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Contribution essays

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Contribution essays

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Book Summaries: Popular Books Summarized in 3 Sentences or Less. This page shares a full list of book summaries I have compiled during my reading and contribution, research. I have tried to summarize each book on this page in just three sentences, which I think is a fun way to distill the main ideas of the book. If a particular book sounds interesting to you, click on cover for bank tellers the full book summary and you can browse all of essays my notes on cover letters tellers it. These book summaries are not organized by category, so you might find a self-help book followed by a business book followed by a psychology book.

If you would like to browse my book suggestions for a particular category, then check out my reading list instead. This is a complete list of my book summaries in contribution alphabetical order by title. The Book in Three Sentences: Practicing meditation and mindfulness will make you at least 10 percent happier. Being mindful doesnЂ™t change the problems in your life, but mindfulness does help you respond to your problems rather than react to informative essay requirements them. Mindfulness helps you realize that striving for success is fine as long as you accept that the outcome is outside your control. by Grant Cardone. The Book in Three Sentences: The 10X Rule says that 1) you should set targets for yourself that are 10X greater than what you believe you can achieve and 2) you should take actions that are 10X greater than what you believe are necessary to achieve your goals. The biggest mistake most people make in life is not setting goals high enough. Taking massive action is the only way to fulfill your true potential.

A Short Guide to a Happy Life. by contribution, Anna Quindlen. The Book in informative essay Three Sentences: The only thing you have that nobody else has is control of your life. Contribution Essays. The hardest thing of all is to learn to love the journey, not the destination. Get a real life rather than frantically chasing the next level of success. Research Papers. A Technique for Producing Ideas. by James Webb Young.

The Book in Three Sentences: An idea occurs when you develop a new combination of contribution old elements. The capacity to bring old elements into new combinations depends largely on your ability to see relationships. All ideas follow a five-step process of argument on the death 1) gathering material, 2) intensely working over the material in your mind, 3) stepping away from the problem, 4) allowing the essays idea to come back to you naturally, and what essay, 5) testing your idea in the real world and adjusting it based on contribution feedback. What. The Book in Three Sentences: Seek out new ideas and contribution, try new things. When trying something new, do it on a scale where failure is survivable. Papers. Seek out feedback and learn from your mistakes as you go along. by Derek Sivers. The Book in Three Sentences: Too many people spend their life pursuing things that donЂ™t actually make them happy. When you make a business, you get to make a little universe where you create all the laws. Never forget that absolutely everything you do is for your customers.

The Book in Three Sentences: There are three keys to contribution essays being fully charged each day: doing work that provides meaning to research your life, having positive social interactions with others, and taking care of yourself so you have the energy you need to contribution do the first two things. Trying to maximize your own happiness can actually make you feel self-absorbed and lonely, but giving more can drive meaning and happiness in your life. People who spend money on experiences are happier than those who spend on material things. by Rosamund Zander and Benjamin Zander. The Book in Three Sentences: Everything in cover tellers life is an invention. If you choose to look at your life in a new way, then suddenly your problems fade away. One of the best ways to do this is to focus on the possibilities surrounding you in any situation rather than slipping into the default mode of measuring and comparing your life to others. Contribution Essays. The Art of Profitability. by Adrian Slywotzky. The Book in Three Sentences: There are many ways to make profit and it is unlikely that your business does all of them.

People will pay different prices for the same thing in different situations (think: Coke in the grocery store vs. Coke in a nice restaurant). Informative Requirements. Good profit models are easy to brainstorm and hard to execute. Contribution. The Book in Three Sentences: Know when to fight and when not to fight: avoid what is strong and strike at essay penalty, what is weak. Know how to deceive the enemy: appear weak when you are strong, and strong when you are weak. Contribution Essays. Know your strengths and weaknesses: if you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. The Book in Three Sentences: To become a better writer, you have to write more.

Writing reveals the need help writting essay story because you have to write to figure out what youЂ™re writing about. DonЂ™t judge your initial work too harshly because every writer has terrible first drafts. by Steve Martin. The Book in Three Sentences: Steve Martin was one of the most successful comedians of his generation. In his words, his career involved Ђњ10 years spent learning, 4 years spent refining, and 4 years spent in wild success.Ђќ This fantastic book provided beautiful insights not only into the details of his comedy act, but also into essays, his early life and career development. by Darren Hardy. Cover Letters For Bank Tellers. The Book in contribution Three Sentences: The compound effect is the strategy of reaping huge rewards from small, seemingly insignificant actions. You cannot improve something until you measure it. Always take 100 percent responsibility for everything that happens to you. Confessions of an Economic Hitman. Argument Death. The Book in Three Sentences: The United States is engaging in a modern form of slavery by using the World Bank and contribution, other international organizations to offer huge loans to developing nations for construction projects and oil production. On the surface this appears to be generous, but the money is only awarded to a country if it agrees to hire US construction firms, which ensures a select few people get rich. Furthermore, the loans are intentionally too big for any developing nation to essays repay and this debt burden virtually guarantees the developing nation will support the political interests of the United States.

Confessions of the Pricing Man. by Hermann Simon. The Book in Three Sentences: Ultimately, profit is the only valid metric for guiding a company, and there are only three ways to what essay influence profit: price, volume, and cost. Of these three factors, prices get the least attention, but have the greatest impact. The price a customer is willing to pay, and therefore the price a company can achieve, is always a reflection of the perceived value of the product or service in the customerЂ™s eyes. by Nassim Nicholas Taleb. The Book in Three Sentences: Randomness, chance, and luck influence our lives and our work more than we realize. Because of hindsight bias and survivorship bias, in particular, we tend to forget the essays many who fail, remember the is literature essay few who succeed, and then create reasons and patterns for their success even though it was largely random. Mild success can be explainable by skills and hard work, but wild success is usually attributable to variance and luck. The Book in Three Sentences: We do not have the freedom and contribution, free will that we think we do. Yes, you can make conscious choices, but everything that makes up those conscious choices (your thoughts, your wants, your desires) is determined by prior causes outside your control.

Just because you can do what you want does not mean you have free will because you are not choosing what you want in the first place. by legalization, Eliyahu Goldratt. Contribution. The Book in Three Sentences: Doing work and poverty papers, making money are not the essays same thing. Simplify your problem to the point where you understand the true goal of your organization. With your goal in mind, identify the constraints within your system (i.e. bottlenecks) and , focus on improving the output of that constraint without worrying about the productivity of all related processes. by Jared Diamond. The Book in Three Sentences: Some environments provide more starting materials and more favorable conditions for utilizing inventions and building societies than other environments.

This is particularly notable in the rise of European peoples, which occurred because of environmental differences and not because of contribution essays biological differences in the people themselves. There are four primary reasons Europeans rose to power and conquered the natives of North and South America, and not the other way around: 1) the continental differences in the plants and what, animals available for domestication, which led to more food and larger populations in Europe and Asia, 2) the is literature rate of contribution essays diffusion of what is literature agriculture, technology and innovation due to the geographic orientation of Europe and Asia (east-west) compared to the Americas (north-south), 3) the ease of intercontinental diffusion between Europe, Asia, and contribution, Africa, and what is literature essay, 4) the differences in continental size, which led to differences in total population size and technology diffusion. by Hugh MacLeod. The Book in Three Sentences: Nobody knows the best way to deliver your unique idea, no matter how smart they seem. Contribution Essays. Every artist has to find a way to make a living and share their work, preferably in a way that doesnЂ™t ruin both. Finding your own voice and informative essay, sharing that voice with the world is the most important thing.

by David Eagleman. The Book in Three Sentences: Conscious thought has a surprisingly small impact on your life and most of your behaviors are driven by the unconscious mind. There are competing beliefs within your unconscious mind that are all battling for the single output of your conscious behavior. The complex interactions between your genetics and your environment determine the trajectory of your life. Read the essays full book summary » by Christopher Burkett.

The Book in Three Sentences: A book of 73 photos by master landscape photographer Christopher Burkett. by Bryan Stevenson. The Book in Three Sentences: The true measure of our character is is literature essay, how we treat the poor, the contribution disfavored, the accused, the incarcerated, and death penalty, the condemned. Simply punishing the broken only ensures that they remain broken and we do, too. Each of us is contribution, more than the worst thing weЂ™ve ever done.

The Lessons of History. by Will and Ariel Durant. Legalization. The Book in Three Sentences: Over the course of history, human behavior has changed, but not human nature. No matter who is in power, the rewards gradually accrue to the most clever and contribution essays, talented individuals. Ideas are the cover tellers strongest things of all in history because they can be passed down and change the behavior of future generationsЂ”even a gun was originally an essays, idea. What Is Literature. Letters from a Self-Made Merchant to His Son. The Book in essays Three Sentences: This book is need writting essay, a series of letters written by contribution essays, a successful entrepreneur, John Graham, to his son offering various pieces of advice throughout the boyЂ™s college years and early career. Legalization Of Marijuana Essay. For example, 1) It isnЂ™t so much knowing a whole lot, as knowing a little and contribution, how to use it that counts. 2) Putting off an easy thing makes it hard, and putting off a hard one makes it impossible. 3) A good wife doubles a manЂ™s expenses and doubles his happiness, and thatЂ™s a pretty good investment if a fellowЂ™s got the money to invest.

And many other insights. Love Yourself Like Your Life Depends On It. by Kamal Ravikant. The Book in Three Sentences: Everyone has a truth that they need to live and need writting, share. Essays. For the author, that truth was committing to writting the daily practice of repeating the phrase ЂњI love myself.Ђќ When you love yourself, life loves you back. The Book in contribution essays Three Sentences: Some things are in your power and legalization, some are notЂ”do not confuse the two and do not desire the things that are not in your power.

It is our opinion of things that determines how we feel about a particular event, not the event itself. Think carefully about how you spend your life because people often spend their lives chasing things that are neither as desirable nor as important as they seem. Marcel Duchamp: The Afternoon Interviews. by Calvin Tomkins. The Book in Three Sentences: This book is a collection of transcriptions from a series of interviews between writer Calvin Tomkins and artist Marcel Duchamp. Duchamp believed strongly in doing work that was free from tradition and contribution, starting with as much of a blank slate as possible. He was also quite playful, worked slowly, and saw laziness as a good thing. by Jayson Gaignard.

The Book in Three Sentences: Hosting dinners with like-minded people is one of the most powerful way to build fantastic relationships in business and in life. You should think carefully about who you invite to these meals and look for uncommon commonalities that make it more likely the guests will resonate with one another. Be the poverty gatekeeper of essays your network and assume responsibility for the people you surround yourself with in life. by George Leonard. The Book in Three Sentences: The most successful path to mastering anything is to practice for the sake of the practice itself, not for the result. All significant learning is composed of brief spurts of progress followed by long periods of work where if feels as if you are stuck on a plateau. There are no expertsЂ“only learners. by Laurence Shames and Peter Barton. The Book in Three Sentences: It is more important to live fully than to live in a straight line. The surest gauge of the impact a life makes is how many other lives it touches.

Nothing in life looks the same once you truly understand that you are not exempt from death. The Nurture Assumption. by Judith Rich Harris. The Book in Three Sentences: The two classic drivers of human development are nature (genes) and nurture (environment). Many people mistakenly believe nurture only refers to how parents raise their children. Although children do learn things from their parents, they learn far more from their peers. Legalization. The world that children share with their peer group is what shapes their behavior, modifies the characteristics they were born with, and determines the sort of people they will be when they grow up. by essays, Oliver Sacks. The Book in Three Sentences: Oliver Sacks was a brilliant physician and research, a fantastic writer. He lived a full life that included dealing with criticism over being gay, attending medical school at Oxford University, experimenting with heavy drug use, traveling the United States and contribution, Canada by motorcycle, suffering life-threatening injuries, squatting a California state record of 600 pounds, and being honored by the Queen of England for his many books and storied career as a physician.

Sacks is a symbol of the letters importance of writing, the power of exploration and inquisitiveness, and the need for empathy. On the Shortness of Life. Contribution. The Book in Three Sentences: We all fear death, but life is long if you know how to research use it. Putting things off is the contribution biggest waste of life: it snatches away each day as it comes, and denies us the present by of marijuana essay, promising the future: live immediately. In any situation in life you will find delights and essays, relaxations and pleasures if you are prepared to make light of your troubles and papers, not let them distress you. The Book in contribution essays Three Sentences: The human brain is wired for inattention and inertia. As a result, many people already have good intentions, but donЂ™t follow through due to forgetfulness, procrastination, or a general lack of awareness. We can bridge the gap between our intentions and our behavior by using strategies to lock in our future behavior like active choice, pre-commitment, good design, reframing, and simplicity. by Thomas M. Sterner. The Book in Three Sentences: All of life is practice in one form or another. Actively practicing something is very different from passively learning. You will never reach a level of performance that feels complete, so learn to love the art of practicing your skill. by Naoki Higashida.

The Book in Three Sentences: This book is an autobiography written by a 13-year-old boy from Japan about what it is like to live with autism. Essay. The way autistic people view the contribution world is very different than the on the way we may perceive them to view the world. This disconnect between how we view and treat people with autism and how they actually view the world makes living with autism even more difficult. by contribution, Christopher Burkett. The Book in informative requirements Three Sentences: A book of 68 photos by master landscape photographer Christopher Burkett. Contribution Essays. The Richest Man in Babylon. by George S. Clason. The Book in Three Sentences: Save at least 10 percent of everything you earn and do not confuse your necessary expenses with your desires. Work hard to research papers improve your skills and ensure a future income because wealth is the contribution essays result of a reliable income stream. You cannot arrive at the fullest measure of success until you crush the spirit of procrastination within you. Rules for a Knight. Contribution. The Book in Three Sentences: This book contains a number of Ђњrules for a knight,Ђќ which are lessons on how to live better. For example, 1) never announce that you are a knight, simply behave as one and 2) the only intelligent response to the ongoing gift of life is gratitude, and 3) how a knight lives is help, what is important, not on which particular afternoon he was born or on which specific morning he might die.

Along with many other insights. by Yuval Noah Harari. The Book in Three Sentences: Human history has been shaped by three major revolutions: the Cognitive Revolution (70,000 years ago), the Agricultural Revolution (10,000 years ago), and the Scientific Revolution (500 years ago). These revolutions have empowered humans to do something no other form of life has done, which is to create and contribution, connect around ideas that do not physically exist (think religion, capitalism, and politics). These shared ЂњmythsЂќ have enabled humans to take over the globe and argument death penalty, have put humankind on the verge of overcoming the forces of contribution natural selection. Slipstream Time Hacking. by Benjamin Hardy. The Book in essay penalty Three Sentences: What if we measured our lives based on ЂњdistanceЂќ traveled rather than time elapsed? If we measure life by distance rather than time, then it becomes very clear that you can hack time by figuring out contribution essays, how to jump further along the timeline of life. This enables you to live many lives in one lifetime. For example, someone who retires at writting, age 30 will free up an essays, extra 40+ years of life compared to their peers, which means they can live an entire second life that many people will never get to experience. Strangers to Ourselves. by Timothy Wilson. Is Literature. The Book in contribution Three Sentences: We do not realize how much the non-conscious mind impacts our behavior and personality.

In many cases, the non-conscious mind influences our behavior more than our conscious thoughts do and the two minds will often conflict with one another, which can make it difficult to keep our desires and our actions in alignment. The first step to bringing our non-conscious inclinations into alignment with our conscious desires is to act more like the person we want to be. The Book in Three Sentences: What makes humans different from every other animal is that we think about the future. However, our brains fall victim to a wide range of biases that cause our predictions of the need help writting future (and our memories of the contribution essays past) to be inaccurate. Because of these mental errors it is remarkably difficult to predict what will make us feel happy. The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck. Letters. The Book in Three Sentences: Finding something important and contribution essays, meaningful in your life is the most productive use of your time and energy. This is true because every life has problems associated with it and cover letters for bank, finding meaning in your life will help you sustain the essays effort needed to overcome the particular problems you face. Thus, we can say that the key to living a good life is help writting essay, not giving a fuck about more things, but rather, giving a fuck only about the things that align with your personal values. Superhuman by Habit. The Book in contribution essays Three Sentences: You can do just about anything if you break down the informative task into habits.

You are more likely to contribution essays stick with good habits over the long run if you start with tiny habits that are incredibly easy in research papers the beginning. When you miss a habit once, getting back on track and sticking with the next occurrence of essays that habit should become the top priority in your life. The Tell-Tale Brain. The Book in Three Sentences: Humans are unique among the animal kingdom because of their brain. Help. The human brain evolved through two methods: biological evolution, which takes a long time and cultural evolution, which is incredibly fast by comparison. These evolutionary processes have resulted in the development of contribution mirror neurons, which contribute to our remarkable levels of creativity, ambition, communication. by David Foster Wallace. The Book in Three Sentences: Learning Ђњhow to thinkЂќ really means learning how to exercise some control over how and what you think. Papers. It can be easy to spend our entire lives accepting our natural default ways of thinking rather than choosing to look differently at life.

The only thing that is capital-T True is that you get to decide how youЂ™re going to try to see life and how you construct meaning from experience. What Got You Here WonЂ™t Get You There. by Marshall Goldsmith. The Book in essays Three Sentences: Behavioral problems, not technical skills, are what separate the great from the near great. Incredible results can come from practicing basic behaviors like saying thank you, listening well, thinking before you speak, and apologizing for your mistakes. The first step to change is contribution essays, wanting to change. When Breath Becomes Air. by Paul Kalanithi. The Book in Three Sentences: The memoir of Paul Kalanithi, a neurosurgeon at Stanford University, who is diagnosed with terminal lung cancer in poverty research his mid-thirties. Kalanithi uses the pages in this book to not only tell his story, but also share his ideas on how to approach death with grace and what it means to be fully alive. by Spencer Johnson. The Book in Three Sentences: Letting go of what we know is hard, but essential for growth and improvement.

The quicker you let go of contribution old things, the sooner you can learn new skills and create a better future. What Is Literature. When you change what you believe, you can change what you do. Enjoy this list of book summaries? Check out my popular reading lists to find more good books to read.

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L’avis des filles : faut-il essayer le libertinage en couple ? Accueil Sexualite L’avis des filles : faut-il essayer le libertinage en couple ? Julia O au clavier aujourd’hui… pour votre plus grand plaisir… J’ai laisse trainer un magazine feminin sur la table du salon, ouvert sur un article « Plan a trois avec mon mec : j’ai essaye » . Contribution Essays! Je voulais voir la reaction de mon mec sur le sujet du libertinage. C’est probablement un de vos fantasmes, de coucher avec deux filles, on argument death penalty, y pense tous… Mais de la a le proposer a votre cherie… pas facile facile. Alors j’en ai discute avec des amies afin d’obtenir les reactions les plus spontanees des filles en couple quand on essays, leur parle de libertinage. Dans cet article nous allons voir ensemble comment faire pour aborder le sujet du libertinage en couple. On y a tous pense, les mecs comme les filles.

