Removal Act Essay? relationships - maybe in marriage or other forms of essay, commitment.
We need to ponder our own choices and try to understand the choices of others. Love has many shapes and colors and is not finite. It cannot be measured or defined in terms of sexual orientation. ( Same sex marriage and civil unions) America's population is growing, and andrew jackson indian removal act essay, the number of homosexuals is. Bisexuality , Civil union , Heterosexuality 1541 Words | 5 Pages. Argumentative Essay on Gay Marriage. Wesley King Grammar and Composition lesson 75 Argumentative Essay on Gay Marriage Marriage is the . Deception In The? ceremonial binding of two people, male and female, into one couple. Historically, marriage has been the institution when a man and andrew jackson, a woman join together with the in the, promise of andrew jackson indian act essay, love, devotion, to commonapp.org questions, always stay together, to be there for each other, to take care of one another and to start a family together. Biblically, marriage has been all the aspects above, but including honoring.
Civil union , Homosexuality , Lesbian 842 Words | 2 Pages. cannot begin to argue about African American/Hispanic LGBT, living in New York City and their civil rights without remembering the public . outcry against black civil rights . Although the focus of this paper is on African American/Hispanic LGBT living in New York City and Their Rights to andrew jackson act essay, Marriage I have decided to start my paper of by discussing the civil rights movement of the 1960's. The civil rights movement of the 1960's and the continuing struggle against race-based discrimination were rooted in. African American , American Civil War , Democratic Party 856 Words | 3 Pages. about gay marriage is. Classification? Why are so many U.S. citizens who are not for it? Why does it even matter to them anyways? Often it is not easy to . comprehend how citizens think, but majority of the time it is easy to assume where to draw the line when interfering with someone else’s rights . In America any and everyone has the right to andrew removal, go out and obtain a driver’s license, we also have the taming of the, right to say what we want, but who has the right to tell someone else who they should and indian removal act essay, shouldn’t marry? Though gay marriage. Bisexuality , Civil union , Gay 1750 Words | 5 Pages.
endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights . Teachers? These words were written over two-hundred years ago, and even then, the people . Indian Removal Act Essay? believed in the importance of essay, equality. History shows the discrimination of African-Americans and jackson indian removal, how our country has evolved regarding racism, but now there is teachers, a form of discrimination that is becoming more prevalent. This form of discrimination is towards those of other sexual orientations, such as those who are gay , lesbian, or bisexual. Discrimination, under any. Bisexuality , Heterosexism , Homophobia 1587 Words | 4 Pages. Gay Marriage Right or Wrong There are so many ethical issues that are continuously debated and still there . has been no resolution. Jackson Removal Act Essay? Gay Marriage is an ethical issue that has been debated for in the years. This is an issue that I think that will continue to be debated as a clear answer as to why it is jackson act essay, morally wrong has yet to be determined. For so long a deontological view has been applied to the subject.
Those who are opposed to same sex marriage take on essay, this view. Jackson? I do not think. Civil union , Ethics , Homosexuality 2460 Words | 6 Pages. Gay Rights in Texas Texas is one of the least open minded states when it comes to rights for homosexual . individuals. Letter For Sap Bi Consultant? There is a strong history of being discriminatory against the LGBT community. The state denies gays and lesbians the right to marry a same-sex partner both by andrew act essay, statute and in its constitution. In 1975 the Houston LGBT Political Caucus was founded by Pokey Anderson, Bill Buie, Hugh Crell, and Keith McGee. This is the oldest civil rights organization dedicated to the advancement. Civil union , Heterosexism , Homosexuality 878 Words | 3 Pages. Adoption Rights for Gay Couples Gay couples live lives just like any other couples, except with more . Deception Of The Shrew? limitations and challenges. Unlike straight couples, gay couples cannot marry, visit their ill partner in andrew jackson indian act essay, the hospital, or adopt children.
This is outright wrong and unfair. In The Shrew? Same sex couples have the potential to andrew jackson, be just as adequate parents as straight couples, if not better. Ultimately same sex couples deserve the opportunity to adopt children. Teachers Classification? To start with, gay couples make great parents. Adoption , Bisexuality , Homosexuality 885 Words | 3 Pages. oriented, it’s the personality you fall in love with. I don’t believe anyone is full heterosexual nor full homosexual, we are all somewhere in between. . There are many reasons why same-sex marriage should be legalised. Andrew Jackson? As a general rule, not just for gays , we shouldn’t have to suffer because a few people do not like something. How would you feel if there was this one thing that you loved doing but society look down on you for it, they shunned you for being happy and teachers essay, forced you into the repetitive, boring. Bisexuality , Gay , Heterosexism 886 Words | 3 Pages.
Today’s Rights for Gays Lesbians Today’s Rights for Gays Lesbians . The state and federal laws for andrew indian removal act essay Gay's and cell essay, Lesbian are unfair and discriminatory. In today’s ever so changing world it’s hard to keep up with laws. Andrew Jackson Indian? Most of the classification essay, laws are printed on a fine line, but the rights for homosexuals are blurred. Jackson Indian Removal Act Essay? With the topic being hot in the media it is hard to get the correct story. Two of the most important rights that get blurred are marriage and same sex adoption. Same. Bisexuality , Gay , Homosexuality 1611 Words | 5 Pages. English 101 March 19, 2012 Gay Marriage, Equal Rights The world is not divided into cover letter sheep and goats. Jackson Act Essay? Not all things are . black or all things are white, there is green too.
Everybody's journey is individual. India Is My Dream Essay? The living world is continuum in indian removal act essay, each and every one of its aspects. If you fall in teachers essay, love with a boy, you fall in love with a boy. The fact that many Americans consider loving the person of the same sex a disease, says more about them than it does about homosexuality. Gay marriage is an issue plaguing. Alimony , Civil union , Homosexuality 1066 Words | 3 Pages. Equality In the history of The United States of andrew jackson, America, It has not been uncommon for certain groups to attain more rights then other . Cell Essay Ap Biology? groups. Indian? Whether It has been Irish Immigrants in the north, to black slaves in the south discrimination has always been apart of our history. While history has saved many from discrimination, there are still two groups that face it, even today.
Women; and Gay couples. Deception In The Shrew? There are many links between these two groups, especially women that are in indian removal, lesbian relationships. Teachers Essay? Where. Homosexuality , LGBT , Marriage 1792 Words | 5 Pages. Kevin Bowman Mr. Johnston AP Language – 7th 4 October 2012 Persuasive Essay A helpless teen guy, beaten and mugged, left on the street. Andrew Jackson Indian Removal Act Essay? . When asked by police what happened, he is dream essay, eventually turned away, and the assailants never searched for to be charged with the crime. One crucial detail separates this crime from most others; the guy that was beaten was gay . Prejudice and jackson act essay, stereotypes are a common part of today’s world, but they hurt and degrade others and india dream essay, both are morally wrong. Whether it. Abuse , Bullying , Ethics 643 Words | 2 Pages.
Beam The Argument over andrew act essay, Gay Marriage With the increasing popularity of legalizing gay marriage, many agree and many oppose . the issue. Andrew Sullivan, a gay rights activist argues, “Marriage is not simply a private contract; it is a social and public recognition of dream, a private commitment… Denying it to homosexuals is the andrew jackson act essay, most public affront possible to for sap, their public equality”(266). On the other hand, William J. Jackson Removal? Bennett believes, “Recognizing the legal union of gay and lesbian couples would represent. Civil union , Homosexuality , Law 1370 Words | 4 Pages. Gay Marriage in cover letter for sap, the United States The debate between whether gay marriage should be legalized or not has been a controversial . topic recently. In the past twelve years, equal marriage rights have been legalized in 6 states of the U.S.. Jackson Indian Removal Act Essay? Eighteen states do not allow gay marriage and cover bi consultant, do not recognize civil unions. The other twenty six states allow civil unions, and some are debating legalizing gay marriage. Gay marriage should be legal across the andrew act essay, United States. Not allowing gay marriage in any state. Civil union , Heterosexism , Homosexuality 1663 Words | 5 Pages.
best is for the children? Around the United States gay adoption has been severely put down, but not many states have an actual law stated in . their constitution against it. The more the conservative the state is, the higher chance of letter bi consultant, them having a law against gay adoption. Jackson Removal Act Essay? Though not many states have a law against gay adoption, it is still hard for gays to how do off a college essay, adopt. Nebraska, Florida, Michigan, Oklahoma, Mississippi, and Utah all contain a ban against gay adoption. The United States does not include any. Adoption , Family , Foster care 926 Words | 3 Pages.
The issue of gay marriage has been stirring controversy among the nation for some years. Previously considered a taboo subject and andrew act essay, only . Cell? discussed within the gay community, the issue of gay marriage has made it to andrew jackson indian removal, the forefront of national headlines. Many states are currently allowing the cover for sap, issue to be decided on andrew jackson, by the voters. However, the gay community still faces some obstacles in cover letter for sap bi consultant, their fight for equality. While the jackson indian act essay, issue of gay marriages is gaining more acceptances, homosexual couples who choose. Civil union , Domestic partnership , Homosexuality 1434 Words | 4 Pages.
should be granted the right to marry and receive the same benefits, rights , and protections as heterosexual married couples. ?I . love you. India Essay? Let?s get married!? These words have been spoken many times, by many people. Andrew Indian Removal? Most often a man to taming of the shrew, a woman, sometimes a woman to a man, and most recently, and man to man and woman to woman. However, in those last two cases, getting married isn?t just a cheap flight to Vegas for the weekend.
It?s been a struggle for over 40 years, since the gay rights revolution. There. Bisexuality , Gay , Homosexuality 946 Words | 3 Pages. The Comparison Between Civil Rights and Gay Rights Movement. that all men are created equal'. -Martin Luther King Jr. The Civil Rights movement may have started out on a mission to indian act essay, improve the . lives of the large population of cover letter bi consultant, African-Americans, but who would have guessed that King's quest for racial integration would provoke the indian removal, same quest for deception taming of the individual rights by another completely different group of people, this time the Gay and Lesbians of society. The quest for indian removal equal rights by people, who had unjustifiably been repressed for hundreds of years, would. African American , Civil disobedience , Heterosexism 1595 Words | 4 Pages. laws that ban the marriage of homosexual couples.
Many states within the United States have been debating over questions, this issue for years. Massachusetts was the . first state to legalize gay marriage in andrew jackson indian removal, May of 2004. As of November 7, 2012, eight more states made gay marriage legal in the United States. “I saw with so many of the gay couples, they were so devoted to ap biology, another. I saw so much love. Indian? When this hearing was over, I was a changed person in regard to this issue. I felt that I understood what same-sex. Bisexuality , Homosexuality , Lesbian 1095 Words | 3 Pages. 2011, gay marriage remains legal in the following states: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Iowa, Vermont, New Hampshire, New York, and teachers classification, the District . of Columbia? Thirty states have constitutional amendments banning gay marriage. Removal Act Essay? Did you know, Massachusetts, which became the first state to legalize gay marriage on May 17, 2004, had the lowest divorce rate in the country in 2008?
Its divorce rate declined 21% between 2003 and 2008. These facts are just a minor part of why I personally am pro- gay marriage. Civil union , Defense of Marriage Act , Heterosexism 933 Words | 3 Pages. ? Gay Marriage: The Controversial Issue Gay marriage has been an ongoing controversial issue. Many . other countries have legalized gay marriage for taming shrew decades and the United States is just beginning to act essay, pick up on the trend. While many people believe that gay marriage will stem many problems in both the short run and off a essay, the long run, it is an andrew indian removal issue of discrimination if we were to put a law banning gay marriage. India Essay? Currently the United States are split up with some states supporting. Alimony , Civil union , Divorce 1847 Words | 8 Pages.
Law Human Rights in America: Gay Rights. SSP 245 Kenta Payne 10/01/2012 Gay Rights Prof Blagojevic “ Gay people are born into every society in the . Jackson Removal Act Essay? world. Being gay is not a western invention, it is a human reality.” Secretary Of State Hillary Rodham Clinton -December 6, 2011, Geneva. Commonapp.org Essay? Switzerland In the aftermath of World War II (1939-1945), a delegation made up of sixty-five countries in six continents came together with the concept that all are created equal and are entitled to the highest level of andrew jackson removal, respect, opportunity and dignity-. Bisexuality , Gay , Homosexuality 2188 Words | 6 Pages.
Hillary Clinton, Gay Rights Are Human Rights. Vincent English 111 October 31, 2012 Hillary Clinton, Gay Rights are Human Rights Hillary Clinton’s . Short? International Human Rights Day Address at Palais des Nations was delivered on December 6, 2011, in Geneva, Switzerland, to jackson, mark the celebration of Human Rights Day. In this speech, Clinton challenges the members of the United Nations Human Rights Council to recognize that LGBT Rights , (Lesbian, Gay , Bisexual and Transgender), are Human Rights . Cell Essay Ap Biology? Through the use of definition, contrast, comparison. Gay , Hillary Rodham Clinton , Homosexuality 1310 Words | 4 Pages. Gay Marriages Subjective Claim Throughout history, a marriage has been a male and female exchanging vows, promising their lives to . eachother. Indian Act Essay? Never did anyone think, that gays had a right to get married, it was always considered a sin to be gay . Legal binding marriage between two homosexuals nowadays, whether it be a male and essay, male or a female and female relationship, should not be legalized after following a long history of marriages. There are too many factors that need to indian act essay, be addressed when. Civil union , Gay , Heterosexism 1058 Words | 7 Pages. Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgendered Rights. Gay , Lesbian, Bisexual, and essay, Transgendered Rights Throughout history there has been many different groups that have encountered . discrimination.
The main group has been the African/African-American population for many years. Other groups have been the Irish, Chinese, Mexicans, and the Jews, just to name a few. Those groups all endured prejudice based on ethnicity; the new group is andrew, facing prejudice because of taming of the, their sexual orientation. The Gay , Lesbian, Bisexual and andrew act essay, Transgendered community experiences. Gay Liberation , Gay pride , Homosexuality 1436 Words | 4 Pages. society, rejected from their rights because of other people’s views on who to love? Same sex marriage is a struggle that is in the taming shrew, simply overlooked . by most people today. It is difficult to fathom all the way people are denied their rights . Problems such as marriage, child custody, and the right to andrew indian, have and college, raise children are just a few pieces to the giant puzzle of gay rights acceptance to the public.
This puzzle must simply be solved. Homosexuals should have the same human rights that the Founding fathers. Gender , Heterosexism , Homophobia 793 Words | 3 Pages. love. Gary and Joseph dreamed of jackson indian, one day walking down the isle and getting married here in California, by the beautiful beach.
They both planned out their . wedding, envisioning the day their dreams would come true. You Start Off A College? On the way home one night, after a gay activist meeting, Gary and Joseph were in a terrible car accident. Andrew Jackson Indian Act Essay? In the hospital were Joseph was dying, his last words to Gary were, “Never give up on our vision Gary, never give up. You Start College Essay? If I don’t make it, I want you to find someone else who deserves. Defense of Marriage Act , Divorce , Homosexuality 1451 Words | 5 Pages.
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The Trans Asterisk and Why We Need To Stop Using It. A lot of act essay times on cover letter for sap bi consultant, social justice-oriented websites you’ll the word “trans” written with an andrew jackson removal asterisk, like “trans*”. Classification. It is thought that the addition of the andrew indian asterisk was made by dfab trans people who felt like trans women were talking about their struggles too much and that there needed to be more room in essay the community for everyone else, which is an issue on andrew jackson indian act essay, it’s own. But most people using the cover bi consultant asterisk don’t know this, and andrew jackson removal act essay, use it because they think that it makes the term more inclusive of india dream essay all identities under the “trans umbrella.” While this seems well-intentioned (and probably is,) it’s also incredibly problematic. You see, there is no “trans umbrella.” Trans (or transgender) is the umbrella term. Transgender means to identify as any gender other than–or in addition to–the one you were assigned at birth (this includes identifying as multiple genders or no gender at all). That’s it! Saying that the andrew indian removal act essay asterisk is somehow “more inclusive” is like saying that some non-cisgender people aren’t “trans enough” to be called just trans. Often these people who apparently aren’t considered trans enough are trans women, non-binary people, non-op people, and those who do not experience dysphoria. People who insist that there is how do off a a trans umbrella often include cisgender crossdressers and andrew jackson, drag performers under the cell essay ap biology umbrella, and would like to andrew jackson removal, include them in conversations about the cell essay issues and experiences of transgender people. The issue with this is andrew jackson indian removal act essay that it’s an deception in the example of removal act essay cis people claiming ownership of a discussion on issues that they don’t experience.
Now don’t get me wrong, cis crossdressers and drag performers (especially dmab ones) do experience a lot of societal pressure for dressing in a way that is not acceptable for their sex. In The Taming Of The. However, if they identify with the gender that they were assigned at jackson act essay birth, regardless of the clothing they wear, they are not transgender. Cisgender people don’t experience the same oppression that transgender people face every day, they don’t deal with a general population not believing in or accepting their identity. It isn’t right for a cis crossdresser or drag performer to say they share the essay questions same exact struggle as trans people, especially in a time when so few trans people’s voices are heard or taken seriously. Often times, the asterisk after the word trans can also be used to invalidate certain trans identities and call them “not trans enough.” Like sexuality, gender is a gradient, and there are many identities in between “man” and “woman.” Just because someone doesn’t fit into andrew indian act essay one of the binaries doesn’t make them not trans. Being transgender just means identifying as any gender other than the one a person was assigned at deception in the of the shrew birth. Andrew Indian Removal. And if someone–for whatever reason–does not want surgery, that in no way makes their gender identity less valid. Some transgender people want surgery, and that’s perfectly fine for deception in the shrew them.
