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The Selfish Gene Essay - 917 Words - …
kitsch essay AVANT-GARDE AND KITSCH. This is Greenberg's breakthrough essay from 1939, written for gene the Partisan Review when he was twenty-nine years of age and at the time more involved with literature than with painting. He came, later, to reject much of the essay -- notably the definition of kitsch which he later believed to be ill thought out resume kerja (as, indeed, it is.) Later he came to identify the threat to high art as coming from middlebrow taste, which in any event aligns much more closely with the academic than kitsch ever did or could. The essay has an air and selfish, assurance of '30s Marxism, with peculiar assumptions such as that only under socialism could the letter for teachers philippines taste of the masses be raised. But for all that, the essay stakes out new territory.
Although the avant-garde was an accepted fact in the '30s. Greenberg was the selfish gene first to define its social and historical context and cultural import. The essay also carried within it the seeds of his notion of modernism. Despite its faults and sometimes heady prose, it stands as one of the important theoretical documents of coast, 20th century culture. O NE AND THE SAME civilization produces simultaneously two such different things s a poem by T. S. Eliot and a Tin Pan Alley song, or a painting by gene Braque and a Saturday Evening Post cover. All four are on the order of culture, and ostensibly, parts of the same culture and ways discipline essay, products of the same society. Here, however, their connection seems to end. A poem by Eliot and a poem by essay Eddie Guest -- what perspective of culture is large enough to romanticism, enable us to situate them in an enlightening relation to each other?
Does the fact that a disparity such as this within the frame of a single cultural tradition, which is and has been taken for granted -- does this fact indicate that the disparity is a part of the natural order of things? Or is it something entirely new, and particular to our age? The answer involves more than an investigation in aesthetics. It appears to me that it is necessary to examine more closely and with more originality than hitherto the relationship between aesthetic experience as met by the specific -- not the generalized -- individual, and the social and historical contexts in which that experience takes place. What is brought to selfish gene, light will answer, in addition to the question posed above, other and perhaps more important questions. A society, as it becomes less and less able, in the course of its development, to justify the inevitability of introduction, its particular forms, breaks up the accepted notions upon which artists and writers must depend in large part for communication with their audiences. It becomes difficult to assume anything.
All the verities involved by religion, authority, tradition, style, are thrown into question, and the writer or artist is no longer able to selfish essay, estimate the response of letter for teachers philippines, his audience to the symbols and selfish gene essay, references with which he works. In the past such a state of affairs has usually resolved itself into a motionless Alexandrianism, an academicism in which the really important issues are left untouched because they involve controversy, and in which creative activity dwindles to virtuosity in thesis marketing, the small details of form, all larger questions being decided by the precedent of the old masters. The same themes are mechanically varied in a hundred different works, and yet nothing new is produced: Statius, mandarin verse, Roman sculpture, Beaux-Arts painting, neo-republican architecture. It is among the hopeful signs in selfish gene essay, the midst of the decay of our present society that we -- some of us -- have been unwilling to contoh resume kerja, accept this last phase for gene essay our own culture. In seeking to go beyond Alexandrianism, a part of Western bourgeois society has produced something unheard of heretofore: -- avant-garde culture. A superior consciousness of history -- more precisely, the appearance of a new kind of criticism of society, an historical criticism -- made this possible.
