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Restaurant evaluations essays

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TRS02-9912-2 Sample Restaurant Evaluation 1 6 Quality

Restaurant evaluations essays

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Theories of strategic planning (authored with Jurgen C Schmidt and restaurant essays, Martyn Laycock) Planning is one of the fundamentals of modern life. We all practice it to a greater or lesser extent. In our personal lives we plan holidays, careers, the acquisition of a mockingbird essay on courage, assets (e.g. cars, consumer goods, houses); sometimes we do. detailed planning with budgets, on other occasions we do it fairly informally, simply 'work things out in our heads'. But however we do it, planning, essentially, is the evaluations essays, 'organisation of a series of actions to achieve a specified outcome' . In work environments, where we typically refer to it as ' business planning' , we adopt a generally much more systematic, disciplined approach. We plan projects, plan and essays on france, develop new products and services, new initiatives.

and programmes. We also draw up plans for change, for doing things differently, doing things better. We also discuss, draft and restaurant, then implement short, medium and longer-term plans as to where, organisationally, we want to eye morrison get to, what we. want to achieve. In essence such plans are organisational 'route maps' to get us from 'where we are at now' to 'where we want to get to' at some defined point, or points, in the future. They are also the essence of what, today, we call strategic planning , something that has, since the early 1960s, grown steadily to become one of the essentials of modern business and organisational life. Planning in Business Environments. Management theorist Henri Fayol (1841-1925) whose work still endures today included planning amongst what he said were the prime responsibilities of management: He described planning as: 'examining the future, deciding what needs to be done and developing a plan of action'. ?Strategic planning helps determine the direction and scope of an organisation over the long term, matching its resources to its changing environment and, in restaurant evaluations essays particular, its markets, customers and clients, so as to meet stakeholder expectations.?

Johnson and Scholes, 1993. Strategic planning is a systematic process of war 1, envisioning a desired future, and restaurant evaluations essays, translating this vision into broadly defined goals or objectives and a sequence of steps to to kill analytical on courage achieve them. Restaurant Evaluations Essays? In contrast to long-term planning (which begins with. the current status and lays down a path to meet estimated future needs), strategic planning begins with the desired-end and bluest eye morrison, works backward to the current status. Restaurant? At every stage of long-range planning the planner asks, What must be done. here to reach the next (higher) stage?? At every stage of strategic-planning the planner asks, What must be done at the previous (lower) stage to reach here?? Also, in contrast to tactical planning (which focuses at achieving narrowly. defined interim objectives with predetermined means), strategic planning looks at the wider picture and is flexible in choice of its means [i] . 20 th Century Management Thinkers on to kill a mockingbird analytical on courage Strategy and Strategic Planning. Here we look at restaurant evaluations some of the great thinkers, academics, practitioners, consultants advisers who have made significant contributions in bluest the field of evaluations, strategic planning: T he following notes are based on an article by Morgen Witzel, Financial Times, 5 th August, 2003, p11. Henry Mintzberg has been called 'the great management iconoclast' owing to his willingness to attack previously sacred concepts in business and bluest eye morrison, management.

His commonsense approach to management issues has earned him a very wide following. and he is restaurant evaluations essays, perhaps best known for his work on business strategy, where he is said to have exposed the what of the, gaps between academic concepts of strategy and restaurant, reality. Michael Porter , the other main modern-day strategist, adopted a particular focus on organisational and essays on france culture, governmental competence and competitiveness and has written several popular books on business strategy; he has also developed a number of. often-used tools and techniques, two of which, his 'Five Forces' and 'Value Chain' models are described later in this module. The following Notes are based on essays texts within ?Managing Change?, Bernard Burns, 2004, Chapters 6 7: Igor Ansoff is another acknowledged contributor to the development of start introduction warming, thinking and restaurant essays, practice on business strategy. Regarded by many as one of the pioneers of strategic planning, he was a strong proponent of the 'Planning' school of thinkers. His book 'Corporate Strategy' published in 1965. focused largely on the external, rather than internal, concerns of organisations, including the matching of products to different types of markets - for the analysis of which Ansoff introduced. his well known Matrix ( Ansoff's Matrix ), another strategic planning tool that is still widely used today. Do we need a formal strategic plan?

There is more than one format, but all strategic planning needs to go through a systematic process to essay determine if a formal plan is required. Choices have to be made based on a rationale and on restaurant information, and a procedure or planning method has to be followed. Beyond making decisions, 'strategic planning' can and should be used to interact with internal and external stakeholders, building understanding and commitment. Depending on the circumstances 'strategic planning' can take one day or several months. The time period reflected in the plan varies, although most authors seem to agree on a time horizon of 3 years or so. The following sections detail all steps. of a strategic plan. Any formal planning exercise requires time and resources; resources can be in terms of essays culture, money or personnel time as there should be an understanding of the opportunity costs involved as well as real costs. The timing needs therefore to be.

appropriate and the resources mobilised proportional to restaurant evaluations essays the task and intended outcome. Bluest Essay? Strategic planning is important whether the organisation's direction needs reviewing, whether its priorities have changed or whether the means of achieving desired. objectives need to be updated due to internal or external forces effecting delivery. The first consideration is to determine whether: there are core issues or questions that the strategic planning needs to address the timing is right the level of restaurant evaluations essays, resources required are available. In other words do we need to develop a strategic plan or is the one that is currently in place still appropriate? If the answer is Yes , then the next step is to set in start motion the processes for developing the strategic plan and determine 'early stage' roles: identify key stakeholders to support the planning process, for restaurant essays, example chief executives, department heads, mid-level managers, other internal and external stakeholders, as well as available and necessary sources of information. On France Culture? work with key stakeholders to restaurant essays develop a formal work plan to support the planning process where appropriate set up task forces on specific aspects as these can save time, spread the what group passage of the constitution, workload and can provide high quality inputs. The Classic 4-Step Approach to Strategic Planning. Here we introduce a very useful structured approach to strategic and restaurant evaluations essays, change management planning, which was developed from on france culture work done initially by Price Waterhouse (accountants) back in the.

The 4-Step approach is a simple structure that helps us to look both holistically and in detail at essays the drafting and development as well as the implementation of our Plan: STEP 1: Where are we now? STEP 2: Where do we want to get to? STEP 3: How are we going to get there? STEP 4: How will we know when we have got there? STEP 1: Where are we now? - Situation analysis. In this stage we establish our present position ? what we sometimes refer to eye morrison as our ?current reality?. This should be an honest and evaluations essays, realistic assessment of our position across key factors in the organisation generally and in our part of global warming, the. organisation specifically; any ducking of issues or avoidance of existing problems here will have detrimental impacts. The context of the strategic plan (new, update, far-reaching changes) will decide which of the restaurant evaluations, following elements to include.

Too much information can cause 'paralysis by analysis', equally too little can result in mistakes. An organisational audit provides objective data about an organisation's set-up, its performance and bluest eye morrison, its problem areas. Components are: Organisational history is important, events such as its founding, mergers or dissolutions, changes in senior staff, start or end of main programmes on a time line. Evaluations Essays? It is important to capture this information as it will help the. planning process as it will help to start essay understand organisational culture and restaurant evaluations essays, how the organisation was set up. Organisational profile is what passage constitution, a stock-take on all current programmes, grouped as appropriate by outcomes or beneficiaries, with indication of coverage, costs, and revenue used. The profile includes, as well information on operation, support. functions such as human resources, finances, and governance (board, management team, PEC). This is important as it will help to restaurant evaluations essays provide a baseline of resources currently utilised and those that might be channelled into new work. Previous and current strategies are the main approaches the a mockingbird analytical essay, organisation has chosen when allocating resources and evaluations, identifying objectives. It is important as it shows where the organisation has concentrated its efforts in the past and.

what investment the organisation has used to what of essays passage of the reach its position? Financial assessment is restaurant, important to group establish the stability or volatility of the organisation and to restaurant consider previous trends in cause revenue and expenditure. Restaurant Evaluations Essays? The organisation will need to consider how much ability it has to move. resources from current programmes to invest in on france the new strategy. Evaluations? Governance structure assessment is important as this will support the analytical, success or failure of the strategic plan. Restaurant Evaluations Essays? This will include both formal Governance of the bluest, organisation as well as all resources required. Stakeholders are people or organizations who either a) stand to be affected by the programme/project or b) could 'make' or 'break' the programme/project's success. They may be winners or losers, included or. excluded from decision-making, users of results, participants in the process.

Workshops, focus group discussions or individual interviews can be used to allow participation in the planning process. It is advisable to engage stakeholders from. the beginning of the strategic planning process to get their views and essays, also to obtain buy-in for the new strategic thinking and the forward planning process. Stakeholder analysis is the identification of a project's key stakeholders, an assessment of their interests in the strategic planning and what group passage, the ways in which these may affect a project. The reason for doing a stakeholder analysis is to help identify: which individuals or organizations to include in your planning process what roles they should play and at what stage who you should build relationships with and how you might nurture those relationships. The matrix below outlines how to prioritise stakeholders and make decisions about their importance within the planning process. PESTELI trends analysis. The external environment can be further assessed by breaking it down into restaurant evaluations, what is happening at P olitical, E conomic, S ocial, T echnological, E nvironmental, L egal and I ndustry. level, which may be of rhymes writing, relevance to the organisation. Benchmarking is a procedure whereby an organisation compares its own performance in specific areas with the performance of peer institutions.

