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ban for homework Is homework really necessary? Are students getting too much? You name it and nearly every question regarding the necessity - or non-necessity - of homework has been raised following this controversial move. Although headlines were every bit as sensational as the news itself, all you had to do was dig a little deeper to realise that homework isn't actually banned at the school, it has just been given a newer approach. Out-of-school-hours learning will still be encouraged through the school's website with prizes offered to the most dedicated students, one report said. University? But could a full ban on homework ever become a reality in disney corporate governance, the UAE? According to essay, a Khaleej Times poll, 80 per cent of the 100 readers polled were in favour of banning it. Of the neck retrolisthesis, 100 respondents, 81 per cent said their child receives homework three to five times a week. And the university structure, majority, 35 per cent, said their child spent between 30 to neck, 60 minutes a night on homework. In 2014/2015, the Organisation for university Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (developers of the international PISA test), carried out a report on homework around the world. It found that 15-year-olds worldwide spend an average of five hours per week doing homework.
Surprisingly, countries like Finland and Singapore spent less (two to study, three hours per week) but still had high PISA rankings. Therefore, time spent doing theoretical work does not necessarily translate into better students. It is the approach which matters most. Fatma Belrehif, executive director of Dubai Schools Inspection Bureau (DSIB) at the Knowledge and proper essay structure, Human Development Authority (KHDA), said individual schools are policy makers when it comes to homework. Schools are responsible for developing or amending policies and practices regarding homework. When doing so, they generally take into consideration their educational aims, their rationale for giving homework, recent educational and technological research, parents' and students' opinions and aspirations, and geography, the age group of students they are working with. Belrehif's comments positively showcase the fact that schools are urged to move with the times when it comes to embracing new work approaches.
Samantha Steed, principal at university essay Ranches Primary School (RPS), said parents who choose RPS do so with the knowledge that we have high academic expectations but take a more modern approach to maxim narrative, homework. RPS has a home learning policy, however, it is open-ended and optional. She said parents support the policy and welcome the freedom from essay deadlines and screen time. For Brendon Fulton, principal of Dubai British School (DBS), a full ban on essay structure, homework is simply not justifiable. But a modernised approach to homework is. Both parents and students get frustrated when homework is proper given that has no obvious educational value, he said. Although many schools have ineffective 'homework policies' that dictate which subjects give homework on which days, DBS works differently. Rather than not give homework, we operate on practical guidelines. Exotic Animals? These guidelines ensure that homework is always linked to in-school learning - an independent extension work to embed learning. University? For Fulton, a ban on gratuitous homework is what is retrolisthesis needed. University Essay Structure? Matthew Burfield, principal and CEO of GEMS Founders School, agrees.
Traditional homework does not exist in disney governance case, our school. We promote home learning. When it comes to education, Burfield said the biggest conflict area for children and parents is homework. The parent, teacher and child are all part of the home learning equation. University Essay Structure? We make our tasks more practically-focused so as to increase engagement and reduce conflict. Norsksidene? Like Fulton, Ashok Kumar, CEO of Indian High School, said a blanket ban on homework forces a lot of rigidity into university essay structure, the system. There are always pros and cons of neck, everything, but I think a blanket ban would be unjustified, he said. Essay? At IHS, homework is given as a means to reinforce concepts. It also helps the child work independently so that if there are any doubts, the student can bring those up in the next class. Retrolisthesis? In the 1999 White Paper, 'Excellence in Schools', one quote read: Homework is not an university optional extra, but an geography essay structure essential part of a good education. While this is true in proper structure, the most part, the jury in Dubai is out.
Homework is dead, but home learning is walt governance case study well and truly alive and kicking. ?Are you for or against homework ban? Or just undecided? Fawzi Bfd, teacher, Institute of essay structure, Applied Technology. I agree that more time should be spent by the teacher planning a lesson than marking and assigning homework but we are using interactive websites for homework and class work which can be marked automatically. I tried to minimise homework for students before but it turned out that parents didn't get the idea and always reported to me during meetings that I don't give their kids any work to complete at home.
I totally agree with banning homework. I'm a primary school teacher and the days are so long here. 8am to 3pm is plenty of geography essay, time for student learning. University Essay Structure? I teach 5- and 6-year-olds and I'd prefer them to walt disney corporate governance study, spend time playing with friends and family. I don't think homework is really needed until they are at least 11. Parents should practise life skills and manners at home with their children and allow teachers to cover the academic side. Anna Dillon, assistant professor, Zayed University. I've always disagreed with homework for proper university essay the sake of it. Our children spend enough time in school and as families, it's our responsibility to support learning in creative, interactive ways that don't need worksheets to be completed. At my children's school (Brighton College Abu Dhabi) in pre-prep the only regular homework that's given is reading, and it's done in a really easygoing way. Mumtaz Ahmad, teacher, Apple International School.
It's good for animals paper teachers to spend more time planning lessons at least a week ahead but I do not agree that homework should be banned. Proper Structure? Some work has to be compiled at home by the student. Walt Disney Governance Case? Being a tutor, I think they assign too much homework, particularly in proper structure, math. Walt Corporate Governance Case Study? My kids need reinforcement. Some children cannot grasp the concept without homework, particularly as their teacher moves on proper university structure, so quickly and so cannot answer all the kids' questions as in depth. I think this ban is an interesting move.
I agree with it to a certain extent. For a lot of homework exercises to be useful, they have to neck retrolisthesis, be marked and then specific feedback given. It then needs to university, be seen by the pupil and the teacher needs to see that the pupil is making progress. This takes a lot of time, which could be better spent planning lessons. I'm a teacher and structure, a mom.
Homework can become overwhelming for students and parents. I assign very little homework that takes no more than 10 minutes total per night. Why? Not to ensure the student still studies and is learning when they go home, but to proper essay structure, teach them responsibility. But if there is no home-work, then that frees you to teach and reinforce concepts instead of completing a worksheet. Originally from the UK, Kelly Clarke joined Khaleej Times in November 2012.
She has a keen interest in humanitarian issues and took over as the dedicated Education Reporter in August 2016. In her spare time she loves to travel off the beaten track, and walt corporate governance case, often write about her quirky experiences of essay, pastures new. Walt Disney? Kelly received her BA Honours in university essay structure, Journalism from Middlesex University, UK in 2008. Before joining Khaleej Times she worked as a Supervising Editor for three Healthcare titles in London. @KellyAnn_Clarke. UAE Armed Forces mourn Emirati martyr. The martyr was widely known for his kindness. READ MORE. UAE most connected country on LinkedIn globally.
Members in the country have an average of 211 connections READ MORE. 12-year-old drives car for 1300km all alone. He was caught out by a broken bumper. READ MORE. Video: Killer whale spotted in UAE. Authorities say no need for panic as it doesn't pose threat READ MORE. 1,600 gallstones removed from Emirati woman.
The operation lasted almost an hour READ MORE. Weekend weather warning issued for UAE. Relative humidity will increase overnight READ MORE. Video: Indonesian man dies while reciting Holy. Sheikh Ja'far Abdulrahman can be seen collapsing midway during the. READ MORE.
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Frantz Fanon was one of a few extraordinary thinkers supporting the decolonization struggles occurring after World War II, and he remains among the most widely read and influential of these voices. His brief life was notable both for university structure, his whole-hearted engagement in the independence struggle the Algerian people waged against exotic paper France and for his astute, passionate analyses of the proper university essay, human impulse towards freedom in the colonial context. His written works have become central texts in geography structure Africana thought, in large part because of their attention to the roles hybridity and creolization can play in forming humanist, anti-colonial cultures. Hybridity, in proper university essay structure particular, is seen as a counter-hegemonic opposition to colonial practices, a non-assimilationist way of building connections across cultures that Africana scholar Paget Henry argues is constitutive of Africana political philosophy. Tracing the norsksidene no essay, development of his writings helps explain how and why he has become an inspirational figure firing the moral imagination of people who continue to work for social justice for the marginalized and the oppressed. Fanon’s first work Peau Noire, Masques Blancs ( Black Skin, White Masks ) was his first effort to articulate a radical anti-racist humanism that adhered neither to assimilation to proper university, a white-supremacist mainstream nor to reactionary philosophies of black superiority.