But the ones who don’t are just as trans as the ones who do. There are transgender people in jackson indian all shapes, sizes, identities, and presentations. I understand that most people using the deception taming trans asterisk don’t know the andrew removal act essay meaning behind it and are trying to be inclusive. The fact is, however, that it needlessly excludes and invalidates so many people. We need to letter bi consultant, do away with the asterisk, whose creation was a backlash against trans women, and whose existence tells so many people that they aren’t “trans enough.” The word transgender on its own means to identify as a gender other than the jackson indian act essay one assigned at how do you start college birth, and I don’t know why we’d need some asterisk to make it any more inclusive. Wonderful drawings of trans people of varying identities done by Molly!! YES! Honestly I was always wondering what the removal difference between “trans” and “trans*” was on teachers classification essay, tumblr because those that used the asterisk always seemed more aggressive somehow.
This is so informative! I am going to share this everywhere. First off, I admire the illustrations. This is jackson indian removal a cool article, but the only thing that bugs me is the origin of the trans asterisk (*) — It was always my understanding that the asterisk was a response to certain non binary identified people feeling left out of the term, and was a means to be more inclusive so that people who didn’t necessarily feel their transition was crossing genders in the binary understanding weren’t left out in the cold. The problem with that was that it opened doors to accepting cross dressing cis people as trans, which is problematic for cover for sap reasons I’m sure I don’t even need to andrew indian, type, as you did a fine job outlining some already. The understanding of the term transgender today, like in cell this article, is affirming to non binary identities without tacking anything onto the end of the word as some sort of “exception”, as it should be. I’m not quite sure where you got your info from that trans men were all for indian the asterisk, as most trans men I see (especially on tumblr) cling onto the binary concepts of gender with a death grip and expressed distaste for essay more than one or two non binary gender labels.
Maybe I’m just on the wrong side of the internet. Sorry for the long winded response, I just get worked up sometimes. Thanks for reading the article! To my knowledge the asterisk was added on by dfab trans people (sometimes called “transmasculine” people I guess,) not trans men. So sorry about that typo, I just fixed it. I already emailed you, but here are some points to andrew jackson removal, consider (for anyone else who has the essay same question):
— From what I can tell this article (http://practicalandrogyny.com/2013/10/31/about-that-often-misunderstood-asterisk/) does a pretty good job of outlining the first reasons for the addition of the asterisk, though I don’t agree with all the conclusions the author draws. Andrew Removal. This tumblr post (http://theroguefeminist.tumblr.com/post/64810447498/stop-using-the-term-trans-with-a) also brings up some good points. — I’m also sure there are some nonbinary people who feel the way you said (that they don’t feel their transition was crossing genders in how do you start off a the binary understanding,) but for me the addition of the asterisk in that situation is still problematic. Andrew Jackson Indian Removal Act Essay. I’m dfab genderqueer/genderfluid, and so I don’t have the experiences all trans people have and I can’t speak for everyone, but this is cover bi consultant my take on it from a linguistics perspective. — Being trans isn’t going from one binary to the other. The definition of trans that I prefer to use (and have seen most other trans people use as well) is simply identifying as anything other than the andrew jackson indian gender you were assigned at birth.
THis post does a good job of teachers classification essay outlining that– http://makingmountainsoutofmountains.tumblr.com/post/70870181938/why-i-started-and-stopped-using-an-asterisk-after. — Though it wasn’t always used in an inclusive way and I understand that, adding an jackson asterisk to a word that in its original form is already inclusive… to me that does nothing? It doesn’t really actually further the inclusion of non-binary trans people. There is this idea that genderqueer people really aren’t trans enough, and to commonapp.org questions, me adding at indian asterisk just really solidifies that. — It may have been in the beginning that the letter for sap bi consultant asterisk was meant to andrew removal act essay, be inclusive. But I’ve seen it used to exclude trans women who don’t “pass” well enough, pre-op people/people who don’t ever want to get surgery, non-binary people, and how do off a essay, people who are trans but don’t experience dysphoria. Andrew Jackson Removal. And to me that is really not a good thing. — In addition, a lot of people I’ve talked to are just told it’s inclusive and so they use it, rather than questioning why. I used to use it too, until it dawned on commonapp.org, me that it was actually kind of offensive. I think if you really do critically think and still decide you like the indian trans* label for yourself, you should feel totally comfortable using it, but I don’t like it when it’s used as a generic term for queer spaces, because to me (and a lot of other people I’ve talked to) it feels very exclusive and “well you can come here but you’re not really trans” ish. Commonapp.org Essay. Like, in that case, why don’t we just have “trans” spaces and “*” spaces?
I hope that clears stuff up for andrew jackson indian removal some people who maybe have the essay ap biology same questions you do! Hi! This was very informative, thank you, but I was wondering about andrew jackson, something. I’m bigender(male and female) but since I do identify with my birth gender(famle) along with male, am I still considered trans? Because you said only people who don’t identify with their birth gender are included. Seems like a couple people have this question, so I’ll send you both a reply (not sure if you guys will get an alert if I don’t reply directly to you) Tori — I’m trigender and genderfluid, so I totally get the ap biology confusion!
It was a wording issue, one that I’m fixing right now. Instead of saying that cis people are people who identify with their birth sex’s associated gender, I should’ve said that cis people are people who identify with *only* their birth sex’s associated gender. Multi-gender people who identify with their birth sex’s associated gender are trans of course, and I’m sorry that my wording made it seem like they/we are left out! Big mistake, I’ll change that right now. Hello! I actually have the same question as Tori. Indian Removal. Throughout the article nonbinaries are mentioned, but bigender isn’t.
Seeing as someone who is commonapp.org essay questions bigender can both identify with the gender they were assigned, and with a gender that they were not assigned with, that sort of is being cis and trans? Is there a term for that? Where do I belong? Seems like a couple people have this question, so I’ll send you both a reply (not sure if you guys will get an alert if I don’t reply directly to you) Leyda–if you read my above reply to jackson removal act essay, Tori, I think I explained the issue (it was my fault! I worded the definition poorly, and I will fix that as soon as I publish this reply). I don’t know how to answer your question about being cis and trans; I’m trigender and genderfluid and I’m still not sure what to call it on classification, days when I ID as female. Am I cis on andrew act essay, that particular day?
Who knows? Although I don’t know the term for of the it, I would say that we (multi-gender and/or genderfluid people) are 100% trans if we individually choose to identify that way. Andrew Removal. We might identify with our birth sex’s associated gender sometimes or even always, but the taming of the shrew fact is that we identify as *more* genders than just that one, which is what makes us trans. Fixing the andrew indian wording right now! Thanks a lot for your reply! I always felt a bit forgotten when people mentioned they supported “non-binaries and letter for sap bi consultant, transgender people”, but it’s nice to andrew indian act essay, think that I’m included as well. Also for future reference, people do get an alert if you reply to someone else as well #128521; Thanks to everyone who commented on this post to call me out on semantics or to ask questions! I just want to deception in the taming of the, say that I am always happy to discuss things and not only that, but I always appreciate knowing where I’ve made mistakes (even when they’re just simple wording ones) so that I can clean up my act and not do that in the future. I was just wondering if you had a source for this section:
“The addition of the asterisk was made by andrew jackson removal act essay, dfab trans people who felt like trans women were talking about their struggles too much and that there needed to be more room in the community for everyone else, which is an issue on it’s own.” When I searched I struggled to essay, find one origin for the term trans* and I was wondering if the above was more your lived experience than the actual, definite origin of the term? I got that impression from your comments that read: “It may have been in the beginning that the asterisk was meant to be inclusive. But I’ve seen it used to exclude trans women who don’t “pass” well enough, pre-op people/people who don’t ever want to get surgery, non-binary people, and people who are trans but don’t experience dysphoria.” Obviously your lived experience is still very valid, but it would be good practice to edit the article to reflect that, if that’s what it is. I did enjoy your article though and I do agree that the andrew jackson indian asterisk has some major issues associated with it. Is My Dream. I also think you’ve done a great job editing your article and have been very eloquent about your views #128578; Hello there! Great question #128578; I do have sources, but I think my wording was incorrect. Removal. I don’t know (except by word-of-mouth, er, word-of-tumblr-text-post) that it was invented by dfab trans people, but I know that the addition of the asterisk is made by dfab trans people in off a college ways that are transmisogynistic.
Etymology of activist terms is sometimes hard to find, and upon searching I couldn’t find a definite history of the andrew removal term, only dream, histories of it’s problematic usage. I also know through personal experience (which I can link posts to you for as well if you’re interested, but I feel like it’s not directly related to jackson indian removal act essay, your question) that there is a lot of transmisogyny in trans spaces exactly for that reason– that is, dfab trans people feeling like trans women take up too much space. There’s also a lot of deception in the taming of the erasure and jackson act essay, invalidation of questions trans women’s identities tied into jackson indian removal act essay it’s usage. I’ve linked you to some posts above (here‘s another one), and will edit my wording in the article (and include sources!) as soon as I can. I’m really happy you liked the article #128578; And thank you for calling me out on this! I’m always trying to improve as a journalist and an activist, and improvement and growth require dialogue and learning experiences. Conversation about essay ap biology, trans men outweighs conversation about trans women in trans spaces by anywhere from 30% to 2:1. Conversation about indian act essay, cis people in trans spaces outweighs conversation about trans women. And people have the gall to cell, suggest that trans women’s issues “dominate” trans spaces?
Somebody needs their misogyny checked. I know, right? (PS– where did you get those statistics? If you have/know of the source I’d love to take a look at andrew jackson indian act essay it, it’d be great to cite in this article or in future conversations!) I do not agree with the idea that “trans” is the teachers classification essay umbrella term for anyone who isn’t cis. Jackson Removal. If people aren’t down with the * that is one thing. But telling the rest of us that we are all defacto trans people just because we aren’t cis? That is really reductionist and not fair to essay, anyone. Our identities are different. Removal. Our struggles are different. The correct umbrella term is “gender queer”. Trans people are of course free not to use this term if they don’t feel it identifies them.
But it is what is cover letter bi consultant used for the rest of us. Unfortunately I’m going to have to disagree with you here. Andrew Jackson Indian Removal. Transgender is an umbrella term. Teachers Classification. I did not tell anybody that they were “defacto” trans people, I said “Transgender means to identify as any gender other than–or in addition to–the one you were assigned at birth (this includes identifying as multiple genders or no gender at all).” This is true. You are welcome not to use that label for yourself if you don’t feel it fits you! But defining transgender as it is is not reductionist or unfair to act essay, anyone. “Transgender”, while often considered an in the taming umbrella term for persons whose gender expression and andrew removal act essay, identity is essay non-normative, an umbrella, as such, under which genderqueer may belong, is andrew jackson act essay a term that tends to be associated with the cell essay ap biology binary identities of male and female, such as Female-to-Male (FTM, trans men) and Male-to Female (MTF, trans women), and with the process of transition, physically or in andrew jackson indian presentation, along binary lines. Identifying as transgender specifically may not express a genderqueer-associated or non-binary identity as clearly as the term “genderqueer” does. Non-binary refers to gender that is not binary (not man or woman) and has overlap with the how do college essay term genderqueer, while they are not to be used interchangeably. Andrew Indian Removal. While genderqueer can include those who are non-binary g(except for in the case of referring to expression / performance exclusively), not all non-binary identified people consider themselves genderqueer.
Genderqueer is a fine umbrella term for is my people who don’t feel that “transgender” is the label they want to use, or that it doesn’t fully describe how they feel. But saying that genderqueer is the andrew jackson indian removal act essay “correct” umbrella term for those who are not cis, whereas transgender is teachers essay strictly binary/post-op/etc., is as reductionist and unfair as it would be if I were to say that all non-cis people automatically identify as trans. Oops– my source for this, in case anyone is wonder, is http://genderqueerid.com/gq-faq. I believe that you are writing this in good faith, but I find it extremely off-putting and want to andrew act essay, explain why. Later in deception in the taming of the shrew your essay you object to andrew jackson indian removal, the trans asterisk because it needlessly invalidates trans identities, but the paragraph before that you do exactly that when you explain why crossdressers and in the taming of the shrew, drag performers are “not transgender,” that they are “cis people owning trans issues.” This certainly isn’t something originating with only you, and I keep hearing it more and andrew, more as time goes by, but I wish people would understand that for deception in the taming of the many years the idea of trans being an removal umbrella explicitly included crossdressers. Suddenly now it’s fashionable to go on about how they aren’t trans, but that’s not true. Cover Letter Bi Consultant. If a crossdresser identifies with the trans community, there’s clearly something about them that is neither fully male nor fully female for jackson indian them to feel it’s an appropriate identity for them.
They’re not cis. It’s true that they experience different levels of oppression and stigma than other trans people. The same can be said for literally any group of trans people… a trans man does not experience the same oppression as a trans woman, different non-binary gendered people have different experiences of oppression, and even within those categories the types of oppression we experience vary based on essay, things like income, race, et. al. Transness is andrew jackson indian removal act essay not defined by how much oppression you experience, it’s defined by is my dream, your identity. I think this might be a wording issue, and I’ll explain after my initial comment. Jackson Removal. You’re right: if a crossdresser identifies with the trans community, then there’s clearly something about them that is neither fully male nor fully female (or perhaps just something that isn’t in how do essay line with the gender they were designated at andrew indian birth) for them to feel it’s an appropriate identity for them. Commonapp.org Questions. They’re not cis. My issue isn’t with crossdressers or drag performers identifying as transgender.
My issue is with crossdressers and drag performers who identify as cisgender who claim that they experience discrimination for being trans, even when they explicitly identify as cis. Cis people cannot experience discrimination for being trans simply because they are cis, not trans, and can’t experience discrimination for something they are not. Of course trans crossdressers and jackson, drag performers experience the oppression and stigma of someone who is trans, because they are trans. But if they identify clearly as cis, it’s not right for them to claim that they experience oppression for being trans as a cis person. Essay Questions. Could they have transmisogyny and transphobia directed their way based on misinformation? But that’s misdirected oppression of a group they don’t belong to, not they themselves being oppressed for being a member of that group. “My issue is with crossdressers and indian, drag performers who identify as cisgender who claim that they experience discrimination for being trans…” This is something I have never witnessed firsthand or heard about cell ap biology, as a trend. I’m interested in learning more – where is this happening? Unfortunately #128577; I think the best instance of it in jackson indian act essay pop culture is highlighted in this article from Salon.com:
[the following in cover letter for sap tweet form from Rupaul]– Forget an jackson indian removal outside threat, the “Gay Movement” will eat itself from the inside out #OrwellAnimalFarm. Commonapp.org Essay. Orwell’s book “Animal Farm”: The pigs didn’t really want a revolution, they just wanted to BE ‘Farmer John’…It’s not the word itself, but the intention behind the word…I’ve been a “tranny” for andrew removal act essay 32 years. The word “tranny” has never just meant transsexual. #TransvestiteHerstoryLesson. [then from the article] RuPaul’s points are well-taken: The host of a uniquely inclusive reality show may well have insights that those seeking to take offense are missing, and someone who’s been on the scene for many years may know a great deal about the history of how words were used. However, those possibilities don’t automatically mean that anyone who takes umbrage at off a RuPaul’s terminology — like the transgender former “Drag Race” contestant Carmen Carrera, who vocally criticized the “She-Mail” language earlier this year — is attempting to become an Orwellian oppressor. Andrew Act Essay. That other people than RuPaul might be bringing their own experience to bear on how they experience language seems as though it hasn’t occurred to the reality-show host. There are a lot more examples of this occurring throughout pop culture, but I think this is one of the for sap most famous/well-known. Thanks for jackson indian removal act essay your question, and teachers essay, I’m sorry I didn’t get back to you sooner! Hi there, I just have to respond to something you said above. “Cis people cannot experience discrimination for being trans simply because they are cis, not trans, and can’t experience discrimination for something they are not.” I really don’t think that is true.
Gay bashing is not only confined to gay people, but to anybody who a gay basher deems is gay, or gay ‘enough’. Jackson Indian Removal Act Essay. Cis people can experience transphobia when they crossdress or perform in india short drag if they get discriminated against because they are cross dressing. That is transphobia and andrew indian act essay, they experienced it, even if they identify as cis. Cover For Sap. In the end, it doesn’t matter whether the person being gay bashed is jackson indian gay, it matters whether the gay bashers think they are gay. It doesn’t matter if the person being trans(bashed?) is letter trans, it matters whether the person discriminating against andrew indian removal them thinks they are.
I hope I have made my point clear #128578; I think my wording may have been a little unclear, my apologies! You are completely right. Teachers Classification Essay. What I meant was not that cis people can’t be targeted by transphobia. I just mean that in the end, somebody bullying somebody else for being trans is an action based in transphobia, not cis-phobia or something like that. So while they can certainly be affected by it, cis people are not the jackson indian removal act essay ideological target of transphobia. In the commonapp.org essay end a transphobic person is prejudiced against trans people, though they may certainly target cis people by mistake. I think this is giving way too much credit to bigotry, which is not that discerning. Indian Removal Act Essay. When in the history of ever was a cis crossdresser thinking, while being brutalized, “This is for sap bi consultant transphobia directed my way based on misinformation; I’m not being oppressed for being a *member* of that group.” I cannot even articulate the degree of frustration I feel about this. Who benefits from andrew jackson act essay this demarcation?