L’idee de pimenter notre vie sexuelle nous traverse toujours l’esprit, surtout quand on papers, est en couple. Contribution Essays! Au bout d’un moment, la tendresse, la complicite, c’est bien beau, mais ou est la passion ? Certains optent pour l’option yoga pour tenter des positions plus folles, d’autres decident d’experimenter de nouveaux lieux pour faire l’amour, quand d’autres enfin envisagent l’idee du libertinage. Le libertinage, c’est quoi ? Il s’agit de faire rentrer d’autres personnes dans vos jeux sexuels. ! Il peut s’agir d’une fille, d’un mec, d’un couple : ce qui change, c’est que vous n’etes plus seuls avec vos habitudes, vous etes rejoint par un corps etranger au moins qui a lui ses propres manieres de fonctionner. Je ne vais pas entrer dans les details du polyamour, de l’echangisme, du melangisme : on essays, va se contenter de faire entrer une ou deux personnes dans notre couple ! Mes copines ont tout de suite commence par cet aspect-la du libertinage dans le couple.

Quand je leur ai demande si elles seraient pretes a essayer, certaines ont repondu non immediatement. Votre mec vous propose de tenter le libertinage dans votre couple, vous dites quoi ? « Tu imagines s’il tombe amoureux de l’autre fille ? » « Ca veut dire que je ne lui suffis plus ? » « Ca veut dire qu’il ne m’aime plus ? » « Et si ca se passe mal ? Si ensuite il n’arrive plus jamais a me regarder de la meme maniere ? » « Et si je me rends compte que je suis lesbienne, enfin bi, enfin si j’aime le libertinage et pas lui, on argument death, fait comment ? » « Mais pire, imagine si mon mec pete un cable pendant que je suis en train de me faire lecher par la fille, ou prendre par un autre mec ? » Il y en a aussi une qui est allee encore plus loin, ca nous a fait rire : « Imagine que je me rende compte que mon mec est homo et qu’il veut faire des trucs avec l’autre mec ! » Vous pouvez donc le voir, on contribution essays, est d’entree de jeu dans du negatif, de la peur, du traumatisme, des risques. Of Marijuana Essay! Ca ne les fait pas toute rever, certaines ne l’envisagent pas du tout. Contribution! Au debut de la conversation… Apres quelques verres de vin, la soiree avancant, elles ont commence a se lacher davantage. Of Marijuana Essay! A reveler qu’elles s’imagineraient bien avec telle ou telle fille… Les langues se sont deliees, et elles ont avoue que sous certaines conditions, elles pourraient etre tentees, mais la, ca depend de vous les mecs ! Comment faire pour proposer un plan a plusieurs a votre copine. Ce qui ressort principalement de la conversation : la peur que vous partiez, la peur que vous tombiez amoureux d’une autre, la peur que vous compariez… A vous de lui expliquer que ca ne changera rien a votre couple , a l’amour que vous lui portez. Contribution! A vous de lui assurer que vous ne verrez pas cette fille ou ce couple de libertins dans son dos. Commencez par vous renseigner sur ses gouts, sur ses fantasmes. Essay Death Penalty! Est-ce qu’elle prefererait une brune, une blonde, grande, petite… A vous de lui donner envie de se lancer dans le libertinage. Defiez-la ! Elle dit qu’elle pourrait seduire facilement une fille : proposez-vous comme wingman en soiree, et decouvrez une nouvelle maniere de fonctionner en couple…

Rassurez-la sur vos intentions, je le repete, c’est tres important. Contribution! Ne lui dites pas que vous vous ennuyez sexuellement avec elle, parlez plutot d’explorations, d’aventures, d’experiences sensorielles pour stimuler son imagination ! Au cours d’une discussion avec votre cherie, definissez ce qui est possible et impossible, posez des regles, des limites pour que tout se passe bien pour votre premiere experience a plusieurs. Cover For Bank! Plus que tout, vous vous devez d’etre a l’ecoute de votre partenaire. Une soiree de libertinage doit etre autant la realisation de vos fantasmes que des siens, surtout n’imposez rien a votre cherie ! Avec qui vivre cette initiation au libertinage en couple ? C’est la question qui se pose : est-ce que vous preferez coucher avec des gens que vous connaissez ou avec des inconnus ? Visiblement pour mes copines, il n’est pas question de coucher avec des copines a elles : vous oubliez illico l’idee de vous taper la meilleure copine de votre cherie ! Trois situations principales ont emerge de notre discussion de filles : soit vous draguez avec votre cherie en boite, voire en bar ou club lesbien ou bi, vous aurez plus de chance de trouver une fille pour ce genre de plans a trois soit vous vous inscrivez sur un site de rencontres echangistes en ligne, creez un profil de couple et choisissez des couples a rencontrer pour faire connaissance… et plus si affinites soit vous optez pour le total anonymat des clubs libertins de votre region. Contribution Essays! Avec le risque d’y croiser votre patron ou votre boucher, mais le secret est de mise dans les clubs echangistes ! Ensuite, une fois le contexte defini, il va falloir parler de la maniere dont le sexe va avoir lieu… C’est a vous d’orienter la conversation vers les criteres qui vous semblent importants : tendresse ou force sauvage ? Silence total ou discussion pour faire un peu connaissance ? Juste pour une fois ou ouvert a plus ? J’ai teste les trois situations, j’ai trouve qu’il y avait moins de malaise, de gene dans les bars et dans les clubs libertins… ca fait bizarre de debarquer chez un couple d’inconnus et de savoir qu’on va coucher avec eux deux heures apres alors que pour le moment, on informative essay, ne sait presque rien d’eux ! Ah, j’ai failli oublier un point important : dans le milieu echangiste, ce sont les femmes qui commandent. Essays! « Ce que femme veut, Dieu le veut ! » Concretement, ca veut dire que si vous voulez coucher avec Jacquie qui est tres jolie, mais que Michel son mari repugne votre copine, le deal risque de ne pas se faire : ne la forcez surtout pas a coucher avec des hommes qui la degoute , sinon vous allez vite la perdre. Un dernier point : pas de manipulation, pas de chantage affectif . What! Malgre toute la presse ecrite sur le sujet, les plans a trois et le libertinage en couple concernent une minorite de personnes. Contribution! Ne lui faites pas croire qu’elle n’est pas « normale » si elle n’a pas envie d’essayer. Chacun son rythme, chacun ses envies, il s’agit juste de les ecouter et de les respecter. For Bank Tellers! Maintenant que vous savez tout ca, a vous de voir si votre couple est pret pour cette experience.

C’est rarement le genre d’aventures sexuelles qu’on propose au bout de deux mois de couple ! C’est un truc qui vous tente ? Vous avez deja tente de proposer un plan a plusieurs a votre copine ? Comment elle l’a pris ? Julia O, experte sexo et libido. 22 aout, 2014 a 22:24. Curieux cette article ! qui est en fait concerne par le libertinage ? Les personnes divorcees, qui se mettent en couple pour pouvoir faire du libertinage ? C’est vrai que c’est les femmes qui decident : bah, il a y 10 fois moins de femmes pretent au libertinage que d’homme. Contribution! Implicitement cela doit conduire a etre un peu bi, d’avoir d’autres tentations et pourquoi pas rencontrer une trans… Bref c’est dur de trouver des femmes qui sont tres open sur ces pratiques . 9 septembre, 2014 a 05:46. Ca ne m’interesse pas vraiment mais disons que pour une personne qui cherche a s’informer c’est deja pas mal. Par contre, il y a un truc qui m’a fait halluciner.. on requirements, parle bien de relation de couple n’est-ce pas ? Il est precise a plusieurs reprise qu’il faut etre a l’ecoute de son partenaire, ne pas forcer, etc.. Essays! ce qui me semble evident et j’en vien a supposer que si on poverty, est pas a l’aise, qu’on debute ou non, il est peut-etre difficile de gerer cela. Essays! Fin de la parenthese, tout ca pour dire que.. Informative Essay Requirements! je cite : dans le milieu echangiste ce sont les femmes qui commandent. Concretement, ca veut dire que si vous voulez coucher avec Jacquie qui est tres jolie, mais que Michel son mari repugne votre copine, le deal risque de ne pas se faire . Le paragraphe ne derange pas, c’est encore une fois evident mais la premiere phrase, qu’est-ce qu’elle fait la ? Je trouve que l’article parle bien.. Essays! Lui expliquer – Rassurez la sur vos intention (c’est tres important) – Etre a l’ecoute – et j’en passe pour qu’a un moment, on letters tellers, lise dans le milieu echangiste ce sont les femmes qui commandent Elle veut coucher avec Martin mais ca femme ne me plait pas. Contribution Essays! Oh wait.. Is Literature Essay! ce sont les femmes qui commandent :) Vas-y cherie.. Contribution! :) (bn j’exagere un peu mais voila a quoi ca me fait penser.. on need help writting, parle de couple ou de la femme ?)

Decidement, cette phrase casse pas mal de chose.. 25 septembre, 2014 a 02:04. Le libertinage est une hypocrisie, en soit, on essays, sort de belles phrases coquiner , plaisirs , mais on essay, ne compte pas les amants qui amenent leurs compagnes au lieu de leurs femmes, les hommes ou femmes seul(e)s qui frequentent les club pour tromper leurs conjoint(e)s et j’en passe sur la clientele tres particuliere du milieu de la nuit. Contribution! Je connais une femme qui a negocie a son mari ce genre de club sinon elle divorcait…. Informative Requirements! Mon avis : les couples libertins, les vrais, il n’en existe peu et ils sont de l’ancienne generation ou le mot respect de son partenaire avait encore un sens….Aujourd’hui il y a de tout et n’importe quoi du moment ou cela rapporte car avant tout c’est une question de buisness, pour preuve il n’y a jamais eu autant de club qu’a ce jour. Contribution Essays! Il faut arreter de se mentir et de se donner bonne figure … on requirements, vit dans un monde de consommation et le taux de divorce a toujours ete plus eleve chez les libertins , un mot qui me fait sourire on essays, dirait une race a part, comme enjoliver le mot keutarde ou keutard . Je ne juge pas, je ne suis pas du tout contre ces clubs mais soyons honnetes. D’ailleurs aucune equite, on need help writting essay, demande aux femmes de s’habiller de facon tres aguicheuses, tandis que les hommes la tenue est correct… a mediter sur le respect de la femme, sur l’image objet de la femme et pourtant elles decident… ce n’est surtout pas une faveur que l’on fait aux femmes… heureusement qu’elles decident sinon c’est un viol au vu de la Loi. Contribution! L’echangisme me semble plus sain a mon gout. 31 janvier, 2015 a 02:59. Tres bon article, assez exhaustif.

Sauf sur un point, le plan a 3 avec ta copine et un autre mec, il aurait ete interessant d’en parler. Essay! C’est un truc qui me bloque vachement, si ma copine accepte de le faire avec une autre fille, est-ce etre ingrat que de lui refuser la meme chose avec un autre mec ? Je pense pas que je pourrais en plus (avec ma copine en tout cas). 31 janvier, 2015 a 10:10. Ah ca, l’hypocrisie masculine, la jalousie… A chacun d’apprendre a gerer… 7 juillet, 2015 a 16:13. tres bon article , mais faut comme vous le dites deja , une bonne convection. personnellement je reve d’une femme libertine , pour une vie a deux en parfaite entente. 31 aout, 2015 a 17:05.

Je ne sais pas si le divorce existe plus chez les libertins que dans d’autres couples que l’on va dire normaux . Les couples normaux divorcent et les libertins aussi. Essays! Pourquoi y aurait-il une difference . Il n’est guere besoin d’etre libertin pour respecter sa femme, la femme doit etre tout comme l’homme, respectee qu’elle soit libertine ou pas. Et force de reconnaitre que s’il y a de plus en plus de club, c’est parce qu’il y a de plus en plus de libertins. Argument On The Penalty! Ce qui prouve que les esprits commencent a se liberer de tout les tabous (que nous ont laisses les cures), ce qui est une tres bonne chose. Quant a l’ hypocrisie, elle est partout aussi . Il faudrait arreter de se prendre la tete avec ca, vivons comme bon nous semble et en bon harmonie, dans le respect de chacun et tout ira bien. Perso, je respecte ceux et celles qui ne sont pas libertin, mais de grace, j’aimerai, en tant que libertin non pratiquant, que l’on respecte mes idees et non lire tout un tas de discours de maitresse d’ecole qui denigrent sans arret le libertinage. Et de poser une question a ces gens tres intelligents….

Je voudrais pratiquer le libertinage avec ma femme qui ne le veut absolument pas . Comment je fais . Contribution! Je divorce, ou je reste frustre a vie . 1 septembre, 2015 a 05:50. Merci a toi pour ce temoignage. Help Writting Essay! Effectivement, du moment que tout le monde est heureux et vit dans la transparence dans le respect de chacun, on contribution essays, a aucune raison de juger qui que ce soit. Informative Requirements! A chacun de se connaitre et de trouver son equilibre :) 27 mars, 2017 a 14:44. C es une question parfaite :-) !! On aime son mari mais on contribution essays, ressent des besoins de l ordre du trivial… que lui ne ressent.

9 mars, 2016 a 14:59. Pour moi le libertinage pour les couples, pour eux c’ est un jeux et parfois pour l’ argent lorsqu’ils s’ agit le libertinage avec un homme seul. What Essay! D’ ailleurs, je ne comprends pas pourquoi un couple s’ ennuie entre eux. Contribution! peut etre un manque d’imagination, ou tout simplement que madame ou monsieur voudrais faire des pratiques et n’osant pas faire entre eux. Need! Alors cela ne sert a rien de vivre en couple et ou est l’ amour dans ce cas la. Essays! Je comprend mieux pourquoi des hommes maries qui vont voir des prostituees ou des homosexuels en cachette et les femmes qui vont voir des amants. Of Marijuana! Quand je pense les couples n’ont pas du tout d’ imagination pour prendre du plaisir et surtout ils pensent qu’ a eux. Contribution! C’ est vrai dans le libertinage il y a des risques surtout entre femmes et entre hommes perdre son conjoint ou conjointe. ! L’ ideale, c’ est d’ avoir un ami un soumis un esclave il n’ y aurais aucun probleme surtout avec moi.

Mais voila, j’ ai eu affaire a un couple dominant qui ce disent de faire des choses mais que des fantasmes qui n’ aboutissent a rien. 30 mars, 2016 a 05:53. T’es pleins de pensees limitantes garcon! J’ai essaye le libertinage (melangisme) avec ma copine. Essays! Elle sortait d’une relation longue et elle voulait gouter a nouveau au corps d’une femme… ca veut dire qu’on s’ennuyait? je ne parierai pas dessus a ta place… On voulait essayer d’autres pratiques? On va beaucoup plus loin en duo elle et moi… Quand a ton raisonnement sur les hommes maries, les catins, les femmes et les amants, il ne vaut meme pas la peine que je m’attarde dessus… Le but est de faire les choses par plaisir. ! Si tu n’as pas ete capable de te faire respecter lors d’une rencontre, ne mets pas tout sur le dos de cette pratique mais essaie plutot de te remettre en question, tu a un site parfait pour ca. 23 septembre, 2016 a 22:48.

WoW ce qu’il ne faut pas lire comme betises. Essays! Decidement le libertinage fait fantasmer tout le monde et ce dans tous les sens du terme. Legalization! Vous avez la une idee du libertinage tres etriquee, erronee et faussee. Contribution Essays! Tout comme la plupart des medias vous tombez dans le meme panneau et le meme cliche. Legalization! Le libertinage ce n’est pas pour faire jolie, pour faire comme une mode. Essays! Beaucoup, de nos jours, voient le libertinage comme une sorte de mode et comme une facon de baiser rapido sans se prendre la tete ce qui nous plait.

Ben non le libertinage ce n’est ni chic, ni in , ni tendance, ni une foutue mode . Contribution Essays! Et les pseudos mentalites qui ont evolue a ce sujet et donc les gens s’ouvrent de plus en plus au libertinage ben NON ce ne sont pas des libertins. Informative Essay Requirements! Desole de vous contredire vous avez TOUT FAUX. Essays! Le libertinage ce n’est ni une sorte de foutue mode, ni un moyen pour chopper rapidement sans se casser la tete et sachez donc ceci meme dans le libertinage il y a une limite de comportement, il a des regles qui vont bien au-dela de ce que vous citez, il a du respect. Argument Essay On The Death! Sachez surtout, pour votre gouverne, que le libertinage, le vrai de vrai est avant et plus que tout, un etat d’esprit? Le libertinage c’est une veritable facon de vivre avec ses codes, ses regles, ses principes, ses ideaux. Essays! Meme la plus salopes des salopes ou le plus pervers des pervers qui est opportuniste au point d’aller en club pour chopper n’est pas libertin juste parce-qu’il/elle decide de frequenter ce club pour assouvir ses pulsions, ses envies, ses fantasmes.

Je repete, le libertinage est AVANT TOUT UN ETAT D’ESPRIT , un mode de vie (qui se vit generalement a deux voir seul). Legalization Of Marijuana Essay! Soit on contribution, est totalement libertine/libertin et dans ce cas la on poverty papers, mange libertin, on contribution, boit libertin, on requirements, parle libertin, on contribution essays, pense libertin, on need help writting essay, (se) couche libertin, on essays, se reveil libertin, on help writting, reflechit libertin, on essays, se comporte libertin, on tellers, vit libertin ! C’est tout un art le libertinage, le VRAI libertinage. Contribution! Suffit pas de se reveiller un de ces 4 matins et se dire c’est bon cheri(e) c’est decide ca fait des mois qu’on y pense aller hop week-end prochain on what, se fait une bonne baise en club pour la premiere fois. Contribution! Non dans ce cas la utilisez plutot le terme des opportunistes fantasmeuses/fantasmeurs qui veulent baiser (et/ou se faire baiser) facilement. Argument Essay! Pour les vrai(e)s libertin(e)s ce type de gens sont des parasites. Contribution Essays! D’ailleurs sachez bien une chose, les libertin(e)s qui frequentent les clubs et sont assidu(e)s, ou si vous preferez des habitue(e)s, se connaissent bien generalement. Need Writting Essay! C’est presque comme une sorte de famille libertine. Contribution! Les vrai(e)s sont habitue(e)s, ils/elles se connaissent, ils/elles ont leur petites habitudes, ils/elles se font souvent un baiser sur la bouche quand il/elles se revoient chaque week-end pour se dire bonjour. Legalization Of Marijuana! C’est une sorte de vraie foutue familia ! Alors quand je lis des conneries pareilles, je me dis la c’est du grand n’importe quoi. Contribution Essays! Decidement y’en a qui croient que le libertinage c’est quelque chose de tres tendances, c’est a la mode genre c’est in is literature essay , c’est branche. Contribution Essays! Ben NON c’est pas pour faire jolie, pour faire comme les autres soit disant in essay . Essays! D’ailleurs ces parasites la on argument essay on the death, les reperes tres tres tres vite et on contribution essays, les ecarte et croyez-moi une fois repere c’est mort pour eux, ils n’ont aucunes chances.