Yardstick Day Surgery Benchmarking is an example in the health sector [ii] . The benchmarking process outlined in essays 'The Essence of of essays supported, Care: Patient-focused benchmarking for health care practitioners' helps practitioners to take a structured approach to sharing and comparing practice, enabling them to identify the best and to. develop action plans to remedy poor practice [iii] . SWOT analysis is a widely used tool to formally analyse the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats. Selected staff and board members are to brainstorm until the following table is completed: What are we good at? Anything happening outside which might actually benefit us if we take advantage of it? What do we need to get a grip on?

Anything happening outside which we need to be able to defend ourselves from? SWOT is a powerful tool when correctly used, and generates long and useless lists when it is not. Taking into account the purpose of the organisation, one should try to critically identify the strengths of the organisation in the recent past, what. has definitely been unsatisfactory, and restaurant essays, then look at the external environment to recognise which changes could actually benefit the organisation, if appropriately addressed, and which risks the organisation needs to bluest prepare for because they can. directly impact on the ability to achieve its purpose. At the end of the situation analysis, there should be a consensus on restaurant how much the organisation has accomplished what it set out to do, and cause and effect world essay, how it fares in terms of financial, administrative and governance capacity. STEP 2: Where do we want to get to? - Future direction. This effectively is our Vision . Restaurant Evaluations? In a large organisation, such as the NHS, there will almost certainly be an overall Vision, often enunciated in a Strategic Plan and supporting/subsequent documents.

It is nursery essay, also necessary to consider the. local situation ? within the restaurant essays, overall Plan what do we have to achieve in war 1 our area? Where do we need to get to? This is summarised by restaurant evaluations the following statements: Mission Statement is an organisation's 'raison d'etre' (reason for being).

Typically it is bluest essay, expressed in the form of evaluations, a formal published Mission Statement, designed to provide a sense of start essay introduction global, purpose to employees and other key stakeholders.The. mission will outline the organisation's: Purpose , or why the organisation exists, Values , or what the organisation believes in, Behaviour standards , or the policies and behavioural patterns that underpin the distinctive competence and restaurant essays, the value system Strategy , or the competitive position and distinctive competence[iv] Vision defines the desired or intended future state of a specific organization or enterprise in terms of its fundamental objective and/or strategic direction i.e. Start Essay Global Warming? it is a concise model description of what the restaurant evaluations essays, organisation's environment. would look like if the purpose elaborated above were achieved. Mission and vision, along with a consensus on the organisation's value system (of both organisation and staff) are necessary to convey a clear image of the organisation to the outside. world, and to what of essays supported passage constitution allow staff buy-in. An increasing number of organisations also draw attention to their core Values and Beliefs that are shared among the stakeholders (including employees) of an organisation. Values typically drive an organization's culture and influence their. Aims and evaluations, Objectives.

Aims are typically quite broad and will give an anticipated outcome that is intended or that guides your planned actions. Objectives are the detailed requirements to achieve the overall aim, they are statements of overall desirable achievements, described where possible in quality, quantity, time (e.g., average life expectancy of to kill a mockingbird, Londoners increased by evaluations essays at. least 2 years for males and females over the next three to five years). Objectives provide definition and direction to the long-term aims and goals that an organisation seeks to realise/achieve and should meet the SMART test: they. should be: S pecific, M easurable , A chievable, R elevant, T ime-bound. STEP 3: How are we going to get there? - Strategy development. This is especially important; it is our carefully thought-through 'Route Map' to get us from and effect war 1 essay where we are now to our vision for the Future.

It will comprise a series of evaluations, detailed actions and steps that we will take to help us to get to ?where we. want to go?. A core team should be tasked with putting down on paper all the elements of the plan. Any format is fine, as long as it contains: An introduction with comments on the process and the team involved/resources used Overarching goals and supporting core strategies, along with a rationale for their choice. Programme portfolio and implementation chronology. Each programme is described in rhymes writing terms of objectives, process, output/outcomes, activities and resources required. Evaluations Essays? A Gantt time table is useful, either for individual programmes or for the whole. portfolio, depending on complexity.

Where possible, officers in charge should be identified. Risks management strategy Monitoring and Evaluation framework Overall and programme budget, as appropriate. Making explicit choices on the main approaches to be used over the next few years (core strategies), what is going to be implemented (the overall programme portfolio), and what financial, administrative and governance support will be required. This entails deciding which programmes to grow, to maintain, or to end. Strategies are means to an end. Choices need to be made against explicit criteria, and making best use of the previous analysis. To Kill A Mockingbird Analytical? As a guide to decide which programmes to.

either grow/start, maintain, or terminate, the restaurant, following matrix can be used (Ansoff [v] ): More of the same. Innovation for current users. New programme for new users. The matrix allows making the on france, underlying strategy for a particular choice explicit, while bringing to the attention issues of resources required and restaurant essays, risks to be managed. A formal project plan should be developed to support the on france, planning process and consideration give to evaluations essays setting up task forces on specific aspects as these can save time, spread the workload and can provide high quality inputs, to essay undertake the. There are many different types of Health Assessments that should be taken into evaluations essays, account when developing strategic plans, a few are mentioned below that were current in December 2008 (others will emerge with due course): Health needs assessment (HNA) ?is a systematic method for reviewing the health issues facing a population, leading to agreed priorities and essays, resource allocation that will improve health and reduce inequalities? [vi] . Joint Strategic Needs Assessment (JSNA) is a process that identifies current and future health and wellbeing needs in light of existing services, and informs future service planning taking into account.

evidence of effectiveness at a population, rather than individual level. JSNA identifies ?the big picture? in terms of the health and wellbeing needs and inequalities of a local population, it is an essential tool for commissioners to inform. joint service planning and commissioning strategies in the Local Authority and restaurant, the PCT. For the purpose of JSNA, a clear distinction should be made between individual and population need [vii] . Health Impact Assessment is defined by the World Health Organisation, HIA as ?a combination of methods, procedures, and tools by which a policy, programme or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of population. and the distribution of those effects within the bluest, population? [viii] . It usually assesses the impact on health of restaurant evaluations, policies of sectors, such as housing, urban development, transport, agriculture, or environment. HIA aims to: Outline the potential positive and negative health and well-being impacts of bluest eye morrison essay, a project or proposal on restaurant a defined community. Indicate ways in which any negative impacts could be minimised and any potential positive impacts enhanced. It involves several steps [ix] , Draw up a community profile based on statistics and information about the local population. Examine published literature about health impacts. Examine the bluest essay, policy concerned in relation to the community profile and the published literature.

Hold a workshop and focus groups to find out what various members of the council and the community think. Restaurant Evaluations? Summarise all of this information to identify: The potential health impacts. Essays? Suggestions for minimizing any negative health impacts. Suggestions for making the restaurant, most of positive health impacts. Force Field Analysis relies on the principle that an organisation is not static, but dynamic, and that its current position is a result of the essays culture, balance between opposing forces. Force field analysis is a. management technique developed by restaurant evaluations Kurt Lewin, a pioneer in the field of eye morrison, social sciences, for diagnosing situations. It is useful when looking at the variables involved in planning and implementing a change programme and of use in team building. projects, when attempting to restaurant evaluations overcome resistance to what of essays passage of the change.

Change can be either driven or restrained by forces, ie persons, habits, customs, attitudes. In a planning session, this can be visualised by restaurant evaluations a Force Field Diagram. Using three columns, list planned change in nursery essay writing the middle column, the driving forces. in the restaurant evaluations essays, left one, the opposing forces in the right one. Check whether the forces listed are appropriate and whether they can they be changed. To Kill Analytical? Decide which ones are critical, and restaurant evaluations essays, allocate a score to to kill a mockingbird analytical each (from 1 being extremely weak to 10 being. extremely strong). Decide as well whether any of the forces are actually amenable to change. Now, progress can occur if an essays opposing force can be reduced, and/or if a driving force can be strengthened. This exercise will bring up perhaps previously. unforeseen actors, like stakeholders and target groups for an intervention.

A force field analysis, if well carried out, will reveal opponents and group supported constitution, allies, and suggest possible corrective action. It is essays, inevitable that a number of possible programmes will not be implemented ? trying to do everything is no strategy. To decide which programmes to keep, a number of methods for option appraisal and decision-making exist, described in the. health economics module (see Health Economics Module). Cost benefit analysis cost effectiveness etc DALYs saved (this assumes people know what DALYs are ? there needs to be a link to these elsewhere) Cost utility analysis. Other assessments are risk analysis, and formal project appraisal. Essay Global Warming? At the very least, one should identify a set of criteria (needs, capacity, funding opportunities etc) against which to set the programmes under review. Once strategies are agreed and the scope and level of activities decided, it will become apparent what kind of support will be needed. Funding and staffing levels, financial and administrative management systems, external communication, and. overall governance of the organisation. STEP 4: How will we know when we have got there?

Monitoring Evaluation (ME) This stage of the planning has to do with key measuring and monitoring aspects. Once we have our journey plan, our Strategic Plan we need to set monitoring points (often referred to restaurant evaluations essays as 'milestones' to cause world essay check how things are going, assess how. well or otherwise we are performing against evaluations essays, Plan. Thus we schedule key review points as part of essays, a PLAN: ACTION : REVIEW approach.

To ensure that we do this effectively we need to evaluations determine at the outset a number of relevant Key. Performance Indicators (KPIs ), these will be critically important areas that we will monitor, measure and assess as we roll-out our Plan. Monitoring and evaluation links strategy to implementation. It is a structured approach to continuously keeping track of progress using a number of and effect, measures identified as being reliable instruments. Monitoring is an ongoing analysis of whether planned results are being achieved, so that timely corrective action can be taken. Data on specified indicators are systematically collected to inform management and restaurant essays, the main stakeholders on. progress in achieving results and in using allocated funds. And Effect World War 1? Inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes and impacts of restaurant evaluations essays, services are regularly analysed according to an established monitoring framework [x] . The Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) model [xi] verifies on a small scale if a change or a set of bluest eye morrison essay, changes actually produces results.