Haven’t we in the non-cis community already taken the short class that it’s no fun to be excluded? Like, every day? The only thing I want to andrew indian removal act essay, say to anyone who is marginalized in any way is, “Thank you for coming. Taming Of The. I’m glad you could be here.” My reason for using the asterisk has been to andrew jackson removal act essay, share a sense that there are many kinds of non-cis identities (the misunderstood inclusion variety you mention), but also to make sure that I’m distinguishing between my privilege as a genderqueer person often identified by others as cis because of cover for sap my presentation and andrew jackson, the oppressions experienced by other people who are transgender and whose presentation is often a site and source of violence, hate, bias, and discrimination. India Dream Short. I have been given to understand in many trainings around LGBTQIA issues that Trans* includes me–I have never heard that the “umbrella inclusive term” is genderqueer until your post. So I’m just not sure here. I want to jackson indian act essay, be accurate to my experience without co-opting the in the identity terms of people whose row is much harder to hoe than mine. Trans does include you, if you identify as such! Genderqueer can be an umbrella term in jackson indian removal the sense that people can identify as genderqueer and india short essay, also identify as trans, agender, non-binary, etc.
I wouldn’t say, however, that the trans asterisk denotes the privilege of “cis-passing” genderqueer people. Andrew Indian Act Essay. Instead I would say that it is harmful in the sense that it invalidates the identities of genderqueer, non-binary, (etc.) transgender people as being “not really trans” just because they aren’t binary. Off A Essay. I would also bear in mind that even though you are cis-passing, many non-binary and/or genderqueer people are not. And so the andrew indian trans asterisk does more to invalidate the identities of non-binary people who very often may experience the same kind of oppression for essay being trans as a binary trans person than it does to removal act essay, denote privilege of college a specific set of genderqueer individuals. Does that make sense?
Yes–thanks! I suppose I was taught to see transgender and Trans* as both being positive and affirming, one of a narrower category and the other of andrew jackson act essay a broader category–one that included me, which I was happy about. How Do Off A Essay. But I see how your concern is that the broader category might serve to make it seem like one must be binary to andrew jackson removal, be “really trans”, when what I was taught was the opposite (I felt welcomed, not alienated, by inclusion in the broader category, and letter, it gave me the andrew jackson act essay opportunity to try to avoid co-opting the narrower one). Thank you for essay writing this post – I’ve learned a lot from reading it and all the indian act essay comments. I’m a journalist who has been struggling over whether to use “trans*” or “trans” when writing articles, and someone on reddit linked me here after I made a query about it in /r/transeducate. I will say that researching into the asterisk’s usage in the first place taught me a lot; like Meklorka above, I used to believe that “genderqueer” was the all-inclusive term, and that “trans” and “transgender” only referred to those who were transitioning between binary genders. Reading about the is my asterisk (and the word “transgender” more generally) was what made me realise that “trans” referred to a whole world of andrew indian removal act essay genders beyond that.
But even after I determined that I should be inclusive and how do college essay, use the asterisk, I always felt uncomfortable doing so, like I was doing it for show. I think part of the andrew jackson act essay reason I’m uneasy about the cover for sap bi consultant * is because its connotations of being used as a “search wildcard” are very specific to the computer age and those who are digitally literate, and andrew indian, that in itself seems exclusionary. I love terms that have evolved on the internet and creep their way into in the shrew everyday conversation, but only when they refer to things that are digital and online. And speaking of conversation, how are you supposed to express “trans*” when speaking to someone? Do you have to vocalise it somehow or you’re not being inclusive? What about the word “transgender”, is removal act essay that accepted as an umbrella term or not? No-one ever puts an asterisk next to that, but why not, if it’s so important? These are all reasons why I couldn’t fully reconcile myself to using the * even though it seemed like such a good idea in theory. Essay. But like I said, I did learn from indian removal act essay it, and I’m learning even more now. I had always thought that the asterisk was a ‘wildcard’ symbol, like in programming.
In that usage, ‘trans*’ would mean ‘transgender, transsexual, transman, transwoman, etc.’ Back when there was still a lot of commonapp.org discussion around ‘transgender’ vs. ‘transsexual,’ using ‘trans*’ was both more convenient and more inclusive. Jackson Removal. That’s why I started using it. I stopped for a similar reason: most people I talk to india is my dream short, started to know what I was talking about if I just said “trans,” so I dropped the asterisk out of andrew jackson indian removal act essay laziness. The comments discussing “genderqueer” as the letter for sap inclusive term are confusing, to me. People I know who identify as genderqueer have been very clear that they use the word to mean a variety of things unique to themselves, but they almost always seem to include “having a nonbinary, fluid, changeable, or uncertain gender; or questioning the whole concept of ‘gender.'” I had thought that people such as myself, whose gender can be described and recognized by the binary system in a fairly accurate way, were NOT genderqueer. I think there are varying perceptions of who the word genderqueer includes. However, the definition I found on genderqueerid.com’s FAQ page says that. “Genderqueer is a term used to describe those whose gender is non-normative (‘queer’) or who ‘queer’ gender through presentation or other means (queer in the latter case is being used as a verb).” They also later say that. “Identifying as transgender specifically may not express a non-binary identity as clearly as the term “genderqueer” does, which may be seen as its own ‘umbrella’ category differentiated from, and overlapping with, transgender.” In this particular instance I think what they mean by “‘umbrella’ category” is not that it encompasses all trans people, but that it is an umbrella term that can be used by many different sorts of non-binary people (who may or may not also identify as or fit the “definition of” transgender).
Another term that has to be eliminatede for andrew many transgender persons is the term “pre-op.” Since I don’t plan to have surgery, I am a “non-op” transgender woman, and I’m not “pre-op” because there is no “op” pending, so there can be no “pre-” anything. The term “pre-op” is essay a grossly inaccurate description of indian act essay those like me who have no plans for surgery. “Pre-op” is another constricting term placed upon transgender persons. It presumes all transgender persons will have an operation, no doubt yet another attempt to put rules on who is really transgender and cover for sap, who is not. I’ve yet to see a real cry from others like me who are mislabeled this way, as though an “op” is the andrew removal only way to be “trans enough,” as though you’re less when you’re a “pre-” but you meet society’s sexist expectations of your genitalia when you’re a “post-.” I suggest the terms “pre-op” and classification, “post-op” and “non-op” be used. Alouette, Thank you for informing me! I’ve never heard the term “non-op” before, but now that you explain it I definitely like that better than “pre-op.” I will change the language in the article later today. First time read of indian Pulp Zine, I’m trans (not sure what, rather just say trans-eccentric or just plain ‘tranny’) and whilst I enjoyed reading the cell essay article, I have a few grievances towards it – or rather, towards the Trans/* community as a whole. So, prepare to be bored by my long-winded thoughts! The Trans/* community, like many other communities, can be scarily noninclusive.
There’s no point in pretending there’s no a Trans hierarchy, because there is. There’s no point in pretending there aren’t certain Trans people who think they deserve more authority in their opinion because of either the andrew act essay lengths of surgery or suffering they’ve been through on essay, their journey. And it’s understandable: it’s a viciously rough and confusing journey, and given the andrew indian act essay amounts of discrimination and harassment, it’s understandable why the Trans community has grievances towards their ‘cisgender’ counterparts, but when we talk about the oppression of Trans people, maybe we could also open up the discussion of Trans-on-Trans discrimination and invalidation? I – and many Transgender people I know – have been made to feel as if we’re ‘just not Trans enough’ by classification essay, members of the Trans community themselves. I was born with a penis, and assigned male at birth. But I’ve never been a male. I’ve never felt like a male. Andrew Indian Removal Act Essay. I think I probably should’ve been born a female. Suits feel far more like drag attire than dresses do.
But given all that, I’m now some gender-eccentric being who is neither Arthur nor Martha, or, at india dream times more Martha than Arthur, and andrew indian removal, vice versa. Now, as far as I can see, that makes me Trans. “across, through, over, beyond, to or on cell essay ap biology, the other side of, outside of” I’ve recently graduated as an English teacher, so I tend to get excited over certain words. And Trans is andrew jackson indian removal act essay definitely one. India Is My Short Essay. Why? Because, by it’s very description, it’s all inclusive.
It takes in a range of ideas, it’s ‘off the spectrum’. I think each word of the definition describes my gender perfectly, so as far as I’m concerned, I’m Trans, and andrew jackson act essay, entitled to be part of the debate – whether or not I want to, or feel the need to, permanently assign one gender to myself or not. And yet, there are plenty of dream essay people who have duly ignored, or dismissed, my contributions to the discussion, because they are the opinions of andrew indian removal act essay someone who won’t have surgery, take hormones, or legally change their gender. And that’s why I just can’t bring myself to agreeing that Crossdressers and Drag Artists shouldn’t be a part of the cell conversation, or be welcomed into the Trans community, if so they wish. I understand there are issues between these two identities and jackson indian removal, the Trans community, but surely, that’s all the questions more reason why Crossdressers and jackson indian, Drag Artists need to cover letter, be included in the community conversation? Given the description of the Trans prefix above, I think surely it’d be fair to say – at least a little – that Crossdressers and Drag Artists fit into that description? Even if someone’s ‘cisgender’ 99% of the time, surely that 1% where they are not qualifies them to an opinion and a voice in jackson the Trans conversation?
I have witnessed, both online and in the real world, situations where well-meaning cisgender individuals have ‘got it a little wrong’, and letter for sap, have been ruthlessly ripped apart by andrew indian removal, the Trans community (similarly, Queer allies by the Queer community). It’s sickening. How on Earth we can warrant the cell essay ap biology respect of the non Trans world when we can be so vicious towards our well-meaning (but sometimes not terribly well-articulated or well-versed) counterparts? I’ve been rancorously reprimanded by self-appointed Trans spokespeople and activists for jackson indian act essay having a difference of opinion to them on Trans issues – one such example was being told by a Trans woman that “any self-respecting Trans Ally needed to boot me out of their space with a large wooden pole” because I said that the cover letter bi consultant Queer and andrew jackson removal, Trans community was sometimes guilty of deception in the taming self-victimisation (and I’m sorry guys, but it’s an inconvenient, yet understandable truth). The most worrying thing? This lady was a leader in the University’s Education Network. A very scary thought, considering Education should be all about the exploration and indian removal, discussion of ideas and knowledge. I believe that if society has a whole had a debate over what exactly ‘gender’ is (and what it’s not – such as misogynistic, societal expectations) – and what ‘Trans’ means – there’d be a LOT more people who’d probably subscribe, and cell, embrace, a ‘non-cisgender’ identity.
Articles on whether an jackson removal act essay asterix is appropriate or not are well-intentioned, but guided towards a part of society that is how do already ‘on board’ with the Trans community’s fight for acceptance and respect. We need to go back to the grass roots of the andrew removal act essay cause. When you read comments describing individuals such as Caitlyn Jenner as ‘Science Projects’, when Transgendered youths are made homeless by their families, and when violence and harassment of Transgendered individuals still continues, whether or not an dream short essay asterix is needed when using the andrew jackson indian word Trans is surely not a high-priority discussion? My parents know very little about Trans issues, but have always been supportive of myself and my identity – as they’ve said, ‘we don’t care, as long as you’re happy’, and similarly with a lot of my friends (something I’m incredibly fortunate for, and something I hope will be commonplace in the future). That’s what I think we need to work towards in society in classification essay regards to Trans and Queer issues. We shouldn’t have an expectation of non-Trans people getting it right all the time, nor an expectation that every member of andrew jackson removal act essay society should understand the deep and complex issues revolving around Gender Identity. We need to essay, discuss these things, educate through discussion, and not enter society with a list of demands that even the andrew jackson Trans community can’t agree on. We shouldn’t be requiring our Allies to have the cover letter same amount of gender/sexual identity exploration and knowledge as us, but rather, looking towards Allies as being the andrew people who are respectful and supportive of our individual identities as people. I can forgive a few slip-ups and clusters of ignorance for unwavering support of myself and how do off a essay, my individual identity.
In regards to andrew removal, other comments, I do believe that some cisgender people face Trans prejudice, and therefore have valuable input into the discussion. Deception In The Taming. The reason why misogyny is so rampant is because we categorise and box people, and we place ‘expectations of standards’ upon them as a result. Misogyny is the cause of so many prejudices towards Queer Trans people. Straight people often find themselves the victims of homophobic harassment, and indian removal act essay, if the off a college goal is the elimination of homophobia, then these people need to be included on jackson removal act essay, the conversation, and essay, encouraged to indian, join the fight – rather than the is my disassociate themselves with the movement because of act essay their identity doesn’t ‘fit’. Cover Letter Bi Consultant. Their experience of homophobic or transphobic prejudice is JUST as valid (and damaging) as anyone else’s – imagine how horrible it is andrew indian removal act essay facing discrimination for something you’re not?!
We’ve GOT to be inclusive, or else we’re guilty of essay ap biology placing the same expectations and jackson indian removal, standards on commonapp.org essay, people and their identity that we’ve faced too; and we’ve got to deplore any act by members of the Trans community that show the same sickening discrimination and isolation Trans people face themselves. In ANY cultural community, there are those by andrew removal act essay, which are members by identity or birthright, and those of which who have been welcomed in classification through support or Allyship. As far as I’m concerned, anyone who supports my gender or sexual identity is an andrew jackson indian Ally, and deception taming shrew, therefore a part of the community. Andrew Jackson Indian Removal. And if they want to identify as a Trans-ally, then they’re under the Trans umbrella too. Commonapp.org Essay. We could all learn a lot from listening to our Allies – not least, on ways in which we can get more Allies on jackson act essay, side (pssst, I think Education through sensible, open-discussion is questions a great place to start!). Anyway – just my two cents! Sorry for the long post. No need to apologize!
I’m so glad this article made you think so much. I understand what you mean by this not being a high-priority issue. Certainly, an article about social justice semantics is andrew jackson removal act essay not directly saving the lives of trans kids in teachers classification essay abusive situations or anything like that! At the same time, I think discussion of all sorts is needed, not just basic lets-educate-the-public talk. My hope is that through discussions that revolve around topics like semantics (which are arguably not immediately relevant) activists who are working to andrew jackson, further acceptance for and within the trans community can evaluate our stances and the impact of our actions, and thus be better educators and more conscientious in our daily lives about who our actions affect (especially as activists, who are raising our voices above the clamor in the name of india essay rights for trans and gender non-conforming people). I also would say that while there are cis people and andrew indian removal, straight people who have been targeted by transphobia and homophobia, it does not in my mind mean they have experienced what it is like to cover bi consultant, be trans or not straight in society. Even if they are offended and hurt by the prejudice they face, at the end of the day it is misdirected. They can still go home and know that they are cisgender and heterosexual, and that those insults were not meant to hurt them. It’s very different to be upset (as a reasonable cis, straight person would be!) by transphobia and homophobia when it doesn’t target you than to know that the words people are spitting in your direction are condemning an identity that you hold close enough to act essay, your being to claim it as your own.
I’m not saying that misdirected hatred is easy for the person it’s been shoved at (no matter how much it applies or doesn’t apply). But it is easier than knowing that the cell essay ap biology hatred you are experiencing is truly meant for you. I am also a strong believer in jackson indian removal educating rather than condemning people who may have never been introduced to concepts such as being transgender. I also see what you mean by allies being valuable, and I think that is true! But I think there is room within activist spaces to work on educating and teachers classification, gaining acceptance from the general public and to deconstruct our own ideas and think about our activism and act essay, views on subjects (like how we classify gender) in new and different ways. Trans* has been used by international TRANS activists groups to be more expansive http://transactivists.org/trans/ Global Action for Trans* Equality. “GATE uses the term trans* to essay, describe those people who transgress (binary) (western) gender norms, many of whom face human rights issues as a result.
Trans* people includes those people who have a gender identity which is different to the gender assigned at birth and/or those people who feel they have to, prefer to or choose to andrew jackson indian removal, – whether by clothing, accessories, cosmetics or body modification – present themselves differently to the expectations of the gender role assigned to them at birth. Cell Essay. This includes, among many others, transsexual and jackson removal, transgender people, transvestites, travesti, cross dressers, no gender and genderqueer people. The term trans* should be seen as a placeholder for many identities, most of in the of the shrew which are specific to local cultures and times in history, describing people who broaden and expand a binary understanding of gender.” Hm. I understand where you’re coming from, especially with the removal act essay “specific to local cultures and times in history” bit. However, I think still think that when people use the in the taming term trans*, and are not intending to andrew act essay, describe people who are members of any and all groups you listed above, it is the wrong term to use. India Dream Essay. I do think we need a way to andrew removal act essay, talk about all people who present and/or identify differently than their expectations assigned at dream essay birth, but I think there could be a word to describe that that does not use transgender identity as a vehicle (especially when many members of that group may strongly identify as cisgender, even if they wear clothing that isn’t a norm for their gender assigned at jackson removal act essay birth). As a trans woman and activist, I love the use of essay trans, trans* and transgender as umbrella terms.
In my experience, the problem we have is one of semantics, rooted in whether transgender means: (a) people who break the removal rules of teachers gender other than in andrew jackson indian act essay who they sleep with (i.e. people whose identities *and/or expressions* differ from cover letter for sap that assigned to them at or shortly after birth ) (b) people who cis society perceives “cross over” from one binary gender to another, even though many actually identified that way their entire lives. When I was introduced to andrew act essay, the term “transgender,” it clearly meant (a). It was an umbrella used for organizing, and it was useful in getting all the india is my dream essay gender outlaws under one banner. Andrew Jackson. But when the india is my dream short media started reporting specifically on transsexuals in the late 00’s, it assumed “transgender” was a polite substitution for “transsexual” because… uh… I guess they thought it’s better to not say “sex” or something. (Tangent: At times, “transgender” it was used to refer specifically to no-ho/non-op people who have a binary gender identity that conflicts with their assignment at birth, thus shedding the medical diagnostic ties of “transsexual.” This should be no surprise, as the term “transgender” was reappropriated from the word “transgenderist” as was popularized by jackson removal act essay, Virginia Prince in the 1970s who organized around this very identity, and who was instrumental in the part-time MTF-spectrum umbrella that included both trans women and how do you start off a, AFAB crossdressers.)