Donc je dis a ces gars, a ces filles, a ces couples qui se disent ouais chouette on informative requirements, va pouvoir vivre un fantasme delirant qu’on a jamais ose faire, et en plus je vais pouvoir pecho gratos, rapidos et facilement . Essays! Oust vous allez vite dechanter je vous le dit moi. Legalization! Les libertins ont une vraie philosophie de vie, un etat d’esprit et ont le libertinage jusqu’au plus profond de leur ADN. Contribution Essays! Donc les rigolos ne croyez pas que vous allez pecho facilement de jolie nenettes ou de jolie gars, c’est pas aussi simple que vous le croyez ou comme on of marijuana essay, veut vous le faire croire dans les medias, les sites se disant connaisseurs. Contribution Essays! Si vous n’avez pas cet etat d’esprit du libertinage alors tournez les talons. Research! Si vous voulez juste pouvoir niquer, vivre une experience passagere alors autant vous orientez vers les rencontres prives a domicile ou un hotel ou alors dans un lieu en plein air car les veritables libertins vivent leur libertinage comme une maniere de vivre.

Je tenais a eclairer les gens sur ce point la. Combien j’ai vu de femmes, d’hommes, de couples repartir la queue entre les jambes, degoute, traumatise, ecoeures et choques a vie, desillusionnes encore ahuris en repartant l’air incredule. Essays! aie ca fait mal la chute. Informative Requirements! trop de gens ont une version edulcore des clubs libertins, du monde du libertinage et n’ont pas compris que c’est avant et surtout un mode de vie. Dernier point les libertin en couple c’est pas la femme qui decide c’est LE couple qui decide. Contribution! Putain mais c’est quoi cette connerie de pretendre et faire croire que c’est la femme qui decide de tout ?! Non mais non, tu vis en couple, donc on legalization of marijuana, part en couple de chez soi, on contribution essays, arrive en couple en club libertin, on death, decide en couple avec qui, comment, quand et jusqu’a ou ! Et pas autrement. Essays! De plus un couple libertins se connait bien.

Ils ont au prealable discuter et impose leurs limites ou pas. Tellers! L’homme connait bien sa femme ou sa copine et la femme connait bien con mari ou copain. Contribution Essays! Ils savent ce qu’ils aiment mutuellement et se completent. Need Help! Ils sont complices, amoureux et c’est pas parce-qu’ils aiment le cul et vivre leur mode de vie que ca fait d’eux des sortes de pervers. 19 janvier, 2017 a 18:37. Tout ca pour ca. Contribution! …… . ! Je deteste le libertinage, egoisme, mensonges et perversites, meme les libertins se mentent a eux memes,pouvant mettrent en danger leur sante, physique en plus car pour le mental c est deja fait…. Essays! . 5 avril, 2017 a 18:07. Merci bien pour votre commentaire, enfin quelqu’un qui parle vraiment de ce qu’il connait. Avec ma copine on essay, se posait toutes ces questions et vous nous rassurez, certes on essays, n’est pas libertins, on , est un peu intimide par ce monde que l’on ne connait pas et on essays, a peur d’etre mal vu si on argument, y va par curiosite dans un 1er temps.

D’ailleurs qu’en pensez vous ? 10 mars, 2017 a 13:56. Apres avoir lu tout vos commentaire je vais pouvoir donner moi aussi mon avis sur la question. Quand j’ai rencontrer mon conjoint nous avions des rapport normaux () puis pour une raison x ou y nous avons parler de libertinage lui avais deja dans ces relation passer etait en club … l’image que j’en avais etais assez moche puis un soir je lui es dit que je souhaiter me faire ma propre opinon concernant ce genre de pratique et il ma emmener en club j’avoue que l’image que je m’etait fais etais erronne. Essays! sa a etais une tres bonne soiree meme si il ne sais rien passer d’extraordinaire … nous y somme retourner une deuxieme fois et pareil tout ces bien passer j’etait un peu moins fermer mais toujours soft puis j’ai decider que l’on aller rencontrer a domicile cela etait peu etre moin gloque et nous avons rencontrer des hommes seul cela ces toujours plustot bien passer et un jour j’ai fais venir un couple et le faite qu’une femme rentre dans notre intimite ma gener j’en es parler a mon conjoint apres que les couple sois parti et il ma dit meme que des homme cela me convient je ne veux pas te blesser …. beaucoup d’hommes on is literature, des fantasmes et en general trompe leurs femmes car elle ne comprenne pas ce desire … il ne faut pas oublier que beaucoups de femmes on contribution essays, elles meme des fantasmes mais contrairement au hommes les refoules ou comme leur mari elle trompe. ceci fais maintenant 6 ans que je suis avec mon conjoint et nous avons rencontrer pas mal d’hommes et je vois que mon conjoint me demande aussi meme si ces moins frequent des plan avec une femme donc etant donner que jusque ici il ma accoder les hommes sans broncher meme si des fois il en avais gros sur la papate nous allons approfondir cette compliciter en y fessant rentrer des femme et des couple. je par sur la basse que dans un couple il faut de la communication et de la confiance.

avant toute choses il faut mettre des regles et si tenir, le but etant de faire plaisir a l’un et a l’autre sans blesser ni l’un ni l’autre. si ses deux choses son reuni le couple tiendras et passeras de tres bon momment et apprecirons d’autemps plus leurs moment intimes, meme quand il n’y auras pas de plan a trois. je pense qu’il vaut mieux assouvir ces envie fantasmes … avec votre partenaire car vous lui faite confiance et que tout ce passe sous ses yeux pas de mensonge … que d’aller voir ailleurs et qu’apres on informative essay, a une boule au ventre car tout ce sais un jour ou l’autre. j’espere avoir pus apporter plus de precission a vos questios sur le libertinage. 4 juin, 2017 a 11:40. Bonjour, Je suis libertine sans etre en couple et je l’ai toujours ete. Cet article ne presente absolument pas le libertinage au feminin . Essays! C’est l’histoire du mec qui veut se taper plusieurs nanas (ou mecs) et qui veut forcer sa copine a accepter (sinon a entrer dans le jeu). Bref, il explique aux femmes comment etre soumises. Need Writting Essay! C’est exactement ce que les libertins ou libertines authentiques condamnent.

Bref, le genre de couple que l’on evite … Je sais qu’il existe plein de femmes qui sont tombes dans ce piege. Essays! C’est pourquoi, je souhaite apporter mon opinion selon mon experience. Une libertine n’est pas soumise . Poverty Papers! Elle connait ses besoins, ses envies, sait ce qu’elle veut … c’est elle qui decide (ou partage ses decisions avec d’autres). Contribution Essays! Elle se connait tres bien. Rien a voir avec une histoire de defi a la con comme c’est explique dans cet article ou d’aventure, d’exploration sensorielle … Du grand n’importe quoi. Poverty! En fait, le libertinage meme en couple est accepte que sa copine aille voir ailleurs seule, en fonction de ses gouts et de ses envies (au meme titre que monsieur). Contribution Essays! Ce n’est pas suivre monsieur dans un club … C’est savoir faire la difference entre le sexe bien fait, les plans foireux et la relation amoureuse. Is Literature Essay! Normalement, on essays, n’est pas en couple juste pour le sexe ou une attirance sexuelle. C’est dire a l’autre que l’on n’est pas proprietaire de son corps (et inversement).

A mon avis, pour convaincre une femme en couple, d’essayer une forme ou une autre de libertinage est d’abord de lui expliquer qu’elle doit connaitre et decouvrir sa sexualite (a elle) et non pas se satisfaire de la sexualite de son partenaire. Cover Letters For Bank! Le meilleur moyen pour la connaitre est effectivement de rencontrer des hommes dits libertins qui sont normalement convaincus que leur plaisir est aussi celui de leur partenaire. Contribution! Une relation libertine ou la femme n’y trouve aucun plaisir, aucun interet, … n’est pas une bonne relation libertine. Ainsi, si j’ai un conseil a donner, si un mec – Mesdames – vous racontent ce que cet article suggere, virez-le immediatement, inscrivez-vous sur un site libertin seule et faites le lui savoir. Est-Elle Demisexuelle ? Decouvrez la Demisexualite ! Je n’etais pas pret pour la demisexualite, je ne connaissais pas de demisexuelle. Argument Essay Death! Jusqu’a la semaine. 10 Techniques Pour Devenir Un Dieu Du Sexe… Des la Premiere Nuit ! Comment devenir un Dieu du sexe pour assurer des votre premiere nuit avec cette nouvelle partenaire. Comment Donner Un Orgasme des Seins a Une Femme ? Comment donner un orgasme en touchant les seins d’une femme : si vous aimiez la blague. Le Guide des Sextoys : Quel Gadget Sexuel Acheter ? Que vous soyez en couple depuis un jour ou depuis un an, vous avez sans doute.

Abstinence Forcee : 10 Techniques Pour Sortir d’une Periode Sans Sexe. L’abstinence, c’est un peu la punition ou le chantage prefere de certaines filles en couple. Contribution Essays! Pour. Anulingus : Tout Savoir Sur Cette Langue Qui Ouvre Bien des Portes… Ca faisait longtemps qu’on n’avait pas parle d’anulingus ! A vrai dire, ca fait peur aux. Quels Aliments Consommer Pour des Performances Sexuelles au Top ? Si vous avez deja connu des problemes d’erection, c’est peut-etre que vous ne mettez pas forcement. Faire l’Amour Sous La Douche : Toutes Nos Astuces Torrides.

Faire l’amour sous la douche : une voie humide pour pimenter votre vie sexuelle ? Alors que vous.

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100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Explain something or answer questions like: What is it? How should we define it? How do you do it? How does it work? What is the history of it? What caused it? What are the effects? What is the contribution essays, meaning of it?

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You can use their quotes or stories as evidence for your paper. Observe the place you are writing about. Sit down with a notepad or your phone and write down your sensory experiences (what you smell, hear, see, taste, and touch). You can even listen to conversations and observe people. Vividly-written details and essays personal experience make your expository paper stand out. Research by looking at past issues of your college paper or on the college website. You might also find information posted on buildings around campus, the library, or in pamphlets at of marijuana, the visitor's center. Explain the essays, requirements of an unusual major at your school (like Aviation, Fashion Design, Astro-Physics, Japanese, or International Studies). What is the history of your college?

Who are the students at your college? What is the background of on the death, most students? How are students different? What do they have in common? Pick a professor at your college to interview. What is their background and how did they get interested in contribution essays, their subject? What is the history of your college mascot? Describe in detail a statue or memorial marker on campus. Research the history of the marker and the person or event it commemorates. How does one join a sorority or fraternity?

How can you stay healthy while dining on campus food? What's the best way to choose which college activities to need help writting essay, be involved in as a freshman? How has your college has changed over the years? What do you need to do to get ready for a college football game (or other sport) at your school? Why should people attend games of a less popular sport? (Pick one you like.) What's the worst way to study for finals? How can a student survive the contribution, first few weeks of college? How can you be a great roommate? What are ways to requirements, use the local coffee house to avoid studying? What causes college freshmen to be depressed? How can you help a suicidal friend? What do you have to do to win a campus election?

What should you leave at home when you go to college? How best to decide which college to go to? How to get scholarships for college. Contribution Essays! How can one pay for college without getting into too much debt? What are the best scandals or memorable events in , your college's history? Pick a building on your campus: Describe its history and describe how the building got its name (especially if it is contribution essays, named after someone). How can a person best separate from their parents in college? How can someone avoid dating the wrong people in college? How long does your expository paper need to be? How Can You Relieve College Stress : Explains ways for college students to reduce the amount of stress they feel about informative, school. What happens to juveniles who break the law?

What is homelessness? What causes people to be homeless? What is the Salvation Army? How do they help the essays, needy? (Or choose another non-profit charity that helps the poor.) What are the effects on a family when a parent becomes a meth addict? What causes teenagers to essay, run away? How does having a single parent affect children in the areas of essays, education, hygiene, and nutrition? How do people without health insurance get medical treatment?

What is it like to be an illegal alien? What is the history of the foster care system in , the U.S.? What is the contribution, history of affirmative action in education? What are its effects? What is the process of prosecuting someone for domestic abuse? Why do women stay with men who beat them up? What does living below the poverty line mean? What is the of marijuana, history of welfare in contribution, the U.S.? How do food stamps work? What is discrimination, or affirmative action? What is peak oil?

What causes some people who grow up in bad circumstances to overcome them? What is sociology? How can bullying be prevented? What is the effect of the closing of public libraries in the U.S.? What is the effect of poverty research papers, ability grouping in a classroom?

What happens to essays, kids when they drop out of school? What effect does social media have on interpersonal relationships? Good places to legalization of marijuana essay, research social problems are government websites (which give current statistics), non-profit websites (which have information about essays, programs to help alleviate social problems), and major news sources. Here are some places to start: Write About Science and Technology. What is Google Glass? How will it change the way we live our lives?

What are nanobots? How can they be used? What is writting, a black hole and contribution why are they important? What causes obesity? What is climate change? How is electronic music made?

Why is there an increase in what, autism? What is an allergen? What is an allergic reaction? Why is there a startling increase in people with allergies and autoimmune diseases in contribution, Western countries? What is Alzheimer's? What happens to the brain of someone with this disease? How does wifi work? Explain the project to legalization essay, use DNA to store data. What is contribution, fusion energy? How close are scientists to making it? What is help writting, electric clothing?

How has space flight spurred inventions we use every day? What is a 3D bioprinter and how might it change medicine? How does a vaccine work? How do scientists formulate the flu vaccine every year? What is string theory? How are humans searching for contribution extraterrestrial life? How does the brain develop and change as we grow and cover age? Who were the Neanderthals? Did humans and Neanderthals ever mate? How similar are current robots to real people?

Explain Stanley Milgram's psychological experiments of 1961 and the controversy about the results. What is electronic paper? What is contribution essays, bioengineering? How has bioengineering changed our lives? Need help researching? Here are some links to good sources for accurate science and technology information, and research papers ideas for your essay: CNN Latest Tech News: Updated regularly.

Popular Science: Links to essays, current articles about science innovations. Need Help Writting! Discover Magazine: Features articles on contribution essays science and technology. How does having a special needs child affect a family? What is the cause of cover letters, depression and why is it rising in essays, the United States? What is schizophrenia? What are the different types of research, this disease? Is there a cure? What does it mean to be OCD? How can you recognize it? How can it be overcome? What is a psychological disorder?

What is cognitive behavioral therapy? Who can it help and essays why? What is the history of art therapy? Explain the different types of therapy done by psychiatrists. What’s the best way to read and understand an article in contribution, a psychology journal? How does one become a therapist? What is a psychologist? What do they do, and how are they different than psychiatrists? What is argument essay on the death, bibliophobia? What is entomophobia? How does acrophobia affect people?

What is xenophobia and how can it be overcome? What is altruism? What is the rule of repricocity? What is heroism? What is experiential learning? How do the stages of personality develop in childhood? What is the bystander effect? What are the four explanations for why we forget things? What is a genius IQ score and contribution essays what does it mean?

What is help writting, a memory? Explain what left brain vs. right brain dominance means to most of us. Contribution Essays! Researching mental health issues can easily be done online, but you need to poverty papers, be sure you get articles which are in a journal that is either published by essays, a university or written by essay, professional psychiatrists or psychologists. Contribution! Here are some good places to is literature essay, start: Psychology Today : A popular journal that has easy-to-read articles for the general public. American Psychological Association: Features extensive links to articles, listed by topic. Full-Text Psychology Journals: Is a list of psychology journals which offer full-text articles. After you have a topic idea, what's next? You have to develop information that you will put into your essay and decide on your audience and purpose. Then you will need to essays, decide the point of view, tone, and style of tellers, writing you will use. Sound confusing?

Don't worry. Just answer the following questions to essays, get ready to write. You can open up a word processing program, copy these questions, and then answer them, or do it the old-fashioned way with paper and pen. Topic idea: ______________________________________________. (Write yours out.) What kind of expository essay is this? (How to? How does it work? Definition? Fact? Cause? History of?) List or cluster different aspects or parts of research papers, your topic. Circle the aspects which are most interesting to you.

Cluster those. Do you have enough to say or too much? Do you need to narrow your topic or expand it? What sources can you use? Where can you find them? What are some things your audience would be familiar with which you can compare your topic with? What do they already know? What would they be interested in knowing?

What kind of essays, tone would be best for this audience? (informational, satiric, humorous, folksy, professional?) Considering your audience, which point of view would be the most effective one to write in? Would it be better to write in need help essay, the first person (I or we), second person (you), or third person (impersonal)? Your purpose (What do you want audience to contribution essays, think, do, or know after reading? This will be related to what your audience doesn't know.) Turn your topic into is literature essay a question: ___________________________________________ Answer that question: __________________________________________________ Make a thesis statement: _______________________________________________ Essay map—sentence(s) which list main sub-topics: ______________________________________________________________ (These can be headers for contribution sections of the help, paper.) Which sort of contribution, organization would work best for you? Examples: chronological (in time), spatial (in space and time), process (step-by-step), topical (part-by-part), cause/effect, historical overview, comparison and is literature contrast, or reverse expectations. Write a brief outline for essays how you will structure the body of the essay, paper. Which of these introduction and conclusion ideas could you use?

Reverse expectation, expectation fulfilled, scenario (imagined typical story, also called a case study), personal story, frame story, vivid description, conversation, definition, comparison and contrast, analogy, startling statistic or fact, quotation, story from book or movie. Choose the best one(s) for your essay and contribution essays explain what you will do. Which person will you write in for argument on the death penalty your essay? (1 st “I,” 2 nd “you,” or 3 rd “he, she, it.”) Why? What sort of tone will you have? Why? (Example: serious and informative, humorous, sarcastic, enthusiastic.) How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15. How to contribution essays, Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. 100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 32. How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. 50 Critical Analysis Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 4. 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by argument death, Virginia Kearney 37.

Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127. avanka stump 4 months ago. vanika chawla 4 months ago. really helpful for me as i have an exam this gives a lot of information, made me understand well. nattalie yousefian 8 months ago. this is essays, a very great to cover letters tellers, look at because it made me understand what this means more than before I recommend this website for others who do not get the contribution, explanation because it definitely helps a lot. Argument Essay On The! This is really great stuff.Thanks a million. Cameron Farley 11 months ago. Love the topics. munaza chaudhry 24 months ago. It is amazing and proves very useful for me. this is a great list i'm in middle school and contribution essays it helps when you have writers block my biggest surprise was so many variety's thank you so much. This will help me so much today, thank you for putting up this site. It's very easy to is literature essay, read as well. Thank you so much.

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essays on apollo 13 “HOUSTON, WE’VE HAD A PROBLEM HERE.” 1218 April 1970. The Mission Insignia for Apollo 13 showed the essays god Apollo, representing the Sun, riding his chariot across the surface of the Moon to symbolise the what Apollo Project bringing back new knowledge from the Moon. The two names chosen for the Apollo 13 spacecraft turned out to be very prophetic. The Command Module was called Odyssey from Homer and Arthur C. Clarke’s fictitious works. Lovell liked the sound and essays, felt it was going to follow the dictionary’s description of a long and eventful voyage. The Lunar Module was called after the informative requirements sign of the Zodiac and star constellation Aquarius , the water carrier, at contribution essays, times identified with Zeus pouring the waters of life down from the heavens.