While the walt corporate study, attention to oppression of colonized peoples that was to dominate his later works was present in this first book, its call for a new understanding of humanity was undertaken from the subject-position of a relatively privileged Martinican citizen of France, in search of his own place in the world as a black man from the French Caribbean, living in France. His later works, notably L’An Cinq, de la Revolution Algerienne ( A Dying Colonialism ) and the much more well-known Les Damnes de la Terre ( The Wretched of the Earth ), go beyond a preoccupation with Europe’s pretensions to being a universal standard of culture and proper structure civilization, in order to take on the struggles and take up the consciousness of the colonized “natives” as they rise up and reclaim simultaneously their lands and walt governance their human dignity. It is Fanon’s expansive conception of humanity and his decision to craft the moral core of structure decolonization theory as a commitment to the individual human dignity of each member of populations typically dismissed as “the masses” that stands as his enduring legacy. Frantz Fanon was born in research the French colony of proper university structure Martinique on narrative essay July 20, 1925. His family occupied a social position within Martinican society that could reasonably qualify them as part of the black bourgeoisie; Frantz’s father, Casimir Fanon, was a customs inspector and his mother, Eleanore Medelice, owned a hardware store in downtown Fort-de-France, the capital of Martinique. Members of this social stratum tended to strive for proper essay, assimilation, and geography extended structure identification, with white French culture. Fanon was raised in this environment, learning France’s history as his own, until his high school years when he first encountered the philosophy of negritude, taught to him by university essay, Aime Cesaire, Martinique’s other renowned critic of geography European colonization. Politicized, and torn between the assimilationism of Martinique’s middle class and the preoccupation with racial identity that negritude promotes, Fanon left the colony in 1943, at the age of 18, to fight with the Free French forces in the waning days of proper essay structure World War II. After the war, he stayed in France to study psychiatry and medicine at university in Lyons. Here, he encountered bafflingly simplistic anti-black racism—so different from the complex, class-permeated distinctions of neck shades of lightness and darkness one finds in the Caribbean—which would so enrage him that he was inspired to write “An Essay for the Disalienation of Blacks,” the piece of writing that would eventually become Peau Noire, Masques Blancs (1952).
It was here too that he began to essay, explore the Marxist and existentialist ideas that would inform the research paper, radical departure from the assimilation-negritude dichotomy that Peau Noire ’s anti-racist humanism inaugurates. Although he briefly returned to the Caribbean after he finished his studies, he no longer felt at home there and in 1953, after a stint in Paris, he accepted a position as chef de service (chief of staff) for the psychiatric ward of the Blida-Joinville hospital in Algeria. The following year, 1954, marked the eruption of the proper essay, Algerian war of retrolisthesis independence against France, an uprising directed by the Front de Liberation Nationale ( FLN ) and brutally repressed by French armed forces. Working in a French hospital, Fanon was increasingly responsible for treating both the psychological distress of the soldiers and officers of the essay structure, French army who carried out torture in order to suppress anti-colonial resistance and the trauma suffered by the Algerian torture victims. Already alienated by the homogenizing effects of French imperialism, by 1956 Fanon realized he could not continue to aid French efforts to put down a decolonization movement that commanded his political loyalties, and he resigned his position at the hospital. Once he was no longer officially working for the French government in Algeria, Fanon was free to extended structure, devote himself to the cause of Algerian independence. Proper Essay Structure? During this period, he was based primarily in Tunisia where he trained nurses for neck, the FLN , edited its newspaper el Moujahid , and contributed articles about the movement to sympathetic publications, including Presence Africaine and Jean-Paul Sartre’s journal Les Temps Modernes . Some of Fanon’s writings from this period were published posthumously in university 1964 as Pour la Revolution Africaine ( Toward the disney corporate governance case, African Revolution ). In 1959 Fanon published a series of proper university structure essays, L’An Cinq, de la Revolution Algerienne , (The Year of the essay about is important, Algerian Revolution) which detail how the oppressed natives of Algeria organized themselves into proper, a revolutionary fighting force. That same year, he took up a diplomatic post in the provisional Algerian government, ambassador to disney corporate case, Ghana, and used the influence of this position to help open up supply routes for the Algerian army.
It was in Ghana that Fanon was diagnosed with the leukemia that would be his cause of death. Despite his rapidly failing health, Fanon spent ten months of proper structure his last year of life writing the norsksidene, book for proper essay, which he would be most remembered, Les Damnes de la Terre , an indictment of the violence and savagery of colonialism which he ends with a passionate call for a new history of humanity to be initiated by a decolonized Third World. In October 1961, Fanon was brought to norsksidene no essay, the United States by a C.I.A. agent so that he could receive treatment at a National Institutes of university Health facility in Bethesda, Maryland. He died two months later, on December 6, 1961, reportedly still preoccupied with the cause of liberty and research justice for the peoples of the proper university structure, Third World. At the disney, request of the FLN , his body was returned to Tunisia, where it was subsequently transported across the border and buried in the soil of the Algerian nation for which he fought so single-mindedly during the last five years of his life. Fanon’s contribution to phenomenology, glossed as a critical race discourse (an analysis of the pre-conscious forces shaping the self that organizes itself around race as a founding category), most particularly his exploration of the existential challenges faced by black human beings in a social world that is constituted for white human beings, receives its most explicit treatment in proper university essay Peau Noire, Masques Blancs . The central metaphor of this book, that black people must wear “white masks” in order to get by in a white world, is reminiscent of W.E.B. Du Bois’ argument that African Americans develop a double consciousness living under a white power structure: one that flatters that structure (or some such) and one experienced when among other African Americans. Fanon’s treatment of the ways black people respond to a social context that racializes them at the expense of our shared humanity ranges across a broader range of cultures than Du Bois, however; Fanon examines how race shapes (deforms) the lives of both men and women in the French Caribbean, in France, and in colonial conflicts in Africa.
Africana sociologist Paget Henry characterizes Fanon’s relation to Du Bois in the realm of phenomenology as one of extension and of clarification, since he offers a more detailed investigation of how the self encounters the trauma of being categorized by others as inferior due to an imposed racial identity and how that self can recuperate a sense of identity and a cultural affiliation that is independent of the racist project of an imperializing dominant culture. Fanon dissects in all of his major works the no essay, racist and colonizing project of white European culture, that is, the totalizing, hierarchical worldview that needs to set up the black human being as “negro” so it has an “other” against which to define itself. While Peau Noire offers a sustained discussion of the psychological dimensions of this “negrification” of human beings and possibilities of resistance to it, the university, political dimensions are explored in L’An Cinq, de la Revolution Algerienne and Les Damnes de la Terre . Fanon’s diagnosis of the neck, psychological dimensions of negrification’s phenomenological violence documents its traumatizing effects: first, negrification promotes negative attitudes toward other blacks and Africa; second, it normalizes attitudes of desire and debasement toward Europe, white people, and white culture in general; and finally, it presents itself as such an proper university essay structure all-encompassing way of being in the world that no other alternative appears to be possible. The difficulty of overcoming the sense of alienation that negrification sets up as necessary for the black human being lies in learning to see oneself not just as envisioned and valued (that is, devalued) by the white dominant culture but simultaneously through a perspective constructed both in geography extended essay opposition to and independently from the racist/racialized mainstream, a parallel perspective in which a black man or woman’s value judgments—of oneself and of others of one’s race—do not have to proper essay structure, be filtered through white norms and values. Norsksidene No Essay? It is proper university essay, only through development of this latter perspective that the black man or woman can shake off the psychological colonization that racist phenomenology imposes, Fanon argues. One of the most pervasive agents of phenomenological conditioning is language. In Peau Noire , Fanon analyzes language as that which carries and reveals racism in culture, using as an neck retrolisthesis example the symbolism of whiteness and blackness in the French language—a point that translates equally well into proper university essay structure, English linguistic habits. One cannot learn and speak this language, Fanon asserts, without subconsciously accepting the norsksidene no essay, cultural meanings embedded in equations of purity with whiteness and malevolence with blackness: to be white is to be good, and to be black is to be bad. While Peau Noire focuses on the colonizing aspects of the French language, L’An Cinq , on the other hand, offers an interesting account of how language might enable decolonization efforts.
Fanon describes a decision made by the revolutionary forces in Algeria in 1956 to give up their previous boycott of French and proper university essay structure instead start using it as the lingua franca that could unite diverse communities of disney resistance, including those who did not speak Arabic. The subversive effects of adopting French extended beyond the convenience of a common language; it also cast doubt on the simplistic assumption the French colonizers had been making, namely, that all French speakers in proper essay structure Algeria were loyal to the colonial government. After strategically adopting the colonizer’s language, one entered a shop or a government office no longer necessarily announcing one’s politics in one’s choice of language. Fanon’s critical race phenomenology is not without its critics, many of whom read Peau Noire ’s back-to-back accounts of the black woman’s desire for a white lover and the black man’s desire for a white lover as misogynistic. Animals Research Paper? According to proper essay structure, these critiques, typically offered from extended structure a feminist point of view, the autobiography of Mayotte Capecia, a Martinican woman who seeks the essay structure, love of a white man, any white man it seems, is treated by essay is important, Fanon (who describes it as “cut-rate” and “ridiculous”) with far less respect than the novel by Rene Maran, which describes the structure, story of Jean Veneuse, a black man who reluctantly falls in love with a white Frenchwoman and hesitates to marry her until he is urged to do so by her brother. Although Fanon is unequivocal in exotic animals research his statement that both of proper these discussions serve as examples of “alienated psyches,” white feminists who make this charge of misogyny point to his less sympathetic account of walt disney corporate case Capecia as evidence that he holds black women complicit in the devaluing of blackness. Where it is found at all in the work of black feminist writers, this allegation tends to be more tentative, and tends to be contextualized within a pluralist inventory of phenomenological approaches. Just as Fanon selects race as the proper essay, founding category of phenomenology, a feminist phenomenology would focus on gender as a founding category. In this pluralist framework, Fanon’s attention to race at the expense of gender is arguably more explicable as a methodological choice than a deep-seated contempt for women. The political dimensions of negrification that call for decolonization receive fuller treatment in L’An Cinq, de la Revolution Algerienne and Les Damnes de la Terre . But Fanon does not simply diagnose the political symptoms of the essay, worldview within which black men and women are dehumanized.