As a consequence of this binary-focused mainstream media coverage, many non-binary people and andrew jackson removal, cissexed gender non-conforming people felt it does not include them, so they stopped identifying with it. If however, we use Transgender as an umbrella term, many gender-variant people who identify with the cell essay ap biology gender they were assigned at andrew jackson removal birth might want to use the how do essay term “cis*sexed* and transgender” while non binary people can use “non binary transgender” Failing that, to my knowledge, we lack any short umbrella term that has ever satisfied a large number of people. Indian. And that causes a problem whenever someone is trying to concisely convey the spectrum of people who might have a stake or at least a deep-seated personal interest in combatting transphobia, binary sexism, imperialist gender systems, transmisogyny, body-freedom and so on. Hi, so, first and questions, foremost, this article is a wonderful critique of the trans-asterisk, and I have always wondered what the point of it was, considering that most people consider “trans” an umbrella term. However, I do disagree with that term being used to encompass any and all gender that is not cis. Because single-gender, binary trans people receive a much different experience from the Western culture than do nonbinary, agender, and multigender folks, I personally feel that to andrew indian, use the word “trans” to include everyone who isn’t cisgender is for sap marginalizing at best. For example, single-gender, binary trans people are much more likely to have their pronouns validated because very many (if not most) of them use the pronouns that are largely accepted as “correct” by standard English (ie she, hers, he, his etc). Andrew Jackson Indian Act Essay. However, people who identify with neutral and other uncommon pronouns (they, ze, xe, zey), from deception in the taming of the shrew my experience, get a lot more crap from ignorant cisgender folks. Act Essay. And the people that use those pronouns, or no pronouns at all, are usually agender, nonbinary, or multigender. Furthermore, we are increasingly becoming aware of transgender people in the media, and they are always single-gender, binary, “passing”, and classification essay, overall gender-conforming, so the removal act essay general public associates the word “transgender” with people who are, again, binary and single-gender (Caitlyn Jenner, Laverne Cox, Jenna Talackova, Chaz Bono, et cetera).
To include words meant specifically for people who do not identify as one, binary trans gender is to say, “We hear you, we acknowledge your experiences, and yes, we give a damn.” Hey there Alchemy. Teachers Essay. I don’t think anyone’s disagreeing with you here! I believe I may have cleared this up earlier, but there are a lot of comments so I understand if you didn’t have a chance to read through them all. Andrew Indian. I defined transgender as “to identify as any gender other than–or in dream essay addition to–the one you were assigned at jackson removal birth (this includes identifying as multiple genders or no gender at all).” That said, I agree with you that not everybody who identifies as a gender other than their gender assigned at how do you start college birth identifies as transgender. I was not trying to say that all people who do not identify as the gender they were assigned are automatically trans, and I’m sorry it came across that way. However, I would say that the label transgender can be accurately claimed by anybody who identifies as any gender other than the one they were assigned at birth. Andrew Indian Act Essay. It is important to distinguish between binary trans people, non-binary trans people, and people who don’t identify with their assigned gender but also don’t identify as trans. Deception Taming Shrew. The experiences of andrew indian removal these people are very different, and that is valid and needs to cover bi consultant, be brought up. But when talking about everyone who identifies as transgender, adding an asterisk on to the end of the andrew indian removal act essay word “trans” doesn’t do this.
Instead it serves to invalidate some trans identities as being “less trans” than others, among other things (you’ve read the article already, and I feel like I outlined it pretty thoroughly there). I’m not arguing that we should get rid of words that distinguish between different trans identities or eschew other concepts of non-conforming gender for the single label of “trans”! I just think we need to change the way we address everyone who identifies as trans (and thus falls underneath the umbrella term “transgender” by essay, their own free will and andrew, identity). Does that make sense? I hope this wasn’t too rambly/unclear! […] I was hurting so much the essay first time I heard it that I actually blogged about it (this was, pretty ironically, before I understood the asterisk is problematic). […] I just read this post because you linked to andrew jackson indian, it in your everyday feminism post about dysphoria.
It really disappoints me that at cover letter for sap bi consultant a post about andrew act essay, inclusion, a post noting how it’s wrong to commonapp.org questions, tell someone they aren’t “trans enough” continues to exclude. Crossdressing and drag is often the jackson indian act essay first way a trans person investigates gender because there is *some* social exceptability in taming of the performing a different gender. For other’s crossdressinf and drag is not a gateway to trans but the needed gender expression itself. Gender is complicated. I’m non-binary but present much closer to the gender associated with my sex, leaving me being read as cis gendered by…everyone. Maybe stop putting up fences for those imagined evil cis people who try to infiltrate your space and just be a decent human to andrew jackson indian removal act essay, other people.
I actually didn’t write that everyday feminism article, believe it or not. It’s a very cool article though, and I’m happy the author linked his to mine! #128578; In any case, as far as your comment goes. There are lots of questions forms of gender expression and presentation, and of course crossdressing and drag are two of andrew jackson removal act essay them. Cell Ap Biology. I’m not trying to jackson act essay, say that those aren’t valid forms of expression, or that people who present outside of the norm for their gender aren’t marginalized, or that drag performers don’t face stigma. I’m also not trying to assert that crossdressers or drag performers are not trans, since many are. What I’m saying is just that if someone explicitly identifies as cis, then they are cis, regardless of what they are wearing or performing in. And since they are cis, people should not refer to them as trans when they are not. (Also I’m sorry you’ve experienced misgendering, that’s never fun.) See, you speak lots of nice words, but they really seem to disagree with my lived experience.
The fact is, that for many binary transfolk (#notallbinarytrans) genderqueer and essay questions, other non-binary folk AREN’T considered trans. That’s just a fact. It’s awful, it’s cruel, and it’s wrong – but it’s there. I was DMAB, and have identified off the binary for much of the indian removal act essay past two decades. Let me tell you, it hasn’t been great, trying to fight to be included in the “trans umbrella”. Deception In The Taming. I’ve been asked to leave stores during their Women-and-Trans hours, I’ve been excluded from trans safe spaces (but never from trans* safe spaces) and I’ve had to fight to be allowed to do things like derby, even when leagues have trans policies. There’s a reason a lot of social spaces specify ‘Trans and non-binary’. It’s because, to andrew indian act essay, a large amount of binary trans folk (#notallbinarytrans), WE’RE NOT “REALLY” TRANS. You can argue that we should be considered trans, and you can argue that trans should include us under the ‘umbrella’. But sadly, we often aren’t, and thus is how do you start off a essay doesn’t. At this point in history, the term ‘trans’ has too much hurtful baggage – it’s a term that has been used to jackson, exclude us for decades; it is not a term of safety to essay, non-binary folk.
That’s why I’ll continue to use trans*, and andrew jackson indian removal, continue to how do off a college, encourage people who care about non-binary folk to use it as well. Hmmm… This is a point that I’ve seen brought up by a number of other commenters (whose comments I’ll be posting shortly) as well, and I think you’re all very correct. Andrew Jackson Indian Removal Act Essay. Though trans should be an is my short umbrella term, it isn’t used as one by many binary trans folk as well as binary cis people. Andrew. I can understand why one would find the teachers classification trans * helpful. However, I still find it off-putting because I feel it continues to jackson, reinforce the idea that non-binary or genderqueer people aren’t trans (as long as they identify as trans). In my mind the ideal situation would be for people and organizations to use the term trans, while making it clear through their actions and essay, words that they include non-binary trans people under the andrew removal transgender umbrella. That will be one of the only ways the word trans will start to include non-binary people more regularly, and the only way for essay non-binary people to take back the word “trans” as a term of safety. That said, I don’t disagree with you. Indian Removal Act Essay. I guess I am not quite sure what a good alternative is, since I know many people who’ve had similar experiences to yours, and many people who’ve had similar experiences to mine. Saying “non-cis” instead of cover letter trans might be one way to make it explicit that you are referring to, well, non-cis people, not just binary trans folks. I tend not to andrew, like terms that start with a negative, but I currently can’t come up with a better way to india dream short essay, put it.
[…] actually identify as trans. This history behind that tiny asterisk will take too long to explain here, but to summarize briefly: cisgender people bestowed the asterisk upon trans communities, and that […] I am convinced that the majority of andrew jackson indian removal crossdressers are trans but due to socio-economic or personal reasons limit their trans experience to essay, simply dressing up.. I went 45 years convinced that I was just a crossdresser. I knew I was not anything else.
I have personally known two gender fluid teens who have since come out as trans. Andrew Indian Removal. My umbrella is letter for sap bi consultant large and andrew indian, there is enough room for many. Gender Queer, Gender Fluid, crossdressers, drag. Teachers. To exclude them from the removal act essay trans umbrella is to turn our back on our brothers and sisters. All are welcome. Thats just as pathetic as using the word “cis”. This is partly the reason people see us as a joke or dont take us seriously… I’m not whining. Don’t read a semantics article if you don’t want to hear about semantics. I wondered if you’d consider sharing your voice on our site?
If you’d like to become a contributor, there’s a link at the bottom of each page! I want to understand this but am having a difficult time. Teachers Classification. There are a few points that don’t make sense to me: 1. Cis cross dressers don’t deal with what (your definition of trans) people deal with on a daily basis. Isn’t this completely contrary to your main point that all trans people are not the same and don’t struggle the same? The word trans has become so widely used that we now have “nonbinary dfab femme presenting with no dysphoria who only jackson act essay, dates cis men” under the queer and trans umbrella. And I would definitely argue that out crossdressers and how do you start, queens definitely face more transmisogyny, transphobia, and indian removal act essay, homophobia than a “nonbinary dfab femme presenting with no dysphoria who only dates cis men” who considers themself trans. 2. The asterix was created by dfab people to silence trans women.
I have heard this point before but still don’t see an actual explanation of how this silences anyone. I read your piece again looking for cover for sap bi consultant it and could not find it. Even if it was created by dfab people, dfab trans people are allowed to have trans things and it’s oppression olympics to indian removal act essay, suggest that everything dfab people create is wrong because privilege- especially because so many dfab people still move throughout the world being read as nonnormative women- even if they don’t experience trans misogyny, it’s not a cake walk. 3. The asterix is used to say some people aren’t trans enough… including trans women. From everything you have said, this also seems contrary to the term used to be more inclusive. Cover Letter Bi Consultant. I have also NEVER heard anyone ever say trans women were not trans enough. Andrew Jackson Indian. They are considered the most trans and are the questions most visible example of trans gender people (and that visibility comes at a huge cost, don’t get me wrong.) Anytime I talk to a nonradical queer about andrew jackson indian, trans issues they only essay, know about trans women. So this makes no sense to me. 4. You’re either trans or you’re not. I have met many many people who identify as “sort of” trans or “in between” trans and cis. And they are allowed to identify that way.
So while you are making the point that trans means so many things and we should not narrow it down to being one way, you then reinforce that very idea. Hey! Just real fast though–I’m a person who uses the ‘*’ at the end of the LGBTQIA acronym to removal act essay, cover all the extra identities that exist beyond even the letter longest acronym. Does that create a problem because of the indian act essay history of the cell essay ‘*’ being used to exclude trans identities? I also want to clear up the whole drag/crossdressing issue on another front. I’m sorry if my language has seemed demonizing towards drag performers or crossdressing individuals, because that was not my intent. I recognize that cis drag performers and cis crossdressers are marginalized for not conforming to andrew removal, gender norms, and I also recognize that there are many drag performers and cell ap biology, crossdressers who are trans! They are not mutually exclusive identities #128578; I would also like to clarify that a lot of the associations made between transness and crossdressing/drag comes from cis people who are not crossdressers or drag performers, not crossdressers #038; drag performers themselves. When some cis people see someone crossdressing they automatically associate that person as trans, and when they see someone who is trans they may automatically label them a drag performer/crossdresser. The reason this is harmful is both because it associates presentation with gender (i.e. that person is indian removal act essay wearing a dress so they must be a girl) and because it enforces the idea that a trans person is in the taming shrew really just “a man in a dress” or “a tomboy” or someone “playing dress-up” when this is andrew indian removal not the case.
But again, these assumptions are not coming from how do you start college people involved in drag or crossdressing. My original intent in bringing that up in the article was not to jackson indian act essay, call out all crossdressers or drag performers as cis, or to exclude them if they are trans, or to you start off a college essay, say that they are not marginalized. Andrew Act Essay. My point was to bring up the fact that it’s an issue when anyone (though this often comes from cis non drag performers) says “oh, even if he identifies as cis he’s trans because he wears a skirt” or “oh, she’s really just a man in classification a dress,” which is andrew jackson indian removal what happens when one tries to label specifically cis-identifying drag performers and crossdressing individuals as transgender just because they present differently. Gabriel, I re-read your post several times, but if I missed something, please forgive me. I did not see you address those of us who identify as transSEXUAL (not transgender). The fact that in this piece you argue so strongly against a trans-umbrella, then go onto say that “trans” only teachers essay, includes transGENDER identified folks is precisely the reason I use “trans*”. As a transsexual person who is not transgender, it is simply exclusionary to say that “trans” wouldn’t apply because I am not the right “type” of trans to use it. Can you address? Thanks. It is important to acknowledge ALL gender non-conforming people as trans, not just the ones this author personally feels are trans enough.
This author’s view that they get to say who is andrew jackson indian removal act essay trans and who is not is the prime example of why the asterisk is commonapp.org essay still in removal act essay use. I was reading your post and I have a couple questions – and ap biology, I apologize if you answered this already, I didn’t see it covered in the comments above but may have missed it. And sorry if it is long winded! You stated that “We need to do away with the andrew jackson asterisk, whose creation was a backlash against trans women, and whose existence tells so many people that they aren’t “trans enough.” ” – do you have more details to dream essay, back up the story of “trans*” being created to backlash against trans women? I read it in blogs…and now in your post…stated as a fact but I can’t see to act essay, dig up any info that isn’t just anecdotal or by word of mouth. Not to say it isn’t right…but I would love to teachers classification essay, know a source for this info.
I also bring this up because the history of the transgender community can get lost in translation from generation to generation, so I feel like a lot of historical context gets forgotten. Jackson Act Essay. For example, I have read that the term “t*” was very prevalent for many decades and even predates “transgender” as an ap biology “umbrella” term for the community we now call “transgender”. “t*” was created to make what was the andrew indian removal then “transsexual” community more inclusive. Then transgender became the umbrella term and the community then split and cell essay, had very heated debates about andrew jackson removal, whether folks should use transsexual or transgender. Not unlike what we are seeing today with the dream term “trans*”. Is, perhaps, “trans*” really a more modern incantation of “t*”?
If so, do you or anyone else know a more detailed version of the creation of the term “t*”? Also, while looking up the history of “trans*” and the argument why we shouldn’t use it, I stumbled on jackson removal act essay, this interesting and dream essay, arguably convincing summary on andrew indian act essay, the issue. What I really took away from the analysis, besides in deception in the shrew debunking who and andrew removal act essay, who didn’t create the deception taming of the shrew term “trans*”, was something I have seen a lot of in the arguments for doing away with the term: “While it’s white queer and trans FAAB people who started the asterisk, it’s also white queer and trans FAAB people who are at andrew jackson removal the front lines of taming of the critiquing the use of the asterisk, including the use among trans people of color, trans women, and nonbinary people who use it to describe themselves. The call-out culture prevalent online is something that does solidly contribute to the oppression of some of the most marginalized members of our community by privileging access to andrew removal, the most up-to-date theoretical work around what it means to be trans over is my dream short essay, actual trans experiences.” http://www.transstudent.org/asterisk.
Thanks for talking about and engaging in an important and interesting topic! Look forward to your thoughts. When I first saw trans* written somewhere I assumed it meant trans as in transgender and/or transsexual, not as a “trans umbrella”. Trans* was created to fuse together genderqueer movements and andrew act essay, transgender movements and to absorb non binary into cell transgender and andrew jackson indian act essay, out of the queer movement, so it could be LGBT and deception taming of the shrew, not LGBTQ. There was a danger the T and Q would come up with different opinions on gender, as Q originated from social gender originally. A while back people used to identify as trans women and act essay, also genderqueer and the genderqueer was meant to be about rejecting the essay roles. A lot of the indian act essay politics of the Q are from butler.
I can tell you that as a gender role non conforming cis person i dont want including under the trans umbrella and letter bi consultant, since the * i find i am. I disagree with the indian removal argument that we should stop using the cell essay *asterisk. Andrew Jackson. After having attended the Asterisk Trans* Conference 2014, it seems clear that a trans* community has been built around the inclusivity of the term! The culmination of all these lived experiences in Southern California is evidence to the fact that the term is short gaining steam. http://asteriskconference.blogspot.com/p/faq.html. Also, leading activist Bamby Salcedo writes “a person of trans* experience”.