Specifying a measurable aim, a time frame and a target population, a small-scale test of an improvement is carried out, the results analysed and those changes that appear successful refined until agreement is restaurant essays, reached on which changes have produced the expected result, ready to be applied to what group of essays supported passage of the a broader population. Three questions guide the setup of the The PDSA cycle, eg. What are we trying to accomplish? Setting Aims How will we know that a change is an improvement? Establishing Measures What changes can we make that will result in improvement? Selecting Changes. After which changes can be planned, implemented, their results observed, and conclusions reached as to the possibility of essays, their wider application.

Usually a series of cycles is to kill analytical essay on courage, required. Evaluation is an assessment, as systematic and objective as possible, of an ongoing or completed project, programme or policy, its design, implementation and results. The aim is to determine the relevance and fulfillment of objectives, efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability. An evaluation should provide information that is credible and useful, enabling the incorporation of lessons learned into the decision-making process [xii] . As this is an restaurant evaluations essays expensive process, judgement needs to be applied as to whether a particular service or intervention warrants a full evaluation. Monitoring and evaluation can only be successful if considered at nursery rhymes writing the beginning of a strategic planning cycle so that baseline data for each indicator has been collected and success can be monitored against these data. Restaurant Evaluations? Indicators are most. useful when described in what group supported passage of the measurable terms, ideally as QQT format (quantity, quality, time). Timing of essays, reviews should be indicated. It will, we hope, be obvious from this Module just how important in so many organisations, including the Department of what of essays passage of the constitution, Health and the NHS, Strategic Planning has become.

Strategic Planning is, today, an acknowledged essential discipline, a. vital, systematic and ongoing process that enables - as far as is possible - organisations to evaluations essays plan the use and application of their resources, skills, knowledge and competences in order to achieve their organisational missions, goals and. objectives in environments of ongoing, sometimes turbulent, change. It is especially in start introduction warming times of high levels of change that strategic planning places an organisation in a more agile state, a stated of 'preparedness', more attuned to market and restaurant evaluations, other external conditions and therefore the essay writing, better prepared. to flex or even substantially change their strategic thrusts and operational plans at local as well as at higher corporate levels when fundamental, sometimes structural economic, political and social change occurs. © Jurgen C Schmidt, Katie Enock, Martyn Laycock 2009.

[i]http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/ [ii]http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Healthcare/Secondarycare/ [iii]http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/ [iv] Ashridge Mission Model , in Andrew Campbell and restaurant, Sally Yeung, Creating a Sense of Mission , Long Range Planning, Vol.24, No.4, pp10-20, 1991 [v] Richard Koch, The Financial Times Guide to Strategy , FT Prentice Hall, 3 rd edition 2006 [vi]http://www.nice.org.uk/aboutnice/whoweare [vii]http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/ [viii] WHO European Centre for Health Policy and WHO Regional Office for rhymes essay, Europes; see as well http://www.liv.ac.uk/ihia/, and http://www.who.int/hia/en/ [ix] Public Health Resource Unit (PHRU), at http://www.phru.nhs.uk/ [x] OECD ? 2002b (Focus newsletter #13) [xi]http://www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk/ServiceImprovement/ [xii] European Commission, Project Cycle Management Guidelines, at http://ec.europa.eu/ Registered Office - Sterling House, 20 Station Road, Gerrards Cross, Bucks, SL9 8EL.

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9th grade essay Writing standards for ninth and tenth grades define the knowledge and skills needed for writing proficiency at these grade levels. Evaluations Essays! By understanding 9th and start essay introduction global warming, 10th grade writing standards, parents can be more effective in helping their children meet grade level expectations. Essays! What is 9th and 10th Grade Writing? In grades nine and ten, students plan, draft, and supported passage of the, complete written compositions on a regular basis. Ninth grade and tenth grade students practice all forms of writing and are expected to produce error-free essays that demonstrate their awareness of restaurant essays, audience and purpose. Students edit their essays for clarity, engaging language, and cause essay, the correct use of the conventions and evaluations essays, mechanics of standard American English. An emphasis is placed on writing coherent and focused essays that convey a well-defined perspective and tightly reasoned argument. What Writing Standards Measure. Essay Introduction Global Warming! Academic standards are very specific, detailing every aspect of essays, what students are expected to learn in rhymes essay, each grade.

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Students generate ideas from multiple sources (e.g., brainstorming, discussion, research materials), and use strategies and tools (e.g., technology, spreadsheets, diagrams, outlines) to develop a personal organizational style. Students make a plan for writing that addresses purpose, audience, controlling idea, logical sequence, and a timeframe for completion. Drafting: In ninth grade and tenth grade, students develop drafts, alone and collaboratively, by evaluations essays, organizing and reorganizing content. On France Culture! Drafts establish a controlling thesis that conveys a clear and distinctive perspective on the subject and employ a logical organizational pattern with substantial and restaurant evaluations essays, relevant supporting details. In ninth and tenth grades, students are expected to maintain a consistent tone and focus and use precise language, action verbs, sensory details, appropriate modifiers, and the active rather than the passive voice. Nursery! Students analyze the language techniques of professional authors, (e.g., figurative language, denotation, connotation), to establish a personal style, demonstrating a command of language with confidence of expression. Revising: In 9th grade and 10th grade, students revise selected drafts by evaluations, improving the logic and introduction, coherence of the organization and controlling perspective, and developing meaningful relationships among ideas. Other revision techniques used by ninth- and tenth-graders include checking the accuracy of restaurant, supporting details, (e.g., facts, statistics, expert opinions, definitions) and working on the precision of word choice, voice, and tone to essays culture, suit the occasion, audience, and purpose. Editing: Students edit their writing to ensure standard usage, varied sentence structure, and appropriate word choice. Ninth- and tenth graders also proofread for appropriateness of organization, content, style, and language conventions, using resources and restaurant evaluations, reference materials (e.g., dictionary, thesaurus). Publishing: Using technology, students in grades nine and ten publish their work frequently in a format appropriate to purpose (e.g., for display, multimedia).

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Persuasive: Students in analytical on courage, ninth and tenth grades write persuasive essays that structure ideas and essays, arguments in a sustained and essays on france culture, logical fashion. Restaurant Evaluations! Persuasive essays in essay global warming, these grades should use specific rhetorical devices to support assertions (e.g., appeal to restaurant, logic through reasoning; appeal to emotion or ethical belief; relate a personal anecdote, case study, or analogy). Ninth- and tenth-graders are expected to clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations, and expressions of commonly accepted beliefs and logical reasoning. Students should also refute opposing arguments by nursery rhymes essay, addressing readers’ concerns, counterclaims, biases, and expectations. Responses to Literature: Ninth and restaurant evaluations, tenth grade students are expected to demonstrate a comprehensive grasp of the significant ideas of literary works. Students should support their ideas through accurate and detailed references to the text or to other works, and show an understanding of the stylistic devices used and the effects created. Students should also identify and assess the analytical essay, impact of perceived ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text. Business Documents: Students in grade nine and grade ten write a variety of restaurant evaluations essays, business and writing, work-related documents, including business letters, memos, emails, speaker introductions, resumes, applications, and cover letters for applications. Restaurant Evaluations! The goal of business writing in these grades is to essays on france, provide clear and purposeful information and address the intended audience appropriately.

Students strive to highlight central ideas and pay attention to vocabulary, tone, and style by considering the nature of the relationship with, and the knowledge and interests of the recipient. Ninth- and tenth-graders are expected to follow a conventional style with page formats, fonts, and spacing that enhance readability and impact. Technical Documents: Students in 9th grade and 10th grade write technical documents (e.g., how-to-manuals, procedures, assembly directions, meeting minutes) with the goal of reporting information and conveying ideas logically and correctly. Students are expected to offer detailed and evaluations, accurate specifications and include scenarios, definitions, and examples to what group passage, aid comprehension (e.g., a troubleshooting guide). Technical documents in these grades should also anticipate readers’ problems, mistakes, and misunderstandings. Ninth- and tenth-graders may also be asked to write detailed travel directions and design an accompanying graphic using the cardinal and ordinal directions, landmarks, streets and highways, and distances.

Grades 9 and 10: Writing Evaluation. Essays! Ninth and tenth grade students evaluate the writing of others, as well as their own writing. Students make suggestions to improve writing and assess their own writing for both mechanics and content. In grades nine and ten, students are expected to respond productively to peer reviews of their own work. Writing standards recommend that each student keep and review a collection of his/her own written work to determine its strengths and weaknesses and to set goals as a writer. Grades 9 and 10: Written English Language Conventions. Students in ninth and tenth grades are expected to produce legible work that shows a command of standard English conventions, including accurate spelling, punctuation, and capitalization. In particular, writing standards for grades nine and ten specify these key markers of proficiency: —Understand sentence construction, including parallel structure, subordination, and proper placement of modifiers. —Compose increasingly more involved sentences that contain clauses (e.g., main and subordinate) and bluest eye morrison, phrases (e.g., gerunds, participles, absolutes, and infinitives) in their various functions, as well as the correct use of fragments for effect. —Exhibit proper English usage and control of grammar, paragraph and sentence structure, diction, and syntax. —Demonstrate control over grammatical elements such as subject-verb agreement, pronoun-antecedent agreement, consistency of verb tenses, comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and possessives. —Use appropriate manuscript requirements, including title page presentation, pagination, spacing and margins, and restaurant evaluations, integration of source and support material (e.g., in-text citation, use of direct quotations, paraphrasing) with appropriate citations. —Identify and correctly use the mechanics of punctuation, including commas, colons, semicolons, apostrophes, hyphens, quotation marks, italics or underscoring, and ellipses. —Ninth- and tenth-graders pay particular attention to eye morrison, capitalization of restaurant evaluations, names of academic courses and proper adjectives. — Use knowledge of spelling rules, orthographic patterns, generalizations, prefixes, suffixes, and roots, including Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon root words. —Understand foreign words commonly used in English (e.g., laissez faire, croissant). —Students use fluent and global warming, legible handwriting skills. Grades 9 and 10: Research and Inquiry.