Before the informative essay mission, the crew had hoped that Aquarius would bring life back from the contribution Moon. After the mission they were glad it did! Settling into the Command Module, the poverty research papers astronauts of Apollo 13 were an assorted trio. Lovell was a navy test pilot with 572 hours in space, including the contribution first trip to argument essay penalty the Moon in Apollo 8. He had more time in space than any other human at the time. The other two were civilians looking forward to their first trip into space. Haise, a serious family man, had been a journalist turned naval aviator. He was recognised as a specialist on the Lunar Module, having spent fourteen months at Grumman, the essays factory building the spacecraft. He knew every switch, wire and connector in legalization essay, the spacecraft. Swigert was a swinging bachelor with the reputation of an air hostess in every airport. The crew of Apollo 13: from left James A. Lovell, Jr, John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred W. Haise, Jr.

Photo courtesy of the contribution Apollo Image Gallery maintained by Kipp Teague. Two days before the mission, Swigert had replaced Ken Mattingly, who had worked with backup crew member Charles Duke. Infected by Paul House, a three year old friend, Duke developed German Measles the weekend before the launch. As Mattingly was found to have no immunity to need essay the disease, the doctors were afraid he might break out in a severe rash at the moment Lovell and Haise were on contribution, the Moon’s surface, when swollen fingers and sore muscles could have slowed him up, particularly in need help writting, an emergency. Because of the teamwork required by contribution essays, the crew, normally the whole crew would be changed, but as Duke was already out, they left Lovell and Haise. The training had to be intensified to develop the teamwork required with Swigert in only two days. Legalization Essay. The new crew spent many extra hours in the simulator drilling through the essays procedures. In one of the many strange twists of cover letters tellers fate in this mission, Swigert had been trained as a specialist in malfunctions of the Command and Lunar Modules. Essays. As NASA Administrator Dr Tom Paine pointed out: “Swigert practically wrote the book on spacecraft malfunctions.” Ironically, Mattingly never did break out informative essay, with Rubella.

The original crew of Apollo 13: from left James A. Lovell, Jr, Thomas K. Mattingly II, and Fred W. Haise, Jr. Photo courtesy of Ed Hengeveld via the Apollo Image Gallery. Apollo 13 was going to be the first moon landing with a greater degree of difficulty than either Apollos 11 or 12. The target was the essays Frau Mauro region, a range of rugged hills 177 kilometres to the east of the Apollo 12 landing site. Frau Mauro was going to argument on the penalty be more interesting to the geologists Apollo was now going to be more scientific, rather than a flight testing exercise. Sunday 12 April 1970 LAUNCH. Launch day found light and contribution, variable winds, with a maximum strength of 12 knots from the east south east. Altocumulus clouds with a base height of 19,000 feet covered about 40% of the sky, with cirrostratus spread over the whole sky above.

The temperature was 24C and relative humidity 57%. Research Papers. A perfect launch day. as received in contribution, Australia by shortwave from The Voice of America. Recorded by Colin Mackellar. 2.2MB mp3 runs for 4:44. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery maintained by Kipp Teague. Originally scheduled for 12 March 1970, Apollo 13 left Pad 39A at 1413 USEST 11 April 1970 (0513 AEST on Sunday 12 April). There was trouble right away.

Lovell: “At five and a half minutes after liftoff, Swigert, Haise, and I felt a little vibration. Then the centre engine of the S-II stage shut down two minutes early. This caused the remaining four engines to informative essay requirements burn 34 seconds longer than planned, and the S-IVB third stage had to burn 9 seconds longer to put us into orbit. No problem; the S-IVB had plenty of fuel.” Apollo 13 entered Earth orbit at essays, 0525:39 AEST and went into a 185.7 by 183.9 kilometre orbit with period of 88.2 minutes and for bank tellers, a speed of 28,053.2 kilometres per hour. Translunar injection was at 0754:47 AEST with a 5 minute 50.8 second burn and essays, Apollo 13 was heading for argument essay on the death the Moon at essays, 26,600.4 kilometres per hour. The CSM separated from the SIVB at 0819:38 AEST and docked with the LM at 0832:08 with television watching the action. What Is Literature. The two docked spacecraft were ejected from the SIVB at 0914:00 AEST before being separated from essays, each other. In the previous missions the SIVB was sent off into solar orbit but for Apollo 13 the SIVB was targeted to contribution essays impact the Moon so the vibrations could be detected by the Apollo 12 seismometer. Despite this problematic start, the need help writting essay three astronauts settled down to the relatively relaxed trans-lunar coast life. Contribution. The peace of Sunday was broken by an agitated Swigert calling Houston.

In the argument essay on the rush to replace Mattingly, he remembered he had not filed his Income Tax Return: “How do I apply for an extension?” he asked, “Things kinda happened real fast down there and I need an extension. I’m really serious. ” “You’re breaking up the room down here,” replied a laughing Joe Kerwin, but later Flight Director Glynn Lunney passed up the advice, “American citizens out of the country get a 60 day extension on cover for bank, filing, I assume this applies to you.” Monday 13 April 1970. On Monday morning Capcom Joe Kerwin called, “The spacecraft is in real good shape as far as we are concerned. We are bored to essays tears down here.” This “boredom” was reflected in the world outside a third lunar landing hardly drew any media attention, in fact all the American television networks ignored the special television show put on by the astronauts. At the Goldstone Tracking Complex in California it was a clear spring afternoon as the argument essay on the penalty evening shift for essays Monday April 13 came in for legalization essay a quiet spell of uneventful tracking. Bill Wood , C Shift leader at the DSS-12 Pioneer Wing Station: “Pioneer, the half Coyote, half German Shepherd station mascot greeted us at the gate as usual, before we took over tracking the signal from the Saturn IVB. Ed Smith, the intersite microwave engineer, had the air to ground voice loops up so we could keep up with what was going on at the essays Prime site and hear the spacecraft and Houston talking. Things were very quiet, even boring.” It wasn’t long before this mood was to change, to death penalty change dramatically.

Tuesday 14 April 1970. At 1133 AEST on essays, 14 April Lovell and Haise had entered Aquarius earlier than the flight plan had scheduled, anxious to check the cover for bank tellers pressure in contribution, the helium tank, which checked out okay. White Team Flight Director Gene Kranz on argument essay, shift shortly before the contribution essays television broadcast. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. At 1227 AEST, the astronauts put on a television show, exhibiting some of their gear such as their space helmets, sleeping hammocks and , special bags for drinking water inside their spacesuits. Lovell in contribution, the CM played music from , 2001:A space Odyssey and Aquarius from a small tape recorder. Sadly, the astronauts did not know that their program was ending at the NASA centres, as the essays commercial networks had lost interest in broadcasting boring trips to the Moon.

Marilyn Lovell and Mary Haise had to go to the Mission Control Center to see their husbands on television. Fred Haise takes the what few viewers of the contribution broadcast on a tour of the Lunar Module, Aquarius . White Team Flight Director Gene Kranz (closest to poverty research papers the camera) watches in Mission Control, just 17 minutes and 42 seconds before the explosion. GET: on screen at top left, 55:37:11; GET of explosion: 55:54:53. NASA image. Astronauts Vance Brand and contribution, Jack Lousma (Capcom) enjoy the cover for bank tellers TV show. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. At 1259 the astronauts finished their on-board production with: “This is the crew of Apollo 13 wishing everybody a nice evening, and we’re just about ready to essays close our inspection of Aquarius and get back for a pleasant evening in Odyssey . Goodnight.” Lovell: “On the tapes I sound mellow and benign, or some might say fat, dumb, and need help essay, happy. A pleasant evening indeed!

Nine minutes later the roof fell in. ” As the astronauts were copying down a message from Houston, on a control panel just above them a yellow caution light glowed to contribution essays indicate a low pressure in hydrogen tank #1 in the Service Module. Back at letters for bank tellers, Houston the contribution essays same warning glared at EECOM Sy Liebergot from the sloping panel of need help essay his console. As he had been working on the contents of the tanks he wasn’t too concerned to contribution see the light, as it could be a normal short-term situation. In the weightlessness of space the cryogenically stored gases could stratify into layers of different densities and give a false quantity reading, but to make sure, Liebergot told Capcom Jack Lousma to ask the astronauts to stir both the hydrogen tanks, using paddles operated by need, electric motors. Normally this stirring was performed each day after the sleep period, but Liebergot wanted an extra stir before they went to sleep as he had been having trouble reading the quantity in the oxygen tank #2, so he suggested they stir the oxygen tanks too. Lousma: “Thirteen, we’ve got one more item for you when you get the chance. We’d like you to stir up your cryo tanks. ” Swigert answered “Okay, stand by” and at contribution, 1306:18 AEST flicked the switches labelled H 2 and for bank tellers, O 2 FANS on to stir the contents of the hydrogen and oxygen tanks. Nobody knew that inside Oxygen Tank #2 wires to essays the fan had lost their insulation from an incident during a test two weeks before. A committee led by Edgar Cortright, Director of the Langley Research Center in Virginia, was formed to investigate the incident.

It found the essay following events led to this moment of the Apollo 13 disaster. None of this can ever be verified, of course, because the contribution essays Service Module burned up in the atmosphere on reentry. The flawed #2 oxygen tank had originally been made for Apollo 10, but had been returned to what essay the manufacturers to improve the electromagnetic interference properties of the vac-ion pumps. Essays. When removing it from the Apollo 10 Service Module the frame holding the tanks was dropped about , 5 centimetres. Although there is a possibility the jar could have loosened the couplings of the fill tubes, as far as the spacecraft systems engineers are concerned, this incident did not begin the series of events leading to the explosion in space. In the essays oxygen tank there were a set of tube assemblies in the neck of the tank to fill and what is literature essay, empty the tank on the ground, and a different set for use in space to pipe the oxygen to either a fuel cell, or to the cabin atmosphere. According to the engineers the real culprit was a set of couplings in these tube assemblies in the top of the oxygen tank which leaked during a Count Down Demonstration Test (CDDT) conducted on March 16, a test run to check out the launch procedures before every mission. The filling system was working normally, but technicians found they were unable to pump the contribution essays super-critical cold oxygen fluid out of tank #2 after the argument essay death test.

Due to contribution essays the leaking couplings, gas pumped in to remove the liquid oxygen was bypassing the tank contents and coming back out again, leaving up to contribution essays 92% of the legalization essay liquid contents behind. Looking for a solution, the engineering team thought the quickest way to empty the liquid oxygen would be to boil it off using the heaters in the tank. After discussions between the contribution engineers at Kennedy Space Center, the Manned Spacecraft Center, North American Rockwell (the contractor) and Beech (the manufacturer) it was decided to go ahead. They also advised Mattingly and Lovell, assuring them it would be okay as these tubes were not used to supply the oxygen during the flight. Lovell queried the implications of putting a new tank in. The flight would probably be delayed by up to a month was the answer, so Lovell told them to go ahead with the old tank: “If you’re all comfortable with this, then I am too.” The original Apollo spacecraft worked on 28 volts of electricity, but after 1965 the what essay Apollo spacecraft’s electrical systems had been modified to handle 65 volts from the external ground test equipment.

Unfortunately Beech, the manufacturer of the tank, did not advise the manufacturer of the thermostat of the change, so the bi-metal thermostat switches installed in contribution, these tanks were still the 28 volt models, so when the what is literature heaters were switched on to boil the oxygen off after the CDDT test, the higher voltage caused arcing in the bi-metal thermostat and contribution essays, welded the contacts together. With the thermostat contacts permanently on, the heating elements remained on for 8 hours, instead of being turned off when the temperature reached 27C. This allowed the temperature inside the tank to climb to an estimated 538C. As the temperature gauge on the ground test panel only went to 29.5C, no one was aware of this excessive heat, which burned the Teflon insulation off the wires in , the motors driving the essays two fans inside the what tank. The fate of Apollo 13 and its crew was now riding on the two bare wires sealed in Oxygen Tank #2. Perhaps the first clue of a problem in the Service module was at 0318 AEST 14 April when oxygen tank #2 quantity indicated off scale high, eight hours before Lovell and Haise entered the LM to conduct some system checks, but nobody took notice of it. But now, on board Odyssey , 322,000 kilometres from Earth, the relaxed complacency of the crew and ground teams around the essays world was to essay requirements be suddenly interrupted when Swigert switched the fans on in the contribution oxygen tanks.

When Swigert switched the essay requirements fans on in O 2 Tank #2 at 55:53:18 GET, (1306:18 AEST on 14 April), some of the liquid oxygen in tank had been used, exposing the bare wiring. As a result a spark arced between the essays wires a spark in pure oxygen sealed under a pressure of 6,205 kPa in the super tough spherical nickel alloy steel tank. It took less than 20 seconds for the resulting pressure to blow the tank apart . shock the feed valves to two of the cover letters tellers three fuel cells causing their failure within seconds. wreck the adjacent equipment in Bay 4 of the essays Service Module . and blow the external side panel out. which clipped the main antenna as it hurtled out into space. Langley Research Center estimated the explosion was equivalent to papers 3.2 kilograms of TNT, which would demolish an average sized suburban house. There was nothing to indicate what had happened; no sound in the vacuum of space; no sensors to detect explosions. As the Service Module was not directly visible from the Command Module windows, the astronauts could not see what had happened behind their backs. Just a shudder from the spacecraft.

At Goldstone and Honeysuckle Creek Tracking Stations the prime receiver’s usually steady white “Signal in Lock” light suddenly blinked out and contribution essays, the alarms began their two-tone singing. The servo operator immediately switched to Program Track (antenna under computer control) and the receiver operators began trying to reacquire the signal but were only able to find a weak signal coming from the spacecraft. Alan Foster on the Honeysuckle Creek receivers remembers: “The signal level dropped right down to about minus 140 db, I can remember struggling with it it was pretty grim but we managed to keep in lock. They also went on to emergency voice and became hard to is literature hear.” “Fred was still in the Lunar Module. Jack was back in essays, the Command Module in legalization of marijuana essay, the left hand seat. And I was half way in between in the lower equipment bay wrestling with TV wires and essays, a camera, watching Fred coming down.” Haise was crawling through the tunnel from the Lunar Module when he saw the wall of the tunnel flex, and felt the jar from the explosion.

He jumped when the master alarm suddenly howled in his headset, mixed with Swigert’s voice from the Command Module yelling about a panel alarm. “Now, before that, Fred being in the Lunar Module, had actuated a valve which normally gives us the same sound. since he didn’t tell us about it, we all rather jumped. But it was his joke and we all thought it was sort of fun until something happened.” “It wasn’t me!” Haise threw back at Lovell’s inquiring expression as he instinctively dived for need help essay his couch in the Command Module. Swigert tried to contribution essays slam the hatch shut behind him, thinking the jolt might have come from the Lunar Module being hit by something. The astronauts knew a high speed object not much bigger than a grain of sand could rip open the flimsy skin of the Lunar Module and let their life supporting atmosphere vent out in moments. Though Swigert wrestled with the hatch, it wouldn’t lock shut as it was misaligned. As they still had their atmosphere and were still alive, they pushed the hatch aside. Writting Essay. All three astronauts’ pulse rates shot up to contribution over 130. “It is interesting to note that days later, just before we jettisoned the Lunar Module, when the hatch had to be closed and requirements, locked, Jack did it – easy as pie.

That’s the kind of flight it was.” “It shook the spacecraft and scared the hell out of me. I proceeded to look at Jim and about the same time – I guess about two seconds had elapsed – when I had a master alarm and a main bus B undervolt light. I told Houston we had a problem and proceeded to go over to the right hand side of the spacecraft to look at essays, the voltage…” He saw the B bus voltage supplying half the research power to drive the spacecraft, drop right out. Contribution Essays. Haise checked fuel cell #3 supplying its electricity, and found it dead, so connected the need help writting essay alternative A power Bus to line, but it seemed to be on its way out too. A quick check of fuel cell #1 showed it was as dead as #3. Contribution. With only fuel cell #2 left to drive the A Bus, the astronauts realised from the mission rules that landing on the moon was now impossible. At 1308 AEST Swigert called Houston with the now famous remark, “Okay, Houston, we’ve had a problem here.” Capcom Jack Lousma, “This is Houston – say again, please.” “Houston – we’ve had a problem. We’ve had a Main B Bus undervolt,” Lovell explained. “Roger.

Main B undervolt. … Okay, stand by, Thirteen, we’re looking at it.” Capcom Lousma answered for the Mission Control team. In the Apollo 13 spacecraft, launched at 1313 hours (spacecraft time), it was 9:08 pm on April 13 . At Honeysuckle Creek it was 1308 hours (1:08 pm) on April 14. At Houston it was just after 2100 local on a pleasant clear evening. With three friends, Andy Saulietis had rigged up a telescope connected to a black and informative requirements, white television set on a roof of the Manned Spacecraft Center. They were studying a slowly fading pinpoint of contribution light approaching the what is literature Moon – the Saturn IVB rocket following Odyssey , blinking as it tumbled along. While they watched, a bright spot appeared in the middle of the screen and over contribution, the next ten minutes grew into quite a bright ball. No one connected the informative essay flare with Apollo 13 they vaguely thought it was a defect in their television monitor. They left the rooftop quite oblivious to what they had witnessed – the oxygen tank on Apollo 13 exploding, and in ten minutes spreading into contribution essays a gaseous sphere over 48 kilometres wide, glowing in the sunlight. Inside the Mission Control Center none of the Flight Controllers sitting at their consoles were aware of what had happened either, until some of legalization them began seeing abnormal indications coming down their telemetry channels – strange readings from temperatures, pressures, voltages, and the status of essays various pieces of equipment. They were overwhelmed by reports of loss of the High Gain Antenna, spacecraft computer restarts, random thruster firings, and multiple system failures. It took them over informative essay, fifteen minutes to figure out that there had been some sort of explosion, but they were still hopeful the contribution mission was going to proceed to a normal lunar landing.

EECOM Sy Liebergot, the Flight Controller in charge of the Command and Service Module’s electrical and environmental systems, was now squarely in the hot seat: “Our data suddenly went ratty, some of it went static. I heard the announcements from the contribution essays spacecraft and was already scanning my readouts. Nothing made sense. I called Kranz, ‘We may have an instrumentation problem, Flight. Let me go ahead and check,’ which was my way of need writting essay putting Kranz off, and essays, he knew that.” “Rog.” Kranz replied. Hear Sy Liebergot’s EECOM loop starting just six seconds before the explosion. He asks about the cryo stir, and then we hear a burst of static as lock is lost on the High Gain Antenna. We hear the team beginning to troubleshoot the problem.

This recording is part of longer audio on a disc included with Sy’s book, “Apollo EECOM: Journey of a Lifetime” available from CG Publishing/Apogee Books. This audio clip is contribution essays, also available on Sy’s website. Used with kind permission of, and with thanks to, Sy Liebergot. 1.1MB mp3 / 2 minutes 12 seconds. Clip starts at what essay, 055:54:49GET. Charlie Dumas (left) speaks with Gerry Griffin at the EECOM console. Sy Liebergot, smoking a pipe, is at right. Contribution Essays. From 16mm NASA footage several minutes before the help explosion. Screenshot by Colin Mackellar.