This was written quickly! Honestly I hate the us of the term “trans” altogether b/c it is turning what was a general prefix, basically meaning “across or beyond”, into a very specific term about gender distinctions. There are a lot of andrew indian removal act essay words that start with “trans”, like “transportation”, “translate” and “transfer” that having nothing to do with this. Letter For Sap Bi Consultant. I hate to think that a couple decades down the road, those words will become outmoded because their meanings have become imbued with intractable connotations of gender issues. Aren’t there any better alternatives? I get around this by using the term “gender-variant”, which does not have loaded assumptions about identity in it. Also, trans means “across” gender, which was intended to mean anyone who does not identify with the gender assigned at birth. It is an umbrella term to andrew removal, refer to classification essay, gender diversity as well. Andrew Jackson Indian Removal. There is other language out you start off a there, it is just not used. Regardless, great article, thanks for sharing! And thanks to the folks who contributed to the conversation as well! #128578;
[…] on 10/13/2013. Usage note: “Trans*” was a common convention in indian act essay 2013 but is generally no longer used. I no longer use it but have preserved it in reposts in which it originally occurred for letter for sap […] Hi, thank you for this article. I appreciate your ideas and the helpful (and thoughtful) replies you have made to the comments. Jackson Removal Act Essay. I think, personally, I still believe in using the asterisk, and I explain a bit as to essay, why here. But that aside, I want to ask if you can clarify something? You mention that drag performers who identify as cisgender do not fall under the umbrella because their experiences are not exactly the same. But the same to andrew act essay, whose? There is such diversity under this umbrella. And, I understand that in essay the Western world, many drag performers do not face a great deal of discrimination – though some do, of jackson removal course.
However, in South Africa, where I began doing drag, we faced tremendous discrimination. I myself did not identify as cis, but my drag brothers and sisters did, and so finding camaraderie and shared fear of crossing gender boundaries with others in the trans community proved very helpful. So this may in cover bi consultant part a cultural privilege to do drag and not deal with discrimination or backlash. Also, I think whether a drag performer identifies as cis may in indian removal a way be moot because it is cell ap biology how others view them. Removal. And must one be identified by others as gender bending all the time (not just Saturday nights) in order to qualify as trans?
Because, if it requires that one always be facing potential discrimination, then post-op, fully ‘passing’ people may in a way be exempt from commonapp.org questions being trans. However, I realise there is a difference between one is afraid that their Saturday night adventure will be found out and jackson removal, one is cell ap biology afraid that their birth sex will be found out. Andrew Indian Act Essay. Of course the latter is usually more frightening. But they are both afraid of being ‘outed’ for letter transgressing gender lines. I suppose what I am saying is jackson removal act essay that it may not really be possible to fully delineate drag performers who otherwise live as cispeople from the trans umbrella, though they would probably be at the periphery.
Anyone who purposefully challenges gender norms and faces discrimination for it should, I believe, be allowed to teachers essay, identify with the trans community. In a way it comes down to semantics, but I think that drag performers shouldn’t all be clumped together – their experiences and circumstances (and reasoning) are quite diverse, even amongst those who live ‘cis’ lives most of the time. Thanks for reading, I really look forward to your thoughts on this!
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How does having divorced parents affect people as they consider their own marriages? How is financial security related to teachers classification relationship/marriage security? Write a Web of andrew removal, Issues Make a list of related words, phrases, problems and deception in the shrew, ideas. Use lines to connect ideas. This brainstorming list can help you have a wide view of different related ideas. In the case of my students, they used one of the following in the center of their web: marriage, divorce, family or relationship. Use Webs to jackson Make a List of arguable statements or questions . India Is My Short Essay! Taking their webs, my students did this in jackson removal class in small groups. You could do this on ap biology your own if your teacher doesn't assign it. Andrew! Or look at the list my students generated.
Compile a Topic List: Make your own list or look at dream the list above. Choose a Question that Interests You : Sometimes students chose the topic they had developed, but often they found one they were more interested in by looking through the list. Find Articles About that Topic : Use the ones in the book but also look online. Type your question in Google to see what articles it generates. Jackson Indian Removal! Then try typing in the main words of your topic into Google and your library search engine. If your library has access to Gale Opposing Viewpoints, that is a great source for articles on both sides of an how do college, issue. Read Your Articles and andrew indian act essay, Tweak your Question to india is my short find 3 positions : Sometimes, as you read about a topic, you may find that there aren't clearly defined positions. At other times, you may find some aspect of a topic more interesting. Andrew Removal Act Essay! so you can change the question to fit your interests, or else the commonapp.org essay, research you actually find. How to Write an Exploratory Essay With Sample Papers. by Virginia Kearney 8.
Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas. by jackson indian removal act essay Virginia Kearney 8. Exploratory Essay Outline and Organization. by how do off a college Virginia Kearney 0. How to Write a Great Topic Sentence. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 10. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. Andrew Indian Removal! How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40.
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Company Law Essay #8211; Cavendish University Law Lecturers Notes. DEFINITION OF COMPANY: The Companies Act Cap 110 definition section states that “company” means a company formed and andrew jackson registered under the Act or an existing company. The companies Act does not sufficiently define what a company is but authors have developed a definition of a company. Professor David Bakibinga in his book company law in taming of the shrew Uganda at page 2 defines a company as an artificial legal entity separate and distinct from its members or shareholders. This legal person is distinguishable from natural personality. Natural persons are born by natural people/persons and their lives end at death, artificial persons (corporations) are created by law and their existence is andrew indian, ended by the law.
The possession of a legal personality implies that a company is capable of enjoying rights and being subject to duties, separately from its members. As an artificial legal person, a company is capable of the following;- * It has an existence separate from that of the members and as such;- * It has its own name by which it is recognised. It can own its own property ie assets like buildings, land, bank accounts. etc * It can sue or be sued in its own name. * Even if a member or all the members die, the company will still remain in existence, in other words it has perpetual succession. * It can borrow money in its own name and use its assets as security and it will be responsible for taming shrew paying back such debts.. Indian! * It can employ its own employees, including its members or shareholders. i) This principle of legal personality was first distinctly articulated in essay the British House of act essay Lords Judgment in the case of Salomon Vs. Salmon Company Limited (1897) AC 22 At the court of first instance and cell essay ap biology appeal court, it was held That therefore the andrew jackson act essay company was a legal entity capable of cover for sap bi consultant a separate existence and liable to pay its own debts, and Salomon was not personally liable to andrew indian removal pay the debts of the company. ii) That a company is at law a different person altogether from the subscribers although it may be that after incorporation, the cover for sap business is exactly the same as was before, the same persons are the managers, and the same hands receive the andrew jackson indian removal act essay profits. The second person needed may not be an independent person. Dream! He could be the nominee of the first person. Where a private Company does not comply with these requirements, it loses exemptions and privileges conferred on a private company.
This failure can only be remedied upon showing court that it was caused by accident or inadvertence or some other sufficient cause. Under the Companies Act, Companies in Uganda can also be further divided into: * Limited by shares * Limited by guarantee * Unlimited companies (a) A company limited by shares. This is a company where the andrew jackson removal act essay members enjoy limited liability. This means that in case of winding up of the company if the company’s assets are unable to meet the company’s debts, then the members will only be liable to contribute to the debts of the company only such amounts as a member may not have paid for for sap bi consultant the shares they bought. i,e. , a member will only be required to pay the balance that he did not pay on indian, the shares he bought. Thus a members liability is only limited to the amount of the unpaid shares. a) A Company limited by guarantee This is one where the liability of its members is limited to such amount as the members may have undertaken to contribute to the company’s assets in the event of teachers classification essay its winding up. This guarantee must be expressed in the memorandum of association. i. Andrew Jackson Act Essay! e. there must be an express statement/undertaking by the subscribers / members that the members guarantee that they will pay a specified amount of money if in the event of winding up of the company, if the company’s assets are not sufficient to meet its debts. b) An unlimited company This is a company in which there is cell ap biology, no limit on the liability of the members. This means that in removal act essay the event of winding up, the members are liable to contribute money sufficient to cover all the company’s debts without any limitations, if the cell ap biology company for example has debts of millions and millions of shillings, the members have to be responsible to pay all the debts and the members personal estate/property can be encroached upon to discharge the liabilities of the company. PUBLIC COMPANIES.
The minimum required number for public companies is 7 and it goes up to infinity in other words there is no limit as to the maximum number of members a public company can have. A public company should be a limited liability company. Its Memorandum of Association must state that it is to be a public company. Its registered name normally ends with the words public limited company (plc). A Company, which has obtained registration as a public company, its original certificate of incorporation or subsequent ertificate of registration issued by the registrar must state that it is a public company. Distinction between Private and Public Companies A public company| A private Company| 1. Minimum of 7 members. For such company to do business there must be a minimum of at least 7 members.
Where the company continues to do business when the number of members has fallen below the legal minimum, then this is a ground for the winding up of the company. (Winding up is the process of putting the company’s existence to an end. ) 2. No maximum limit of members. Jackson Act Essay! 3. There must be a minimum of two directors 4. Cannot commence business until and unless it obtains a certificate of trading/certificate of you start off a college essay commencement of business, in addition to a certificate of incorporation. 5. Must hold a statutory meeting between l 3 months from the date of andrew removal commencement of business. Directors are required under the law to send a statutory report to how do off a essay every member within 14 days to jackson removal act essay the date of the meeting. Such report must also be sent the registrar of companies. 1. College Essay! Minimum of two members For such company to do business there must be a minimum of at least 2 members. Where the company continues to do business when the andrew jackson removal act essay number of members has fallen below the legal minimum, then this is a ground for the- winding up of the company. 2. The maximum number of members is 50 3. Only one director can suffice 4. Can commence business as soon as it acquires a certificate of incorporation.
5. No statutory meeting is required of such companies. | HOLDING AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES. A subsidiary company is one that is controlled by deception in the taming, another company called a holding company or its parent (or the parent company). The holding company is andrew indian removal, therefore one that controls another, and deception in the of the its memorandum must give it powers to do so. The most common way that control of a subsidiary is andrew jackson, achieved, is india is my, through the ownership of majority shares in the subsidiary by the parent Examples include holding companies such as MTN (Uganda) is a subsidiary of MTN (South Africa), Stanbic Bank Uganda is a subsidiary of Standard Bank (South Africa FORMATION/ REGISTRATION PROCESS. A company is indian removal, formed by essay, registering it with the Registrar of Companies and obtaining a certificate of incorporation. The registration process goes through the following steps;- 1. RESERVATION OF THE COMPANY NAME.
The promoters must choose a name of their choice and then make an application to the registrar of companies to reserve the name for their company. The name should not be identical with that of an existing company or so nearly resemble it as to be calculated to jackson indian removal act essay deceive, it should not also Contains the words “chamber of commerce” except where the nature of the company’s business so justifies it and lastly it should not suggests patronage (a connection) from government or be associated with immorality, crime or scandalous in nature. If the registrar is satisfied that the of the name meets the above requirements, he will approve and reserve the name, the company must then register within 60 days. Reservation means that within those 60 days the jackson removal registrar will not allow any other person to cell register another company using that same name. To guard against the possibility of a negative reply from the Registrar, promoters must have in mind one or more suitable alternatives. Once a company has secured registration in a particular name it secures a virtual monopoly of corporate activity under that name. In case the Registrar inadvertently approves a name which by law is not adequate, then the new company may change its name within 6 months. A company may change its name by special resolution and andrew jackson with the written approval of the Registrar. ‘Where the Registrar refuses to register a name without good reason, an application for an order of mandamus to cover bi consultant compel the registrar to perform his duty and register the company can be filed in the High Court.
2. Andrew Jackson! PRESENTATION OF THE REQUIRED DOCUMENTS BEFORE THE REGISTRAR FOR REGISTRATION. Within 60 days after the reservation of the name, the promoters will then present the following documents to taming the registrar to jackson indian removal have their company registered. * Memorandum of Association Articles of Association * A statement of nominal capital * A statutory declaration of compliance. * A statement with the names and particulars of directors and how do essay secretary * The prospectus. Jackson Indian Removal Act Essay! * The Memorandum of Association of the company. The memorandum of teachers association is the most important of all the andrew act essay company documents because it contains the teachers essay powers of the company, it describes the company and the nature of activities that the company is authorized to do or engage in. * Articles of Association This document regulates the internal activities of the members and the directors. It contains information on, management, who will be the directors of the company, who will be the managing director, secretary, appointment of the board of directors, qualifications of act essay directors, the chairman of the ap biology board, meetings (how meetings of the company should be called and conducted), the classes and rights of act essay shareholders, transfer of commonapp.org shares , borrowing powers of the company, its properties, control of the indian removal act essay company finance, dividends/profits and how they should be distributed auditing of essay questions books, the company seal and how it should be used etc * Declaration of compliance. This is a statement declaring that all the necessary requirements of the Companies Act with regard to the formation of the company have been duly complied with and that the directors agree to jackson continue complying with them. * A statement of nominal capital This is a statement which shows the india dream short essay capital with which the company is starting with. Andrew Jackson Indian! ie the initial capital of the company. * List of names and cover letter for sap bi consultant particulars of Directors and Company Secretary This document contains the andrew removal act essay details of the names, age, addresses, occupations of the directors and company secretary of the company. It should also contain an undertaking by the directors to take and questions pay for the qualification shares if any that such persons may be required to acquire. * A Prospectus If the company is a public company, it must in addition to the above documents also issue a prospectus which must also be registered with the companies’ registry. It is a document setting forth the nature and objects of a company and inviting the public to subscribe for shares in the company. It sets out the number of the founders/management, the share qualification of directors, names, description and addresses of directors, the shares offered to the public for subscription, property acquired by the company, the auditors, etc.
The purpose of the jackson prospectus is to provide the essential information about the commonapp.org essay position of a company when it is launched so that those interested in investing in it can properly assess the jackson risk of investment. 3. PAYMENT OF STAMP DUTY AND REGISTRATION FEES. The registrar will then assess how much duty is to be paid on registration of that company; it is sassed basing on the capital that the company is starting with, the more the cover letter bi consultant capital the greater the stamp duty. Registration fees are also paid. 4. ISSUANCE OF A CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION. After all these requirements, a certificate of registration is issued if the Registrar is satisfied.
THE MEMORANDUM ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION OF A COMPANY. The memorandum of Association. The Memorandum of Association of jackson act essay a company, which is required to be registered for cell ap biology purposes of incorporation, is regarded as the company’s most important document in the sense that it determines the powers of the company. Consequently, a company may only engage in activities and exercise powers, which have been conferred upon it expressly by the memorandum or by implication there from. Andrew Jackson Act Essay! Contents of the Memorandum The Memorandum of Association of cell ap biology a company limited by shares must state the following:- 1.
The name of the company with “Limited” as the last word. 2. The registered office of the company is jackson act essay, situated in commonapp.org Uganda. 3. The objects of the company. Indian Removal! 4. A statement as to the liability of the members. 5. A statement to the nature of the company (Whether private or public).
6. The amount of essay share capital and division thereof into shares of a fixed amount. In addition, the memorandum must state the names, address and descriptions of the jackson indian removal subscribers thereof who must be at least two for a private company and cover for sap seven for a public company. 1. The name. The name of the company should be indicated and if it is a limited company, it should have the word limited at the end eg Stanbic Bank Uganda Ltd. 2. Registered office The memorandum must state that the registered office is andrew jackson indian act essay, situated in Uganda. However, the for sap actual address must be communicated to jackson indian removal the Registrar of you start college Companies within 14 days of the date of incorporation or from the date it commences business by registration of a company form called Notice of situation of jackson indian registered office of the company, this form will indicate the exact location of the company eg plot 8 industrial area Kampala. . The objects clause This sets out the principle activities the how do you start essay company has been incorporated to pursue. For example; trading in general merchandise, carrying on business of wholesalers and retail traders of all airtime cards, mobile phones and all phone accessories, carrying on the business of mobile money agents etc. The objects must be lawful and should include all the activities which the company is likely to pursue.
The objects or powers of the company as laid down in the memorandum or implied there from determine what the removal company can do. Consequently, any activities not expressly or impliedly authorized by the memorandum are “ultra vires” the company. The ultra vires doctrine restricts an deception taming of the, incorporated company under the Companies Act to the purse only the objects outlined in its registered Memorandum of Association. The doctrine of andrew jackson act essay ultra vires is illustrated in the case of ASHBURY RAILWAY CARRIAGE CO. India Short Essay! LTD VS. RICH (1875). A company which was not authorized by its memorandum of association to lend money or finance any activity made an agreement with the defendant to provide him with finance for the construction of andrew jackson a railway in Beligium, later on the company repudiated this agreement and did not actually provide the finances, the cover letter bi consultant defendant sued the andrew jackson removal company for breach of contract, the company in its defense argued that financing railway construction was not one of the activities it was authorized to do, it was held that indeed such an act was beyond the powers of the company and such an ultra vires contract was void and un enforceable. To evade this restrictive interpretation of the objects clause, draftsmen inserted words as “and to do all such other acts and things as the essay ap biology company deems incidental or conducive to the attainment of andrew jackson indian removal these objects or any of them. In BELL HOUSES LTD -VS-CITY WALL PROPERTIES LTD (1966) 2 QB 656, a company was formed to carry on the business of General Civil Engineering contracts and in india dream short particular to build houses.
It had power to carry on any other trade and to do any other things that incidental to the above company’s objects. The Court held that the company could lawfully contract for a fee to procure loans to other concerns, from or business whatsoever which it can in the opinion of the jackson removal act essay board of directors be advantageously carried out sources of finance which it had resorted to in the past. India Is My Dream Short Essay! It further held that cementing good relations with the financiers would be valuable when the company needed finances for its activities. The Memorandum of Association spells out the jackson act essay main objectives and powers of the company. However, certain powers may be implied in the Memorandum of letter for sap Association.
For example, in the case of FERGUSON V WILSON (1866) 2CH. A 277, a power to appoint agents and engage employees was implied in the Memorandum of Association. This is only sensible because a company as a fictitious person can only work through agents and employees; and indian removal therefore if such a power was not implied, then the company could not function at all. Similarly in GENERAL AUCTION ESTATES MONETARY CO. V. SMITH (1891) 3CH 432, the court implied powers of borrowing money and giving security for loans.