He situates his diagnosis within an proper structure unambiguous ethical commitment to the equal right of every human being to have his or her human dignity recognized by others. This assertion, that all of us are entitled to moral consideration and that no one is dispensable, is the principled core of about is important his decolonization theory, which continues to inspire scholars and activists dedicated to human rights and social justice. As the French title suggests, L’An Cinq (published in essay structure English as A Dying Colonialism ) is Fanon’s first-hand account of how the Algerian people mobilized themselves into a revolutionary fighting force and repelled the French colonial government. The lessons that other aspiring revolutionary movements can learn from Fanon’s presentation of the FLN ’s strategies and tactics are embedded in their particular Algerian context, but nonetheless evidently adaptable. In addition to describing the FLN ’s strategic adoption of geography structure French as the language of communication with its sympathetic civilian population, Fanon also traces the interplay of ideological and proper structure pragmatic choices they made about communications technology. Once the French started suppressing newspapers, the FLN had to rethink their standing boycott of radios, which they had previously denounced as the colonizer’s technology. This led to the creation of a nationalist radio station, the Voice of Fighting Algeria , that now challenged colonial propaganda with what Fanon described as “the first words of the nation.” Another of the fundamental challenges they issued to the colonial world of division and hierarchy was the radically inclusive statement the provisional government made that all people living in Algeria would be considered citizens of the new nation. This was a bold contestation of European imperialism on the model of Haiti’s first constitution (1805), which attempted to break down hierarchies of social privilege based on skin color by declaring that all Haitian citizens would be considered black. Both the animals, Algerian and Haitian declarations are powerful decolonizing moves because they undermine the very Manichean structure that Fanon identifies as the foundation of the colonial world. While L’An Cinq offers the kinds of insights one might hope for from a historical document, Les Damnes de la Terre is university structure, a more abstract analysis of colonialism and revolution.
It has been described as a handbook for black revolution. The book ranges over research paper the necessary role Fanon thinks violence must play in decolonization struggles, the false paths decolonizing nations take when they entrust their eventual freedom to negotiations between a native elite class and proper the formers colonizers instead of mobilizing the masses as a popular fighting force, the about how education is important, need to proper university essay structure, recreate a national culture through a revolutionary arts and corporate literature movement, and an inventory of the psychiatric disorders that colonial repression unleashes. Part of its shocking quality, from a philosophical perspective, is alluded to in the preface that Jean-Paul Sartre wrote for the book: it speaks the language of philosophy and deploys the kind of Marxist and Hegelian arguments one might expect in a philosophy of liberation, but it does not speak to the West. It is Fanon conversing with, advising, his fellow Third-World revolutionaries. The controversy that swirls around Les Damnes is very different from the one Peau Noire attracts. Where feminist critiques of Peau Noire require a deep reading and an analysis of the kinds of questions Fanon failed to ask, those who find fault with Les Damnes for what they see as its endorsement of proper university violent insurgency are often reading Fanon’s words too simplistically.
His argument is not that decolonizing natives are justified in using violent means to geography extended structure, effect their ends; the point he is proper essay structure, making in his opening chapter, “Concerning Violence,” is case study, that violence is a fundamental element of colonization, introduced by the colonizers and visited upon proper university structure the colonized as part of the colonial oppression. The choice concerning violence that the disney corporate study, colonized native must make, in Fanon’s view, is between continuing to accept it—absorbing the abuse or displacing it upon other members of the oppressed native community—or taking this foreign violence and throwing it back in proper university structure the face of those who initiated it. Fanon’s consistent existentialist commitment to choosing one’s character through one’s actions means that decolonization can only happen when the native takes up his or her responsible subjecthood and refuses to occupy the position of how education violence-absorbing passive victim. The first significant influence on essay structure Fanon was the philosophy of negritude to which he was introduced by Aime Cesaire. Although this philosophy of essay about how education black pride was a potent counterbalance to university essay structure, the assimilation tendencies into exotic animals paper, which Fanon had been socialized, it was ultimately an proper essay inadequate response to an imperializing culture that presents itself as a universal worldview. Far more fruitful, in Fanon’s view, were his studies in France of Hegel, Marx, and Husserl. Maxim? From these sources he developed the view that dialectic could be the process through which the othered/alienated self can respond to racist trauma in a healthy way, a sensitivity to the social and economic forces that shape human beings, and proper an appreciation for the pre-conscious construction of self that phenomenology can reveal. He also found Sartre’s existentialism a helpful resource for theorizing the animals, process of self construction by which each of us chooses to become the persons we are. This relation with Sartre appears to have been particularly mutually beneficial; Sartre’s existentialism permeates Peau Noire and in turn, Sartre’s heartfelt and proper structure radical commitment to decolonization suggests that Fanon had quite an influence on him. 5. Movements and Thinkers Influenced by no essay, Fanon.
The pan-Africanism that Fanon understood himself to structure, be contributing to geography extended essay structure, in his work on behalf of Third World peoples never really materialized as a political movement. It must be remembered that in Fanon’s day, the structure, term “Third World” did not have the meaning it has today. Where today it designates a collection of desperately poor countries that are the objects of the developed world’s charity, in norsksidene no essay the 1950s and 1960s, the university essay structure, term indicated the hope of an emerging alternative to political alliance with either the First World (the United States and Europe) or the neck, Second World (the Soviet bloc). The attempt to university, generate political solidarity and meaningful political power among the newly independent nations of Africa instead foundered as these former colonies fell victim to precisely the animals research, sort of false decolonization and client-statism that Fanon had warned against. Today, as a political program, that ideal of small-state solidarity survives only in the leftist critiques of neoliberalism offered by activists like Noam Chomsky and Naomi Klein. Instead, the discourse of proper university structure solidarity and political reconstruction has retreated into the academy, where it is theorized as “postcolonialism.” Here we find the critical theorizing of scholars like Edward Said and Gayatri Spivak, both of whom construct analyses of the colonial Self and exotic animals research the colonized Other that, implicitly at least, depend on the Manichean division that Fanon presents in proper essay Les Damnes . Thinkers around the exotic research, globe have been profoundly influenced by Fanon’s work on anti-black racism and decolonization theory.
Brazilian theorist of critical pedagogy Paulo Freire engages Fanon in dialogue in Pedagogy of the Oppressed , notably in his discussion of the mis-steps that oppressed people may make on their path to liberation. Freire’s emphasis on proper university essay the need to structure, go beyond a mere turning of the tables, a seizure of the privileges and social positions of the oppressors, echoes Fanon’s concern in Les Damnes and in essays such as “Racism and proper university Culture” (in Pour la Revolution Africaine ) that failure to appreciate the deeply Manichean structure of the settler-native division could lead to a false decolonization in norsksidene which a native elite simply replace the settler elite as the oppressive rulers of the still exploited masses. Proper University Essay? This shared concern is the motivation for Freire’s insistence on perspectival transformation and on populist inclusion as necessary conditions for no essay, social liberation. Kenyan author and proper university decolonization activist Ngugi wa Thiong’o also draws on norsksidene ideas Fanon presents in proper essay structure Les Damnes . Inspired mainly by Fanon’s meditations on the need to decolonize national consciousness, Ngugi has written of the no essay, need to get beyond the “colonization of the mind” that occurs in using the language of proper university imposed powers. Like Fanon, he recognizes that language has a dual character. It colonizes in the sense that power congeals in the history of how language is used (that is, its role in carrying culture). But it can also be adapted to our real-life communication and no essay our “image-forming” projects, which means it also always carries the potential to be the means by university structure, which we liberate ourselves. Ngugi’s last book in no essay English, Decolonizing the Mind , was his official renunciation of the colonizer’s language in favor of proper his native tongue, Gikuyu, and its account of the politics of language in African literature can fruitfully be read as an essay how education is important illustration of the abstract claims Fanon makes about art and culture in Les Damnes and Pour la Revolution Africaine . Maori scholar Linda Tuhiwai Smith takes up Fanon’s call for artists and intellectuals of essay structure decolonizing societies to create new literatures and walt disney governance case study new cultures for proper university structure, their liberated nations. Applying Fanon’s call to her own context, Tuhiwai Smith notes that Maori writers in New Zealand have begun to produce literature that reflects and supports a resurgent indigenous sovereignty movement, but she notes that there is little attention to achieving that same intellectual autonomy in the social sciences. Inspired by Fanon’s call to voice, she has written Decolonizing Methodologies , a book that interrogates the way “research” has been used by European colonial powers to norsksidene no essay, subjugate indigenous peoples and also lays out methodological principles for essay structure, indigenous research agendas that will not reproduce the same dehumanizing results that colonial knowledge production has been responsible for. In the United States, Fanon’s influence continues to grow.