Liebergot never saw the pressure spike in contribution essays, the oxygen tank that caused the explosion: “You look away, you blink, and help essay, it’s gone. That’s exactly what happened. We were doing the cryo stir and I was just looking to the right of the oxygen tanks at the hydrogen tanks where the contribution changes usually showed up first. Everybody was looking at the hydrogen, which was about two inches over. When I looked back the spike had already gone. My backroom guys, Dick Brown, electrical system expert, and George Bliss and Larry Sheaks, my environmental control systems experts, were trying to figure out what was going on as well. To begin with we figured we just had a fuel cell problem and concentrated on that.

Pretty soon we knew the tank was gone, so I asked for an estimate of essays how long we had on the remaining tank.” Liebergot had little to work on, only displays of nearly fifty parameters all showing out of limit readings on his console. This was so sudden, without any warning, that he felt overwhelmed. No amount of essays training or mission experience could prepare him for essay on the death penalty this crisis. Initially he knew that the two dead fuel cells drew their oxygen from the contribution essays same source, and as the third cell was still working, at first he didn’t suspect the oxygen tanks. He was working on a Fuel Cell #3 leak, and trying to isolate it. . Also, he was still trying to figure out why two fuel cells would fail. Then he saw that oxygen tank #2 was showing empty.

Its contents had all gone! Half the oxygen for the cabin atmosphere and essays, the spacecraft power for the mission had gone in two minutes – just vanished. Requirements. They hadn’t even reached the moon. All their training and simulations had always relied on essays, backup systems to essay on the keep the mission going, nobody had been game enough to introduce a complete failure of all the power systems into the simulations. As one of the Flight Controllers said later, “This was so far down the contribution line, if anyone had asked us to simulate it ahead of time we would all have said he was being unrealistic.” “I had all the feelings that went with not having the answers to essay death the problem and essays, not seeing any way out of it. It happened too quickly – it was a cascading failure which means the argument essay original failure got masked by the subsequent failures it created. We were never trained for a cascading series of problems leading to a catastrophe. That’s not training.

It was like saying the structure of the spacecraft was going to fail.” A minute or so after the explosion Alan Glines, the essays communications engineer (INCO), reported to legalization of marijuana essay Kranz that the signal from the spacecraft had switched to the smaller omni antennas, which was probably due to the side panel hitting the big antenna on essays, its way past. The weaker signal combined with the cover for bank tellers erratic behaviour of the spacecraft caused the receiver operators at Goldstone and Honeysuckle Creek and contribution essays, the other stations difficulty in holding onto informative essay the weak, fluctuating signal for the rest of the mission. Then Lovell announced the voltage on the A Bus was beginning to drop. An uneasy silence fell on the voice loops… “Okay, Houston, are you still reading Apollo 13?” Lovell couldn’t contain his anxiety any longer. “That’s affirmative,” replied Lousma, “We are reading you.

We’re trying to come up with some good ideas here for you.” He looked appealingly at Kranz: “What can I tell them?” Kranz did not have an answer. . Nobody had an answer. Capcom Jack Lousma apeaks with the essays crew onboard Apollo 13 after the explosion. Astronaut John Young is seated next to him. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Lovell couldn’t understand why his ship was reeling drunkenly about the heavens. The thrusters were firing away trying to bring the spacecraft under control, but unknown to either the astronauts or the flight controllers at the time the explosion had knocked some of the contribution thrusters out. Lovell took over manual control, but found no matter how he tried, he could do no better than the automatic pilot – the spacecraft seemed to have a mind of its own, always trying to veer away from the is literature course. He decided to look out of the window in case he could see something outside. Contribution. As he swung himself onto the left seat and peered out, the sight that met his inquiring eyes formed a knot in his stomach – the of marijuana sun was shining on a powerful stream of gas spurting out of the side of the Service Module.

Sixteen minutes after the explosion, at contribution essays, 1322 AEST, Lovell remembers, “I happened to cover look out of the essays left hand window, and saw the final evidence pointing toward potential catastrophe. ‘We are venting something out into the . into essay space,’ I reported to Houston.” “Roger, we copy you are venting,” acknowledged Lousma. In Mission Control a report of essays gas venting into space spread among the consoles like wildfire, and put a whole new dimension on the situation. Liebergot: “I ignored that, I couldn’t deal with that. Is Literature. I needed to go and essays, find what I could do about it. ” Fuel cell #2 was still producing electricity but when Lovell looked back at need help writting, the oxygen pressures again Tank #2 was still reading zilch, but now Tank #1 was only half full, and dropping! They were going to lose all their oxygen – they weren’t going to essays have enough to bring the ship back home to Earth! This was it! Lovell knew they were in trouble. But how serious was it? Was it only oxygen gas squirting out into contribution essays space? How long did they have?

He immediately sensed that their next moves would be crucial to their survival, and their lives would depend on maintaining communication with Houston, and for that they needed power. Essay. There were only 15 minutes of battery power left in the Command Module, and that was needed for reentry into the Earth’s atmosphere. Contribution. The Earth was over 90 hours away . Lovell: “The knot in my stomach tightened, and all regrets about not landing on the moon vanished. Now it was strictly a case for survival. I had seen the writting essay film Marooned and essays, I must admit that the parallel crossed my mind.” He looked across to Haise, the LM expert and essay requirements, pilot, “We’re going to have to use Aquarius to get home.” Back in mission control, Liebergot also saw oxygen tank #1 contents disappearing before his eyes – the pressure dropping from 6,068 kPa down to 2,760 kPa in less than three minutes. Two thirds of the electrical power generation system was dead, and there was only three hours of cover letters for bank tellers life left. Looking into the immediate future, he felt momentarily sick in the stomach.

He grabbed the contribution essays security handles on poverty research papers, his console to steady himself down. Was he going to be the first flight controller to lose a spacecraft and its crew out in contribution essays, space? “In all my life I have never felt so alone, as I did then. I didn’t have the answers. It seemed we were on the point of losing everybody and everything.” What had to be done before the Command Module completely died? Would this crippled combination of a dead Command Service Module and a Lunar Module only designed to go down to the lunar surface and back with two people cope with demands and manoeuvres they were never designed for? There was little time left to essays make any plans. Everybody was facing problems that seemed to be leading to penalty more problems.

except the Lunar Module systems people they were standing by contribution essays, with a fully operational spacecraft, powered down waiting to arrive at , the moon. Essays. It wasn’t long before they realised the Lunar Module was going to argument essay on the death be involved. During the Trans Lunar Coast phase of the mission, the Lunar Module was powered down to essays conserve power, except for some critical systems kept warm by thermostatically controlled heaters powered by the Service Module batteries fed through the Command Module. Now they had lost the power to the relays that controlled the transfer of the cover power source to the Lunar Module batteries – so they could not turn the power on in the Lunar Module from its batteries in the descent stage. That was the first big problem to be overcome. Strangely enough a year earlier, on 25 April 1969, during an Apollo 10 simulation the contribution essays simulation team had failed the fuel cells in almost the same spot, and the simulation ended with a dead crew. Letters For Bank. It was decided that this failure was a bit unrealistic and the incident was forgotten as the Apollo program forged ahead. Fortunately some of the more conscientious Lunar Module flight controllers had worried about their simulation failure, and decided to look into essays the problem. Jim Hannigan, branch chief of the Lunar Module flight controllers, assigned Donald Puddy to pick a team to work on the problem. Bill Legler, one of the key members of the team (who had been present during the Apollo 10 simulation) worked out some procedures that could reverse the power flow to go from the Lunar Module back into the Command Module and need help essay, energise the power transfer relays.

These emergency procedures had never been completed and incorporated into the official procedures, but with the Apollo 13 situation these preliminary procedures were recovered and dusted off. They gave the Lunar Module controllers a head start. The engineer in charge of the electrical and environmental systems of the Lunar Module was Bill Peters, “I had just unplugged from the console and only taken two steps away when Bob Heselmeyer called out essays, ‘You’d better come back here, I think something’s going on.’ I figured out poverty research, pretty quickly it looked like a major disaster, and one of the plans in cases like this was to contribution essays close all the telephone lines in and out cover letters tellers, of the essays Control Center so just in case I called my wife real quick and told her not to expect me home that night – turn on the TV to find out research papers, why – and hung up.” At the Goldstone tracking station a team was quickly formed to analyse the telemetry information they had just recorded, particularly the last few moments before the explosion. Bill Wood , lead USB Engineer: “We were able to read all bits up to signal loss by recording the data at a high speed of 60 inches per second and contribution, playing it back at 3Ѕ inches per second. Then we rolled the chart paper onto the control room floor and counted the frames of data by cover letters for bank tellers, eye to find out contribution essays, what each parameter was reading up to the signal loss, and what things looked like right after the signal was reacquired. My recollection was that the essay requirements engineers found a pressure spike in the oxygen tank that exploded.”

The telemetry showed the pressure shot up to 6,950 kPa for contribution essays two seconds before dropping to zero in the next two seconds. Then Larry Sheaks called Liebergot to tell him that the oxygen surge tank in the Command Module was losing pressure. The surge tank was usually used for reentry only, but was used as a buffer to keep the of marijuana oxygen levels steady. The EECOM from Milt Windler’s Maroon shift, John Aaron, was quietly shaving at home when the phone shrilled. It was Arnold Aldrich, his office manager, at essays, Mission Control. “Arnie said ‘Hey, John, these guys are working some kind of problem and I know your specialty is instrumentation patterns and they think this is a telemetry problem, but I don’t know.’ So I said to Arnie, ‘Go and read me some parameters off displays such and such, then go to displays such and such and read those out to me. He did all that and I said ‘Arnie, that is tellers, not a telemetry failure there is no pattern there that fits. Tell those guys they’ve got a real problem and I’ll be right there. By the time I came in, I got in on essays, the tail end of analysing what had happened there, and of marijuana essay, started convincing the guys that they ought to power down the Command Module and save the batteries, because we were using battery power to troubleshoot the essays problem, and I knew these were the same batteries that were going to bring us home. That was pretty traumatic because the Command and Service Module was never designed to be powered down in space and we didn’t have any procedures to power it up from scratch.

Normally it was powered up over a period of days on the pad before you launched, using a lot of power.” Forty six minutes after the explosion George Bliss informed Liebergot that there was only 1 hour 54 minutes left in O 2 Tank #1, when the last fuel cell would die. Then there would only be the Command Module’s reentry batteries left – and they were needed for reentry. The unthinkable had happened and there was no back up or redundant system to what is literature essay pull them out of this one. They were facing a major disaster in essays, space. Liebergot announced on the intercom loop: “Flight, the cover letters for bank tellers pressure in O 2 tank 1 has dropped all the way down to 297 (psi) (2048 kPa) and we’d better think about getting into the LM.” Flight dynamics chief Jerry Bostick was sitting in essays, the Trench listening to the drama deepening on the console behind him, and began to need help essay think of getting the spacecraft back as soon as possible. He and his team soon discarded the immediate turn-around (direct abort which would bring them home in 34 hours) using the main SPS engine because the essays LM ‘lifeboat’ would have to essay requirements be cast off, and doubt about the integrity of the contribution Service Module – that is, how much damage had been done to the internal systems of the Service Module? Was the engine damaged? Even if it wasn’t, there was no electricity to operate the engine controls such opening or closing valves.

The alternative was to carry on and sling around the Moon. This was going to take up to four days – could they keep the astronauts alive for informative such a long period? That was up to the LM systems controllers. The Trench waited for the Flight Directors to make up their minds. Ken Mattingly slid alongside Lousma and plugged his headset in. He wanted to essays help his mates if he could. Kranz said this was his toughest call on Apollo 13. “My team was pretty much split down the middle. Many of my systems controllers wanted to get home in need help, the fastest fashion possible.” By now there were two teams gathered around the consoles discussing the emergency and the chatter was getting out of hand so Kranz stood up and yelled around the room, “Okay all flight controllers cut the chatter.

I want every member of the White team to settle down and get back on the voice loops – the rest of you shut up.” Still damp from essays, being called from a shower at home, Chris Kraft had arrived by now and argument essay on the death, joined the intercom conversation at his Director’s console, just before thirty three year old Glynn Lunney was due to take over the next shift. Leader of the essays Maroon team, Milt Windler, also joined the group. Lunney had been discussing the return options with Bostick and an intense discussion developed between the Flight Directors on the best course of what is literature action, ending with Kranz addressing Kraft, “Our only real option is to essays go around the Moon.” Chris Kraft, Astronaut Jim McDivitt, and informative requirements, Robert Gilruth in the back row of the MOCR. Behind them is the contribution essays glass window of the VIP viwewing room. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Kraft agreed, “When do you want to do the burn?” The decision was made, and the Flight Dynamics controllers in the Trench breathed a sigh of argument essay on the death penalty relief and began to contribution essays work out a burn procedure for a trajectory to informative requirements sling around the Moon and essays, return home.

So 53 minutes after the explosion, an emergency plan began to evolve. Astronauts Gene Cernan (left), Deke Slayton (coat) and Ed Mitchell look on essay, as Jack Lousma sits as his Capcom console. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. “I was already in a back room of the Control Center when we got the report that there was a problem. Essays. We were due on shift at about 10:00 pm (USCST) that night. The spacecraft crew were supposed to go to sleep and requirements, we were supposed to essays sit there and watch a sleep shift. I went in and plugged in with Gene; I knew the spacecraft crew had reported a bang and some venting, so there was a suspicion there was some kind of argument death penalty problem, but people still weren’t sure how serious the problem was. There were a set of contribution essays confusing indicators we had lost the oxygen in one tank so we lost the fuel cell that was plugged to it, and that fuel cell was plugged to the B electrical Buss. The RCS thrusters were split between main Bus A and Main Bus B, so we had lost half the thrusters which gave us these attitude control problems.

We became involved in closing off the fuel cells, one at a time, to try to isolate a leak within the fuel cells, but once you shut them down, you can’t get them back, and I remember doing that as a last resort. We had a number of situations to deal with. We were on a non free-return trajectory. Up until Apollo 13 we had used trajectories that would loop around the Moon to cover letters for bank tellers return approximately into essays the entry corridor. Here we were not going to come back to any safe kind of Earth entry at all. We were also at a point where it would have been very expensive in terms of propulsion to turn around and come back without looping around the Moon. That was considered for a while, but the only way we knew how to do that was to dump the descent stage of the informative requirements Lunar Module and use all of the Service Propulsion fuel, but the two problems with that were we couldn’t power the essays Service Module up any more, we were only down to batteries, so we couldn’t sustain a power load to legalization of marijuana essay run the Service Propulsion engine, and we didn’t want to dump the contribution descent stage of the informative Lunar Module because it was our lifeboat where most of the batteries, water and so on were stored.

Parallel with all this going on with the guidance people was what are we going to do to power the contribution essays Lunar Module up. We knew we had to essay get it powered up enough to take care of the manoeuvre later, but we also began to realise that the way the telescope worked for aligning the platform in the Lunar Module that it probably wouldn’t work by contribution essays, itself while it was attached to the Command Module out in what is literature essay, free space. We realised we had to get an alignment from the Command Module guidance reference system, the inertial platform, and transfer it over to the Lunar Module which was a lot of number plugging by the crew members, followed and checked by the people on the ground. This of course happened some time after we got the Lunar Module powered up. We got the Lunar Module powered up but as we went through it we were trying to contribution figure out what we didn’t have to bring up because we knew we were going to be power limited and water coolant limited to get home. The Lunar Module was designed for two men for two days and we knew we were at least four or five days from home with three people. We knew we couldn’t stay powered up at , these levels so we had to contribution essays figure out cover, a way to cut the power down. We also knew we had limited amounts of consumables on board. We got the Lunar Module configured so it could do a passive thermal control.

Instead of a rolling manoeuvre, which we normally used, we rotated the vehicle ninety degrees every hour so we could get equal sun (heating) and cooling on the vehicle. As we could watch this on the ground the crew didn’t have to contribution worry about it. Once we got in research, that position we said we’re on this non-free return, why don’t we trim that out and get the vehicle on a free return so if anything happens later we are least heading for the reentry corridor. So we did this 40 foot per second manoeuvre that put us on a free return trajectory. After that we began to try to take power off everything that we didn’t need and we began to lay out in detail the options for how big or small a manoeuvre we would do at seventy nine and a half hours into the mission, after we got around the Moon.

We settled on a manoeuvre that wasn’t quite maximum but would get us back by essays, about 142 hours. We had also figured out how to husband the consumables. By the end of my shift about ten hours later we had put the vehicle back on an Earth return trajectory, the inertial guidance platform had been transferred to the Lunar Module, and we kept the Lunar Module reasonably powered up for the burn planned for two hours after we had turned the legalization corner at the Moon. We had a plan for what that manoeuvre would be, and we had a consumable profile that really left us with reasonable margins at contribution essays, the end.” Glynn Lunney (left) and Milt Windler, take stock of the situation. Behind them, in the background, is Robert Gilruth. Deke Slayton is in the foreground. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Here’s a view of the MOCR during Glynn Lunney’s shift, after the accident. Panorama assembled from 16mm NASA footage by CM.

Gene Kranz and his White Team continued their shift for help essay an extra hour before handing over to Glynn Lunney and the Black Team, and essays, went to the back of the building to study data from the spacecraft. Contribution. Kranz decided to essay death penalty step out of the Houston shift sequence and head a Tiger Team to concentrate on the engineering and procedures to contribution essays get the is literature crippled spacecraft and its crew back home. “The key thing here was I didn’t form the Tiger Team the Tiger Team to a great extent always existed. Essays. During the Apollo Program we flew with four mission control teams, and one team was always designated as the Lead Team and in case of any mission difficulties it was that team’s responsibility to establish the poverty research game plan, the recovery plan, do the trouble shooting and that just happened to fall into my team. We had many problems here we had a variety of survival problems, we had electrical management, water management, and we had to figure out how to navigate because the stars were occluded by the debris cloud surrounding the spacecraft. Basically we had to contribution turn a two day spacecraft into a four and a half day spacecraft with an extra crewmember to get the crew back home. We were literally working outside the design and test boundaries of the of marijuana spacecraft so we had to invent everything as we went along. There were many lead people, but the three people I would name were Arnie Aldrich who handled the checklist, John Aaron with the power management, and Bill Peters who looked at the Lunar Module and tried to essays figure out how it could be most effective as a lifeboat.” There were no official procedures to refer to even the emergency procedures didn’t cover losing all three Command Module fuel cell power sources and using the of marijuana Lunar Module in lieu of the Command Module.

At 1456 AEST on 14 April Lovell and Haise had already decided to climb into the Lunar Module, “Without much discussion from the ground, both Jim and I decided to head for the LM. At this point we only had one choice and took it,” Haise explained. Swigert was left to wind down the essays Command Module. The last oxygen tank was nearly empty. Is Literature. Capcom Jack Lousma told the astronauts, “Thirteen, Houston. We’d like you to contribution essays start making your way over to the LM now” Swigert replied: “Fred and Jim are in the LM.” Lovell had joined Haise in the LM, who was already throwing switches to tellers bring the power up when Swigert yelled down the tunnel, “Houston wants the LM powered up.” Haise advised Houston, “. and Jack, I got LM power on.” GUIDO Will Fenner (green shirt) at the Guidance console as the navigation platform is transferred from contribution essays, Odyssey to Aquarius . From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Swigert said he had never seen the LM activated so fast, but it still wasn’t fast enough.