Subsequent cases have also adopted this position. In NEWSTEAD (INSPECTION OF TAXES) V FROST (1978)1 WLR 441 AT PAGE 449, the india short essay court implied powers of entering into partnership or joint venture agreements for andrew indian carrying the on the kind of business it may itself carry on i. India Dream Essay! e. intra vires. In PRESUMPTION PRICES PATENT CANDLE CO (1976), the court implied a power of andrew removal act essay paying gratuities to employees. A power to institute, defend and compromise proceedings will also be implied in the Memorandum of Association” if it is not provided expressly”. Of The Shrew! Courts at times imply powers because the particular nature of the company’s undertaking demands it. In EVANS, (1921) I CII.
359. Act Essay! The court observed that a company formed to manufacture chemicals had powers to make grants to short Universities and other scientific institutions to andrew facilitate scientific research and training scientists although it may not obtain any immediate financial benefit from the venture. Therefore before the court implies powers it seems: * There must be some reasonable connection between the company’s objects and the power it seeks to exercise. It is not sufficient for cell it to merely show that it will benefit in some way by exercising that power. It is andrew jackson, important to in the of the show that the company will in fact benefit in some way even though remote in the exercise of the power (see Evans, (above). However, though the Court may imply these powers in the Memorandum of Association, its better practice to expressly state them. This is only sensible because:- * The company often needs powers which the andrew jackson courts have not ruled that they can be implied and therefore the company can only cover letter, obtain them by express provisions in the Memorandum of Association, (e. g. the indian removal act essay power to buy a share from another company though recognized under the you start off a Act has not yet been implied). To avoid uncertainties or expenses of andrew jackson indian act essay litigation, it is safer to insert them expressly in the memorandum of cell essay ap biology association.
4. The liability of members The memorandum of a company limited by shares or by guarantee should indicate that the liability of members is jackson indian removal, limited. With respect to a company limited shares, the liability of a member is the amount, if any, unpaid on his shares. How Do You Start Essay! With regard to the liability of andrew indian a member of a company limited by guarantee, this is limited to the amount he undertook to is my dream short essay contribute to the assets of the company in the event of winding up. A company may also be registered with unlimited liability. In such a situation, the members liability is unlimited and in cases the company does not have sufficient credit to pay its creditors, then the shareholders personal property may be encroached on jackson indian act essay, to pay the company’s debts.. Essay! 5. Share capital (clause) The memorandum requires that a company having a share capital must state the amount of share capital with which the company is to be registered and that such capital is divisible into shares of indian act essay a fixed amount. The essence of the division is to control the powers of the directors to ap biology allot shares. The law does not prescribe the value but they are usually small amounts to encourage people to hold as many shares as possible. Andrew Jackson Indian Removal Act Essay! The amount of capital with which a company is to letter for sap bi consultant be registered and the amount into which it is to be divided are matters to be decided upon by the promoters and will be determined by andrew jackson indian removal act essay, the needs of the company and finance available.
For example if a company has its initial share capital/ startup capital of 5,000,000 it can divide this into 100 shares of 50,000 each. So of s member subscribes for 50 shares, he will contribute 2,500,000/= . ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION The Articles of cell essay ap biology Association contains regulations for managing the internal affairs of the company i. e. the business of the andrew indian removal act essay company. They are applied and interpreted subject to the memorandum of association in that they cannot confer wider powers on the company than those stipulated in the memorandum. Thus, where there is a conflict or divergence between the memorandum and articles, the provisions of the memorandum must prevail. anagement, who will be the directors of the company, who will be, appointment of the board of directors, qualifications of classification essay directors, the, the andrew removal classes and rights of shareholders, transfer of shares , , auditing of books, Contents of the Articles * The board of india is my dream short essay directors (management) and how they will be appointed, their qualifications, how they can resign or be removed from office. * The chairman of the indian act essay board. * The managing director and how he will be appointed. * Secretary and his appointment. eetings (how meetings of the company should be called and conducted and the required quorum/ number of members that must be present to conduct a valid meeting of the company) and how do you start off a the different types of meeting that the company may hold from time to time voting rights of the members, the right to receive notice and to attend and vote etc. * powers of directors * The different classes of shares and the rights attached to different classes of shares. * Borrowing powers of the company. its properties, control of the company finance, its bankers, dividends/profits and how they should be distributed * appointment of auditors * the company seal and how it should be used etc The Articles must be printed in the English language, divided into paragraphs, numbered consecutively, signed by each subscriber to the memorandum in the presence of at least one witness who must attest the signature. The Companies Act contains a standard form of articles (table A) which applies to companies limited by shares. These regulate the removal company unless it has its own special articles which totally or partially exclude table A. The advantages of statutory model articles are: * That legal drafting of special articles is reduced to a minimum since even special articles usually incorporate much of the text of the how do college model. * There is flexibility since any company can adopt the model selectively or with modifications and include in its articles special articles adapted to its needs. INTERPRETATION OF ARTICLES AND MEMORANDUM OF ASSOCIATION.
The Memorandum of Association is the basic law or constitution of the company and the articles are subordinate to the Memorandum of Association. It follows therefore that if there is a conflict, the Memorandum of Association prevails. In other words if there is a contradiction between the provisions of the memorandum and the provisions of the articles of andrew act essay association, then the provisions of the memorandum will be followed and those provisions in how do off a essay the articles which are contradicting the memorandum will be void and of no effect. If there is no conflict, the Memorandum of Association and articles must be read together and any ambiguity or uncertainty in either can be removed by the other CONSEQUENCES OF INCORPORATION The fundamental attribute of corporate personality from andrew indian removal, which all other consequences flow is that “the corporation is a legal entity distinct from its members”. Hence it’s capable of enjoying rights and being subject to duties which are not the same as those enjoyed or borne by its members. In other words it has a legal personality and it is often described as an artificial person in contrast with a human being-a natural person. SALOMON Vs SALOMON CO) Since the Salomon case, the complete separation of the company and its members has never been doubted. It is from this fundamental attribute of separate personality that most of the particular advantages of incorporation spring and these are: 1. LIABILITY: The company being a distinct legal “persona” is commonapp.org essay questions, liable for its debts and obligations and the members or directors cannot be held personally responsible for the company’s debts. Andrew Jackson Removal! It follows that the company’s creditors can only sue the company and not the shareholders.
In in the case of questions Salomon V Salomon (1897), creditors of the company sought to jackson indian removal act essay have Solomon a managing director of the company personally liable for the debts of the company but court held that the company and Solomon were two different persons and ap biology that the company as a legal person is liable for its own debts and Solomon a managing director could not be held personally responsible for the debts of the company. In the Ugandan case of Sentamu v UCB (1983) HCB 59, it was held that individual members of the company are not liable for andrew jackson indian the company’s debts. The liability of the members or shareholders of the company is essay, limited to the amount remaining unpaid on the shares. For instance, where a shareholder has been allotted 50 shares at Shs. 100,000 each, in total he should pay 5,000,000 for all the fifty shares, if he pays only Shs.
4, 000, 000 to the company, it means that he will still owe the company 1,000,000. This is what is called uncalled capital. The company may call on him to pay it any time. If that does not happen, then at the time of winding up the company, he will be required to pay the Shs. 1, 000, 000. In the case of a company limited by guarantee, each member is liable to contribute a specific amount to jackson indian removal act essay the assets of the teachers essay company and their liability is limited to the amount they have guaranteed to contribute. If the company has unlimited liability, the members liability to contribute is unlimited and their personal property can be looked at to discharge the company creditors but that is only after utilizing the company’s money and andrew indian removal it is not enough to pay all the debts. 2. PROPERTY: An incorporated company is able to own property separately from how do you start off a college, its members.
Thus, the members cannot claim an interest or interfere with the company property for their personal gain/benefit. Thus, one of the indian advantages of incorporation (corporate personality) is that it enables the property of the company to be clearly, distinguished from in the, that of the andrew jackson indian members. Is My Dream Short Essay! In the case of MACAURA Vs NORTH ASSURANCE CO. Andrew Indian! (1925) AC (see page 3 for facts). In that case Lord Buckmaster of the india is my dream House in Lords held that no shareholder has a right to any item of the property of the company, even if he holds all the shares in the company. In the case of Hindu Dispensary Zanzibar v N. A Patwa Sons, a flat was let out to a company and the question was whether the company could be regarded as a tenant, it was held that a company can have possession of business premises by its servants or agents and that in fact that is the only way a company can have possession of its premises. 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS: As a legal person, a company can take action to andrew indian removal enforce its legal rights or be sued for breach of its duties in the courts of law. If it the company being sued, then it should be sued in its registered name, if a wrong or incorrect name is used, the case will be dismissed from court for example in the case of Denis Njemanze V Shell B. Of The! P Port Harcourt, the plaintiff sued a company called Shell B. P Port Harcourt which was a non existing company, counsel for the defendant company objected that there was no such company and the suit should be dismissed, counsel for the plaintiff sought courts leave to amend and put the right part but court refused to grant the leave and dismissed the case. In the case of Wani V Uganda Timber, 1972 HCB the plaintiff applied for a warrant of arrest against a managing director of a company instead of suing the company, chief justice Kiwanoka held that a managing director of a company is not the company and cannot be sued personally, that if there is a case against andrew removal act essay the company then the company is the right party to be sued not its managing director. 5. PERPETUAL SUCCESSION: s. 15 of the companies Act provides that a company is a legal entity with perpetual sucession.
This means that even if a shareholder dies, or all the shareholders die or go bankrupt, in the eyes of the law, the company will remain in existence. If a share holder dies, his /her shares will be transmitted to cell ap biology their executor or a personal representative. Also in case a shareholder no longer wants to be a shareholder in a company, he will simply transfer his shares to someone else and to company will continue to exist. The only way a company can come to an end is by winding up, striking it off the register of companies or through amalgamation and reconstruction as provided by the Companies Act. This was illustrated in andrew jackson act essay the case of RE NOEL EDMAN HOLDING PROPERTY all the members were killed in a motor accident but court held that the company would survive. Deception In The Shrew! Thus, this perpetual succession gives the certainty required in the commercial world even when ownership of shares changes there is no effect on the performance of the company and no disruption in the company business. Jackson Removal! 5. TRANSFER OF SHARES: A share constitutes an item of property, which is essay, freely transferable, except in the case of private companies. When shares are transferred, the person who transfers ceases to jackson indian be a shareholder and deception in the shrew the person to whom they are transferred becomes the shareholder. In private companies, there is a restriction on the transfer of shares for example one may not transfer his shares except to an existing member or shareholder, and not to an outsider. This is removal act essay, essential and is in any event desirable if such a company is to retain its character of an incorporated private company.
6. BORROWING: A company can borrow money and provide security in classification essay the form of andrew indian removal act essay a floating charge. A floating charge is a security created over the assets of the company. When a company borrows money let’s say from the deception bank or any other cerditor, it may use its assets e. g. cars, bank accounts and other assets as security, the security/ charge will then float over removal, those assets, in cell essay ap biology case the company defaults on payment, the charge can settle on jackson, one or all of those assets and the bank/creditor of the company can sell those assets to recover their money. It is called a floating charge because it floats like a cloud over the whole assets of the company from time to time, it only settles/crystallizes if the company defaults on is my short essay, payment. So before the andrew jackson indian removal act essay charge settles on the assets, the company is free to deal with those assets even to dispose them off in the usual course of cover bi consultant business. 6. CAPACITY TO CONTRACT.
On incorporation, a company can enter into any contract with third parties. In the andrew indian removal case of Lee V Lee Air Farming Co. Classification Essay! Ltd (1961) A. C 12, it was held that a company was it is incorporated it has capacity to employ servants, even the shareholders. THE ULTRA VIRES DOCTRINE. a) Meaning of ultra vires. The object clause of the memorandum of association of a company contains the object for which the jackson act essay company is formed. An act of is my short essay a company must not be beyond the object clause otherwise it will be ultra vires. The expression ultra vires means beyond powers, therefore an act or transaction that is beyond the powers of the company as stated in the objects clause of the memorandum is an ultra vires act or transaction, such an act that is ultra vires is void and cannot be ratified by the company. Sometimes the term ultra vires is also used to describe a situation where the directors of a company have exceeded the powers delegated to them, where a company exceeds the powers conferred upon it by its memorandum of association, it is not bound by it because it lacks the capacity to incur responsibility for that action, but when the directors of a company exceed the powers delegated to andrew jackson indian them, the company in a general meeting may choose to ratify their act or omission. b) Distinction from teachers essay, illegality.
An ultra vires act or transaction is different from an illegal act/ transaction, although both are void, they attract different legal consequences and the law treats them differently. An act of a company which is beyond its object clause is ultra vires and therefore void even if it is legal. Similarly an illegal act done by a company will be void even if it falls squarely within the andrew removal act essay objects of the company. c) Importance of the doctrine. The doctrine of ultra vires was developed to is my dream short protect the investors and creditors of the company. This doctrine prevents a company from employing the money of the investors for a purpose other than those stated in the object clause of act essay its memorandum. Thus the investors of the company are assured that their money will not be employed for activities which they did not have in contemplation at the time they invested their money into the company.
This doctrine also protects the creditors of the company by ensuring that the funds of the company to which they must look to for payment are not dissipated in deception in the taming of the shrew unauthorized activities. ) Establishment of the doctrine. The doctrine was established firmly in 1875 by the House of Lords in the case of ASHBURY RAILWAY CARRIAGE CO. LTD VS. RICHE (1875). A company which was not authorized by its memorandum of association to lend money or finance any activity made an agreement with the defendant to provide him with finance for the construction of a railway in Beligium, the directors made this ultra vires contract on behalf the indian removal act essay company but subsequently the company ratified this contract in essay a meeting. Andrew Removal! ater on the company repudiated this agreement and did not actually provide the finances, the defendant sued the company for breach of contract, the company in its defense argued that financing railway construction was not one of the activities it was authorized to do.
It was held that indeed such an act was beyond the powers of the deception in the taming of the shrew company and jackson indian removal such an dream, ultra vires contract was void and could not be enforced against the company. Court also held that an ultra vires contract cannot even be ratified by the company and that the subsequent act of the company purporting to ratify this contract in a meeting was void, court emphasized that an ultra vires contract is void and cannot even be ratified by a unanimous decision of all the members of a company. In that case, the HOL expressed the view that a company incorporated under the Companies Act had power to do only those things which are authorized by its object clause and nything outside that is andrew indian, ultra vires and cannot be ratified by the company. Soon after this case was decided, its shortcomings became immediately clear, it created hardships both for the management and outsiders dealing with the company. Cell Ap Biology! The activities of the management of the company were subjected to andrew jackson indian removal act essay strict restrictions, at every step of transacting the business of the company; management was required to ascertain whether the india is my dream short essay acts which were sought to be done were covered by andrew indian act essay, the object clause of its memorandum of association.
The business men thought this unduly restricted the frequency and ease of business, if the act was not covered by the memorandum, it would mean having to alter the object clause to add that activity and alteration of the memorandum required a lengthy procedure. Later in 1972, in England this doctrine was modified, and subsequently the courts have developed principals to reduce the rigors of the doctrine of ultra vires. They include the following. 1. Powers implied by statute. According to this principal, a company has powers to do an act or exercise a power which has been conferred on it by the companies Act or any other Act of Parliament even if such act is not covered by the object clause in the memorandum of association. Commonapp.org Questions! 2. The principal of implied and incidental powers. This principal was established in the case of ATTORNEY GENERAL V GREAT EASTERN RAILWAY CO (1880) 5 AC 473, in act essay this case the HOL affirmed the how do college essay principal laid down in andrew jackson indian removal act essay the earlier case of ASHBURY RAILWAY CARRIAGE CO. LTD VS. RICHE (1875) but made a slight departure and held that the doctrine of ultra vires ought to be reasonably and teachers not unreasonably understood and andrew indian act essay applied.
Court therefore held that whatever may be fairly regarded as incidental to or consequential upon the objects of the classification essay company should not be seen as ultra vires. That case therefore led to a clear conclusion that that a company incorporated under the companies act has power to carry out the objects set out in its memorandum and also everything that is reasonably necessary to andrew removal enable it carry out those objects. ) Ascertainment of the ultravires doctrine. An act is therefore intra vires (within the powers) the company if; * It is stated in the object clause of the memorandum of association of that company. * It is authorized by the Companies Act or by any other Act of parliament. * If it is incidental to the main objects of the company or reasonably necessary to enable it carry out essay those objects. In the case of ATTORNEY GENERAL V. MERSEY RAILWAY CO (1907) 1 CH 81, a company was incorporated for carrying on hotel business. It entered into a contract with a third party for the purchasing of furniture, hiring servants and for maintaining omnibus. The purpose or object of the company was only to carry on a hotel business and it was not expressly mentioned in the objects clause in the memorandum of the company that they could purchase furniture or hire servants. The contract was challenged on the ground that this act of the removal directors was ultra vires. The issue before court was whether the transaction was ultra vires. Court held that a company incorporated for carrying on a hotel business can purchase furniture or hire servants and how do you start college maintain an omnibus to attend at the railway station to take or receive the andrew jackson removal act essay intending guests to the hotel because these objects are reasonably necessary to effectuate the purpose for cell which the company has been incorporated, and consequently such acts are within the powers of the company, although these may not be expressly mentioned in the objects clause of the andrew removal memorandum of association of that company. However not every act that is beneficial to the company is intra vires , it is classification, not enough that the jackson act is cover, beneficial to the company , the act must be reasonably necessary for the company to indian removal act essay carry out the activities mentioned in the memorandum. How Do Off A College! f) Effect of ultra vires transactions. Indian Act Essay! * Ultra vires contracts.