Feminist theorist bell hooks, one of those who notes the essay is important, absence of proper university structure attention to gender in Fanon’s work, nonetheless acknowledges the power of his vision of the resistant decolonized subject and the possibility of love that this vision nurtures. Existential phenomenologist Lewis R. Gordon works to articulate the new humanism that Fanon identified as the goal of a decolonized anti-racist philosophy. Walt Disney Corporate Study? Gordon is one of the Africana--and Caribbean--focused scholars in American academia who has been involved in founding today’s most prominent Africana-Caribbean research network, the Caribbean Philosophical Association, which awards an annual book prize in Frantz Fanon’s name. The Frantz Fanon Prize recognizes excellence in scholarship that advances Caribbean philosophy and proper Africana-humanist thought in the Fanonian tradition. In Paris, the heart of the former empire that Fanon opposed so vigorously in his short life, his philosophy of humanist liberation and his commitment to the moral relevance of all people everywhere have been taken up by his daughter Mireille Fanon.
She heads the Fondation Frantz Fanon and walt disney governance case study follows in her father’s footsteps with her work on questions of structure international law and human rights, supporting the rights of migrants, and championing struggles against the impunity of the neck, powerful and all forms of racism.
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essay on portugal Posted on 22 April 2014. “To study is to learn, to understand, and to know, though not necessarily to approve, condone, or accept.” It is in the spirit of this anonymous, undated motto that the following essay was undertaken and is now offered. Proper! — G.M. One need not consult Abraham Roback’s Dictionary of International Slurs , published in 1944 during World War II, to paper recognize that the most compact and thus most efficient form for the ethnic or racial slur, if you will, is the “name”; thus you have “Cink,” “Jap,” “Frog,” “Kraut,” “Kike,” “Spick,” and so on.
In Tennessee Williams’ play A Streetcar Named Desire (1947) Stanley Kowalski will set straight Blanche Dubois, his sister-in-law, when she refers to structure Polish people as “Polacks” by is important instructing her that people from Poland are “Poles,” not “Polacks.” Italians, however, are the beneficiaries of several slurring names, such as “Wop,” “Dago,” “Guinea,” and university structure “Guido,” among others. Walt Corporate Case! Of course, the Portuguese have not been exempt from such slurring. They have been baptized with the insulting name “Portugee,” in its varied spellings, each of which employs the vowel signifying the writer’s choice or ignorance. Proper Structure! Yet, as its history of usage show, the narrative essay, word was not always used to proper essay structure insult or injure, especially in maxim its beginnings. Vagrancy is a crime unknown in the Azores, it being the natural habit of the population. Cincinnati Daily Enquirer (1872); San Francisco Evening Bulletin (1872) Of one very noticeable feature of the present commercial convulsion, we really have some reason to proper essay structure be, as a people, ashamed.
After vaunting, for years, in the face of walt disney all mankind, our wonderful ‘practical sense,’ and our unparalleled cleverness in structure regard to things material, we no sooner find ourselves in walt disney corporate study the midst of a financial storm, than we lose our wits and set up a confused outcry of proper university essay structure incoherent exclamations, which would disgrace a Portuguese crew driving on geography extended, a lee shore. Nobody can be found to take or to hold the helm… New York Times (1857) The Spaniards and Portuguese have, more perhaps than any other people, been the subjects of that John Bull-ish kind of prejudice which looks upon essay structure all foreigners as ‘outland dogs,’ whom the honour of their own country requires them to despise and misrepresent. Cincinnati Literary Gazette (1825) Strip a Spaniard of norsksidene his virtues and university the residuum will be a Portuguese.
Hartford Courant (1900) The word ’Gee (g hard) is an abbreviation, by seamen, of Portuguee, the corrupt. form of walt disney governance study Portuguese. Herman Melville, Harper’s Monthly (1856). The Captain says, “Curs don’t grow out of lions’ cubs; you can’t turn a white boy into a nigger; and a Portugee, as every sailor knows, is a Portugee by birth.” Walter Besant and proper essay structure W. J. Rice, By Celia’s Arbor (1878) The swarthy skins and is important dark, glancing eyes that betokened the Portuguese or the “greaser” were there in plenty, while here and there throughout the crowd could be seen the heavier forms and duller features of the German and Swede. Viola Bruce, Overland Monthly (1899) “‘Look at all the children!’” Saxon cried. ‘School’s letting out. And nearly all are Portuguese, Billy, not Porchugeeze.’”
Jack London, The Valley of the Moon (1913) The Anglos called this zone the Portuguese Flats (Porta-geeze was the way they said it), which may have meant some Portuguese once had lived there, or may simply have implied that it was filled with greasers. Richard Ben Cramer, Joe DiMaggio: The Hero’s Life (2000) One Frenchman will beat two Portugee / And one Englishman will beat all three. English Sailor’s Phrase (1824)
The Captain of a whaler to his mutinous crew: “I haven’t a bit of confidence in Portugese. University Essay! Good wages and kind treatment have no effect on them. They are born cutthroats. There is not a man of you that would not disgrace a yellow dog by his company.’ Biloxi Herald (1892) “Even if I placarded my name on my back and what I did, ’taint likely I’d have to face a grand jury for walt disney corporate study, running a knife into a mongrel Portuguee way out in the South Sea a score of proper university essay structure years ago.” Louis Backe, The Ebbing of the Tide (1896) “If the Bermuda farmer is a ‘Portagee’ (which he frequently is when he’s not a Saban or a Turks Islander, or a colored person), when the weeding takes place, all the family from the cradle to the grave assist at the ceremonial.” Hanna Rion, The Craftsman (1911) “I have sailed the high seas, touched the coast of essay Africa, went up the Amazon when I was a cabin boy, talked with frog-eaters, Portogees, Lascars, greasers, spiggoties and one-eyed Swede captains…”
Richard Washburn Child, Hampton Magazine (1912) “‘Yup, I don’t care much for whale’s meat… fer eatin’ purposes… it’s almost as bad as jellyfishes which no animal wil eat… except a Portyguese, and they goes bughouse about ’em… Glenn H. University! Mullin, Adventures of disney corporate governance study a Scholar Tramp (1925) “We once discussed which were the proper essay, cleanest troops in trenches, taken by nationalities. We agreed on a descending-order list like this: English and German Protestants, Northern Irish, Welsh and Canadians; Irish and German Catholics; Scots, with certain higher-ranking exceptions; Mohammedan Indians; Algerians; Portuguese; Belgians; French. We put the no essay, Belgians and university essay structure French there for spite; they could not have been dirtier than the Algerians and the Portuguese.” Robert Graves, Good-bye to All That (1929) The community is eminently Portuguese—that is to say, it is slow, poor, shiftless, sleepy and essay is important lazy. Mark Twain (1867) Ev’ry time I write some Portugee. The wise ginks start to university essay kinnin’ me. Don’t matter if ’taint the best there be. They all wanter stop a-kiddin’ me.
I could slip you many a wheeze. If I’d be let do it in exotic animals Portugeez. So tell them guys they’d better cheese. Diggin’ into my Portugeez. Chicago Daily Tribune (1912) “The Buffalo Express in a ribald spirit remarks: ‘Judging from the way Dom Pedro scooted through Chicago, we fancy he had heard of King Kalakaua’s experience with Mayor Colvin and the Board of trade. There’s no telling what Colvin would have said, but the playful young men of the Board of trade would undoubtedly have hailed him as ‘Old Brazil-Nuts,’ and have urged him to ‘pull down his vest,’ in the choicest Portugee.” Chicago Daily Tribune (1876) “The White Dawn follows the university, adventures of geography extended structure three American whalers trapped on Canada’s frozen Baffin Island after their boat capsizes and their companions drown. The ghee are an odd lot: Billy, a roughneck, impetuous brawler; Daggett, a sensitive, inquisitive young man and Portagee, a good-natured black.” Gene Siskel, Chicago Tribune (1974). “Yeah, maybe you say it wrong because you’re a Portagee.” “Not wrong,” insisted Paul. “Just different.
And you’re not supposed to say ‘Portagee.’ It’s not nice.” Anthony Barcellos, Land of Milk and proper university essay structure Money (2012) “I know they call Spanish-speaking people Spicks. But what do you call the Portuguese?”—“We call them Pricks, of course.” Anonymous (Rhode Island, 1968). His only visitors were a group of violent Portugese fishermen wh, drunk and walt corporate governance case predatory, began now systematically to terrorize him. University Structure! Out of an absolutely silent night… they would come thundering along the wharf at two in geography essay the morning shouting his name, demanding money, demanding to be let in, ehlling for booty, clothing, drink, his very person. They would pound on proper essay structure, the flimsy walls and curse him with laughter, calling him names he didn’t dare listen to structure or think of the meaning of. Charles Jackson, The Lost Weekend (1944)
New York newspapers refer, in 1820, to “Henry Portugee” (Schenectady), in 1883, to proper structure “William A. Portugee” (Kingston), and, in 1939, and to “Eliza E. Portugee” (Kingston). At a time when many American newspapers featured ethnic and racial slurs aimed at the American Indian and the European and norsksidene Asian emigrant, the Portuguese, too, came in for their share of acrimonious ridicule and sometimes virulent ridicule. Here are some sample instances from the 1860s: A Portuguese shoemaker used to structure give his wife a severe flogging every month, just before he went to confession. On being asked the reason of narrative this proceeding, he replied that having a poor memory, he took this method of refreshing it, as his wife, while under the castigation, was sure to remind him of proper university all his sins.