This criticism has not confronted our present society with timeless utopias, but has soberly examined in the terms of east coast essays, history and of cause and effect the antecedents, justifications and functions of the forms that lie at the heart of every society. Thus our present bourgeois social order was shown to be, not an eternal, natural condition of life, but simply the latest term in gene, a succession of social orders. Ways Essay! New perspectives of this kind, becoming a part of the advanced intellectual conscience of the fifth and sixth decades of the nineteenth century, soon were absorbed by artists and poets, even if unconsciously for the most part. Selfish Gene Essay! It was no accident, therefore, that the birth of the avant-garde coincided chronologically -- and geographically, too -- with the first bold development of keys, scientific revolutionary thought in Europe. True, the selfish gene first settlers of essay introduction, bohemia -- which was then identical with the avant-garde -- turned out soon to be demonstratively uninterested in politics. Nevertheless, without the circulation of revolutionary ideas in the air about them, they would never have been able to isolate their concept of the selfish bourgeois in order to define what they were not. Nor, without the moral aid of revolutionary political attitudes would they have had the courage to assert themselves as aggressively as they did against the prevailing standards of society. Courage indeed was needed for this, because the avant-garde's emigration from bourgeois society to bohemia meant also an emigration from the markets of capitalism, upon which artists and writers had been thrown by the falling away of ways to improve discipline in school essay, aristocratic patronage. (Ostensibly, at least, it meant this -- meant starving in a garret -- although, as we will be shown later, the avant-garde remained attached to essay, bourgeois society precisely because it needed its money.) Yet it is true that once the avant-garde had succeeded in detaching itself from contoh resume kerja, society, it proceeded to turn around and selfish gene, repudiate revolutionary as well as bourgeois politics.
The revolution was left inside society, a part of that welter of ideological struggle which art and poetry find so unpropitious as soon as it begins to involve those precious axiomatic beliefs upon which culture thus far has had to rest. East Coast Essays! Hence it developed that the true and most important function of the avant-garde was not to gene, experiment, but to on relationship marketing, find a path along which it would be possible to keep culture moving in the midst of ideological confusion and violence. Retiring from public altogether, the avant-garde poet or artist sought to maintain the high level of his art by both narrowing and raising it to the expression of an absolute in selfish gene essay, which all relativities and contradictions would be either resolved or beside the resume point. Art for art's sake and pure poetry appear, and subject matter or content becomes something to be avoided like a plague. It has been in search of the absolute that the gene avant-garde has arrived at abstract or nonobjective art -- and poetry, too. The avant-garde poet or artist tries in effect to imitate God by east coast essays creating something valid solely on gene essay its own terms, in the way nature itself is valid, in the way a landscape -- not its picture -- is aesthetically valid; something given, increate, independent of meanings, similars or originals. Keys! Content is to be dissolved so completely into form that the work of essay, art or literature cannot be reduced in whole or in part to anything not itself. But the absolute is romanticism absolute, and the poet or artist, being what he is, cherishes certain relative values more than others.
The very values in the name of which he invokes the absolute are relative values, the values of aesthetics. And so he turns out to be imitating, not God -- and here I use imitate in its Aristotelian sense -- but the disciplines and essay, processes of art and literature themselves. This is the genesis of the abstract.(1) In turning his attention away from application letter for teachers, subject matter of essay, common experience, the poet or artist turns it in upon the medium of his own craft. The nonrepresentational or abstract, if it is to have aesthetic validity, cannot be arbitrary and accidental, but must stem from obedience to some worthy constraint or original. This constraint, once the world of common, extroverted experience has been renounced, can only be found in essay introduction, the very processes or disciplines by which art and literature have already imitated the former. These themselves become the subject matter of art and literature. If, to continue with Aristotle, all art and literature are imitation, then what we have here is the imitation of imitating. To quote Yeats:
Nor is there singing school but studying. Monuments of its own magnificence. Picasso, Braque, Mondrian, Miro, Kandinsky, Brancusi, even Klee, Matisse and Cézanne derive their chief inspiration from the gene essay medium they work in.(2) The excitement of their art seems to lie most of all in its pure preoccupation with the invention and arrangement of spaces, surfaces, shapes, colors, etc., to the exclusion of whatever is contoh kerja not necessarily implicated in these factors. The attention of poets like Rimbaud, Mallarmé, Valéry, Éluard, Pound, Hart Crane, Stevens, even Rilke and selfish essay, Yeats, appears to be centered on the effort to create poetry and on the moments themselves of poetic conversion, rather than on experience to be converted into poetry. Of course, this cannot exclude other preoccupations in their work, for poetry must deal with words, and words must communicate. East! Certain poets, such as Mallarmé and Valéry (3) are more radical in this respect than others -- leaving aside those poets who have tried to compose poetry in pure sound alone. However, if it were easier to define poetry, modern poetry would be much more pure and abstract. As for the other fields of literature -- the definition of avant-garde aesthetics advanced here is no Procrustean bed. But aside from the fact that most of our best contemporary novelists have gone to school with the avant-garde, it is significant that Gide's most ambitious book is a novel about the writing of selfish gene essay, a novel, and philippines, that Joyce's Ulysses and Finnegans Wake seem to be, above all, as one French critic says, the reduction of experience to expression for the sake of expression, the expression mattering more than what is being expressed.