These are void and cannot be enforced by or against the company. In the Case of RE JON BEAUFORE (LONDON) LTD (1953) CH 131, it was held that ultra vires contracts made with the company cannot be enforced against a company. Court also held that the memorandum of association is constructive notice to the public and therefore if an act is ultra vires, it will be void and essay will not be binding on jackson, the company and the outsider dealing with the company cannot take a plea that he had no knowledge of the contents of the memorandum because he is deemed to know them. In England, the European Communities Act 1972 has lessened the you start essay effect of application of the Ultra vires doctrine in this manner. In England, third parties dealing with the andrew indian act essay company in good faith are protected and can enforce an ultra vires contract against the company if the third party acted in good faith and the ultra vires contract has been decided by the directors of the bi consultant company. However in removal act essay Uganda, the ultra vires doctrine has not been modified by statute or case law and there is therefore no legal provision where third parties dealing with the company in good faith are protected and can enforce an ultra vires contract against questions the company if the third party acted in good faith Thus in Uganda the doctrine of ultra vires is applied strictly with the effect that where the contract entered into by the third party is found to be ultra vires the company, it will be held void and cannot be ratified by the company and the company cannot enforce it against the third party and neither can a third party enforce it against the company. * Ultra vires borrowing. In Uganda a borrowing that is ultra vires is void and cannot be ratified by the company and the lender is not entitled to sue the company for the return of the andrew jackson removal act essay loan.
However, the courts have developed certain principals in the interests of justice to protect such lenders. Teachers Essay! The reliefs include; * Injunction. If the jackson removal money lent to the company has not been spent, the lender can apply to cell ap biology court for an injunction to prevent the company from spending the money. * Tracing. The lender can recover his money as long as it can still be found in the hands of the company in its original form. * Property acquired under ultra vires transactions. Where the funds of the company are applied in andrew jackson indian removal purchasing some property, the company’s right over in the of the, that property will be protected even though the expenditure on such purchasing has been ultra vires. Andrew Jackson Indian Act Essay! * Judgments from ultra vires transactions. Because the law considers ultra vires acts void by their very nature, the company and third parties cannot even with consent attempt to validate an ultra vires act. In RE JON BEAUFORE (LONDON) supra, builders of a factory for teachers purposes which were apparently ultra vires demanded for their money and by consent it was ordered that the company should pay, on winding up, the liquidator refused to pay that debt that was arising out of an ultra vires transaction, the court held that the liquidator was well entitled to reject the claim as a company cannot do what is beyond its legal powers by simply going into andrew removal court and consenting. LIABILITY OF DIRECTORS ON ULTRA VIRES TRANSACTIONS . 1. Liability towards the company. It is the duty of the directors to ensure that the funds of the dream short essay company are used only for removal legitimate purposes of the company. Consequently if the funds of the company are used for a purpose foreign to its memorandum, the directors may be held personally liable to restore to the company the funds used for such purpose. Thus a share holder can sue the directors to restore to the company funds which they employed in transactions which the company is not authorized to engage in.
2. Liability towards third parties. The directors of a company are treated as agents of the company and therefore have a duty not to go beyond the is my short essay powers that the company gives them. Where the director represents to a third party that the contract entered into by them on behalf of the company is within the powers of the company while in reality the andrew jackson act essay company does not have such powers under its memorandum, the directors may be held personally liable to the third party for is my essay the loss on account of breach of warranty of authority. However to make the directors liable, the following conditions must be fulfilled. i) There must be a representation of authority by the directors. It should be a representation of fact not law. ii) By such representation, the directors must have induced the third party to make a contract with the jackson indian company in respect of a matter beyond the powers of the company. iii) The third party must have acted on such inducement to enter into the contract and must prove that if it had not been for that inducement, he would not have entered into that contract. iv) That as a result, the third party suffered loss. EXCEPTIONS TO THE ULTRA VIRES DOCTRINE. 1. Property acquired /investments made by the company using money from ultra vires transactions. 2. Activities which are not expressed by the memorandum but are implied by teachers, law. 3. Activities which are not expressed by the memorandum but are incidental or related to or reasonably necessary for the company to carry out its express objects.
4. Ultra vires borrowing, where one seeks the equitable relief of injunction or tracing. LIFTING THE VEIL OF INCORPORATION A company once incorporated becomes a legal personality separate and distinct from its members and shareholders and capable of having its own rights, duties and obligation and can sue or be sued in its own name. This is commonly referred to as “the doctrine or principle of corporate personality”. No case illustrated the above principles better than the noted House of Lords decision in Salomon v. Salomon. However, in some circumstances, the courts have intervened to disregard or ignore the doctrine of corporate personality especially in dealing with group companies and andrew subsidiaries and where the commonapp.org questions corporate form is being used as a vehicle to perpetrate fraud or as a “mere facade concealing the true facts. ” Upholding the abiove principal in andrew indian removal act essay such cases would result into commonapp.org and perpetuate injustice. Removal! In this topic, we will examine the concept of lifting the veil and the circumstances where the court may “pierce” or “lift” the veil of incorporation. In Dunlop Nigerian Industries Ltd V Forward Nigerian Enterprises Ltd Farore 1976 N. CL. R 243, the HC of Lagos stated that in particular circumstances, e. where the device of incorporation is used for teachers classification essay some illegal or improper purpose, the court may disregard the principle that a company is an independent legal entity and lift the veil of corporate identity so that if it is proved that a person used a company he controls as a cloak for andrew jackson removal an improper transaction, he may be made personally liable to a third party. The legal technique of lifting the veil is recognized under 2 heads: 1. Statutory lifting of the veil 2. Case law lifting of the veil Statutory lifting of the veil 1. For Sap Bi Consultant! Where the number of members is below legal minimum. Andrew Jackson Removal Act Essay! Under S. 33 of the Companies Act if a company carries on business for more than 6 months after its membership has fallen below the statutory minimum, (2 for private companies and 7 for public companies), every member during he time the business is carried on after the 6 months and who knows that the company is carrying on business with less than the required minimum membership is individually liable for the company’s debts incurred during that time.
In such a case therefore the corporate veil is you start off a, lifted in order to hold those members personally liable for the company’s debts incurred during that time. 2. Where the- company is not mentioned in andrew jackson act essay the Bill of Exchange. S. 34 of the Companies Act provides that a bill of exchange shall be deemed to have been signed on behalf of a company if made in the name of the company, by taming, or on behalf of the company or on account of the company by indian, any person acting under the company’s authority. S. 09 (4) (b) prohibits any officer of the company from commonapp.org essay, signing or authorizing to be signed a bill of exchange on behalf of the company in which the company’s name is not mentioned in legible characters/ clear letters. Any officer who does this is personally liable on that bill of indian exchange for the money or goods for that amount unless it is duly paid by deception of the shrew, the company. Andrew Indian Removal Act Essay! Therefore in india short such case the corporate veil is lifted in order to hold that officer of the company personally liable.
3. Holding and subsidiary companies. Where companies are in a relationship of holding and subsidiary companies, group accounts are usually presented by the holding company in a general meeting. In this regard, the holding and subsidiary companies are regarded as one for accounting purposes and the separate nature of the subsidiary company is ignored. S. 147 of the Companies Act requires each company to keep proper books of accounts with respect to * Money received by the company and from what source. * Money spent and indian removal what it was spent on. * All sales and purchases of goods made by the company. * The assets and liabilities of the company. These accounts are meant to give a true and fair view of the state of the company’s affairs and to explain its transactions.
Directors of the company are required at least once a year to you start off a lay before the company in a general meeting a profit and loss account (or income expenditure account for non profit making companies) plus a balance sheet. Where at the end of each year a company has subsidiaries, then as that parent company presents its accounts, it should also present a group account dealing with the affairs of that parent company and act essay its subsidiaries, the group account consists of a consolidated balance sheet and a consolidated profit and loss account of both the subsidiary and the parent company. 4. Reckless and Fraudulent Trading: Under sect 327, it is provided that if in the course of winding up, it appears that any business has been conducted recklessly or fraudulently, those responsible for such business may be held liable without limitation of liability for any of the essay company’s debts or liabilities. 5. Taxation. Under the income tax Act, the veil of incorporation may be lifted to ascertain where the control and management of the andrew jackson indian removal company is exercised in order to determine whether it is a Ugandan company for income tax purposes. Commonapp.org Essay! 6. Andrew Indian Removal! Investigation into related companies Where an for sap, inspector has been appointed by the Registrar to investigate the affairs of a company, he may if he thinks it fit also investigate into the affairs of any other related company and also report on the affairs of that other company so long as he feels that the results of his investigation of such related company are relevant to the main investigation.
Lifting the Veil under case law . Where the company acts as agent of the share holders. Where the shareholders of the indian company use the company as an agent, they will be liable for the debts of the company. Agency is a relationship which exists whenever one person authorizes another to act on essay, his or her behalf. Andrew! The person acting is called the agent, and the one he is acting for is called the principal. Where such a relationship exists, the acts of the agent are taken to teachers be the jackson act essay acts of the commonapp.org questions principal. Therefore in an agency relationship, the acts of the agent are taken to be the acts of the principal. In case of liability it is the principal who is jackson removal act essay, held liable and not the agent. This is because of the in the taming dictum that he who acts through another acts for himself. Thus where share holders employ or use the company as an agent, then those shareholders will be personally liable for the acts of the company as principals behind the agent. 2. Where there has been fraud or improper conduct. The veil of andrew jackson removal act essay incorporation may also be lifted where the corporate personality is classification essay, used as a mask for fraud or illegality.
In Gilford Motor Co V. Horne  Ch. 935 Home was the former employee of Gilford Motor Co. He agreed not to solicit its customers when he left employment. He then formed a company which solicited the customers. Both the company and Home were held liable for breach of the jackson removal covenant not to solicit. The company that Home formed was described as a “mere cloak or sham for how do college the purpose of enabling him to commit a breach of the covenant”. In Jones V Lipman 1 W. L. R 832 Lipman in order to avoid the completion of a sale of his house to Jones formed a company and transferred the andrew indian house to the company. Court ordered him and the company to complete payment, even though the ownership of the essay ap biology house was no longer in his names but in andrew indian that of the formed company. Cover! The company was described as a creature of Lipman, a device and a sham, a mask which he held before his face in indian removal act essay an attempt to avoid recognition by the eyes of equity. In Re Williams Bros Ltd. (1932) 2ch.
1, a company was insolvent but the Directors continued to carry on its business and essay ap biology purchased its goods on credit. It was held that if a company continues to carry out andrew indian removal act essay business and to deception in the of the shrew incur debts at a time when there is to the knowledge of the directors no reasonable prospects of the creditors ever receiving payments of removal act essay these debts, it is in general a proper inference that the company is carrying on business with intent to defraud. Is My! R V Graham (1984) QB. 675 makes it clear that a person is guilty of fraudulent trading if he has no reason to believe that the company will be able to pay is creditors in full by the dates when the respective debts become due or within a short time thereafter. 3. Public interest/policy. Sometimes, courts have disregarded the separate legal personality of the company and investigated the personal qualities of its shareholders or the persons in control because there was an overriding public interest to be served by doing so. In Daimler Co Ltd Vs Continental Tyre And Rubber Co (1916) A. C 307, a Company incorporated in andrew jackson indian removal act essay England whose shares except one were held by German nationals resident in Germany brought an action during the First World War. All its directors were also German nationals resident in Germany, which was an enemy country at the time.
The Court disregarded the fact that the company had a British nationality by incorporation in England and cell ap biology rather concentrated on the control of the company’s business and where its assets lay, in determining the company’s status. 4. In determining residence of a company for tax purposes. The court may look behind the veil of the company and its place of registration so as to determine its residence. The test for determining residence is jackson indian removal act essay, normally the place of its central management and control. Usually, this is the place where the board of directors operate.
But it can also be the place of business of the M. D where he holds a controlling interest. MANAGEMENT OF A COMPANY The control and deception management of a company is distributed among its principal officers and these include the andrew removal act essay auditors, accountants, Board of is my dream short essay Directors, Managing director (if any) and any other officers of a company. There are basically two organs responsible for indian removal the management of a company. These are: – 1. Short! The Shareholders through company meetings and 2. The Board of Directors. The shareholders and Company Meetings The shareholders have an opportunity of influencing the company’s management through the andrew company’s meetings. There are 4 types of cover bi consultant meetings through which the shareholders can participate in the affairs of a company. 1. Jackson Act Essay! Statutory Meetings: These are provided for under S130 of the Companies Act which requires every public ltd company to hold such type of meeting within 30 days from the date of commencement of shrew business. The meeting is held once in jackson indian the company’s life and never again. You Start Off A Essay! The meeting is a must hold for all public companies, private companies are not required to hold this meeting. Andrew Indian Removal Act Essay! 2.
Annual General Meeting (S. 131). Unlike the Statutory Meeting, an AGM is required of all types of companies. It must be convened by notice of not less than 21 days. This is the most important meeting of the company and concerns a number of issues. Although the companies Act does not exactly indicate the nature of the off a college essay business transacted at such a meeting, the business invariably includes appointment of auditors, fixing their remuneration, declaration of dividends, consideration of the company’s profit and loss accounts and the balance sheet, consideration of the andrew indian removal act essay reports of the directors, auditors and election of new directors or auditors if need arises. The purpose of the annual general meeting is important for the protection of the in the taming of the members because it is the one occasion when they can be sure of having an opportunity of jackson indian removal act essay meeting the directors and questioning them on the profit and loss accounts, on their report and on the company’s position and prospects. It is at this meeting that normally a proposition of the directors will retire, come up for re-election:- and it is at india is my dream short this meeting that the members can exercise their only andrew jackson act essay, real power over the board i. e. the cell essay power of dismissal by voting them out. Most of these things could of course be done at andrew removal act essay the extraordinary meeting but the members who want to is my raise these matters may not be able to andrew indian removal insist upon cell essay the convening of such meeting, the andrew indian annual general meeting is valuable to them because the directors must hold it whether they like it or not.
If the is my short company fails to convene such a meeting, there are two consequences that occur:- i. Jackson Removal! The registrar may himself convene that meeting or order that the meeting be convened and in extreme cases he may further order that any one shareholder present in person or by proxy be deemed to constitute the commonapp.org essay questions meeting. ii. Every director who is in default of convening that meeting as well as the company itself are liable to a default fine not exceeding shs 200/= and every officer of the company who is in indian removal act essay default is liable to a default fine of classification shs. 40/= (1981) HCB 60). Andrew! Within 18 months after incorporation, the company must hold an annual general meeting and letter bi consultant then every 12 months thereafter. 3. Extra-Ordinary General Meeting (S 132): This is indian act essay, usually convened by the directors at their discretion ( art 49 table A) to deal with urgent matters which cannot wait till the next annual general meeting. However the directors must hold such meeting irrespective of college essay any contrary provision in the articles if holders of at least 10% of the company’s paid up capital or 10% of the members carrying voting rights ask/ requisition for it. They must state the reason why they want such a meeting. If the directors do not convene the meeting within 21 days of the requisition, then the requisitionists may themselves convene the meeting and recover expenses from the company which may in turn recover the same from the defaulting directors. 4. General meeting convened under court orders (S. 135).
It provides that if for andrew jackson any reason it is impracticable to call a meeting of the company in any manner in which meetings of the company may be called, the court may on application of any director or member of the company who would be entitled to attend and vote at the meeting order a meeting of the company to be called, held and conducted in any manner that the court thinks fit, and court may for that matter direct that only one person present at the meeting shall constitute quorum. PROCEDURE, ATTENDANCE AND QUORUM (17. 3. 05) 1. NOTICE OF MEETINGS. Cell Essay! s. 133 provides that any meeting of a company must be called by jackson removal act essay, a notice of a period not shorter than 21 days and any provision in that articles providing for a shorter notice is void and of no effect. The notice may be in writing or it can take any other form like word of commonapp.org essay questions mouth, radio or TV announcements, newspapers etc. it must state the exact date time and place where the meeting will take place and what is intended to be discussed at that meeting, if the notice does not indicate the above then it is not a proper notice and if any shareholder is absent from the meeting because his notice had not fully disclosed the agenda, he can seek a court order to declare such a meeting null and indian void.. However a meeting may be called by a shorter notice than 21 days if all the members entitled to attend and vote at questions the meeting agree to such a shorter notice. 2. QUORUM. This relates to the minimum number of members that must be present at a meeting of the company for it to be a valid meeting.
The company’s articles will normally provide for the required quorum but where they are silent on this, s. 134 (c) of the Act provides for the requisite quorum as 2 members present in jackson case of a private company and in any other case three members personally present. Quorum need not be maintained throughout the meeting though at the beginning it must be there. 3. PROXY A proxy in Company law is a document which authorises somebody to attend a meeting on behalf of a shareholder. S. 136 provides that any member of a company entitled to attend and vote at a meeting of the teachers classification essay company is entitled to appoint another person to attend and vote instead of him of her and andrew jackson act essay any notice calling for a meeting should indicate that that person is entitled to attend by proxy. 4. VOTING. S. 134 provides that every member shall have one vote in respect of each share he has and in case of essay a company having a share capital and in other cases every member shall have 1 vote. Under S 137, it is stated that either five members entitled to vote or shareholders with at least 10% of the voting rights can demand a vote by poll. OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF THE COMPANY 1. Board of Directors There is andrew removal act essay, no definition of a director whether in cover bi consultant the Act or by case law. Nevertheless, S2 of the Act states that a director includes any person occupying the position of a director by whatever name called. In most private companies directors are usually share holders and in public companies , there is a requirement that directors must take up qualification shares, which is not the case in andrew jackson indian removal act essay private companies unless the articles provide for how do essay it. According to S 177, a public company must have at least 2 directors.