He had to turn the reentry battery in the Command Module on tellers, to keep the navigation guidance system going until the crucial settings were transferred to the Lunar Module system. Just as Lovell set up a good alignment at 1513 AEST, the last Fuel Cell #2, died. Lovell: “Getting that transfer was the first big turning point.” The concern is contribution essays, evident on the face of astronaut John Young as he stands beside Capcom Jack Lousma. Behind him is astronaut Tom Stafford. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Houston told Swigert to close the death penalty Command Module down. The power had to be turned off in a carefully planned sequence so it could be brought back up ready for reentry. Contribution Essays. At 1553 he turned off the last switch, looked around the lifeless cabin no cosy lights, no friendly voices from the essay on the death radio, no gurgling from pipes or whirring of fans their cheerful home of a moment ago was just dark and dead 333,125 empty kilometres from contribution, Earth, and racing away from legalization, it at 3,380 kilometres per hour!

He floated into the Lunar Module, and said to Lovell and Haise, “It’s up to you now.” He suddenly felt lost. He was trained for contribution the Command and Service Module, a position normally busy right through the legalization of marijuana mission. Now he could only watch the contribution essays other two expertly bringing the Lunar Module to life. The last few hours had been fast and penalty, furious, crammed with momentous life threatening events; now it was just waiting. for what? Haise said that he lost all track of time during those hectic five hours, full of rapid-fire events. It was more like a dream than reality because of the contribution essays jolt from the security of comfort and order to the onslaught of informative essay unexpected events and fleeting images and feeling very vulnerable to essays the hostile environment of empty space. Dead tired, he was the first to drag himself into the Command Module to sleep soundly for the next five hours. RIGHT ACROSS THE CONTINENT, FROM PERTH TO SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA PITCHES IN TO HELP APOLLO 13.

“At the time of the explosion I was operating the ranging system, which measured the distance and for bank, speed of the spacecraft, when I heard Swigert send his problem call, and then listened as the flight controllers sent a barrage of instructions up to the spacecraft, punctuated by terse responses from the astronauts. Once we had acquired on the smaller omni antenna, my equipment was managing to keep locked on essays, the spacecraft signal, but my finger was hovering beside the argument on the death penalty ‘acquire’ button in case of drop-outs. At that stage we did not know it was a life-threatening situation, we thought it was a communications problem with the spacecraft. The first indication of the seriousness of the crisis to us at Honeysuckle Creek was when Mission Control in Houston called the Operations Supervisor at Honeysuckle Creek and asked, ‘How long would it take to get Parkes up?’ Parkes was the CSIRO’s radio telescope used during the Apollo 11 mission. It was not called up for the Apollo 13 mission because the astronauts now used a big portable umbrella antenna for communications from the contribution lunar surface. I knew the situation was really serious as you don’t just casually ask to use the 64 metre radio astronomy antenna at Parkes without making high level arrangements with plenty of warning.” In Mission Control the low signal levels from the spacecraft were causing concern.

Chris Kraft, Director of Flight Operations, “We wanted to make sure that we got a good telemetry signal, and Parkes was one of the places where we knew we could get it.” “Parkes isn’t committed to what this mission,” Mike Dinn informed them. “Oh, then Mr Kraft will be calling your Director on contribution, the phone shortly, “ Houston replied. Honeysuckle Creek Station Director Don Gray : Don Gray, Station Director, in his office at Honeysuckle Creek. Photo: Hamish Lindsay. “I was sitting in my office listening to this conversation on the net, and in moments the phone rang. Chris Kraft said to me ‘We have a serious problem on the spacecraft; it looks like we are going to have to power down and will need all the legalization antennas we can get. Do what you can to get Parkes up as soon as possible.’ First of all I called Tom Reid, the Director at Tidbinbilla, to organise a crew to go to Parkes, then I rang John Bolton at essays, Parkes to find he was already aware of the research problem and was prepared to contribution change the need help writting antenna over to support the NASA signals.”

At the Deep Space Station at Tidbinbilla the essays request took Station Director Tom Reid by surprise: “What are you talking about? It takes weeks of negotiations between the CSIRO and what is literature, NASA Headquarters, agreements and essays, money and , budgets.’ Then I got a black phone call , ‘Hey look, we’ve got a problem on contribution, board the spacecraft this is a serious thing, think again about how soon you can do it – never mind about need help writting essay, budgets and money.’ The contractor’s people responded magnificently, got themselves down to Parkes luckily the equipment was still there, it just wasn’t configured. NASA hastily flew out Bob Taylor, one of the Goddard engineers, to be there, as he knew the contribution essays system.” Dr John Bolton, Director of poverty research papers Parkes. Photo from a 1967 ABC publication, via John Sarkissian. “I was listening to the conversation between Houston and James Lovell, and as had been my habit, had thoroughly digested the contribution essays flight plan. I realised that the only solution was to occupy the letters LM and use its facilities. The very low power (signal from the spacecraft) and the fact that the journey would be in Parkes coverage time meant we would certainly be called in. I rang Tom Reid, the Director of Tidbinbilla, with whom I had an excellent relationship, to contribution ask for the NASA crew to be sent in; I rang Taffy (Dr. Argument Essay On The Death Penalty. E.G.

Bowen) to essays let him know what assistance I would need from Sydney; and then Charlie Chenhall (RP Workshop Supervisor) to organise supplies and what, aircraft. Fortunately Radhakrishnan (Venkataraman Radhakrishnan, Director of the Raman Research Institute, Bangladore, India) was conducting a special experiment on the telescope and a number of engineers were on hand. They dismantled and carried Rad’s equipment down the ladder of one of the feed legs, while Parkes staff used the lift to get the NASA gear to the focus. We accomplished in 10 hours what normally took close to a week.” Bruce Window , Tidbinbilla USB Supervisor: “It was about 6 pm. I was working on shift at Tidbinbilla when we were cranked up straight away to get to Parkes in a hurry in contribution essays, a light aircraft, a Cessna 337. It was a hairy trip. At the same time the CSIRO had been given the message and they had taken their feedcone off and what essay, had started to assemble our feedcone. Contribution Essays. We arrived in informative requirements, the dark, drove out to the site, by which time the contribution CSIRO had flashed up all their part of the equipment.

On that first day we had got the poverty research voice but we hadn’t got all the links through to contribution Honeysuckle. I can remember holding the cable and shouting in frustration, I had the stuff in my hand but I couldn’t do anything with it! Predictions were the problem (the information where to point the antenna), they were a big problem early on. We just had to rely on predictions from NASA. Papers. John Bolton and his boys had to contribution work around them as much as they could. We didn’t get any really good data from Parkes that first night. They were relying heavily on us because of the improved quality of signal they were able to poverty research papers up the bit rate by one step with our signal from what they were getting from the 26 metre dishes (such as Honeysuckle) that was why they needed us at Parkes. We worked 16 hour days.” “I was relaxing at home when I had a phone call from the shift supervisor at the time to say there was a problem, so I immediately went in to contribution find that Apollo 13 really was in trouble. Next there was a call from the Network Manager in , the United States to say they wanted two things immediately they wanted to activate the lines to Parkes, and the second one, which was a bit more difficult, was to essays get some kind of help broadband communication between the Carnarvon OTC Earth station and contribution, the Carnarvon Tracking Station.

They wanted everything they could get. I worked out I still had a few friends left in the PMG (Post Master General’s Department) in Western Australia who could help us out. So, by 4 o’clock in the morning I dragged one of my friends out of bed, and he said, ‘Oh, I think I have got an OB (Outside Broadcast) link we could use, I’ll see what I can do give me a call back in an hour.’ When I called him back he said, ‘Yes, I’ve organised it, two OB vans will be leaving the depot in Perth for Carnarvon at 8 o’clock this morning, as soon as the guys get to work.’ There was no mention of money, or anything like that, it was a matter of let’s do it and sort things out afterwards. At the argument on the death penalty same time I got cracking with the PMG. Because we already had circuits into Parkes, there was a probability most of it was still working. I called people out of essays bed and they found most of the link was there, and pretty soon after the papers Tidbinbilla guys arrived we had the contribution links up.” Trevor Gray , PMG technician: “We worked non-stop through the night to cover letters tellers get the links going. After Apollo 11 we had trouble with the connections exploding when we switched the equipment on because of the high voltage and moisture getting in, so we had left the equipment switched on, but then all the electronic valves had deteriorated, and we were frantically trying to find the sick valves and change them before we could get the contribution essays links going.” Wilfred Laing , Senior Technical Officer at the Redfern Microwave Terminal in Sydney was interrupted by the phone ringing: “It was the City South Control to say they needed Parkes up in a hurry.

I rang through to Parkes to find they were already setting their end up. Somebody must have had a premonition because only a few days before we had put up a temporary link from Parkes to Sydney via Orange just in case it may be required. We dropped everything we were doing with the state networks and concentrated on the Apollo circuits.” Meanwhile out in space the astronauts found that as soon as they brought the Lunar Module communications system on , line it clashed with the Saturn IVB rocket following them, as they were both transmitting on the same frequency. Because the contribution Apollo 12 mission had left a seismometer on the moon, the Saturn IVB was organised to informative requirements crash on the moon for seismic readings, and extra batteries had been added for communications to last until impact. Normally, this should occur well before the Lunar Module was fired up. So with both the Saturn IVB and Lunar Module transmitters on contribution, the same frequency it was the is literature same as having two radio stations on the same spot on contribution essays, the dial of your radio. Which one does it try to lock onto?

Bill Wood at the Goldstone Tracking Station, “The Flight Controllers at Houston wanted us to move the signal from the Lunar Module across to the other side of the Saturn IVB signal to allow for is literature essay expected doppler changes. Contribution. Tom Jonas, our receiver-exciter engineer, yelled at me, ‘that’s not going to essay on the death work! We will end up locking both spacecraft to one up-link and wipe out the telemetry and voice contact with the crew.’ I jumped on the station intercom and strongly requested Bill Sheridan, the Station Operations Supervisor, to essays tell Houston what would happen, but they just told us to follow instructions. So at that time Houston lost telemetry with the Saturn IVB and voice contact with the spacecraft crew.

Luckily our big 64 metre Mars antenna was already switching over to the Apollo emergency and their narrower beam width managed to discriminate between the two signals and essays, the telemetry and letters, voice links were restored. So the situation stabilised from our point of view until it was time for us to hand this ‘mess’ over to Honeysuckle Creek in Australia.” Honeysuckle Creek was tracking with its smaller 26 metre antenna. Deputy Director Mike Dinn : “This was where the receiver operators earned their money. When they fired up the LM, we had both signals in the same bandwidth and we had ten receivers that could lock to one or the contribution other and did!

Before the mission I had foreseen the essay penalty possibility of our having to cope with the Saturn IVB and the LM together. Essays. There was nothing written down in the procedures and need help essay, I remember calling Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, our technical advisors, to discuss what we might do, and we agreed there would be no difficulty in “pulling” the frequencies apart by tuning the essays station transmitters appropriately. I was used to this procedure in the Deep Space Network in the early years of lunar and planetary exploration. Anyway, I remember that we acquired the two spacecraft and successfully pulled the two links apart. Then Houston asked us to tune the frequency of one transmitter and I immediately recognised this would bring all the on the death penalty frequencies back together again. Contribution. I tried to talk Houston out of this, even asking Goddard to tell them, but was unsuccessful, and letters, we had to carry out the contribution request. Poverty Research. The problems we knew would happen, occurred.”

John Mitchell , Honeysuckle USB Shift Supervisor: “Back when Apollo 1 had the fire, during the long suspension period that followed we used to hire a Cessna 210 and practice handovers and that sort of contribution essays thing. Informative Essay Requirements. When Mike Dinn was looking for emergency procedures I put up the theory that what happens if the Saturn IVB signal does keep going for some reason? So I proposed the theory of essays getting the LM to switch off and we practiced that time and time again with the aircraft. Help Writting Essay. I told Mike Dinn that this was the contribution way to essay go.” From his previous discussions with Goddard, Dinn agreed: “I advised Houston that the only way out of this mess was to ask the astronauts in the LM to turn off its signal so we could lock on to the Saturn IVB, then turn the LM back on and pull it away from the Saturn signal.” “They came back in an hour and told us to go ahead, and Houston transmitted the instructions up to contribution the astronauts ‘in the blind’ hoping the astronauts could hear, as we couldn’t hear them at that moment. . The downlink from the contribution essays spacecraft suddenly disappeared, so we knew they got the need help essay message. Contribution Essays. When we could see the Saturn IV downlink go way out to the prescribed frequency, we put the second uplink on, acquired the LM, put the sidebands on, locked up and tuned away from the Saturn IVB. Then everything worked fine.” In the left foreground at of marijuana essay, the servo console is contribution essays, Brian Bell, behind him is Bernard Smith bending over the System Monitor chart recorder.

Along the receiver console behind are the receiver operators, Graham Fraser, Ross Barnes, and Jerry Bissicks. Photo: Hamish Lindsay, exact date unknown. In Houston, the Director of Flight Operations, Chris Kraft, came out and grimly told the media, “This is as serious a situation as we have ever had in a manned spaceflight.” People around the world, already blas about moon missions, suddenly became engrossed in this gripping drama from space as the world’s media wound themselves up for this journalists’ manna from the Apollo program. Everybody was wondering would they come back alive? Director of requirements Flight Operations, Chris Kraft, speaks to contribution the media at what essay, a midnight press conference in the MSC Auditorium. Courtesy Spacecraft Films. With no power, the Command Module lapsed into a dark tomb, steadily getting colder and colder. Beads of moisture formed over contribution, all the surfaces, crusting the windows. Occasional flashes of essay sunlight through the windows pierced the darkness lit only by their torches.

Outside, a cloud of contribution essays vented gases and debris gathered around the essay requirements spacecraft. Sparkling in the brilliant sunlight, they stopped any chance of the astronauts taking sights on stars for their navigation. “The spacecraft was doing things I had never seen before. The LM was never designed to essays have a 27,000 kilogram dead Command and Service Module attached to it, so I literally had to learn to fly the vehicle all over again.” Apollo 13 was the second mission that had deviated from the ‘free-return’ trajectory, where the spacecraft would automatically sling around the Moon and return to Earth if anything had gone wrong. When the missions began to aim at the western landing sites the spacecraft took a different path and would not automatically return to Earth. Now they had to get back on to a free return trajectory, or they would miss the Earth by something like 70,000 kilometres. The only reliable engine available was the LM’s descent motor, but that was never designed to push the combined CSM and LM, and there were no procedures to need writting essay use it in this way or simulations. Although pilots are reluctant to admit it, the computer can control burns much more accurately and reliably than manual control, so the astronauts waited anxiously while Houston figured out the rocket’s burn times. Fred Haise calls Capcom Jack Lousa, to ask about plans for the return flight.

Starting at 059:17:53GET. This recording illustrates another problem caused by locking the contribution essays IU and LM transponders to the same frequency. Bill Wood: “The GDS Wing was uplinking to the IU and GDS prime was uplinking to cover for bank tellers the LM. That would have caused problems receiving both voice and command from the ground. While there was only one 30 kHz voice subcarrier from the GDS Prime, the presence of two uplink carriers would have caused the contribution essays interference that the crew was hearing.” Clip starts at 059:59:05GET. The headline on Sydney’s The Sun newspaper, printed just hours after the legalization of marijuana essay explosion, tells the story. Meanwhile Lovell and Haise were wrestling with an uncontrollable spacecraft, trying to stabilise it and get away from the glittering debris enveloping them. They needed to contribution see the stars to check they were pointing in essay penalty, the right direction for the burn.

Every ruse failed. They could only hope the essays data transferred from the Command Module was still accurate enough. “Roger, Aquarius, You are go for the burn,” Capcom Lousma finally announced. Haise commented, “This was yet untried. Tellers. I knew, of course, that if we failed to contribution blast into the free return trajectory we were doomed to essays swing around the Moon, miss the Earth, and go into eternal orbit around it.” First of all Lovell had to remember to unfold the Lunar Module’s legs so they wouldn’t get blasted by the descent rocket’s exhaust.

Then he carefully followed the burn procedures radioed up from Houston, hunched over the computer display with his hand on the throttle control. At 1842:43 AEST Tuesday 14 April the engine burned for 34.23 seconds, just over the scheduled 30 seconds. “Auto shutdown.” Lovell advised Houston and everyone hung anxiously onto letters tellers the trajectory displays. Was the Lunar Module’s motor able to do the job? Was Apollo 13 coming home? Soon the tracking data showed that the burn was perfect. Apollo 13 was going to round the moon at about 209 kilometres instead of 97 kilometres above the surface and would return to Earth . into the Indian Ocean. “Any old ocean would do as long as it was on the Earth,” announced a relieved Lovell. A long way away from the main recovery forces waiting for them in the Pacific, but at least it was back on Earth. The nearest American ship was the destroyer Bordelon , cruising off the coast of Mauritius, but the American Department of Defense sent assurances they could get aircraft to the area. Contribution. Due to the growing confidence in the Apollo program, this was the first time mission secondary recovery forces had not been sent to the South Atlantic, let alone the Indian Ocean. Lovell checked around the instrument panels, and announced the next major item on his mind: “Okay, Houston, burn’s complete.

Now we have to talk about powering down.” The next big problem were the consumables it wasn’t much good the spacecraft arriving back on Earth with the astronauts dead from asphyxiation. The Lunar Module was only designed for two people for 45 hours, now it was going to have to support three bodies jammed in contribution, it for 90 hours. Informative Requirements. There just wasn’t enough water or power to last the voyage back to Earth. Lovell figured that the earliest they could get back would be around midnight on Friday; and he couldn’t see how it could possibly keep them going that long.

In the Lunar Module Haise was looking at the situation. There was plenty of oxygen but the electrical power and cooling water worried him. The LM had no fuel cells, only batteries for two days of normal operation, and the water used for cooling the electronic systems would run out about 5 hours before reentry by his calculations. Earlier tests had shown that the Lunar Module could survive for about 7 hours without cooling before the guidance system would be the on the death penalty first to contribution succumb to of marijuana essay the heat. Haise waited for contribution Mission Control’s assessment. The Tiger Team at Mission Control knuckled down to working out how to cut all consumables down to a basic existence level.

“We gathered up in the back room with Kranz because there was nothing for the Command and Service Module guys to do in real time on the consoles because the spacecraft was dead. . Kranz started talking about the strategy, what we were going to do going around the Moon and when we get back close to Earth we will power the essays spacecraft up and do the reentry. and I said, ‘Kranz you can’t do that because you don’t have the power’ and he said, ‘Okay John Aaron, you’re in charge of power if anybody wants any power you go and see John Aaron.’ So I said, ‘Tell you what guys, I’ve got some ideas, but let me put them down a piece of paper and come back in an hour and I’ll show you a way we might be able to do this.’ So they came back in argument on the, about an hour, and I had sketched out a rough profile and I told them, ‘Okay guys, this is all the power we’ve got so we’ll have to help essay do the guidance system and all this stuff this way. ’ and everybody started saying ‘Oh my God, you can’t do that - we’ve got to contribution essays have this, we’ve got to have that’ and that started a whole sequence of the brokerage process between me allocating subsystems and contribution essays, switch turn-ons and circuit breakers and keeping track of the power profile. Legalization Of Marijuana. That went on until we got very close to reentry, and it started taking on more and more refinement, until it finally got to the point that a crew started trying it in the simulators just to make sure these guys could actually do that. It was an endless iteration of brokerages across those days, and you have to remember all the power analysis was done on arithmetic and slide rules we never had any calculators.” Bill Peters, Lunar Module TELMU, or electrical and environmental systems engineer, “We had developed some off-line computer programs that gave a time line power profile output. We were running a load of anything up to 30 amps with the computers up, and there was no way we could get back with that sort of load. I figured if we could get down to about 12 amps we would be okay. We only knew this from our ground computations. Actually we had an error in our ground computation that under calculated so those batteries were consuming more than we had calculated.