In ninth and tenth grades, students use appropriate research methodology and a variety of print and electronic sources to gather information for research papers and other writing assignments. Students use writing as a research and learning tool in the following ways: Use writing to restaurant, discover, organize, and support what is known and what needs to be learned about and effect war 1 essay, a topic. Use clear research questions and evaluations essays, suitable research methods (e.g., library, electronic media, personal interview) to elicit and present evidence from primary and secondary sources. Synthesize information from multiple sources and identify complexities and nursery essay, discrepancies in the information and the different perspectives found in each medium (e.g., almanacs, microfiche, news sources, in-depth field studies, speeches, journals, technical documents). Represent information in a variety of ways such as graphics, conceptual maps, and learning logs. Use appropriate conventions for documentation in evaluations essays, the text, notes, and bibliographies by adhering to those in style manuals (e.g., Modern Language Association Handbook, The Chicago Manual of Style). Essay! Analyze strategies that writers in restaurant evaluations, different fields use to cause and effect world, compose. Use writing as a study tool to clarify and remember information. Ninth and Tenth Grade Writing Tests.

In many states, students in grades nine and ten take standardized writing assessments, either with pencil and paper or on a computer. While tests vary, students are typically given questions about grammar and mechanics, as well as timed essay-writing exercises in which they must write an essay in response to a writing prompt. On 9th and restaurant essays, 10th grade essay writing tests, students demonstrate their ability to produce an effective composition for a specific purpose, as well as their command of the conventions of spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, usage, and sentence structure. Essay! In some states, students’ revising and editing skills are tested with multiple-choice questions on restaurant reading passages. Students are asked to indicate how a particular sentence might be corrected or improved or how the organization or development of on france culture, a paragraph might be strengthened. Tests may also require students to proofread for correct punctuation, capitalization, word choice, and spelling. Another type of question asks students to write a summary statement in response to a reading passage. Restaurant! In addition, 9th and 10th grade students are given classroom-based writing tests and writing portfolio evaluations. State writing assessments are correlated to state writing standards.

These standards-based tests measure what students know in relation to what they’ve been taught. If students do well on school writing assignments, they should do well on such a test. Educators consider standards-based tests to nursery rhymes writing, be the most useful as these tests show how each student is meeting grade-level expectations. These assessments are designed to pinpoint where each student needs improvement and help teachers tailor instruction to fit individual needs. State departments of education usually include information on writing standards and writing assessments on their websites, including testing guidelines and sample questions. Writing Test Preparation. The best writing test preparation in ninth and tenth grades consists of encouraging your student to write, raising awareness of the written word, and offering guidance on writing homework.

Talk about writing and share appropriate articles and books with your child. Evaluations Essays! Students learn to write effectively when they write more often. Suggest keeping a journal, writing movie reviews for the family, or writing the what group of essays supported, procedures for using a new piece of home equipment. Any writing is valuable practice. By becoming familiar with 9th and 10th grade writing standards, parents can offer more constructive homework support. Remember, the best writing help for kids is not to correct their essays, but offer positive feedback that prompts them to essays, use the strategies of writing process to nursery, revise their own work. Time4Writing Online Writing Courses Support 9th and 10th Grade Writing Standards. Time4Writing is an restaurant excellent complement to ninth and eye morrison, tenth grade writing curriculums. Developed by classroom teachers, Time4Writing targets the fundamentals of writing. Students build writing skills and deepen their understanding of the writing process by working on standard-based, grade-appropriate writing tasks under the individual guidance of a certified teacher. Writing on a computer inspires many students, even reluctant writers.

Learn more about Time4Writing online courses for ninth and tenth grades. *K-12 writing standards are defined by each state. Time4Writing relies on a representative sampling of restaurant, state writing standards, notably from Florida, Texas, and California, as well as on the standards published by nationally recognized education organizations, such as the National Council of to kill, Teachers of English and the International Reading Association.

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close read essay and the Mental States I Believe They Have and Need in Order. to Participate in restaurant evaluations the Social Relationships I have Observed. By Karen Davis, PhD, President of United Poultry Concerns. of Toronto in Ontario, is the opening chapter in war 1 Experiencing Animal Minds: An Anthology of. Animal-Human Encounters , ed. Julie A. Evaluations? Smith Robert W. Analytical? Mitchell, Columbia University Press, 2012. I looked at the Chicken endlessly, and I wondered. What lay behind the veil of animal secrecy?

In this essay, I discuss the social life of restaurant chickens and the mental states that I believe they have and need in of essays supported order to participate in the social relationships that I have observed in them. What follows is restaurant, a personalized, candid discussion of what I know, what I think I know, and group what I am unsure of but have observed relevant to the minds of essays chickens in their relationships with each other and with other species and with me. Chickens evolved in the foothills of the Himalayan Mountains and the tropical forests of what group supported passage Southeast Asia where they have lived and raised their families for thousands of years. Most people I talk to had no idea that chickens are natives of restaurant a rugged, forested habitat filled with vibrant tropical colors and to kill a mockingbird analytical essay sounds. Similarly surprising to many is the fact that chickens are endowed with memory and emotions, and that they have a keenly developed consciousness of one another and restaurant essays of their surroundings. A newspaper reporter who visited our sanctuary a few years ago was surprised to learn that chickens recognize each other as individuals, especially after they’ve been separated.

A friend and I had recently rescued a hen and a rooster in a patch of woods alongside a road in rural Virginia on the Eastern Shore. The first night we managed to get the hen out what supported constitution, of the tree, but the rooster got away. Restaurant Evaluations Essays? The following night after hours of playing hide and seek with him in the rain, we succeeded in netting the rhymes writing, rooster, and restaurant evaluations the two were reunited at our sanctuary. When the reporter visited a few days later, she was impressed that these two chickens, Lois and Lambrusco, were foraging together as a couple, showing that they remembered each other after being apart. Chickens form memories that influence their social behavior from the time they are embryos, and they update their memories over the course of their lives.

I’ve observed their memories in of essays supported passage of the constitution action at restaurant evaluations essays our sanctuary. For instance, if I have to remove a hen from the flock for essay two or three weeks in order to treat an infection, when I put her outside again, she moves easily back into the flock, which accepts her as if she had never been away. There may be a little showdown, a tiff instigated by another hen, but the challenge is quickly resolved. Evaluations? Best of all, I’ve watched many a returning hen be greeted by her own flock members led by the rooster walking over on france and gathering around her conversably, as if they were saying to evaluations her, “Where have you been?” and to kill analytical essay on courage “How are you?” and “We’re glad you’re back.” My Experience with Mother Hens and Their Families. What of the hens whom we observe each day at evaluations essays home, with what care and assiduity they govern and eye morrison essay guard their chicks? Some let down their wings for the chicks to come under; others arch their backs for them to restaurant evaluations climb upon; there is no part of their bodies with which they do not wish to cherish their chicks if they can, nor do they do this without a joy and eye morrison alacrity which they seem to exhibit by the sound of their voices. - Plutarch. The purpose of our sanctuary on the Virginia Eastern Shore is to provide a home for chickens who already exist, rather than adding to the population and thus diminishing our capacity to adopt more birds. For this reason we do not allow our hens to hatch their eggs in the spring and restaurant evaluations early summer as they would otherwise do, given their association with the roosters in what group of the constitution our yard.

All of our birds have been adopted from situations of abandonment or abuse, or else they were no longer wanted or able to be cared for by their previous owners. Essays? Our two-acre sanctuary is a fenced open yard that shades into tangled wooded areas filled with trees, bushes, vines, undergrowth and the soil chickens love to scratch in all year round. It also includes several smaller fenced enclosures with chicken-wire roofs, each with its own predator-proof house, for chickens who are inclined to fly over fences during chick-hatching season, and thus be vulnerable to the raccoons, foxes, owls, possums and other predators inhabiting the woods and fields around us. I learned the hard way about the vulnerability of chickens to predators. World? Once, a hen named Eva, who had jumped the fence and been missing for evaluations essays several weeks, reappeared in early June with a brood of eight fluffy chicks. This gave me a chance to observe directly some of the maternal behavior I had read so much about. We had adopted Eva into our sanctuary along with several other hens and a rooster confiscated during a cockfighting raid in Alabama.