It’s an offence to have one director. Where a private company has one director, he cannot simultaneously act as the secretary of the company but if they are two directors then one of them can also be the andrew removal act essay secretary. Under the deception of the act, a director is andrew jackson indian removal, defined as “any person occupying the position of a director by whatever name called” this definition includes a “de jure director. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper?
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Essay in andrew removal act essay, Englisch: The West on the wrong path. Sie haben den Artikel in Ihre Merkliste aufgenommen. Mochten Sie ihn nicht auch gleich mit Feunden teilen? Gabor Steingart ist der Herausgeber des Handelsblatts. Dusseldorf Every war is accompanied by a kind of mental mobilization: war fever.
Even smart people are not immune to teachers classification, controlled bouts of this fever. “This war in all its atrociousness is still a great and wonderful thing. It is an experience worth having“ rejoiced Max Weber in 1914 when the removal lights went out in Europe. Thomas Mann felt a “cleansing, liberation, and a tremendous amount of hope“. Even when thousands already lay dead on the Belgian battle fields, the war fever did not subside. Exactly 100 years ago, 93 painters, writers, and classification essay scientists composed the “Call to the world of culture.“ Max Liebermann, Gerhart Hauptmann, Max Planck, Wilhelm Rontgen, and others encouraged their countrymen to engage in cruelty towards their neighbor: “Without German militarism, German culture would have been swept from the face of the earth a long time ago.
The German armed forces and the German people are one. This awareness makes 70 million Germans brothers without prejudice to education, status, or party.“ We interrupt our own train of thought: “History is jackson indian not repeating itself!” But can we be so sure about that these days? In view of the war events in dream short essay, the Crimean and jackson removal act essay eastern Ukraine, the heads of states and governments of the West suddenly have no more questions and all the answers. Teachers Essay? The US Congress is andrew jackson removal openly discussing arming Ukraine.
The former security advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski recommends arming the citizens there for house-to-house and street combat. The German Chancellor, as it is her habit, is is my short essay much less clear but no less ominous: “We are ready to take severe measures.“ German journalism has switched from level-headed to agitated in a matter of weeks. The spectrum of opinions has been narrowed to the field of vision of a sniper scope. Newspapers we thought to be all about act essay, thoughts and ideas now march in lock-step with politicians in their calls for sanctions against Russia's President Putin. Even the headlines betray an aggressive tension as is usually characteristic of teachers classification, hooligans when they 'support' their respective teams. The Tagesspiegel: “Enough talk!“ The FAZ: “Show strength“.
The Suddeutsche Zeitung: “Now or never.“ The Spiegel calls for an “End to cowardice“: “Putin's web of andrew removal, lies, propaganda, and deception has been exposed. The wreckage of MH 17 is also the result of a crashed diplomacy.“ Western politics and German media agree. Every reflexive string of accusations results in the same outcome: in no time allegations and counter-allegations become so entangled that the facts become almost completely obscured. Who deceived who first?
Did it all start with the Russian invasion of the Crimean or did the West first promote the destabilization of the Ukraine? Does Russia want to expand into the West or NATO into the East? Or did maybe two world-powers meet at the same door in the middle of the night, driven by how do you start college essay very similar intentions towards a defenseless third that now pays for andrew jackson indian removal act essay the resulting quagmire with the first phases of a civil war? If at this point you are still waiting for an answer as to whose fault it is, you might as well just stop reading. You will not miss anything. We are not trying to unearth this hidden truth. We don't know how it started. We don't know how it will end. And we are sitting right here, in in the taming, the middle of it. At least Peter Sloterdijk has a few words of consolation for us: “To live in the world means to live in uncertainty.“ Our purpose is to wipe off some of the foam that has formed on the debating mouths, to andrew, steal words from the mouths of both the rabble-rousers and commonapp.org essay the roused, and put new words there instead.
One word that has become disused of jackson removal, late is this: realism. The politics of escalation show that Europe sorely misses a realistic goal. It's a different thing in the US. Commonapp.org Questions? Threats and posturing are simply part of the election preparations. When Hillary Clinton compares Putin with Hitler, she does so only to appeal to andrew jackson, the Republican vote, i.e. people who do not own a passport.
For many of them, Hitler is the only foreigner they know, which is cell essay ap biology why Adolf Putin is a very welcome fictitious campaign effigy. In this respect, Clinton and Obama have a realistic goal: to appeal to the people, to win elections, to win another Democratic presidency. Angela Merkel can hardly claim these mitigating circumstances for herself. Geography forces every German Chancellor to be a bit more serious. As neighbors of Russia, as part of the andrew removal European community bound in deception in the taming, destiny, as recipient of energy and supplier of this and that, we Germans have a clearly more vital interest in stability and communication. We cannot afford to look at Russia through the eyes of the American Tea Party. Every mistake starts with a mistake in thinking. And we are making this mistake if we believe that only the other party profits from our economic relationship and thus will suffer when this relationship stops. If economic ties were maintained for mutual profit, then severing them will lead to mutual loss.
Punishment and self-punishment are the same thing in this case. Even the idea that economic pressure and political isolation would bring Russia to its knees was not really thought all the way through. Even if we could succeed: what good would Russia be on andrew, its knees? How can you want to ap biology, live together in andrew jackson removal, the European house with a humiliated people whose elected leadership is commonapp.org essay treated like a pariah and whose citizens you might have to support in the coming winter. Of course, the current situation requires a strong stance, but more than anything a strong stance against ourselves. Germans have neither wanted nor caused these realities, but they are now our realities. Just consider what Willy Brandt had to removal act essay, listen to when his fate as mayor of Berlin placed him in the shadow of the wall. What sanctions and cell punishments were suggested to him. But he decided to forgo this festival of outrage. He never turned the andrew jackson act essay screw of retribution. When he was awarded the cell ap biology Noble Prize for Peace he shed light on what went on around him in the hectic days when the wall was built: “There is still another aspect – that of impotence disguised by verbalism: taking a stand on legal positions which cannot become a reality and planning counter-measures for contingencies that always differ from the one at hand.
At critical times we were left to our own devices; the act essay verbalists had nothing to offer.“ The verbalists are back and their headquarters are in Washington D.C. But nobody is forcing us to how do you start off a college essay, kowtow to their orders. Following this lead – even if calculatingly and somewhat reluctantly as in the case of Merkel – does not protect the German people, but may well endanger it. This fact remains a fact even if it was not the American but the Russians who were responsible for the original damage in the Crimean and in eastern Ukraine. Willy Brandt decided clearly differently than Merkel in the present, and jackson indian removal act essay that in a clearly more intense situation. As he recalls, he had awoken on india dream essay, the morning of August 13, 1961 “wide awake and at the same time numb“. He had stopped over in Hanover on andrew jackson indian removal act essay, a trip when he received reports from Berlin about work being done on essay, the large wall separating the city. It was a Sunday morning and the humiliation could hardly be greater for a sitting mayor.
The Soviets had presented him with a fait accompli. Andrew Jackson Act Essay? The Americans had not informed him even though they had probably received some information from taming of the shrew, Moscow. Brandt remembers that an “impotent rage“ had risen in him. But what did he do? He reined in his feelings of impotence and displayed his great talent as reality-based politician which would garner him a stint as Chancellor and finally also the Nobel Prize for Peace.
With the advice from andrew jackson indian, Egon Bahr, he accepted the new situation, knowing that no amount of outrage from the rest of the world would bring this wall down again for a while. He even ordered the West-Berlin police to use batons and how do off a essay water cannons against demonstrators at the wall in order not to slip from the catastrophe of division into the much greater catastrophe of war. He strove for the paradox which Bahr put as follows later: “We acknowledged the Status Quo in order to change it.“ And they managed to accomplish this change. Brandt and Bahr made the specific interests of the West Berlin population for indian who they were now responsible (from June 1962 onwards this also included this author) into cover letter bi consultant the measure of removal act essay, their politics. In Bonn they negotiated the Berlin subvention, an eight-percent tax-free subvention on payroll and income tax. Letter For Sap? In the vernacular it was called the “fear premium“.
They also negotiated a travel permit treaty with East Berlin which made the wall permeable again two years after it was put up. Removal? Between Christmas 1963 and New Year’s 1964, 700 000 inhabitants of Berlin visited their relatives in the east of the city. Every tear of joy turned into a vote for Brandt a short while later. The voters realized that here was someone who wanted to classification essay, affect the way they lived every day, not just generate a headline for the next morning. In an almost completely hopeless situation, this SPD man fought for western values – in this case the values of freedom of movement – without bullhorns, without sanctions, without the andrew indian removal act essay threat of violence. The elite in teachers classification, Washington started hearing words that had never been heard in politics before: Compassion. Andrew Jackson Indian? Change through rapprochement. Dialog. Reconciliation of interests.
And this in the middle of the questions Cold War, when the andrew jackson indian removal world powers were supposed to attack each other with venom, when the script contained only classification essay threats and andrew jackson indian removal act essay protestations; set ultimatums, enforce sea blockades, conduct representative wars, this is how the Cold War was supposed to be run. A German foreign policy striving for reconciliation – in the beginning only the essay ap biology foreign policy of Berlin – not only appeared courageous but also very strange. The Americans – Kennedy, Johnson, then Nixon – followed the andrew jackson German; it kicked off a process which is unparalleled in the history of enemy nations. Letter For Sap? Finally, there was a meeting in Helsinki in order to set down the rules. The Soviet Union was guaranteed “non-interference into jackson indian their internal affairs“ which filled party boss Leonid Brezhnev with satisfaction and made Franz Josef Strau?'s blood boil. In return, the Moscow Communist Party leadership had to guarantee the West (and thus their own civil societies) “respect of human rights and fundamental freedoms, including that of thought, conscience, religion or belief“.
In this way “non-interference“ was bought through “involvement“. Cell? Communism had received an eternal guarantee for its territory, but within its borders universal human rights suddenly began to brew. Indian Removal Act Essay? Joachim Gauck remembers: “The word that allowed my generation to go on was Helsinki.“ It is not too late for teachers the duo Merkel/Steinmeier to use the concepts and ideas of this time. Andrew Jackson? It does not make sense to just follow the strategically idea-less Obama.
Everyone can see how he and Putin are driving like in classification essay, a dream directly towards a sign which reads: Dead End. “The test for politics is andrew jackson act essay not how something starts but how it ends“, so Henry Kissinger, also a Peace Nobel Prize winner. After the occupation of the Crimean by Russia he stated: we should want reconciliation, not dominance. Dream Short? Demonizing Putin is not a policy. It is an alibi for the lack thereof. Andrew Jackson Indian Act Essay? He advises condensing conflicts, i.e. to make them smaller, shrink them, and then distill them into a solution. At the moment (and for a long time before that) America is doing the opposite.
All conflicts are escalated. In The Of The Shrew? The attack of a terror group named Al Qaida is turned into indian a global campaign against Islam. Iraq is bombed using dubious justifications. Then the US Air Force flies on to Afghanistan and Pakistan. Essay Ap Biology? The relationship to the Islamic world can safely be considered damaged. If the West had judged the then US government which marched into Iraq without a resolution by the UN and without proof of the existence of act essay, “WMDs“ by the same standards as today Putin, then George W. Bush would have immediately been banned from entering the how do you start off a college essay EU. The foreign investments of Warren Buffett should have been frozen, the andrew indian removal export of essay questions, vehicles of the brands GM, Ford, and Chrysler banned. The American tendency to verbal and then also military escalation, the isolation, demonization, and attacking of enemies has not proven effective. The last successful major military action the US conducted was the Normandy landing.
Everything else – Korea, Vietnam, Iraq, and andrew act essay Afghanistan – was a clear failure. Moving NATO units towards the Polish border and thinking about arming Ukraine is a continuation of is my dream, a lack of diplomacy by act essay the military means. This policy of running your head against cover letter the wall – and doing so exactly where the wall is the thickest – just gives you a head ache and not much else. Jackson Indian Act Essay? And this considering that the wall has a huge door in commonapp.org, the relationship of Europe to Russia. And the andrew removal act essay key to this door is dream labeled “reconciliation of interests“. The first step is what Brandt called “compassion“, i.e. the ability to see the indian world through the eyes of the others. We should stop accusing the 143 million Russian that they look at classification essay the world differently than John McCain. What is needed is help in modernizing the country, no sanctions which will further decrease the dearth of wealth and indian removal act essay damage the bond of is my dream, relationships. Economic relationships are also relationships. International cooperation is akin to tenderness between nations because everyone feels better afterwards.
It is well-known that Russia is an energy super-power and at the same time a developing industrial nation. Jackson Removal Act Essay? The policy of reconciliation and mutual interests should attack here. Development aid in return for territorial guarantees; Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier even had the essay right words to describe this: modernization partnership. He just has to dust it off and use it as an aspirational word. Jackson Indian Removal Act Essay? Russia should be integrated, not isolated. How Do Off A College? Small steps in that direction are better than the great nonsense of exclusionary politics. Brandt and Bahr have never reached for andrew indian the tool of economic sanctions. They knew why: there are no recorded cases in which countries under sanctions apologized for their behavior and were obedient ever after.
On the contrary: collective movements start in support of the sanctioned, as is the case today in essay questions, Russia. Jackson Indian Removal? The country was hardly ever more unified behind their president than now. This could almost lead you to think that the rabble-rousers of the essay West are on andrew jackson indian, the payroll of the Russian secret service. One more comment about the tone of the debate. The annexation of the Crimean was in violation of international law. The support of separatists in eastern Ukraine also does not mesh with our ideas of the state sovereignty. The boundaries of states are inviolable.
But every act requires context. And the German context is commonapp.org essay questions that we are a society on probation which may not act as if violations of removal act essay, international law started with the events in the Crimean. Germany has waged war against its eastern neighbor twice in teachers classification, the past 100 years. Jackson? The German soul, which we generally claim to be on deception taming, the romantic side, showed its cruel side. Of course, we who came later can continue to proclaim our outrage against andrew the ruthless Putin and appeal to international law against him, but the way things are this outrage should come with a slight blush of embarrassment. Or to use the words of Willy Brandt: “Claims to absolutes threaten man.“
In the end, even the men who had succumbed to war fever in 1914 had to commonapp.org questions, realize this. Jackson Indian Removal Act Essay? After the end of the war, the penitent issued a second call, this time to understanding between nations: “The civilized world became a war camp and battle field. You Start College Essay? It is time that a great tide of love replaces the andrew indian removal devastating wave of hatred.“ We should try to avoid the detour via the battle fields in classification essay, the 21st century. History does not have to repeat itself.
Maybe we can find a shortcut. 04:22 Warren Buffett und Larry Fink : Wall-Street-Schwergewichte kritisieren Trumps Steuerplane 03:33 Fahrdienst-Vermittler : Ubers Verwaltungsrat stutzt Einfluss von Ex-Chef Kalanick 02:46 Nach Hurrikan „Maria“ : Zahl der Todesopfer in Puerto Rico steigt auf 34 02:23 UN-Botschafter : Nordkorea bezeichnet Sanktionen als „illegal und ungerechtfertigt“ 01:38 Geplante Fusion mit Tata Steel : Thyssen-Krupp garantiert Arbeitern Mitspracherechte 00:37 Pirelli-Borsengang : Ein 145-Jahre altes Start-Up 00:08 Jim Hackett : Ford-Chef plant radikalen Strategieschwenk 03.10.17 Yahoo : Drei Milliarden Konten von Hackerangriff betroffen 03.10.17 Funf Verdachtige : Festnahmen nach Messerattacke in Marseille 03.10.17 EU-Erweiterung : Balkanlander wollen EU-Eingliederung Serbiens beschleunigen 01:19 Konig Felipe zum Referendum : Katalonien setzt Spaniens Stabilitat aufs Spiel 03.10.17 Amazon : EU-Kommission verlangt Steuerruckzahlung 03.10.17 Jim Mattis : US-Verteidigungsminister deutet Verbleib im Iran-Abkommen an removal 03.10.17 General Motors und Ford : US-Autoabsatz zieht nach Hurrikanschaden an teachers 03.10.17 Fiat Chrysler : Uber 700.000 Gelandewagen werden zuruckgerufen 03.10.17 Wall Street : Autoaktien treiben Dow Jones zum Rekord 03.10.17 Europa-Borsen rucken vor : Weniger Sorgen wegen Katalonien 03.10.17 Investment Live : Anlegen in einer Welt in Unordnung 03.10.17 Boris Johnson und Theresa May : Trugerische Ruhe 03.10.17 Handelsblatt-Umfrage : Goldene Zeiten fur Berater 03.10.17 Nach Akustikattacken : USA weisen kubanische Diplomaten aus 03.10.17 Digitale Arbeitswelt : Warum die Gehalter weiter auseinander driften 03.10.17 Energiewende : Streit um die Strom-Maut 03.10.17 Nach dem Massaker in Las Vegas : „Beten alleine hilft nicht“ 03.10.17 Monarch Airlines : Der Himmel uber Europa leert sich. Kommentare zu Essay in Englisch: The West on the wrong path Dieser Beitrag kann nicht mehr kommentiert werden. Sie konnen wochentags von 8 bis 18 Uhr kommentieren, wenn Sie angemeldeter Handelsblatt-Online-Leser sind.
Die Inhalte sind bis zu sieben Tage nach Erscheinen kommentierbar. Herr Feng Chsang 14.08.2014, 16:11 Uhr. The German Chancellor Angela Merkel—but in fact all the jackson politicians in the rest of essay ap biology, Europe too—can correct their policy that was misguided by the Americans in andrew jackson removal act essay, a easy way and without losing their face or honor. The German Chancellor Angela Merkel—but in teachers essay, fact all the politicians in the rest of Europe too—can correct their policy that was misguided by the Americans in a easy way and act essay without losing their face or honor.