The first time I felt we could make it home was when we went around the Moon and did the informative essay requirements real LM power down and contribution essays, the numbers came up on the screen. Before that there was a possibility they would not make it. Once we hit the 12 amps I was convinced we had it made. We had very little powered up, only some communication equipment and the cabin fan to circulate the air. John Aaron came to me and wanted me to charge up the reentry batteries in the Command Module. We had concocted a scheme where we ran two CSM to need writting essay LM umbilical cables backwards they were designed for the CSM to send power to the LM to essays heaters to keep some components warm while travelling to the Moon. This powered the Command Module’s inverters to charge its batteries. I gave them all the fat that I could come up with, as much power as I felt we could afford.” On Earth emergency teams swung into action around the informative country, from California to New York, where there were 10 phone lines kept open between Mission Control and a room staffed with 70 Lunar Module experts at the manufacturer’s plant in contribution essays, Bethpage, Long Island.

On 14 April the US Senate adopted a resolution urging all communications media and need help, businesses to pause at 2100, their local time, to “permit persons to join in essays, prayer for the safety of the astronauts.” On the same day President Nixon cancelled his appointments and drove out to the Goddard Space Flight Centre in Maryland, accompanied by Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins, at the time Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, to find out the details of how the mission was progressing. Despite the Cold War, the Russians ordered four ships to the splashdown area, and Premier Aleksei Kosygin sent a message, “I want to inform you the Soviet Government has given orders to all citizens and members of the armed forces to use all necessary means to render assistance in the rescue of the American astronauts.” 6 min 47s / 1.4MB mp3. This is 12 hours after the explosion and the comms is now much better. . Starting at 066:35GET.

Wednesday 15 April 1970. By 1520 on 15 April the crew in the crippled spacecraft had followed the ground instructions. Lovell, “We shut off all those exotic electronic devices that we would not normally be caught without out contribution essays, there the guidance systems, the computer, the auto pilot. We only had the radio for communications and letters for bank, a little fan to circulate the atmosphere.” “For most of the first two days after the explosion we split shifts . I was awake in the LM alone while Jim and contribution essays, Jack slept in the CSM and vice versa. So there was no crowding during that period. It finally became so cold that we all just stayed in the LM. In zero G, though crowded, it was just a soft nudge if you happened to bump into someone. Most of the time Jack floated in the back area of the LM crew cabin out of the way, so the legalization of marijuana area was really not that confining. Contribution. And it was good to have the three of us together in the same vehicle. The added ‘heat of the third body’ helped to help writting raise the temperature in the LM.” The moonlight was flooding into the spacecraft’s interior and contribution essays, the astronauts were able to put their torches away.

They had cut their consumption of water down to 170 grams per day. Contribution Essays. As Houston told them to save the Lunar Module’s water for cooling, Lovell told Swigert to transfer all the drinking water from the Command Module to help essay the Lunar Module, which he did using plastic juice bags, but he sloshed some of the water into his boots, and suffered the misery of cold wet feet for the rest of the trip. Contribution. They ate cold hot dogs and wet pack foods, when they ate at poverty, all, the Command Module having the only water heating system. All the essays food and drinks were cold refrigerator cold! They didn’t get very thirsty and became quite dehydrated. This crew set a record by losing 50% more weight than any other crew, Lovell losing 6 kilograms. As Apollo 13 approached the essay requirements backside of the Moon the contribution Sun set behind the rim. An eerie darkness enveloped the essay spacecraft.

The glinting, blinding debris surrounding them vanished and the surrounding velvet blackness was studded with an illimitable sea of bright stars stars in every direction. Contribution. The thick band of stars making up the Milky Way stretched across the void. The crew then became aware some of the stars were blotted out by two sinister black clouds accompanying the spacecraft. Lovell, “I can’t for the life of me figure out what that dark stuff is.” Haise, “Yes – did you look at it, Jack?” Swigert, “Yes, okay. see it there like two black clouds.” They decided it was the debris from the explosion. They became subdued as they remembered the crisis-laden moments of the explosion until a voice from Earth broke the contribution spell, “Go ahead Houston.” “Okay, Jim, we have a little over two minutes until loss of signal and everything’s looking good here.” Vance Brand’s matter-of-fact voice from the security of the argument essay death penalty Mission Control Center showed he was unaware of the mood in the spacecraft’s cabin. “Roger, I take it you don’t want us to activate any other systems or make any other preparations until we reacquire signal?” Lovell checked. “Okay, we’ll just sit tight, then.

See you on the other side.” Apollo 13 rounds the Moon. View from Aquarius, with the Command Module at contribution, right. NASA JSC scan via the ALSJ. AS13-62-8909.

APOLLO 13 SETS A RECORD, TAKING HUMANS TO THE GREATEST DISTANCE FROM EARTH. At 1021:35 AEST on Wednesday 15 April (GET 77:08:35) Apollo 13 coasted behind the Moon and papers, lost contact with the tracking stations on Earth for about 24 minutes 35 seconds. As they looped around the back of the Moon, at a maximum height of 253.7 kilometres above the lunar surface, the Moon was 400,171 kilometres away from the Earth, further than any other Apollo mission. According to contribution essays the Guinness Book of Records at informative essay requirements, this point Lovell, Swigert, and Haise set a record as the humans to travel the farthest away from essays, Earth. The crew lost the crescent sunlit edge of the Moon behind them and flew over a totally black lunar surface until about five minutes before Earthrise a glow appeared on the lunar horizon. Haise saw it first, then Lovell moved back to let Swigert see the view through the window. While Lovell hovered at the back of the cabin the two first timers were glued to the Command Module’s windows, gazing in awe at the grim and desolate landscape of chaotic craters and torturous rilles, taking photographs and exclaiming, “Wow, look at that!” “Hey, you guys come on is literature essay, we’ve got a burn to do. If we don’t get this right you won’t get your pictures developed!” Lovell had seen it all before on contribution, Apollo 8. “It’s all right for you you’ve been here before – we haven’t.” They still couldn’t take their eyes from the poverty research papers passing spectacle. Mare Moscoviense. View from Aquarius . AS13-62-8922. From the Apollo Image Atlas of the Lunar and contribution essays, Planetary Institute.

After reacquiring the tracking stations on Earth at 1046:10 AEST the crew began to prepare for the Lunar Module’s descent rocket firing to bring them home faster. AOS. Starting at 077:35:39GET. While they were waiting for the burn, Houston called up, “By the essay way, Aquarius, we see the results of contribution essays Apollo 12’s seismometer. Looks like your third stage just hit the moon, and it’s rocking it a little bit.” Lovell answered, “Well, at least something worked on this flight. Sure glad we didn’t have a LM impact too!” The Saturn IVB smashed into the lunar surface at 1109:40 AEST 15 April, 140 kilometres west north west of the Apollo 12 seismometer with a force equal to 11 tonnes of TNT. Dr. Gary Latham, principal investigator of the for bank experiment, commented: “The Apollo 12 Lunar Module’s signal only lasted for about 55 minutes.

This signal (from the Apollo 13 Saturn IVB) arrived about 30 seconds after impact, the peak amplitude was a factor of 20 to contribution essays 30 times larger than the of marijuana LM, and lasted for 4 hours, which was astounding to essays us.” Choosing the safest option of the three available, one that did not require the Service Module to need help be dropped off, but took the longest time, Houston told the crew they could shorten the trip by 10 hours with a PC+2 burn, or a burn 2 hours after Pericynthion, the closest point they would come to the Moon. It would also bring them down in the Pacific Ocean the original target where all the recovery forces were. Unfortunately at this point there was a tropical storm “Helen” threatening the contribution area, and they were considering an alternate landing spot. Due to the software in the LM not being able to accommodate the attached dead bulk of the CSM, Lovell had to fire the argument essay on the death penalty engine manually. At 1240:39 AEST on essays, Wednesday afternoon Swigert sat on the ascent engine cover during the 4 minute 23 second Trans Earth Insertion (TEI), or PC+2 burn, which increased their speed by of marijuana, 966 kilometres per hour: “Now we were really on our way home, I felt much better about our chances,” he said. As heard live via the Voice of America, Rhett Turner reporting.

79:28GET. Now it became a matter of waiting. And how the time dragged! “It was very quiet . Essays. very quiet. And suddenly when there was nothing to do and you’re in a tight spot that’s bad news, because you start thinking about the tight situation you’re in and you want something to do!” In the computer room at Honeysuckle Creek it was anything but quiet. Argument On The Death Penalty. Geoff Seymour , Computer Supervising Engineer: “We had an intermittent hardware problem in the telemetry computer. Poverty Research Papers. Prior to the launch we had experienced this problem and at one stage they were anticipating delaying the launch until we could fix the essays problem, but the computer managed to informative requirements stay up long enough for the launch to go ahead. Round about the time of the contribution explosion the legalization of marijuana essay same computer began to contribution essays fail again, which put the pressure on is literature essay, us because they needed the ability to send commands up to the spacecraft, and to receive the telemetry down, they needed both computers up. We began to contribution troubleshoot this computer and essay, managed to narrow it down to three printed circuit boards on one chassis.

We replaced those, but it didn’t solve the contribution essays problem. I stayed on site, sleeping in one of the bedrooms below until we fixed it. Essay. As the spacecraft rounded the moon and was coming back the NASA engineers decided to ship out a chassis from the computer in the training facility in contribution essays, Goddard and strapped it into a first class seat on legalization essay, an airliner. We believed we could fix it before the chassis arrived from the essays States. The only thing left for us to do was to poverty papers take the chassis out of the computer and we removed several hundred printed circuit boards, we cleaned every socket in the chassis, we cleaned every pin on every printed circuit board we could remove – we put it all back in, and from that day onwards the intermittent problem just went away.” Early on Wednesday morning out in space a new development threatened the astronauts. A light warned them that the carbon dioxide had built up to a dangerous level, and in the confines of the contribution essays Lunar Module they would have eventually gone to sleep and died, poisoned by their own breath. On Monday night Chief of the Crew Systems Division at Houston, Ed Smylie, had already figured out legalization of marijuana essay, there would be a carbon dioxide problem and had worked out a crude, but effective solution in his head. Contribution. He joined his assistant, Jim Correale, to work out a system to join the Command Module’s square lithium canisters, which clean the carbon dioxide from the air, to the Lunar Module’s round system using only the materials available on , board such as tape, plastic, and cardboard. Contribution Essays. Astronaut Tony England verified the procedure by successfully putting one together by oral instructions only. Smylie carried his contraption into Mission Control and left it on the Capcom’s console.

The carbon dioxide reading for a healthy atmosphere was normally about 2 or 3 millimetres of need essay mercury but now it was reading 13, and 15 was the essays recognised limit before the first signs of contribution poisoning became evident. When he was ready Capcom Joe Kerwin called up the spacecraft, and read the essay requirements instructions as the crew began to contribution essays assemble the canisters at around 0330 on informative requirements, 15 April. Lovell: “Jack and I put it together it wasn’t very handsome, but it worked.” Jack Swigert (right) and Jim Lovell (left) work on the carbon dioxide solution. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery. AS13-62-9004. In the Australian Senate, Apollo 13 caused enough concern to be raised as questions on April 15 and essays, April 16. Senator Anderson, “It is interesting to be able to tell the Senate and the people of Australia that a small army of dedicated Australians worked throughout the legalization of marijuana night to install microwave links enabling the 64 metre radio telescope of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation at Parkes to assist the return voyage of the Apollo 13 spacecraft. Parkes, within hours after a request by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, established voice communication with the astronauts at essays, about 8:30 pm last night. Teams from the Post Master General’s Department and , the Australian Broadcasting Commission, assisted by personnel from Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia) Ltd., installed temporary microwave circuits from Parkes to Coonambro and contribution essays, from Red Hill in Canberra via Williamsdale to Honeysuckle Creek.

This task, which involved the informative essay requirements erection of 6 aerials up to 60 feet high in the middle of the contribution night, was completed at 6 am this morning. The microwave links will enable Parkes to transmit telemetry data from the legalization spacecraft. Parkes, and the Australian Capital Territory stations of Honeysuckle Creek and Tidbinbilla, which my Department operates for NASA, will start to play a crucial role after the spacecraft’s trans-Earth injection which was scheduled for 12:40 pm today. I would like to pay special tribute to the staff at Honeysuckle Creek and essays, Tidbinbilla who, working at the lowest possible signal level, have been providing communications between the ground control and need help essay, the astronauts. I am certain that I speak for all Australians in wishing the Apollo crew a safe return to Earth.” Thursday 16 April 1970. At 0626:53 AEST during the morning of contribution essays 16 April, not long after they had entered the influence of the Earth’s gravity field, everyone at essay, Mission Control slid to the edge of their seats and grappled with another heart stopping report from Haise: “I just heard a little thump, sounded like down in the descent stage, and I saw a new shower of snowflakes come up.” Another explosion!

This time from under their feet in the life supporting Lunar Module they were all depending on! More debris gathered around the two stricken spacecraft. It was battery #2 in the Lunar Module’s descent stage. Don Arabian, from the contribution Mission Evaluation Room, figured out requirements, that hydrogen and oxygen gases had built up in contribution essays, the battery’s lid until the pressure blew it off. Bill Peters, the tellers Lunar Module’s electrical engineer: “After it made its “pop and contribution, snowflakes” as people say, we looked at the data and papers, it had a spike in the current data, that’s all we saw in real time, but that battery continued to run for a long time before it failed to contribute electricity and I turned it off.” After consulting with the manufacturers, the essays engineers decided that the remaining batteries were going to last comfortably until the end of the mission. Mission Control began working on correcting some errors derived from the TEI burn with another burn of 14 seconds of the Lunar Module’s descent motor at what is literature essay, 1431:28 AEST on 16 April. Contribution Essays. Lovell fired the engine, while Haise kept an eye on the spacecraft attitude and essay, Swigert called the times.

Houston was anxious not to disturb the spacecraft’s homeward trajectory, so told the crew not to dump any waste material overboard. This meant they had to find a way to store their urine on board. They found three bags in the Command Module and six little ones in essays, the Lunar Module, plus by using some tanks associated with their EVA suits they managed to keep ahead of the flow. “I’m glad we got home when we did,” said Lovell, “because we were just about out of essay ideas for essays stowage.” Friday 17 April 1970. As Apollo 13 raced home the Flight Dynamics team (FDO, RETRO, and GUIDO) began to frown as they spotted the tracking data was indicating the essay on the spacecraft was gently drifting away from the critical entry corridor. What was causing this insidious drift?

Every known source of venting gas was turned off, so it had to be something else. Essays. After the mission ended, it was concluded that the small thrust causing the drift came from a ‘non-propulsive’ water boiler vent in the Lunar Module’s cooling system, which under normal circumstances would not have been noticed in the short dash down to the moon’s surface and back. When the error crept up to 161 kilometres it was time to do something, or the astronauts in their spacecraft would bounce out of the atmosphere and go off into solar orbit: “. to become a permanent monument to the space program,” as Lovell wryly put it, but said he would rather burn up in poverty papers, the atmosphere than skip out into solar orbit. The flight controllers were reluctant to fire the contribution essays Lunar Module’s descent engine again. Helium was normally used to force the fuel into the engine combustion chamber, and the Lunar Module engineers were watching the pressure slowly building up in the storage tank. At 12,411 kPa a safety membrane would blow out to relieve the pressure. Once that happened there was no guarantee the engine would work, so the correction burn had to happen before the essays helium blew. Late during Wednesday evening when Capcom Vance Brand called Apollo 13: “We don’t want to of marijuana power up the contribution essays spacecraft completely, so that means no computer or mission timer. We’ll simply go with a manual burn, with you controlling the engine with the Start and Stop switches.

For attitude, what we’re going to want to do is manually orient the legalization spacecraft to place the Earth in the centre of your window. If you hold it there throughout the burn, the attitude will be correct. Contribution. Got that?” “Roger, I think so,” Lovell confirmed thoughtfully, remembering back in Apollo 8 they had tried just such an exercise to see if they could steer the spacecraft into the reentry corridor with no help from the navigation systems. Houston planned to burn the Lunar Module’s descent motor when they were just entering the influence of the Earth’s gravity, and still moving relatively slowly. Using Swigert’s wrist watch, from 1431:28 AEST 16 April, they timed the burn manually for 14 seconds at 10% power, during which Lovell and , Haise steered the spacecraft to keep the crosshair of the optical sight in their windows parallel with the Earth’s terminator, or sunset line, which meant they should be aiming straight for the reentry corridor again.

Three and a half hours later the helium pressure reached 13,245 kPa and contribution essays, blew the safety membrane out, sending another thump through the spacecraft and a shower of sparkling crystals to essay join the cloud of debris shepherding Apollo 13 through space. The startled astronauts looked at each other but realised what it was, and Lovell murmured, “That’s the end of essays our helium problem.” It became so cold in Odyssey that sleep was impossible. Lovell: “When we turned off the electrical systems, we lost our source of heat, and the sun streaming in , the windows didn’t help much. We were as cold as frogs in a frozen pool, specially Jack Swigert, who got his feet wet and didn’t have lunar overshoes. It wasn’t simply that the temperature dropped down to 1.6C; the sight of perspiring walls and wet windows made it seem even colder.” The Command Module had been referred to as “the bedroom”, but by the last day they were calling it “the refrigerator”.

During the contribution essays last 12 hours before reentry, Haise had to go into the cold and for bank tellers, damp Command Module. When he returned, it took him four hours in contribution, the Lunar Module before he stopped shivering. He ended up trying to poverty sleep in his sleeping bag in contribution essays, the tunnel between the two spacecraft, with his head in legalization essay, the Lunar Module, which was much warmer at 10C. Even after the fiery reentry and warm 27єC Pacific waters they could still see their frosty breath inside the essays cabin. Honeysuckle is prime during this recording of Jim Lovell describing the cold the research 39 second recording, made at Honeysucke Creek, begins at 132:53GET. This clip (254kb mp3 file) was recorded by Hamish Lindsay. Lovell commented: “We had a dead Service Module, we had a Command Module but it had no power in it, and we had a Lunar Module that was a wonderful vehicle but it didn’t have a heat shield.” No one knew what would happen to a frozen Command Module that had coasted through space without any power for over two days. Essays. “We were worried that the essay requirements systems would get so cold that the batteries would freeze, the propellants in the lines would freeze that when we brought the Command Module up it would be non-functional,” Kranz admitted later, backed up by Lovell: “The walls, ceiling, floor, wire harnesses, and panels were all covered with droplets of contribution water. The chances of short circuits caused us apprehension, to say the least.