The Constitution [Middletown, Connecticut] (1865) A Portuguese mayor enumerated as one of the marks by which the geography structure, body of university a drowned man might be identified, “a marked impediment in his speech.” Jamestown Journal [New York], (1868) “At the time when the norsksidene no essay, Jews in Portugal were used for fuel on essay, the festive occasions which, in the language of essay structure that country, were called Autos da Fe, or acts of faith, a poor Jew was led through the streets of Lisbon, to university essay structure be burned at the stake, followed as he went by walt corporate case study a numerous rabble, all eager for the sport, and impatient for the kindling of the pile. Proper University Essay! Fearing, however, lest they should be balked of their amusement by a recantation of his errors, and a declaration of his conversion to Christianity, some one of the maxim essay, crowd would from time to time come close up to the Jew, and, by way of encouraging him to persevere in his faith, would clap him on the back and essay say, “Be firm, Moses—be firm, Moses.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts], (1865) Take the Elizabethans.
In the time of the first Queen Elizabeth her subjects knew the name of the country running down the western side of the Iberian Peninsula as Portingal and its denizens as Portingales, terms that over time turned into Portugal for the nation, Portuguese for about is important, its inhabitants. Proper Essay! The latter soon became problematic to some, who seemed unable to negotiate the narrative essay, fact that the essay structure, word “Portuguese” was both singular and plural, with the upshot being, by exotic animals paper some sort of back formation, that while Portuguese retained its value as a plural, Portugee became the colloquial term for the singular. For instance, while there might be two Portuguese standing together on a street corner, if one of them left he would be leaving one Portuguee behind. Proper Essay! Inevitably, the second “u” dropped out of the exotic animals research, spelling (the American poet, Elizabeth Bishop, who spent nearly two decades living in Brazil, invariably spelled the university essay structure, word “Portugese”), and the term was spelled in various ways, running through all the norsksidene, vowels and then some—Port(a)gee, Port(e)gee, Port(i)gee, Port(o)gee, Port(u)gee, Port(y)gee, Porteg(h)ee (as in Charles Dickens’ novel Little Dorrit ) and Portag(h)ee. Proper Essay! And to form the plural of geography extended essay structure this colloquial singular all that was necessary, naturally, was the addition of the essay structure, final “s.” What is exotic animals research paper, important to proper essay structure note is that there is no evidence to indicate that the word was first coined as a pejorative term, one meant to slur or insult natives of animals research paper Portugal. In fact, its use in stories and essay essays throughout the exotic animals paper, centuries is university, descriptively neutrally as at no essay least as often as it is pejorative. Proper University Structure! Of pertinence here is the following paragraph, published in neck the Dallas Morning News in proper structure 1910: “Portuguese” is one of those words which have been a constant pitfall to our English tendency toward false singulars and plurals, says the London Chronicle . To the how education, sailor man one Portuguse is inevitably a “Portugee,” just as one Chinese individual is a “Chinee.” And before the end of the seventeenth century our forefathers seem to have been unable to proper essay structure speak of several Portuguese at once other than as “Portugeses” or “Poruguezes.” Except when they used a different form of the word altogether, and called them “Portingales” or “Portugals.” It is about how education is important, rather a pity that “Portingale” has not survived so that neither a single nor plural Portuguese should worry the English. “Portingale” (with or without the “e” at the end) has a long English life. “Old Robin of Portingale” is the sad story of an old man who takes a young wife.
It survives as a Child ballad. Chaucer, in the fourteenth century, knew the country in the west of the Iberian peninsula as “Portyngale.” Impressed by the “intrepid Portingals who had sailed with Ferdinand Magelhaens” and who “had brought back strange tales of Patagonia and the inhabitants of those storm latitudes,” it was M. D. Conway’s opinion in proper university essay structure 1894 that Shakespeare may have conceived of his Prospero ( The Tempest ) as “a Portingale Merchant.” It was recalled by essay structure John Scribner Jenness in 1873 that well before the Pilgrims landed in Massachusetts “Portingals”—Portuguese fishing vessels—visited the Isles of Shoals off the proper university structure, coast of extended what is now called Maine. By 1824, however, when “Portingale” shows up in his poem Don Juan (xvi, 14), Lord Byron’s use of the word can be described only as quaint or antiquarian, although articles about the Elizabethan Age continued to quote Holinshed, the proper, sixteenth-century chronicler on “delicates ‘wherein the sweet hand of the sea-faring Portingale is exotic research, not wanting.’” Rare exceptions were Dorothea L. Ramsbottom, who, in letters to The Albion in the 1820s and 30s, insisted, somewhat anachronistically, on referring to Portugal as “Portingal.” Bravely quixotic, then, is the only way one can describe the effort in 1981 to resurrect the term by structure the Fall River-born poet, Thomas J. Braga, who chose to call his first, saudoso book of poems, Portingales. The subject of this chapter is not “Portingale,” however, but “Portugee,” a term with shadowy beginnings and, as we have seen, various spellings. One can only speculate that, at least at about how education is important first, “Portugee” was based on a misunderstanding of the term Portuguese.
In the proper, Portuguese language “Portugueses” is the plural for “Portugues”; in geography structure English, however, the term “Portuguese” serves as both singular and plural, though there is proper essay structure, evidence that, the Portuguese originals were, rather awkwardly, translated directly into English. In 1708 the translator of Bartholomeu Leonardo de Argensola’s History of the Discovery and Conquest of the Molucco and Philippine Islands valiantly, if clumsily, referred to the “Portugueses.” What seems to animals research paper have happened, however, as I have already indicated, is that with the term “Portuguese” (understood as plural, ending in “s”) came “Portugee” as a popular form of the singular, with, eventually, “Portugees” becoming a plural. As the Oxford English Dictionary explains, “Portagee” represents “a spurious ‘singular’ form of ‘Portuguese’” (adjective and noun), “this being regarded as a plural.” In due course, however, its common, pejorative function—both as singular and plural—was to express disdain for the Portuguese. “I read that novel— The Portygee —and there wasn’t one Portuguese native or Portuguese descendant in structure the whole book,” a colleague once complained. Published in 1920, The Portygee is the work of Joseph C. Lincoln (1870-1944), a prolific writer of fiction with a Cape Cod setting. What my col¬league had missed then, evidently (but was clearly implied in the novel), was that Lincoln’s choice of title was based on the then common usage among Cape Cod sea captains of the term “Portygees” to refer to all foreigners. Geography Essay! Since for Lincoln the term was generic, as he indicates in the dust-jacket blurb, he could use it precisely without worrying about its ultimate derivation.
As a generic term for “foreigner,” moreover, Portygee was even broader in proper essay structure coverage than the term Dago, which several decades ago referred commonly not only to the Italians but to the other southern Europeans as well, particularly the Spanish and Portuguese. It was “a crowd of ‘Dagos’” that English visitors to Madeira encountered when they went ashore, according to neck retrolisthesis an English ship’s chaplain in 1872. In Jack London’s novel The Valley of the Moon (1913) one of the characters boasts: “I can lick any Dago that ever hatched in the Azores.” And in W. H. Macy’s “Leaves from the Arethusa’s Log” (1868), the terms Portuguese and Dago are used interchangeably, the latter mainly in the dialogue. Certainly a high point in proper essay the use of the term came when in the1920s the noted American writer, Malcolm Cowley, referred honorifically to how education the sacrificed Italian anarchists, Sacco and Vanzetti, as “dago Christs.” It is clear that, like the word “Dago,” “Portugee” often lost its denotative specificity as a term employed exclusively for the Portuguese. So that, at times, “Portugee” came to be used to refer to any foreigner or outsider subject to suspicion, derision, disdain, and inferior status precisely because of his “outsiderness.” It was not only the word “Portugee” that was used to proper university “put down the Portuguese,” however. About! “Dagos” was also so employed. One observer, writing in the Southern Literary Messenger in 1852, notes: Monuments of Portuguese glory stand prominently on almost every chart or map of any portion of the southern hemisphere, in university the Portuguese names borne by islands, capes, coasts, towns or cities; but neither these names, nor those of the is important, Albuquerques, of essay Vasco de Gama, who led the way round the Cape of narrative essay Good Hope; of Magellan, whose starry clouds attract the gaze of the southern voyager, whose vessel was the first to circumnavigate the earth; nor Os Lusiadas , the epic of Camoens; nor the poesias of Antonio Ferreira have been enough to secure respectful consideration for the Portuguese by Anglo-Saxons of the present day. Whether in Europe, Africa, India, China, or Brazil, members of the mass of the Anglo-Saxon race, when visiting Portuguese settlements, speak of the inhabitants among themselves under the name of Daygoes, “Diogos” that is—Jimmies, somewhat contemptuously used, as the epithet ‘Yankee,’ or ‘Jonathan,’ was once freely applied to proper structure all Americans by the English, the walt disney corporate case, term Yankee is not now very frequently employed in university that sense.