Watching Eva travel around the yard, outside the sanctuary fence with her tiny brood close behind her, was like watching a family of wild birds whose dark and start introduction warming golden feathers blended perfectly with the woods and foliage they melted in evaluations essays and out of start essay warming during the day. Periodically, at the edge of the woods, Eva would squat down with her feathers puffed out, and her peeping chicks would all run under her wings for comfort and warmth. A few minutes later, the evaluations, family was on the move again. Throughout history, hens have been praised for what group supported passage their ability to defend their young from an attacker. I watched Eva do exactly this one day when a large dog wandered in front of the magnolia tree where she and her chicks were foraging. With her wings outspread and curved menacingly toward the dog, she rushed at him over and over, cackling loudly, all the while continuing to push her chicks behind herself with her wings. The dog stood stock still before the excited mother hen, and soon ambled away, but Eva maintained her aggressive posture of self-defense, her sharp, repetitive cackle and attentive lookout for several minutes after he was gone. Eva’s behavior toward the dog differed radically from her behavior toward me, demonstrating her ability to distinguish between a likely predator and restaurant essays someone she perceived as presenting no dire threat to her and her chicks. She already knew me from the sanctuary yard, and though I had never handled her apart from lifting her out of the crate she’d arrived in war 1 from Alabama several months earlier, when I started discreetly stalking her and her family, to get the closest possible view of them, the most she did when she saw me coming was dissolve with her brood into the woods or disappear under the magnolia tree. While she didn’t see me as particularly dangerous, she nevertheless maintained a wary distance that, over restaurant essays time, diminished to where she increasingly brought her brood right up to the sanctuary fence, approaching the front steps of our house, and ever closer to me - but not too close just yet. When she and her chicks were out and about, and I called to her, “Hey, Eva,” she’d quickly look up at me, poised and alert for several seconds, before resuming her occupation.

One morning, I looked outside expecting to group of essays supported see the little group in the dewy grass, but they were not there. Restaurant Essays? Knowing that mother raccoons prowled nightly looking for food for their own youngsters in the summer, I sadly surmised they were the rhymes essay writing, likely reason that I never saw my dear Eva and her chicks again. I kneeled down and stared into the face of the chick who looked intently back at restaurant evaluations essays me, before it hid itself, then peeked out again. I looked closely into Daffodil’s face as well, knowing from cause and effect world, experience that making direct eye contact with chickens is crucial to forming a trusting, friendly relationship with them. If chickens see people only from the standpoint of restaurant essays boots and shoes, and people don’t look them in the eye and talk to on france culture them, no bond of friendship will be formed between human and bird.

I’ve seen this difference expressed between hens we’ve adopted into our sanctuary from an egg production facility, for restaurant evaluations example, and nursery rhymes essay chickens brought to us as young birds or as someone’s former pet. Former egg-industry hens tend to look back at me, not with that sharp, bright, direct focus of a fully confident chicken, but with a watchful opacity that no doubt in part reflects their having spent their entire previous lives in cages or on crowded floors in dark, polluted buildings that permanently affected their eyes before coming to our sanctuary. Psychologically, it’s as if they’ve pulled down a little curtain between themselves and essays human beings that does not prevent friendship but infuses their recovery with a settled strain of fear. I’ll say more about these hens presently. From the very first, a large red rooster named Francis regularly visited Daffodil and her chick in start introduction global their nesting place, and restaurant essays Daffodil acted happy and rhymes essay content to evaluations essays have him there. Frequently, I found him quietly sitting with her and the little chick, who scrambled around both of them, in cause essay and out of their feathers. Though roosters will mate with more than one hen in the flock, a rooster and restaurant evaluations essays a hen will also form bonds so strong that they will refuse to mate with anyone else.

Could it be that Francis was the father of this chick and that he and Daffodil knew it? He certainly was uniquely and on france intimately involved with the pair, and it wasn’t as though he was the head of the flock, the one who oversaw all of the hens and the other roosters and was thus fulfilling his duty in that role. Rather, Francis seemed simply to be a member of this particular family. For the rest of the summer, Daffodil and her chick formed a kind of enchanted circle with an essays inviolable space all around themselves, as they roamed together in the yard, undisturbed by the other chickens. Not once did I see Francis or any of the other roosters try to start warming mate with Daffodil during the time she was raising her frisky chick - the essays, little one I named Daisy who grew up to be Sir Daisy, a large, handsome rooster with white and essays on france culture golden-brown feathers.

My Relationship with the evaluations, Hens in Our Sanctuary. The industry must convey the message that hens are distinct from companion species to defuse the cause and effect world, misperceptions. - Simon Shane, Editor, Egg Industry. The poultry industry represents chickens bred for food as mentally vacuous, eviscerated organisms. Restaurant Evaluations? Hens bred for rhymes writing commercial egg production are said to be suited to a caged environment, with no need for personal space or normal foraging and restaurant social activity. They are characterized as aggressive cannibals who, notwithstanding their otherwise mindless passivity and affinity for cages, cannot live together in a cage without first having a portion of their sensitive beaks burned off - otherwise, it is said, they will tear each other up.

Similarly, the instinct to tend and fuss over her eggs and on france culture be a mother has been rooted out of restaurant these hens (so it is claimed), and the idea of one’s having a social relationship with such hens is a mockingbird essay, dismissed as silly sentimentalism. I confess I have yet to restaurant essays meet a single example of and effect world war 1 these so-called cannibalistic cage-loving birds. Over the restaurant evaluations, years, we have adopted hundreds of “egg-type” hens into our sanctuary straight from the cage environment, which is all they ever knew until they were rescued and placed gently on the ground where they felt the earth next to bluest eye morrison their bodies for the first time in their lives. To watch a little group of nearly featherless hens with naked necks and mutilated beaks respond to this experience is deeply moving. Restaurant Essays? Because their bones have never been properly exercised and their toenails are long and spindly for never having scratched vigorously in the ground, some hens take a few days or longer learning to essays on france walk normally and evaluations essays fly up to essay introduction global warming a perch and settle on restaurant evaluations essays it securely, but their desire to do these things is evident from the time they arrive. Chickens released from a long siege in a cage and placed on the ground almost invariably start making the tentative, increasingly vigorous gestures of taking a dustbath. They paddle and fling the essay introduction, dirt with their claws, rake in particles of earth with their beaks, fluff up their feathers, roll on their sides, pause from restaurant essays, time to writing time with their eyes closed, and stretch out their legs in obvious relish at being able to bask luxuriously and satisfy their urge to clean themselves and to be clean. Carefully lifting a battered hen, who has never known anything before but brutal handling, out of a transport carrier and placing her on the ground to begin taking her first real dustbath (as opposed to evaluations the “vacuum” dustbaths hens try to bluest eye morrison essay perform in a cage) is a gesture from which a trusting relationship between human and bird grows. If hens were flowers, it would be like watching a flower unfold, or in the case of a little flock of hens set carefully on the ground together, a little field of flowers transforming themselves from essays, withered stalks into blossoms. A Mockingbird Analytical? For chickens, dustbathing is not only restaurant, a cleansing activity; it is also a social gathering. Typically, one hen begins the essays on france, process and is quickly joined by evaluations essays other hens and maybe one or two roosters.

Soon the birds are buried so deep in their dustbowls that only the moving tail of analytical on courage a rooster or an outspread wing can be seen a few feet away. Restaurant Evaluations? Eventually, one by one, the little flock emerges from their ritual entrancement all refreshed. Each bird stands up, vigorously shakes the dirt particles out of a mockingbird his or her feathers, creating a fierce little dust storm before running off to restaurant evaluations essays the next engaging activity. Charity (front) with Freddaflower Zelda dustbathing. Early on as I began forming our sanctuary and organization in the 1980s, I drove one day from Maryland to New York to pick up seven former battery-caged hens.

Instead of crating them in the car, I allowed them to sit together in the back seat on towels, so they wouldn’t be cramped yet again in a dark enclosure, unable to see out the to kill a mockingbird analytical, windows or to see me. Also, I wanted to watch them through my rearview mirror and talk to them. Once their flutter of anxiety and fear had subsided, the hens sat quietly in the car, occasionally standing up to stretch a leg or a wing, all the while peering out from under their pale and restaurant evaluations pendulous combs (the bright red crest on top of chickens’ heads grows abnormally long, flaccid and yellowish-white in the cage environment) as I drove and spoke to them of the life awaiting. Then an astonishing thing happened. Bluest? The most naked and pitiful looking hen began making her way slowly from the back seat, across the restaurant evaluations essays, passenger seat separator, toward me. She crawled onto my knee and settled herself in my lap for the remainder of the trip.

The question has been asked whether chickens can form intentions. Do they have “intentionality”? Do they consciously formulate purposes and carry them out? In the nursery rhymes writing, rearview mirror I watched Bonnie, that ravaged little hen, make a difficult yet beeline trip from the backseat of the car into my lap. Reliving the scene in restaurant evaluations my mind, I see her journey as her intention to reach me. Group Supported Passage Of The? Once she obtained her objective, she rested without further incident. Intentionality in chickens is restaurant evaluations, shown in bluest eye morrison many ways.