That avant-garde culture is the imitation of imitating -- the fact itself -- calls for neither approval nor disapproval. It is true that this culture contains within itself some of the very Alexandrianism it seeks to overcome. The lines quoted from Yeats referred to Byzantium, which is very close to essay, Alexandria; and in a sense this imitation of imitating is a superior sort of Alexandrianism. But there is one most important difference: the avant-garde moves, while Alexandrianism stands still. And this, precisely, is what justifies the avant-garde's methods and makes them necessary.
The necessity lies in the fact that by no other means is it possible today to create art and literature of coast, a high order. Selfish! To quarrel with necessity by throwing about terms like formalism, purism, ivory tower and so forth is either dull or dishonest. This is fishery essays not to say, however, that it is to the social advantage of the avant-garde that it is what it is. Quite the opposite. The avant-garde's specialization of selfish gene essay, itself, the fact that its best artists are artists' artists, its best poets, poets' poets, has estranged a great many of letter philippines, those who were capable formerly of enjoying and appreciating ambitious art and literature, but who are now unwilling or unable to acquire an initiation into their craft secrets.
The masses have always remained more or less indifferent to culture in the process of development. But today such culture is gene essay being abandoned by those to whom it actually belongs -- our ruling class. For it is to the latter that the avant-garde belongs. Discipline Essay! No culture can develop without a social basis, without a source of stable income. And in essay, the case of the avant-garde, this was provided by an elite among the ruling class of that society from which it assumed itself to contoh kerja, be cut off, but to which it has always remained attached by selfish gene an umbilical cord of gold. The paradox is real. And now this elite is romanticism rapidly shrinking. Selfish Essay! Since the avant-garde forms the romanticism essay introduction only living culture we now have, the survival in the near future of culture in general is thus threatened.
We must not be deceived by superficial phenomena and local successes. Picasso's shows still draw crowds, and selfish gene, T. S. Eliot is application letter for teachers philippines taught in the universities; the dealers in modernist art are still in business, and the publishers still publish some difficult poetry. But the avant-garde itself, already sensing the danger, is becoming more and selfish gene essay, more timid every day that passes. Academicism and ways discipline in school essay, commercialism are appearing in the strangest places. This can mean only one thing: that the avant-garde is becoming unsure of the audience it depends on -- the rich and the cultivated. Is it the nature itself of avant-garde culture that is alone responsible for the danger it finds itself in? Or is that only a dangerous liability?
Are there other, and perhaps more important, factors involved? Where there is an avant-garde, generally we also find a rear-guard. True enough -- simultaneously with the entrance of the avant-garde, a second new cultural phenomenon appeared in selfish, the industrial West: that thing to ways to improve discipline in school, which the Germans give the gene wonderful name of Kitsch : popular, commercial art and literature with their chromeotypes, magazine covers, illustrations, ads, slick and pulp fiction, comics, Tin Pan Alley music, tap dancing, Hollywood movies, etc., etc. For some reason this gigantic apparition has always been taken for granted. It is time we looked into its whys and wherefores.
Kitsch is a product of the industrial revolution which urbanized the masses of Western Europe and America and established what is called universal literacy. Prior to this the only market for formal culture, as distinguished from folk culture, had been among those who, in addition to being able to read and ways discipline in school, write, could command the leisure and selfish, comfort that always goes hand in hand with cultivation of some sort. This until then had been inextricably associated with literacy. But with the introduction of universal literacy, the ability to read and write became almost a minor skill like driving a car, and it no longer served to contoh resume kerja, distinguish an individual's cultural inclinations, since it was no longer the selfish exclusive concomitant of resume words, refined tastes. The peasants who settled in the cities as proletariat and petty bourgeois learned to read and write for the sake of selfish gene, efficiency, but they did not win the to improve discipline essay leisure and comfort necessary for the enjoyment of the city's traditional culture.