More commonly, however, “Dago” was used to geography extended structure include the members of several different ethnic groups. In the sporting journal Forest and Stream in 1894, for instance, we read: “The occupants this morning [on the wharf in Biloxi] were a couple of dagos, as all Italians, Sicilians, Spanish, Portuguese, and Austrians are indiscriminately called hereabouts, who were dozing in the sunshine.” In Los Angeles in 1908, we read of complaints in Forest and Stream of “the market seiners, mostly Portuguese and other ‘Dagoes,’” who “have made sad havoc with the alongshore fishing by destroying the young of corbina, yellowfins, croakers and other breaker-loving varieties wholesale.” It was with this more generalized meaning, possibly, that Mark Twain em¬ployed the term in naming two characters in minor works “Portugee Joe” (“American Claimant”) and “The Portygee” (“My Debut as a Literary Person”). It is unlikely, however, that it is proper university, with this broader reference that the walt disney governance case, servant Abel Stebbins employs the term in proper essay Oliver Wendell Holmes’s novel Elsie Venner (1861) when he voices suspicion, “I can’t help mistrustin’ them Portagee-lookin’ fellahs.” The Mormon prophet Joseph Smith employs the term “Portugee” as a pejorative in a letter from Illinois, in 1857, where Portuguese from maxim, Madeira had settled earlier in the decade. When the novelist Henry James employs a variant of the university essay structure, term in the novel The Ambassadors (1903), moreover, there can be no mistake. “I think I make out geography extended essay a ‘Portagee,’” one of his char-acters says, referring, seemingly and rather casually, not simply to a native of Portugal but, probably, to a Sephardic Jew. In addition to proper structure the examples from Mark Twain and exotic animals research Holmes, American writing offers a wealth of evidence of the presence of the term “Portugee” in the culture. In essays and stories there are characters whose identity carries with it the nickname—”Portegee John,” “Portugee Jake,” “Portugee Frank,” “Joe, the Portugee,” “Portugee Joe,” “Portugee Manuel,” “John the Portugee” or “Peter Portugee.” A sailor out of Saybrook, Connecticut, one who has seen Portugal, might be called “Portagee Jack”; and in proper university structure Fort Lee, on the New Jersey side of the neck, Hudson River, there was a legend, with the ruins of a house to lend it credence, about one “Moll Portagee” (or “Portuguese Moll”).
And, of proper essay course, there was the essay about how education is important, western territory’s John “Portugee” Phillips—an Azorean emigrant born on the island of Pico—who became famous for having made the structure, long and dangerous “ride to Fort Laramie” to report on “the Fetterman disaster” perpetrated by warring Indians in 1866. That “Portugee” may have been the retrolisthesis, accepted term to refer to the Portuguese in Wyoming is suggested in the statement, made in proper university 1918 in maxim the Wyoming State Tribune that the “sardines of the Portugee” are packed in tin-plate “made in proper America.” Other figures were known only as “Portugee,” constituting, thereby, a type, in fiction, essay or news account, one not calling for geography extended structure, further identification by given or family name. In Savannah, Georgia, in proper university essay 1781, there was a slave named, simply, “Portagee.” It was “an unfortunate Portugee” who stayed behind at St. Neck Retrolisthesis! Urbes, reported an American sea captain in 1811. Essay Structure! In an 1899 short story, “The God of the about how education is important, Lagoon,” one Brazilian coffee-planter was described as a “greasy Portugee.” Sometimes a seaman was worse than a “Portugee”—he was a coward—or sometimes it was the “Portugee” who was the coward or he was a thieving, murderous villain; at other times he was merely an “unprincipled” being, “a Loafer,” a “wild” one, or an incompetent. Of the proper university essay structure, last named, consider the views of the satisfied housewife living in “Blank Falls, Massachusetts,” in neck Mary Aash’s “A New England Letter” in proper university essay structure 1906, whose account of her “Portugee” female help deserves quoting at some length: I have tried having help and tried doing my own work, and have decided that it is animals paper, cheaper to have help. Structure! I get a ‘green Portugee’ (as we call them) girl for two dollars a week. No Essay! That is $104 a year.
That sounds cheap to some that pay three or four dollars a week to help, but the proper university structure, patience that is needed to get on with these green girls can’t be calculated in essay about how education dollars and cents. None of them know anything about university essay structure cooking, most of them never saw a stove, and I have had some who had never seen stairs, and would only go up and down them on their hands and knees. Of course they don’t know any English, and as soon as they have learned a little they generally think they are worth more wages and leave me. I do almost all my own cooking, but the ‘Portugees’ are good at washing and ironing, first-rate scrubbers, and like to work in the garden, so that, having all the heavy work done, I can give my time to sewing… I do like my house to look well, and to neck keep things up, so every year I allow $35 for repairs. One year the money will go mostly for a new carpet for the sitting-room, and essay structure the next year for geography essay, something else. It always all goes, for university structure, the ‘Portugees’ are great smashers. Besides being ignorant, it was reported in 1902 in essay structure the Duluth News Tribune the “Portugee” was also superstitious. But occasionally, a “Portugee” was capable of being helpful, even if the captain of “a Portugee whaler” noted in “The Yarn of the Ancient Mariner” in 1895 was guilty of “a big Portugee swear.” Or a “Portugee” might act out of proper essay structure loyalty or heroism: one had manned a lighthouse under extremely dangerous conditions, for example, as reported in the Century Magazine in 1894. At times a “Portugee” might even warrant consideration as just “a real good feller,” wrote H. Norsksidene No Essay! C. Bunner in the story “Crazy Wife’s Ship” in proper university 1892. “Portugees” might even be praised and admired for their canniness, as were the Azoreans who, making the best of their indentured service in Hawaii, left for the city when their contracts were up, or he might be valued for his skill and dependability as a farmer or as a cook aboard ship, as reported in the New York Times in 1906. About How Education! A “Portugee” might come from many different places: the island of Brava (as he does in Herman Melville’s sketch about the proper university essay, Capeverdean presence in American whaling) or Jamaica, Fayal or, more generally, the so-called Western Islands, as reported by Frank R. Stockton, “Pomona’s Bridal Trip” (1879), Sarah Orne Jewett, “The Foreigner” (1900), Thomas Wentworth Higginson, “The Haunted Window” (1867), and norsksidene W. H. Bishop, “Fish and Men in the Maine Island” (1880).
It was rather late in the “Portugee” naming-game when John Steinbeck put forth his morally deficient “Portagee Joe” in Tortilla Flat (1935)—a characterization that enabled the actor Spencer Tracy, who had learned the university, term “Portugee” for his role as a Gloucester fisherman in “Captains Courageous” (1937), the film based on Rudyard Kipling’s 1897 novel, to bring it to perfection in the movie version of Steinbeck’s novel in 1942. Maxim Narrative Essay! For what it is worth, let me throw in here something from reviews of three other movies. In Primrose Path (1940) Ginger Rogers is faced with “‘Portugee’ rivals for the coveted attention of Joel McCrea”; in Deep Waters (1948) Caesar Romero is rather “silly” as “a light-hearted Portugee fisherman”; and in The World in His Arms (1973) Anthony Quinn plays a character, “called ‘Portugee,’” who smiles a lot and says things like “‘Heh, Heh, Heh, some day I keel you, Boston Man.’” The term “Portugee” also appears as a modifier in ethnic references—not always pejoratively. The “Portuguese-man-of-war”—”any of proper essay several large marine organ¬isms, having long, stinging-tentacles hanging down from narrative, a bladderlike float”—finds itself referred to as “Portigee men-of-war”; while a magazine article in university essay 1879 (“Bush-Life in Queensland”) gushes, “How charming to watch the minute ‘Portugee men-o’-war,’ each little bark cruising on its own account, and commissioned in exotic animals paper the admiralty court of proper university essay structure nature, in the name of nature’s God!” More amusing is the version of the expression “a la Portugaise” that appears in an advertisement in essay the New York Times in 1854 touting a book called Forecastle Yarns . One chapter is called “A Portuge Breakfast.” In the proper university essay, 1840s one “Dr. A. M. Mauriceau” of New York advertised “‘Portuguese Female Pills,’ invented by M. Desomeaux, M.D., of Lisbon, Portugal, which never fail in effecting a cure in all cases of irregularities, stoppages, or retention of the menses.” There are, of course, many less neutral or poetic uses of “Portugee” (or “Portuguese”). In A Sailor’s Treasury (1951) Frank Shay reports that a “Portuguese parliament,” according to sailors, is a gathering where everyone talks but nobody lis-tens. In 1840 the about, London Saturday Journal noted that seamen defined ‘Portugee devil’ as someone “when good, too good.” When a person is confused and doesn’t know where to begin telling his story, he is said to be in proper structure a “Portuguese pigknot.” A “Portagee gate” is maxim, a lazy man’s version of a gate—a rope thrown over a stake, reports Charles Reis Felix in his 2004 autobiography (2004), the title of which employs the terms. Proper Essay Structure! “Portugee time,” translated from Portuguese (“a hora portuguesa”), singles out the national inclination—it is believed—for arriv¬ing late for appointments, solemn occasions, etc. “Portugee colonial” (or “Immigrant Chic”) refers to poorly-made “modern” furniture foisted on the unsuspecting re¬cent immigrant; and a goat is “a Portugee lawnmower” is. “Portagee overdrive” is the “gear” used in coasting downhill in about is important neutral to save fuel.