An example is a hen’s desire not only to lay an egg, but to lay her egg in a particular place with a particular group of hens, or in a secluded spot she has chosen - and evaluations essays she has definitely chosen it. I’ve watched hens delay laying their egg until they got where they wanted to be. Conscious or not at the outset, once the intention has been formed, the hen is essay, consciously and emotionally committed to accomplishing it. Evaluations Essays? No other interpretation of her behavior makes sense by comparison. Sarah, for example, a white leghorn hen from a battery-cage egg-laying operation who came to our sanctuary with osteoporosis and a broken leg, was determined, as she grew stronger, to climb the front stairs of our house, one laborious step at a time, just so that she could lay her egg behind the toilet in the bathroom next to the second floor landing. Essays? This was a hen, remember, who had never known anything before in her life but a crowded metal cage among thousands of cages in a windowless building. I was Sarah’s friendly facilitator. Essays? I cheered her on, and the interest I showed in her and her wishes and eye morrison successes was a critical part of her recovery, both physical and mental. These days in the morning when I unhook the evaluations essays, door of the start essay warming, little house in which eight hens and Sir Valery Valentine the rooster spend the night, brown Josephine runs alongside me and dashes ahead down to the Big House where she waits in a state of eager anticipation while I unlatch the door to let the evaluations, birds who are eagerly assembled on the other side of that door out into the yard. Out they rush, and in goes Josephine, straight to the favorite spot shaped by introduction warming herself and her friends into a comfy nest atop three stacked bales of straw that, envisioned in essays her mind’s eye, she was determined to get to. Why else, unless she remembered the cause and effect world, place and her experience in it with anticipatory pleasure, would she be determined day after day to repeat the restaurant evaluations, episode?

Miss Sentinel Soul Sir Valery Valentine. In her mind’s eye as well is my own role in her morning ritual. To Kill? I hold the Keys to the little straw Kingdom Josephine is eager to restaurant evaluations essays reenter, and she accompanies me trustingly and expectantly as we make our way toward it. Likewise, our hen Charity knew that I held the keys to the cellar where she laid her eggs for years in a pile of books in a cabinet beside a table I worked at. Unlike Josephine, Charity wanted to lay her egg in a private place, free of the fussing of what of essays passage of the hens gathered together and sharing their nest, often accompanied by a rooster boisterously crowing the egg-laying news amid the cacophony of cackles. Charity didn’t mind my presence in the cellar. Restaurant Evaluations Essays? She seemed to like me sitting there, each of us intent on our silent endeavor. Essay On Courage? If the restaurant, cellar door was closed, blocking her way to the basement when she was ready to essays culture lay her egg, she would pace back and forth in front of the window on the opposite side of the house where I sat at my desk facing the window. If I didn’t respond quickly enough, she’d start pecking at the window with an increasing bang to get me to restaurant move. By the time I ran up the steps and opened the cellar door, she’d already be standing there, having raced around the house as soon as she saw me get up.

Down the cellar steps she’d trip, jump into the cabinet, and settle as still as a statue in her book nook. After she had laid her egg and spent a little time with it, she let me know she was ready to go back outside, running up the steps to the landing where she waited until I opened the bluest eye morrison essay, door, and out she went. Do events like these suggest that the chickens regard me as a chicken like themselves? I don’t really think so, other than perhaps when they are motherless chicks and I am their sole provider and protector, similar to the way children raised by wolves imprint on essays and behave like wolves. I see the ability of chickens to bond with me and eye morrison be endearingly companionable as an extension of their ability to adapt their native instincts to habitats and human-created environments that stimulate their natural ability to perceive analogies and fit what they find where they happen to be to the fulfillment of their own needs and desires. The inherently social nature of chickens enables them to socialize successfully with a variety of other species and to essays form bonds of interspecies affection. Having adopted into group supported of the our sanctuary many incapacitated young chickens from the evaluations, “broiler” chicken (meat) industry, I know how quickly they learn to recognize me and cause and effect my voice and essays their own names. Nursery? They twitter and chirp when I talk to them, and they turn their heads to evaluations essays watch me moving about or away from cause and effect world war 1 essay, them.

Living in the house until they are well enough to essays go outside if they ever can, they quickly learn the cues I provide that signify their comfort and care and establish their personal identity. This is nursery rhymes essay, not to restaurant suggest that chickens are unlimitedly malleable. Mother hens and their embryos have a genetic repertoire of communications that are too subtle for humans to decipher entirely, let alone imitate. Analytical? Chickens have ancestral memories that predispose the development of their self-identity and behavior. Even chickens incubated in mechanical hatcheries and deprived of parental influence - virtually all of the restaurant, birds at our sanctuary - behave like chickens in essential ways.

For instance, they all follow the sun around the yard. They all sunbathe, dropping to the ground and lying on their sides with one wing outspread, then turning over and spreading out the other wing while raising their neck feathers to allow the warm sunlight and vitamin D to penetrate their skin. Similar to dustbathing, sunbathing is a social as well as a healthful activity for chickens, where you see one bird drop to the ground where the sun is shining, followed by another and then another, and if you don’t know what they are doing, you will think they had died the supported passage of the constitution, way they lie still with their eyes closed, flopped like mops under the sun. I’m aware when I am in restaurant the yard with them that the chickens are constantly sending, receiving and responding to many signals that elude me. And Effect World? They also exhibit a clear sense of distinction between themselves, as chickens, and restaurant essays the three ducks, two turkeys and peacock Frankencense who share their sanctuary space. And they definitely know the difference between themselves and their predators, such as foxes and hawks, whose proximity raises a sustained alarm through the and effect war 1, entire flock.

I remember how our broiler hen Miss Gertrude, who couldn’t walk, alerted me with her agitated voice and body movements that a fox was lurking on the edge of the woods. Frankencense the peacock, Donald Arnold the essays, ducks, five Sentinel Sister hens, and Aubrey the turkey at UPC. While all of our sanctuary birds mingle together amiably, typically the ducks potter about rhymes writing as a trio, and Frankencense the peacock displays his plumage before the hens, who view him for the most part impassively. The closest interspecies relationship I’ve observed among our birds is between the chickens and restaurant essays the turkeys. A few years ago, our hen Muffie bonded in true friendship with our adopted turkey Mila, after Muffie’s friend Fluffie (possibly her actual sister) died suddenly and left her bereft, of and effect world war 1 essay which I’ll say more later. Right from the start, Muffie and Mila shared a quiet affection, foraging together and sometimes preening each other very delicately. One of their favorite rituals was in the evenings when I changed their water and ran the hose in their bowls. Restaurant? Together, Muffie and Mila would follow the tiny rivulets along the ground, drinking as they went, Muffie darting and drinking like a brisk brown fairy, Mila dreamily swaying and start global sipping, piping her intermittent flute notes. Notwithstanding, I don’t think Muffie ever thought of herself as a “turkey” in her relationship with Mila, and I doubt very much that chickens bonded with humans experience themselves as “human,” particularly when other chickens are nearby - out of sight maybe, but not out of earshot. (Chickens have keen, discriminating hearing as well as full spectrum color vision. Chick embryos have been shown to distinguish the crow of a rooster from other sounds from inside their shells.) Chickens in my experience have a core identity and sense of themselves as chickens.

An example is a chick I named Fred, sole survivor of restaurant a classroom hatching project in which embryos were mechanically incubated. Fred was so large, loud and demanding from the moment he set foot in our kitchen, I assumed he’d grow up to bluest eye morrison be a rooster. He raced up and restaurant essays down the hallway, hopped up on my shoulder, leapt to the top of my head, ran across my back, down my arm and onto the floor when I was at a mockingbird essay on courage the computer, and was generally what you’d call “pushy,” but adorably so. I remember one day putting Fred outdoors in an enclosure with a few adult hens on the ground, and he flew straight up the tree to a branch, peeping loudly, apparently wanting no part of evaluations essays them. “Fred” grew into a lustrously beautiful black hen whom I renamed Freddaflower. Often we’d sit on the sofa together at what group of essays supported passage constitution night while I watched television or read. Evaluations Essays? Even by herself, Freddaflower liked to perch on the arm of the sofa in front of the TV when it was on, suggesting she liked to be there because it was our special place. She ran up and down the stairs to the second floor as she pleased, and often I would find her in the guestroom standing prettily in front of the full-length mirror preening her feathers and observing herself. She appeared to be fully aware that it was she herself she was looking at essays in the mirror. I’d say to restaurant evaluations essays her, “Look, Freddaflower - that’s you!

Look how pretty you are!” And she seemed already to know that. Freddaflower loved for me to hold her and pet her. She demanded to be picked up. She would close her eyes and purr while I stroked her feathers and kissed her face. From time to time, I placed her outside in the chicken yard, and sometimes she ventured out on a mockingbird on courage her own, but she always came back. Restaurant Evaluations Essays? Eventually I noticed she was returning to me less and less, and for shorter periods.

One night she elected to remain in the chicken house with the flock. From then on until she died of ovarian cancer in my arms two years later, Freddaflower expressed her ambivalence of wanting to start global warming be with me but also wanting to be with the other hens, to socialize and restaurant nest with them and participate in their world and the reliving of ancestral experiences that she carried within herself. Liqin Cao and essays culture Freddaflower. My Relationship with the Roosters in restaurant evaluations essays Our Sanctuary. A less happy ambivalence appeared in to kill a mockingbird a soft-colored gray and white rooster I named Ruby when he was brought to our sanctuary as a young bird by a girl who swore he was a hen. Following me about the evaluations, house on his brisk little legs, even sleeping beside me on my pillow at night, Ruby grew up to be a rooster. In spite of analytical our close relationship during his first months of life, once he became sexually mature, Ruby’s attitude toward me changed. In the yard with the other chickens, he showed no disposition to evaluations fight.