But thanks to the safeguards built into the Command Module after the disastrous fire in January, 1967, no arcing took place. The water droplets caused one sensation as we entered the atmosphere - it rained inside the argument essay on the Command Module!” At Houston, Gene Kranz and his Tiger Team wrestled with reentry procedures and check lists for the last six hours of the mission that had never been tried before. Normally it would take three months to develop these procedures they had less than three days. “Basically we planned to power up the contribution essays vehicle in reverse, we had the crew turn the what is literature essay guidance system on in the blind, then right at contribution, the end I allowed them to death turn on essays, the telemetry system so that we could see it and verify it was all on okay.

By doing it backwards that way we had enough power but the crew had to do it right. Later I realised I was kinda lost in my own world trying to build that check list that had to be done perfectly the for bank tellers first time, then when I saw what shape the crew were in being dehydrated, no real sleep, freezing to contribution death, I realised that was another factor that I didn’t take into account. Legalization Essay. But they executed that check list perfectly, it was just amazing. We finally got the sequence down so Ken Mattingly could try it in the simulator, and contribution essays, he found things that wouldn’t work so would come back and negotiate with me and I said we can’t add more power, we have to do some other way. And of essay course the crew was getting kinda anxious, they were trying to contribution be subtle, but not too subtle, and kept saying, ‘Hey Houston, we’re looking out the window and the Earth’s getting bigger and bigger where’s that check list?’” It was Thursday evening in Houston when Arnold Aldrich and Gene Kranz escorted Aaron into the Mission Control Center, hugging the checklist to his chest: “I had one hand type-written copy with the latest changes in it, we didn’t have word processors in those days, and I said ‘Okay Flight - here it is, read it to the crew.’”

A relieved Capcom Vance Brand took the copy, turned back to his console and called: “Houston, Aquarius.” “Go, Houston,” replied Lovell. “Okay, we are ready to read you the first checklist instalment” “All right, Vance. I’m going to get Jack on requirements, the line, so stand by.” Aaron became aware he was surrounded by people holding out essays, demanding hands: “Where are the copies, EECOM? I need a copy.” So as Brand heard his headset saying, “Okay, Vance, I’m ready to copy,” he had to hand the checklist back and sheepishly answer: “Okay, Jack but we have to ask you to wait one minute again. We want to get a copy of the checklist into the hands of the Flight Directors and EECOM and what, it’ll take a second or two.” It was nearly half an hour before Brand began two tedious hours reading out the check list to a very tired Swigert as he copied them down holding a flashlight between his teeth. Then followed another hour of Lunar Module procedures to Haise, followed by a timeline sequence that glued both checklists together. In the contribution time it took them to write the procedures down, they covered 96,500 kilometres. Informative Requirements. Swigert finished writing down the last entry just over 12 hours before they were due to start using it there was no time for corrections or a second chance it had to contribution essays be right the first time as the spacecraft hurtled towards that narrow door into the Earth’s atmosphere with its speed building up to a maximum of research papers 38,623 kilometres per hour. Six and contribution essays, a half hours before they were due to start using the checklist – they tried to poverty get some rest.

Lovell reported: “Haise is lying in the tunnel with his head on the ascent engine cover, Swigert is lying on contribution essays, the floor in a sleep restraint.” They had been averaging three hours of disturbed sleep a day. Four hours before reaching the requirements atmosphere Houston sent the message, “You can jettison the Service Module when you are ready. No big rush, but any time.” Lovell and Haise manned the Lunar Module, while Swigert fired the Service Module separation bolts from the Command Module at 2314:48 AEST during the evening of April 17. Lovell had suggested to Swigert that he put a label over contribution essays, the switch to jettison the Lunar Module in case he threw the wrong switch, and what essay, sent his mates off to be incinerated in the brief meteor the Lunar Module was to become! Lovell then backed the essays Lunar Module and Command Module away from the poverty research papers carcass of the Service Module. Swigert tried each of the Command Module windows but saw nothing. Lovell swung the spacecraft around and contribution essays, he and Haise peered out of the Lunar Module’s windows and also saw nothing no sign of the big cylindrical Service Module. Contribution Essays. Lovell was scanning the velvet black void when he stiffened as he became aware of a huge silver shape silently gliding into view, slowly rolling to reveal a great gash in its side. Lovell gazed wide-eyed at the tendrils of contribution wire, tubing and entrails gently waving about.

Expecting only a small hole from the contribution explosion, he said “I’m glad we couldn’t see the Service Module earlier. With one whole panel missing, the cover tellers wreckage and wires hanging out, it was a sorry mess as it drifted away.” Then Haise yelled “I can see it out my window,” so Swigert rushed down the tunnel, stuck his camera to essays the window and managed to cover letters get some shots, though by then it was beginning to tumble. Contribution Essays. Photographs of the damage for later analysis were important, as the Service Module would burn up on legalization of marijuana, reentry. The damaged Service Module drifts away. Here’s another view. Essays. AS13-58-8464, via the Lunar Planetary Institute in Houston. The photo has been cropped and papers, considerably brightened. Jim Lovell exclaims, “There’s one whole side of that spacecraft missing.”

As heard live via the contribution essays Voice of America, with Rhett Turner providing commentary. Need Help. 4.7MB mp3 / 9 minutes. When hearing of the extensive damage to contribution essays the Service Module some of the Flight Controllers began to wonder about the Command Module’s heat shield. Had it been damaged in the explosion? Nothing was said at the time, but Haise had thought about it too, and the astronauts had discussed the possibility during the flight. During the mission they had filled the Command Module with all their rubbish in plastic bags, and now Haise had to what is literature transfer them all back to the LM as they prepared for the homecoming. He commented: “Boy, you wouldn’t believe this LM right now! There’s nothing but bags from floor to ceiling!” Saturday 18 April 1970. At 0400 USCST on contribution essays, Friday April 17 the members of the Tiger Team entered Mission Control and informative essay requirements, spread around the consoles for the final moments of the saga.

John Aaron took over contribution, from Sy Liebergot at the EECOM console and around 1000 he felt ready for legalization the Command Module power up procedure and contribution, called on essay, the intercom, “Go EECOM,” returned Kranz. “Ready for power up any time the crew is.” “Roger EECOM Capcom Flight.” “Go Flight,” answered Joe Kerwin. “EECOM says the Command Module can come on line anytime.” “Roger Flight,” Kerwin keyed his air/ground switch, “Aquarius, Houston.” “Go Houston,” Lovell responded tersely. “You’re go to start powering up Odyssey.” Swigert felt a useful member of the crew again as at 0123 AEST Saturday April 18 he began to power up the contribution Command Module using its normal three reentry batteries, which had been topped up from the Lunar Module’s batteries. For Bank. “Every switch and circuit breaker that I turned on made me feel just that much better. Contribution Essays. I forgot about being tired and didn’t even notice the cold.” John Aaron, surrounded by informative requirements, the other shift EECOMs, watched the idling readouts on his console, waiting for Swigert to switch on the telemetry.

He was looking for a maximum current drain of 43 amps. If it was much more the batteries might not last to contribution splashdown. After nearly half an hour Swigert switched the what is literature essay last items on and the telemetry kicked all Aaron’s readouts into life. His eyes homed in on the current meter, and to his dismay he was staring at a steady 45 amps. “What the hell are those two rogue amps doing there?” he angrily questioned anybody on the intercom or within earshot. Nobody could find any cause until the Guidance controllers spotted the back up gyros were on. The spacecraft crew turned them off and the meter dropped back to 43 amps. Aaron, “I almost panicked there because I didn’t know how long those two amps had been on. It turned out the spacecraft was wired different than we thought, there was a sneak circuit in the wiring taking an extra load off the circuit breaker that we didn’t know about.” Once the what is literature Command Module was powered up it was important to check they were on the right track for reentry.

Capcom Joe Kerwin: “This was the tense time for me. Swigert was trying to find the two stars necessary to align the platform to essays get their precise attitude. Of Marijuana. He was having a hell of a time doing it because of reflections into essays the telescope from the Lunar Module. The spacecraft were racing towards the atmosphere, and Swigert was doing it, and re-doing it. Informative Essay Requirements. What we would have had to do was to contribution say ‘Okay, Jack its time to knock that off we’ll take an approximate attitude it’s time to jettison the LM we have to get on with it. I kept looking at Kranz, but he just put his hand out silently to say give him another minute. Then Swigert finally got it and called out ‘Five balls’ which meant that the number after the decimal point on star angle difference was five zeros, meaning he had hit the essays right two stars and had an accurate platform. From there on everything just went nominally from my point of view.” Three and a half hours after the Service Module was jettisoned, it was the Lunar Module’s turn.

Lovell: “Ten seconds.” Swigert, “Five. LM Jettison,” At 0243 AEST 18 April the need help essay faithful “lifeboat” Aquarius was released and pushed off with 20.7 kPa air pressure from the tunnel. Sadly they watched it drift away to begin a slow forward somersault. Haise later said he would have liked to have looked after it in his backyard. “Okay, copy that. Farewell Aquarius, and essays, we thank you,” Kerwin called out from Houston. There was less than four and a half hours of electrical power left in Aquarius . “Farewell Aquarius , and we thank you.” The ‘Age of essay Aquarius’ ends at contribution, 0243AEST on April 18th. Assembled from images AS13-59-8559, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 68, 71, 73, courtesy of the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

Aquarius is jettisoned. Need Essay. Voice of contribution Apollo as heard via ABC Radio. “When Apollo 13 came back in, it did this vast swing back over the Indian Ocean. Because of the Earth turning it appeared to turn around and come back the other way. We put the FPQ6 radar on and watched separation with it when they dumped the LM. Contribution Essays. We could actually see all three parts of the spacecraft on our radar screens.” John Saxon at contribution essays, Honeysuckle Creek: “We were the last site, as we generally were, to track the reentry phase of the mission when they entered the Earth’s atmosphere. We were tracking both the Command Module and the Lunar Module.

There was a great deal of interest in where the LM came down because it had a package to research be installed on the Moon which had a radio isotope power supply, and there was a concern that had it entered over land there might have been a radio active contamination problem. We were required to take very careful records of antenna angles when we lost contact. It entered the atmosphere and went into the sea somewhere in essays, the deepest part of the ocean between Australia and New Zealand.” This was right where Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO) Jerry Bostick in need help essay, Mission Control had carefully planned to put the Lunar Module. Mike Dinn’s Groundtrack map for Apollo 13 has been annotated to show the splashdown location. Honeysuckle was the last ground station to track Apollo 13 before re-entry, when ARIA took over the comms. Click the image to essays get a 730kb scan of the entire map. Paul Mullen , antenna driver at what is literature essay, Honeysuckle: “We lost the LM at the end it was going too fast for essays our 3 per second antenna speed it just dived out of sight ahead of our antenna.” Entering the dark side of the Earth above the Indian Ocean, the three astronauts concentrated on the clock and Moon, sweating that it would set when Houston had calculated, confirming they were on the right track for a safe reentry. At precisely the right second a black notch bit into the bottom of the Moon, and it sank below the Earth’s horizon.

The Commander looked at his crew: “Gentlemen, we’re about to reenter. I suggest you get ready for a ride.” Kerwin, “Odyssey, Houston standing by. Over.” Swigert, “You have a good bedside manner, Joe.” Kerwin, “That’s the nicest thing anybody’s said.

How about that?” Swigert: “Sure wish I could go to the FIDO (Flight Dynamics) party tonight.” Kerwin, “Yes it’s going to be a wild one. Somebody said we’ll cover for essay you guys and if Jack’s got any phone numbers he wants us to call, why, pass them down . We just had a last time around the room and everybody says it’s looking great . Odyssey then plunged into the atmosphere at 0353:45 AEST, to be engulfed in a streaming firestorm, a fireball streaking across the sky. All communications with the spacecraft were cut off during the blackout period. A blanket of suspended anxiety descended over all the watchers around the world during the essays three minutes of research silence of the contribution essays blackout period. The seconds flicked away with no response from the spacecraft. Unable to do any more for the mission now, the Houston Flight Controllers could only watch the recovery forces at work on their large television screens and listen for the spacecraft to respond to their Capcom.

It was suspected they had entered the atmosphere at a shallower angle than the optimum, which prolonged the blackout period. The tension built up. a minute after the essays expected time and still no sight or sound of Odyssey the cameras stared at a vacant sky, the speakers just hissed static. Joe Kerwin called out from Houston, “Odyssey, Houston standing by.” Suddenly Swigert’s voice filled the informative airwaves over the Pacific, “Okay, Joe!” and at essays, 0402 AEST three healthy parachutes were seen. For Bank Tellers. Luckily the original landing area was calm now the tropical storm was raging over contribution essays, the alternate landing area. Joe Kerwin on the Capcom console, earlier in the mission. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by essay death, Colin Mackellar. Mission Control erupted into a frenzy of contribution essays cheering, handshaking and clapping. John Aaron: “Since I had designed the reentry sequence, Kranz put me on the console as it came in and that worked out letters for bank, fine, but that sure was something when they made it through the blackout and out came the chutes.

We had live video coverage from the ship – that really was a lucky strike extra to essays get that close for the finish.” So how close was it to three fatalities? According to Sy Liebergot, the LM had 104 hours of breathing oxygen left, but only 10 hours of water and 13 hours of electrical power. After a TransEarth Coast TEC time of 63 hours 8 minutes 43 seconds, at 0407:41 AEST on Saturday 18 April, the parachutes dunked Odyssey into contribution the Pacific Ocean 6.5 kilometres from the USS Iwo Jima , and the crew were greeted by cheering sailors, a brass band, and Rear Admiral Donald Davis with, “We’re glad you made it, boys.” All around the world an audience of many millions joined in grateful thanks, each in their own way, for the safe return of Apollo 13 and its crew.

The Apollo 13 crew arrive on the Iwo Jima . Flight Director Gene Kranz (right) celebrates as Jim Lovell speaks onboard the Iwo Jima . Nine doctors checked them out to be in reasonable shape considering their ordeal, except for what is literature a urinary tract infection for Haise, brought on by not drinking enough fluids, which allowed the toxins to build up. If the mission had gone on much longer, the other two would have probably suffered the same problem. Stepping ashore in Pago Pago they were greeted by gaily dressed Samoans, their smiling faces moving Lovell to say, “We do not realise what we have on Earth until we leave it.” Dale Call, Goddard Network Director, made the following statement after the mission: “I would like to express my personal thanks along with the appreciation of everyone involved in the Apollo 13 mission for essays the outstanding support provided by Honeysuckle, Carnarvon, and Parkes. This support contributed significantly to the safe return of the Apollo 13 crew. I would especially like to single out those responsible for bringing up the Parkes antenna and associated data systems in argument death, record time.

This response was so impressive that special mention of it was made to President Nixon during his visit to contribution essays Goddard last Tuesday.” President Nixon addressed a message to Australian Prime Minister John Gorton: “Dear Mr. Prime Minister: On behalf of the people of the United States I wish to express to essay on the death you and to the people of Australia my deep appreciation for your nation’s assistance in essays, the successful recovery of the Apollo XIII astronauts. The disabling of the Apollo spacecraft during its lunar mission evoked the concern of all mankind. I was indeed touched by the many expressions of papers sympathy and offers of assistance I received.

The safe recovery of the astronauts, for contribution essays which we are all profoundly thankful, in , no way lessens the gratitude of the Government and people of the United States for your nation’s immediate response to our need for assistance. Please convey my personal thanks to all of your people who worked so hard to maintain our communications with the weakened Apollo XIII spacecraft as it returned to contribution Earth. Their involvement in the Apollo XIII recovery was but another instance of the what close cooperation and warm friendship that exists between our countries. For a brief moment Apollo 13 put the contribution essays hassles of money and cover letters, budgets and politics aside as people followed the progress of a mission where sheer guts and contribution essays, determination, teamwork and cover letters for bank, comradeship, ingenuity and skill brought the contribution crew safely home. No doubt luck was a large factor in the equation. A triskaidekaphobic person would freak out at this list of thirteens – it was the poverty research 13th Apollo mission, launched at 1313 hours spacecraft time, the explosion occurred on April 13, 13:08 hours Honeysuckle Creek time, with 13 nations offering to provide rescue ships or aircraft. And stretching credibility a bit the astronauts first names of James, Fred, and Jack add up to 13 letters, the launch date of essays 4/11/70 add up to 13 from pad 39 which is essay, 3 x 13. Even German Measles has 13 letters. Contribution. Not surprisingly the Horoscope for Aquarius from the Houston Post of April 13 1970 said ‘Do surprises turn you on? Then this is the day for the unexpected.’

Was Apollo 13 good luck or bad luck? Probably good luck because it brings up a lot of “What ifs. ” For instance, what if the explosion had happened while Lovell and legalization of marijuana essay, Haise were on the lunar surface. “To get Apollo 13 home required a lot of innovation. Most of the material written about our mission described the ground-based activities, however I would be remiss not to state that it really was the teamwork between the contribution essays ground and the flight crew that resulted in , a successful return. Some people would call the Apollo 13 mission a $375 million failure. Contribution. I look back on is literature, it as a triumph; a triumph of teamwork, initiative, and ingenuity. Nobody believes me, but during this six day odyssey we had no idea what an impression Apollo 13 made on the people of Earth. Essays. We never dreamed a billion people were following us on television and radio, and reading about us in banner headlines of every newspaper published.

We still missed the point on board the carrier Iwo Jima which picked us up because the sailors had been as remote from the contribution media as we were. Only when we reached Honolulu did we comprehend our impact.” For fun, Grumman, the builders of the Lunar Module, sent a bill for $US400,000 to North American Rockwell for towing the Command and Service Module 482,800 kilometres back home! Jack Swigert said after the mission, “I knew that no matter how dark the situation looked, we had a lot of help from the ground. Poverty Research Papers. I didn’t come back from this mission with less confidence in the goals of the space program. I came back with more.”

Haise admitted that after the explosion Mission Control directed everything the astronauts did. “I think Apollo 13 was a classic example of what the ground flight operations was all about. It proved that the ground was worthwhile. Essays. The people on the ground did a fantastic job of saving the lives of the crew.” That ground crew included the tracking stations, connecting Mission Control with the spacecraft. President Nixon summed up this dramatic odyssey with: “The three astronauts did not reach the moon, but they reached the hearts of millions of people in America and in the world.” (5 Days 22 Hours 54 Minutes)

Fra Mauro was the poverty research planned landing area. Distance travelled : 1,002,123 kilometres. The text has been checked by Chris Kraft and Jim Lovell. Illustrations sourced by Hamish Lindsay and Colin Mackellar. Unless otherwise specified, audio was recorded by Colin Mackellar from Australian radio coverage or the Voice of America, except the HSK comms loop audio by Hamish Lindsay and the MOCR EECOM loop audio courtesy Sy Liebergot. Audio selected and edited by CM.

Frames from Apollo 13 film and contribution, video selected and processed by CM with thanks to Mark Gray at Spacecraft Films.