In California “Portugee lift” is a longshoreman’s way of criticizing anyone who avoids carrying his share of the essay, load. The social import of such combinations has not been gauged. Yet while “the derisive adjective, ei¬ther as a term or pattern is not important,” writes Ed Cray in Western Folklore in 1962, when “placed within a cultural con¬text,” it “may indicate qualitatively, long-held prejudices and cultural antagonisms.” This is exotic animals research paper, manifestly so, for structure, example, in the case of the “Portagee lift.” Heard on San Francisco docks for extended structure, as long as anyone could remember, the term popped up in 1977 in a TV documentary about structure Eric Hoffer, a well-known writer at essay how education is important the time, who used the expression with no sense of its preju¬dicial nature. The “Portugee” longshoreman appears in references by the comic Johnny Carson, who pretended to insult a person in his au¬dience by describing him as having seen “his mother in proper a stag movie with five Portuguese longshoremen” (“Tonight Show,” May 22, 1979). Disney Corporate Case! Dick Mar¬tin told a similar joke involving an Aunt Martha who was delighted to find herself the only female ship¬wrecked with a boatload of Portuguese sailors (“Tim Conway Show,”’ April 19, 1980).
Heading Steve Martin’s list of things to be thankful for on the eve of Thanksgiving Day in 1981 is “the Atlantic Ocean because without it a lot of Portuguese would be walking into university essay my living room” (“My Best Show Ever,” November 25, 1981). Here the joke also reflects the xeno¬phobic feelings about exotic animals research paper immigration overall. On another occasion Martin presented as one of the “Bizarre Oddities of the World” a bit about the Portuguese dentist. Standing before two persons jumping up and down on a trampoline and speaking into a hand mike and wearing a trench coat, Martin reports: “If you are thinking of going to Portugal this year, be sure to have your cavities filled because here in Portugal they still prac¬tice the proper, art of trampoline dentistry” (“Comedy is Not Pret¬ty,” January 23, 1982). Then there is the “Portugee joke.” Let us end this survey, not with a bang but a few groans. (1) There is a five-dollar bill on the ground. Three people come along—Santa Claus, the Easter Bunny, and a smart Portugee. Who, of the three, will get to it first? — Nobody. There is norsksidene no essay, no Santa Claus, there is no Easter Bunny, and there is no such thing as a smart Portugee. (2) A young unmarried Portugee girl tells her mother that she has discovered that she is pregnant.
Her mother, concerned, asks hopefully (if desperately), “But are you sure the baby’s yours?” (3) Want to university structure sink a Portugee ship? Put it in water. (4) Portugal is the norsksidene, only country in the world where a Portugee’s mistress is proper, uglier than his wife. (5) Hear about the new Portugee bank? You give them a toaster and they give you $500. (6) “Put two Portygees on a rock in the ocean and they’ll be rich in ten days. How?
By stealing from disney corporate study, one another.” (7) A Portuguese poet asks: “How do I love thee?” and concludes, in his last line, ‘I shall love thee better after death.’ He must have seen her in proper a bathing suit.” ( Chicago Tribune , 1884) (8) “Would you say ‘Portugee’ if you wanted to speak of one inhabitant of disney corporate case Portugal?” asked the proper, golf editor, looking up from his work. “You wouldn’t call one a Portuguese, would you?” “Of course not,” said the tiddledy winks editor. “You’d call him a Portugoose.” ( Chicago Tribune , 1896) (9) What is the longest bridge in the world? The Braga Bridge—it links Portugal to the U. S. of A. That same Massachusetts span over neck the Taunton River connecting Somerset with Fall River, is known to truckers as the “Portugee slide.” Oddly, even when the intention has been to defend the Portuguese in America something will go awry. Consider the following paragraph culled from the Boston Transcript in 1910: “Three men and a Portagee” was the proper university essay structure, description of his schooner’s crew by an old Cape Cod “cap’n,” the implication being that the maxim narrative essay, “Portagee” was somewhat less than a full man. University Essay Structure! This provincial ignorance and conceit, however, have been pretty well worked out of the structure, Cape Cod Yankees by this time. They now see all about structure them the best, it might almost be said the only, farming worthy of the name, as fitted to the peculiar situation—namely, the intensive cultivation of small fruits and early vegetables—done by neck retrolisthesis the skilled and industrious Portuguese, although the “Bravos” may first have arrived on the New England coast as sailors and fishermen. In many of the old towns of the cape, and, indeed, all down along the coast to the farthest “harbors” of Maine, the best places in the town, and in some instances the larger part of the land, are now the proper essay, proud and essay about how education prospering possessions of the little dark people.
Did ever any of us know such a Portuguese who was not a capable fellow, smart. but smart in essay structure figure—if a woman, what the French mean by exotic animals research paper “chic”—neat in working clothes, even and neat handed in work, quick to apprehend and industrious and faithful in sticking to and finishing up a job? There’s little need to italicize for emphasis the vestige of the university essay, “Portagee” epithet in the well-meaning description of the Portuguese as these “little dark people.” Perhaps this best way to conclude this survey of the term “Portugee” and its various appearances is with a personal anecdote. Once while my cousin Manny Cabral was recovering from heart surgery, he was visited in the hospital by two of his non-Portuguese golfing buddies. I was witness to this exchange. As his friends were taking their leave, one of them said: “Well, we miss you out there on essay how education is important, the golf course; so you better get better fast, Portugee.” To which Manny replied, amiably but pretending to take the high road—after all, they were friends—“Thanks; but to you—I am Mr. Portugee.”
Recent Posts by Professor George Monteiro. George Monteiro , professor emeritus of English and proper of Portuguese and Brazilian Studies at Brown University, is the author or editor of books on Henry James, Henry Adams, Robert Frost, Stephen Crane, Emily Dickinson, Fernando Pessoa, and Luis de Camoes, among others. He served as Fulbright lecturer in American Literature in Brazil–Sao Paulo and disney case Bahia–Ecuador and university structure Argentina; and as Visiting Professor in UFMG in Belo Horizonte. In 2007 he served as Helio and Amelia Pedroso / Luso-American Foundation Professor of Portuguese, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth. Among his recent books are Stephen Crane’s Blue Badge of Courage , Fernando Pessoa and Nineteenth-Century Anglo-American Literature, The Presence of Pessoa , The Presence of Camoes, Conversations with Elizabeth Bishop, Critical Essays on neck retrolisthesis, Ernest Hemingway’s A Farewell to Arms, Fernando Pessoa and proper university essay structure Nineteen-Century Anglo-American Literature and Elizabeth Bishop in Brazil and After: A poetic Career Transformed. Among his translations are Iberian Poems by Miguel Torga , A Man Smiles at Death with Half a Face by norsksidene Jose Rodrigues Migueis, Self-Analysis and Thirty Other Poems by Fernando Pessoa , and In Crete, with the Minotaur, and Other Poems by Jorge de Sena . He has also published two collections of proper university essay poems, The Coffee Exchange and research paper Double Weaver’s Knot . More…
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essay format handout A poetry explication is a relatively short analysis which describes the possible meanings and relationships of the words, images, and other small units that make up a poem. Writing an explication is an effective way for a reader to connect a poem's plot and conflicts with its structural features. This handout reviews some of the important techniques of approaching and writing a poetry explication, and includes parts of two sample explications. Read the proper university essay structure poem silently, then read it aloud (if not in a testing situation). Repeat as necessary. Consider the poem as a dramatic situation in which a speaker addresses an audience or another character.
In this way, begin your analysis by exotic animals research, identifying and describing the speaking voice or voices, the conflicts or ideas, and the language used in the poem. The large issues. Determine the essay structure basic design of the poem by about how education, considering the who, what, when, where, and proper university, why of the dramatic situation. · What is being dramatized? What conflicts or themes does the poem present, address, or question?
· Who is the speaker? Define and describe the speaker and his/her voice. What does the maxim speaker say? Who is the audience? Are other characters involved? · What happens in university structure the poem? Consider the plot or basic design of the action. How are the dramatized conflicts or themes introduced, sustained, resolved, etc.?
· When does the action occur? What is the date and/or time of walt study day? · Where is the speaker? Describe the physical location of the dramatic moment. · Why does the speaker feel compelled to university essay speak at this moment?
What is his/her motivation? To analyze the design of the poem, we must focus on the poem's parts, namely how the poem dramatizes conflicts or ideas in disney governance language. By concentrating on the parts, we develop our understanding of the poem's structure, and we gather support and proper university, evidence for our interpretations. Some of the details we should consider include the following: · Form : Does the poem represent a particular form (sonnet, sestina, etc.)? Does the poem present any unique variations from the traditional structure of that form? · Rhetoric : How does the speaker make particular statements? Does the rhetoric seem odd in any way? Why? Consider the predicates and what they reveal about the speaker.
· Syntax : Consider the subjects, verbs, and objects of each statement and what these elements reveal about the speaker. Do any statements have convoluted or vague syntax? · Vocabulary: Why does the poet choose one word over essay is important another in each line? Do any of the words have multiple or archaic meanings that add other meanings to the line? Use the Oxford English Dictionary as a resource. As you analyze the proper university essay design line by line, look for certain patterns to develop which provide insight into the dramatic situation, the speaker's state of retrolisthesis mind, or the poet's use of details. Some of the most common patterns include the following:
· Rhetorical Patterns : Look for statements that follow the same format. · Rhyme : Consider the significance of the proper structure end words joined by sound; in a poem with no rhymes, consider the narrative importance of the end words. · Patterns of Sound : Alliteration and assonance create sound effects and often cluster significant words. · Visual Patterns : How does the university essay poem look on the page? · Rhythm and Meter: Consider how rhythm and meter influence our perception of the speaker and his/her language.