He didn’t attack other birds or provoke antagonisms. He fit in with the existing flock of hens and cause and effect roosters, but toward me and restaurant essays other people he became compulsively aggressive. And Effect War 1? As soon as I (or anyone) appeared in the yard, Ruby ran from essays, wherever he was and physically attacked us. Of Essays Passage Of The Constitution? Having to work in the yard under his vigilant eye, I took to carrying a bottomless birdcage and restaurant placing it over him while I worked. When finished I would lift it off him and eye morrison essay walk backward toward the gate with the restaurant essays, birdcage in front of war 1 essay me as a shield. What I saw taking place in Ruby was a conflict he couldn’t control, and from which he suffered emotionally, between an autonomous genetic impulse on the one hand, and his personal desire on restaurant evaluations the other to bluest be friendly with me. Restaurant Evaluations Essays? He got to to kill a mockingbird analytical on courage where when he saw me coming with the restaurant, birdcage, he would walk right up and let me place it over him as if grateful for my protection against a behavior he didn’t want to carry out. Even more tellingly, he developed a syndrome of coughs and sneezes whenever I approached, symptomatic, I believed, of his inner turmoil. He didn’t have a respiratory infection, and despite his antagonism toward me, I never felt that he hated me but rather that he suffered from his dilemma, including his inability to bluest eye morrison essay manage it. My personal experience with our sanctuary roosters confirms the literature I’ve read about wild and restaurant evaluations feral chickens documenting that the majority of roosters do not physically and nursery rhymes writing compulsively attack one another.

Chickens maintain a social order in which every member of the flock has a place and restaurant evaluations finds a place. During the day our roosters and hens break up into small, fluctuating groups that are somewhat, but by no means, rigidly territorial. Antagonisms between roosters are resolved with bloodless showdowns and face-offs. The most notable exception is when a new rooster is introduced into an existing flock, which may provoke a temporary flare up, but even then, there is what group of the constitution, no predicting. Last year I placed newcomer Benjamin in a yard already occupied by two other roosters, Rhubarb and Oliver and their twenty or so hens, and he fit in right away. Ruby won immediate acceptance when I put him outside in the chickenyard after living in the house with me for almost six months. In dealing with Ruby I found an restaurant evaluations unexpected ally in our large red rooster Pola, who was so attentive to me, all I had to do was call him, and he bolted over from his hens and let me pick him up and hold him. Global? I have a greeting card photograph of Pola and me “crowing” together, my one hand clasped over evaluations his swelled-out chest, my other hand holding his claw, in a duet I captioned “With Heart and Voice.” Playfully, I got into writing the habit of yelling “Pola, Help!” whenever Ruby acted like he was ready to come after me, which worked as well as the birdcage.

Hearing my call, Pola would perk up, race over to where Ruby was about to charge, and run him off with such cheerful alacrity it was as if he knew this was our little game together. I’d always say, “Thank you, Pola, thank you!” and he acted very pleased with his performance and restaurant the praise I lavished on him for “saving” me. He stuck out his chest, stretched up his neck, flapped his wings vigorously, and a mockingbird analytical on courage crowed triumphantly a few times. Roosters crow to announce their accomplishments. Restaurant? Even after losing a skirmish, a rooster will often crow as if to compensate for his loss or deny its importance or call it a draw. Last summer as I sat reading outside with the chickens, I was diverted by our two head roosters, Rhubarb and Sir Valery Valentine, crowing back and forth at each other in their respective yards just a few feet apart. It looked like Sir Valery was intentionally crossing a little too far into Rhubarb’s territory, and Rhubarb kept dashing at him to reinforce the boundary. There was not a hint of to kill a mockingbird analytical on courage hostility between them; rather the evaluations essays, contest, I decided as I watched them go at it, was being carried out as a kind of spirited mock ritual, in which each rooster rushed at the other, only to halt abruptly on his own side of the invisible buffer zone they apparently had agreed upon. To Kill? At that point, each rooster paced up and down on his own side, steadily eyeing the other bird and crowing at him across the divide.

After ten minutes or so, they each backed off and were soon engrossed in other activities. Roosters are so energetic and restaurant essays solicitous toward their hens, so intensely focused on nursery every aspect of their social life together that one of the saddest things to see is a rooster in a state of decline due to age, illness or both. Restaurant Evaluations? An aging or ailing rooster who can no longer hold his own in the flock suffers severely. He droops, and I have even heard a rooster cry over a mockingbird analytical essay his loss of place and prestige within his flock. Essays? This is what happened to our rooster Jules - “Gentleman Jules,” as my husband fondly named him - who came to our sanctuary in the following way. One day I received a phone call from the resident of an apartment building outside Washington, DC, saying that a rooster was loose in and effect world the complex and restaurant was being chased by children who were throwing stones at him.

After two weeks of nursery rhymes essay writing trying, she managed to lure the rooster into the laundry room and restaurant evaluations called me to come get him. A Mockingbird Essay On Courage? Expecting to find a cowering and emaciated creature needing to be carefully lifted out of a corner, I discovered instead a bright-eyed perky, chatty little fellow with glossy black feathers like Freddaflower. Evaluations Essays? I drove him to our sanctuary and set him outside with the flock, which at the time included our large white broiler rooster Henry, and our feisty bantam rooster, Bantu, who loved nothing better than sitting in the breeze under the nursery, trees with his two favorite large brown hens, Nadia and Nadine. Jules was a sweet-natured rooster, warm and affectionate to restaurant essays the core. He was a natural leader, and the hens loved him. Our dusky brown hen Petal, whom we’d adopted from cause and effect world, another sanctuary, was especially devoted to Jules.

Petal had curled gnarly toes, which didn’t stop her from whisking away from anyone she didn’t want to restaurant essays come near her; otherwise she sat still watching everything, especially Jules. Petal never made a sound; she didn’t cluck like most hens - except when Jules left her side a little too long. Then all of start essay a sudden, the silent and immobile hen with the restaurant essays, watchful eye let out a raucous SQUAWK, SQUAWK, SQUAWK, that didn’t stop until Jules had lifted his head up from whatever he was doing, and muttering to himself, ran over to comfort his friend. Jules the Rooster. Two years after coming to live with us, Jules developed a respiratory infection that with treatment seemed to go away, but left him weak and vulnerable. Essays? He returned to the chickenyard only to find himself supplanted by Glippie, with whom he had used to restaurant essays be cordial, but was now dueling, and he didn’t have the heart or strength for world essay it. His exuberance ebbed out of restaurant essays him and analytical on courage he became sad; there is no other word for the total condition of evaluations essays mournfulness he showed. War 1? His voice, which had always been cheerful, changed to moaning tones of woe. He banished himself to the outer edges of the evaluations essays, chickenyard where he paced up and down, bawling so loudly I could hear him crying from inside the house. I brought him in with me and sought to comfort my beloved bird, who showed by his whole demeanor that knew he was dying and group of essays supported passage constitution was hurt through and restaurant essays through by what he had become. Jules developed an abdominal tumor.

One morning our veterinarian placed him gently on the floor of his office after a final and futile overnight stay. Jules looked up at me from the floor and let out a low groan of “ooooohh” so broken that it pierced me through. I am pierced by it now, remembering the sorrow expressed by this dear sweet creature, “Gentleman Jules,” who had loved his life and his hens and was leaving it all behind. My Experience of Empathy and Affection in Chickens. I perceive in your literature the proposal that chickens be treated as pets. I have been involved with many thousands of essays culture chickens and turkeys and restaurant essays I don’t think they are good pets, although it is evident that almost any vertebrate may be trained to of essays passage of the constitution come for evaluations essays food. - Thomas Jukes in a letter to the author, 1992.

I have described how our hen Muffie bonded with our turkey Mila after Muffie’s inseparable companion, Fluffie, died leaving her bereft. Muffie’s solicitude toward Fluffie portended the death that would soon claim her friend. Like Jules, Fluffie developed an nursery rhymes essay writing infection that treatment had seemed to heal, but she never fully recovered. One day, I looked out the kitchen window and saw Muffie straddled on evaluations top of nursery rhymes writing Fluffie with her wings extended over restaurant her. I called my husband to come take a look at this moving and introduction yet disturbing scene. We saw it repeated several times over the next few days. On a late afternoon, I went outside to put Muffie and Fluffie in for restaurant evaluations essays the night but found them already in their house in the straw. Fluffie stood drooping with her head and start essay global tail curved toward the ground and Muffie stood motionless beside her. Restaurant Evaluations Essays? I rushed Fluffie to the veterinarian and brought her home with medicine, but she died that same night in the small bedroom where she and rhymes essay writing Muffie had liked to restaurant evaluations essays perch on of essays top of the bookcase in front of the big window overlooking the yard. After Fluffie died, Muffie stood planted for days in the exact spot where Fluffie had last stood drooping and dying.

Now, Muffie drooped in her place. She no longer scampered into the woods or came bursting into the kitchen to jump up on evaluations the sink and peck holes in the sponge floating on analytical top of the restaurant evaluations essays, dishwater. To Kill A Mockingbird Analytical Essay? She was not interested in me or the other chickens. Two weeks of this dejection and I said, “We must get Muffie a new sister.” That is restaurant evaluations essays, how Petal, who had loved Jules, came to bluest essay live in our sanctuary. The minute Petal appeared, Muffie lost her torpor and became a bustling “police miss,” picking on Petal and patrolling everything Petal did until finally the two hens became amiable, but they were never pals.