Meter (from the norsksidene no essay Greek metron, meaning measure) refers principally to the recurrence of regular beats in essay structure a poetic line. In this way, meter pertains to the structure of the poem as it is written. The most common form of meter in English verse since the 14th century is accentual-syllabic meter, in which the basic unit is the foot. A foot is a combination of two or three stressed and/or unstressed syllables. The following are the four most common metrical feet in English poetry: (1) IAMBIC (the noun is extended structure iamb): an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable, a pattern which comes closest to proper approximating the natural rhythm of speech. Note line 23 from Shelley's Stanzas Written in Dejection, Near Naples:
(2) TROCHAIC (the noun is trochee): a stressed followed by an unstressed syllable, as in the first line of Blake's Introduction to Songs of Innocence: (3) ANAPESTIC (the noun is anapest): two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable, as in the opening to Byron's The Destruction of Sennacherib: (4) DACTYLIC (the noun is dactyl): a stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables, as in Thomas Hardy's The Voice: Meter also refers to the number of exotic animals research feet in proper university structure a line: Any number above six (hexameter) is heard as a combination of exotic animals research smaller parts; for example, what we might call heptameter (seven feet in a line) is indistinguishable (aurally) from successive lines of tetrameter and trimeter (4-3). To scan a line is to determine its metrical pattern. Perhaps the best way to begin scanning a line is to structure mark the natural stresses on the polysyllabic words. Take Shelley's line:
Then mark the monosyllabic nouns, verbs, adjectives, and extended essay, adverbs that are normally stressed: Then fill in university structure the rest: Then divide the about line into feet: Then note the sequence: The line consists of four iambs; therefore, we identify the line as iambic tetrameter. Rhythm refers particularly to proper university essay the way a line is voiced, i.e., how one speaks the animals line. Often, when a reader reads a line of verse, choices of stress and university essay structure, unstress may need to be made. For example, the first line of Keats' Ode on Melancholy presents the paper reader with a problem: No, no, go not to Lethe, neither twist. If we determine the regular pattern of beats (the meter ) of this line, we will most likely identify the proper essay structure line as iambic pentameter.
If we read the line this way, the statement takes on a musing, somewhat disinterested tone. However, because the maxim first five words are monosyllabic, we may choose to proper structure read the line differently. In fact, we may be tempted, especially when reading aloud, to stress the first two syllables equally, making the opening an walt disney study, emphatic, directive statement. Note that monosyllabic words allow the meaning of the line to vary according to which words we choose to stress when reading (i.e., the choice of rhythm we make). The first line of proper structure Milton's Paradise Lost presents a different type of problem. Of Man's First Disobedience, and the Fruit. Again, this line is predominantly iambic, but a problem occurs with the extended structure word Disobedience . If we read strictly by the meter, then we must fuse the last two syllables of the word.
However, if we read the word normally, we have a breakage in essay the line's metrical structure. In this way, the essay about how education poet forges a tension between meter and rhythm: does the word remain contained by the structure, or do we choose to stretch the word out of the university essay normal foot, thereby disobeying the structure in walt governance which it was made? Such tension adds meaning to the poem by using meter and structure, rhythm to dramatize certain conflicts. Extended Essay Structure. In this example, Milton forges such a tension to present immediately the essential conflicts that lead to the fall of Adam and proper university, Eve. The explication should follow the same format as the preparation: begin with the large issues and basic design of the poem and walt disney governance case, work through each line to the more specific details and patterns. The first paragraph. The first paragraph should present the large issues; it should inform the reader which conflicts are dramatized and should describe the dramatic situation of the speaker. The explication does not require a formal introductory paragraph; the writer should simply start explicating immediately. Proper Structure. According to geography essay UNC 's Professor William Harmon, the foolproof way to begin any explication is with the following sentence: This poem dramatizes the conflict between … Such a beginning ensures that you will introduce the major conflict or theme in the poem and organize your explication accordingly.
Here is an example. A student's explication of Wordsworth's Composed upon Westminster Bridge might begin in the following way: This poem dramatizes the conflict between appearance and reality, particularly as this conflict relates to what the speaker seems to say and structure, what he really says. From Westminster Bridge, the speaker looks at London at sunrise, and he explains that all people should be struck by such a beautiful scene. The speaker notes that the city is silent, and he points to several specific objects, naming them only in neck retrolisthesis general terms: Ships, towers, domes, theatres, and temples (6). After describing the glittering aspect of these objects, he asserts that these city places are just as beautiful in the morning as country places like valley, rock, or hill (8,10). Finally, after describing his deep feeling of proper essay structure calmness, the speaker notes how the houses seem asleep and that all that mighty heart is lying still (13, 14).
In this way, the speaker seems to say simply that London looks beautiful in the morning. The next paragraphs. The next paragraphs should expand the discussion of the conflict by focusing on details of form, rhetoric, syntax, and vocabulary. In these paragraphs, the writer should explain the extended poem line by proper university, line in terms of these details, and he or she should incorporate important elements of rhyme, rhythm, and meter during this discussion. The student's explication continues with a topic sentence that directs the geography extended discussion of the first five lines: However, the university essay structure poem begins with several oddities that suggest the speaker is saying more than what he seems to say initially. For example, the poem is an Italian sonnet and follows the abbaabbacdcdcd rhyme scheme. The fact that the poet chooses to write a sonnet about London in an Italian form suggests that what he says may not be actually praising the city. Also, the rhetoric of the first two lines seems awkward compared to a normal speaking voice: Earth has not anything to show more fair. / Dull would he be of soul who could pass by (1-2). Neck. The odd syntax continues when the poet personifies the city: This City now doth, like a garment, wear / The beauty of the essay morning (4-5). Here, the city wears the morning's beauty, so it is not the city but the morning that is beautiful . The explication has no formal concluding paragraph; do not simply restate the main points of the introduction!
The end of the explication should focus on essay structure, sound effects or visual patterns as the final element of asserting an explanation. Or, as does the undergraduate here, the writer may choose simply to stop writing when he or she reaches the end of the poem: The poem ends with a vague statement: And all that mighty heart is lying still! In this line, the city's heart could be dead, or it could be simply deceiving the one observing the scene. University Structure. In this way, the poet reinforces the maxim narrative essay conflict between the appearance of the city in the morning and what such a scene and his words actually reveal.
Tips to keep in mind. 1. Refer to the speaking voice in the poem as the speaker or the poet. For example, do not write, In this poem, Wordsworth says that London is beautiful in the morning. However, you can write, In this poem, Wordsworth presents a speaker who… We cannot absolutely identify Wordsworth with the speaker of the poem, so it is more accurate to talk about the proper university essay speaker or the poet in an explication. 2. Use the present tense when writing the explication. The poem, as a work of literature, continues to exist! 3. Walt Disney Corporate Governance. To avoid unnecessary uses of the verb to be in your compositions, the proper university essay following list suggests some verbs you can use when writing the explication:
Example Explication Essay on COMPOSED UPON WESTMINSTER BRIDGE, SEPT. 3, 1802. This poem dramatizes the conflict between appearance and disney governance study, reality, particularly as this conflict relates to what the proper speaker seems to say and what he really says. From Westminster Bridge , the speaker looks at London at essay about is important sunrise, and he explains that all people should be struck by such a beautiful scene. Proper University Structure. The speaker notes that the city is silent, and he points to several specific objects, naming them only in general terms: Ships, towers, domes, theatres, and temples (6). After describing the glittering aspect of these objects, he asserts that these city places are just as beautiful in the morning as country places like valley, rock, or hill (8,10). Finally, after describing his deep feeling of calmness, the maxim speaker notes how the houses seem asleep and that all that mighty heart is proper structure lying still (13, 14). In this way, the norsksidene no essay speaker seems to say simply that London looks beautiful in the morning. However, the poem begins with several oddities that suggest the speaker is proper essay structure saying more than what he seems to say initially. Essay Structure. For example, the poem is an proper university essay structure, Italian sonnet and follows the abbaabbacdcdcd rhyme scheme.
The fact that the poet chooses to write a sonnet about London in an Italian form suggests that what he says may not be actually praising the city. Also, the rhetoric of the norsksidene first two lines seems awkward compared to a normal speaking voice: Earth has not anything to show more fair. / Dull would he be of structure soul who could pass by how education, (1-2). Essay. The odd syntax continues when the poet personifies the essay city: This City now doth, like a garment, wear / The beauty of the morning (4-5). Essay. Here, the city wears the morning's beauty, so it is not the city but the morning that is beautiful. The poem ends with a vague statement: And all that mighty heart is lying still! In this line, the extended city's heart could be dead, or it could be simply deceiving the one observing the scene.
In this way, the poet reinforces the conflict between the appearance of the university essay structure city in the morning and what such a scene and his words actually reveal.