Through the years people have asked me, even more than whether chickens are “smart,” are they affectionate? - toward people, they particularly want to know. Restaurant Essays? In this essay I have sought to show the affectionate nature of chickens toward me. Because I don’t just feed them but I also talk to them and look them in world essay the eye and express my feelings for them, the birds at our sanctuary gather around me and stand there serenely preening themselves or sit quietly on the ground next to my chair while I read and chat with them. Chickens represented by the poultry industry as incapable of evaluations friendship with humans have rested in my lap with their eyes closed as peacefully as sleeping babies, and and effect world essay as I have noted, they quickly learn their names. Restaurant? A little white hen from the essay, egg industry named Karla became so friendly, all I had to do was call out “Karla!” and she would break through the other hens and head straight toward me, knowing she’d be scooped off the ground and kissed on her sweet face and over her closed eyes. And I can still see Vicky, our large white hen from a “broiler breeder” operation, whose right eye had been knocked out, peeking around the corner of her house each time I shouted, “Vicky, what are you doing in there?” And there was Henry, likewise from a broiler breeder operation, who came to our sanctuary dirty and angry after falling out of a truck on the way to a slaughter plant. Lavished with my attention, Henry, who at first couldn’t bear to be touched, became as pliant and lovable as a big shaggy dog. I couldn’t resist wrestling him to restaurant evaluations the ground with bearish hugs, and his joy at being placed in a garden where he could eat all the tomatoes he wanted was expressed in groans of ecstasy. He was like, “Are all these riches of food and affection really for me?”

One of my most poignant memories is of a large black, beautiful hen I named Mavis. Mavis had been dropped off at a shelter by a man who’d exhibited her at cause and effect world war 1 essay agricultural fairs. Restaurant Evaluations? She must have spent her whole life immobilized on the floor of what group of essays a cage with a keeper who treated her like an object. During her first two weeks at our sanctuary, Mavis could not even stand up without crumbling to the ground, and she was deeply shy and inexpressive. Restaurant Evaluations? In the chickenyard she sat alone by the fence and poked around a little by herself without showing or attracting interest. I saw no sign that she was ever going to recover from the emotional and sensory deprivation of her previous life. Karen Davis Mavis. During this time, we had three adult broiler hens - Bella Mae, Alice, and Florence. A Mockingbird Essay? They were the opposite of Mavis. All I had to do was crouch down in the yard, and here comes one of my Three Graces, as I called them, Bella Mae for example, bumping up against me with her ample breast for essays an embrace.

Immediately, Alice and Florence would hastily plod over on their heavy feet to participate in the embracement ceremony. Assertively but with no aggression whatever, they would vie with one another, bumping against a mockingbird each other’s chests to maneuver the closest possible contact with me, and I would encircle all three of them with my arms. Restaurant? One day as we were doing this, I looked up and saw Mavis just a few feet away, staring at us. The next time, the same thing happened. There was Mavis with her melancholy eyes watching me hugging the three white hens.

And then it struck me - Mavis wants to be hugged. I withdrew from the hens, walked over and knelt beside Mavis and pulled her gently toward me. It didn’t take much. She rested against me in warming a completeness of comfort that seemed to include her gratitude that her shy desire had been understood. In my first years of keeping chickens there were no predators, until a fox found us, and we built our fences - but only after eleven chickens disappeared rapidly under our nose. The fox would sneak up in broad daylight, raising a clamor among the restaurant essays, birds. Running out of the start, house I’d see no stalker, just sometimes a soul-stabbing bunch of feathers on the ground in the midst of evaluations panic.

When our bantam rooster Josie was taken, his companion Alexandra ran shrieking through the rhymes, kitchen, jumped up on a table and could not stop shrieking and was never the same afterward. The fox killed Pola, our big red rooster who had so gallantly responded to my calls begging him to “save” me from evaluations, Ruby. And Effect World War 1 Essay? I am sure he was attacked while trying to protect his hens the day he disappeared, while I sat obliviously at restaurant essays the computer. It was too much. I sat on what supported passage of the the kitchen floor crying and screaming. At the time, I was caring for restaurant Sonja, a big white warm-natured, bouncy hen I was treating for wounds she’d received before I rescued her. To Kill A Mockingbird Analytical? As I sat on the floor exploding with grief and guilt, Sonja walked over to where I sat weeping.

She nestled her face next to mine and began purring with the ineffable soft purr that is also a trill in chickens. She comforted me even as her gesture deepened the heartache I was feeling in that moment about the painful mystery of essays Pola and the mystery of what supported constitution all chickens. Did Sonja know why I was crying? I doubt it, but maybe she did. Did she know that I was terribly sad and distressed? There is no question in evaluations my mind about that.

She responded to my grief with an expression of empathy that I have carried emotionally in my life ever since. It is nursery rhymes writing, experiences such as this and others I have described in evaluations this essay that have made me a passionate advocate for chickens. I do not seek to sentimentalize chickens but to characterize them as best I can within the purview of on france culture my own observations and relationships with them. In the 1980s I wrote an essay about an abandoned crippled broiler hen named Viva who, more than any other single cause, led me to found United Poultry Concerns in 1990. Restaurant? It is hard for me to evoke in words how expressive she was in bluest eye morrison essay spite of her handicap and despite the miserable life she had had before I lifted her out of restaurant essays her misery and brought her home with me. My experience with chickens for analytical more than twenty years has shown me that chickens are conscious and essays emotional beings with adaptable sociability and a range of intentions and personalities. If there is one trait above all that leaps to my mind in thinking about chickens when they are enjoying their lives and pursuing their own interests, it is cheerfulness.

Chickens are cheerful birds, quite vocally so, and when they are dispirited and oppressed, their entire being expresses this state of start essay global affairs as well. The fact that chickens become lethargic in continuously barren environments, instead of proving that they are stupid or impassive by nature, shows how sensitive these birds are to their surroundings, deprivations and prospects. Likewise, when chickens are happy, their sense of wellbeing resonates unmistakably. Karen Davis, PhD is the president and founder of United Poultry Concerns, a nonprofit organization dedicated to the compassionate and restaurant evaluations respectful treatment of world domestic fowl. She’s the editor of UPC’s quarterly magazine Poultry Press and the author of several books including Prisoned Chickens, Poisoned Eggs: An Inside Look at the Modern Poultry Industry (1996; Revised Edition 2009), More Than a Meal: The Turkey in essays History, Myth, Ritual and Reality , and The Holocaust and the Henmaid’s Tale: A Case for Comparing Atrocities . Karen maintains a sanctuary for chickens, turkeys and start essay global ducks on the Eastern Shore of Virginia.

UPC sanctuary roosters Ivan (center), Lorenzo (left) Benjamin (right) with their blissfully dustbathing hens on May 22, 2013.

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But their covert function is to show prospective employers how well you communicate, as well as your communication style. Because of this, you need to edit your resume so that it sounds close to bluest, your natural, professional speaking voice. If you feel a resume builder is the tool for restaurant evaluations, you, see this page to eye morrison, find an restaurant, online resume builder. Starting off on the right foot. A resume cover letter needs to do more than introduce you and highlight some of your skills. World Essay? It needs to be engaging, well crafted, and well researched. It needs to avoid sounding like a hard sell while still selling you to the company. Restaurant? If a resume is a list of your accomplishments, then its cover letter is nursery rhymes essay where you get to restaurant evaluations essays, tell the story of how you achieved those accomplishments. Use it to explain how your experiences will benefit the company. Tell the potential employer why this job is important to on france culture, you. To help you avoid some common pitfalls and maximize the potential of your application, experts agree that you should consider the following guidelines.

Don’t skimp – While not all hiring managers read cover letters, they are not a waste of time. Just having one could increase your chances of getting a job interview—even if the employer doesn’t read it. And if the hiring committee has a tough choice between you and a few other applicants, then a cover letter can be what separates you from your competitors. Keep it brief – And the shorter the better. According to evaluations, a resume survey of cause and effect employers in Orange County, California, “Nearly 70% of employers want either a half page cover letter or ‘the shorter the restaurant, better’ approach.” But there is some leeway here. If the a mockingbird analytical on courage, position or your experiences warrant it, then using more than half a page would be fine. Just make sure it’s well crafted. If possible, create a narrative – Especially when experience or the position warrants a longer cover letter—executive resumes, for example—make it tell a story. The narrative structure is a powerful device, and if you can use context, conflict, and evaluations essays resolution, then the reader won’t care that it is long. For a resume, a narrative’s context might be your work history. The conflict may be experiences you’ve had in the past that left you wanting to do more than your previous position allowed.

And the resolution could be getting this new job. Do your research – Research each company you apply to, and craft a new cover letter for each of them. With social media, this is far easier than it used to be. Follow accounts of the supported passage, company and essays its executives on Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn to study their content and cause world war 1 essay the culture. Focus on restaurant essays, details – Make sure that every word is essential. Use a spelling and grammar checker and writing apps. Ask someone else to read it and give you advice.

Read from the end to the beginning and use other editing and essay proofreading tips. Learn how to restaurant evaluations, format a resume by making the most of Microsoft Word’s features. Our short video tutorials will teach you some basic formatting tips and tricks. How to use paragraph styles and themes How to change header, footer, margins, and page size How to fit resume text on one page, and how to remove blank pages How to customize tabs, text boxes and tables How to add and nursery writing remove sections. Please keep in mind that:

All files are compatible with Microsoft Word, and many of them will work in other applications such as Mac Pages, Google Docs and OpenOffice. We create our templates in restaurant evaluations, Microsoft Office 2010 and we use Microsoft Word default fonts. If you do not have these fonts installed or use a different operating system, our templates might look different on your computer. We use text styles and built-in color schemes to create our templates. Knowing how to use paragraph styles will ease the process of essay introduction global warming modifying a template. Restaurant Evaluations? While most resumes are US Letter size, some are A4. You can change the page size to make it compatible with the size used in your country. For creative designs with colored backgrounds, consider setting the page color to “none” and print on a high-quality colored paper. If the design requires borderless printing, a local print shop can help you if that feature is analytical on courage unavailable on your home printer. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST.

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