Losing, nevertheless, their taste for the folk culture whose background was the countryside, and discovering a new capacity for boredom at the same time, the new urban masses set up a pressure on society to provide them with a kind of culture fit for their own consumption. To fill the demand of the gene essay new market, a new commodity was devised: ersatz culture, kitsch, destined for those who, insensible to the values of genuine culture, are hungry nevertheless for the diversion that only for teachers, culture of some sort can provide. Kitsch, using for gene raw material the debased and academicized simulacra of keys, genuine culture, welcomes and cultivates this insensibility. It is the source of its profits. Gene! Kitsch is coast essays mechanical and operates by formulas. Kitsch is selfish gene vicarious experience and faked sensations. Contoh Kerja! Kitsch changes according to selfish, style, but remains always the same.
Kitsch is the epitome of all that is spurious in the life of our times. Kitsch pretends to demand nothing of its customers except their money -- not even their time. The precondition for kitsch, a condition without which kitsch would be impossible, is the availability close at hand of a fully matured cultural tradition, whose discoveries, acquisitions, and perfected self-consciousness kitsch can take advantage of for resume its own ends. It borrows from it devices, tricks, stratagems, rules of thumb, themes, converts them into a system, and discards the rest. It draws its life blood, so to speak, from this reservoir of accumulated experience. This is what is really meant when it is said that the popular art and literature of today were once the daring, esoteric art and selfish, literature of yesterday. Of course, no such thing is true. What is meant is that when enough time has elapsed the new is looted for new twists, which are then watered down and served up as kitsch. Self-evidently, all kitsch is academic; and conversely, all that's academic is kitsch.
For what is in school essay called the academic as such no longer has an independent existence, but has become the selfish essay stuffed-shirt front for kitsch. The methods of industrialism displace the handicrafts. Because it can be turned out mechanically, kitsch has become an integral part of our productive system in a way in which true culture could never be, except accidentally. It has been capitalized at a tremendous investment which must show commensurate returns; it is compelled to extend as well as to keep its markets. While it is letter for teachers philippines essentially its own salesman, a great sales apparatus has nevertheless been created for it, which brings pressure to bear on every member of society. Selfish! Traps are laid even in those areas, so to speak, that are the preserves of discipline, genuine culture. It is not enough today, in a country like ours, to have an inclination towards the latter; one must have a true passion for it that will give him the power to resist the faked article that surrounds and presses in on essay him from the moment he is old enough to look at the funny papers. Kitsch is deceptive.
It has many different levels, and some of them are high enough to be dangerous to the naive seeker of true light. A magazine like the New Yorker , which is fundamentally high-class kitsch for romanticism essay introduction the luxury trade, converts and waters down a great deal of avant-garde material for its own uses. Nor is every single item of kitsch altogether worthless. Now and then it produces something of merit, something that has an authentic folk flavor; and these accidental and isolated instances have fooled people who should know better. Kitsch's enormous profits are a source of temptation to the avant-garde itself, and its members have not always resisted this temptation.
Ambitious writers and artists will modify their work under the pressure of kitsch, if they do not succumb to it entirely. And then those puzzling borderline cases appear, such as the popular novelist, Simenon, in France, and Steinbeck in this country. The net result is essay always to the detriment of true culture in any case. Kitsch has not been confined to the cities in which it was born, but has flowed out over the countryside, wiping out folk culture. Nor has it shown any regard for geographical and national cultural boundaries. Another mass product of Western industrialism, it has gone on a triumphal tour of the resume world, crowding out and defacing native cultures in one colonial country after another, so that it is now by way of becoming a universal culture, the first universal culture ever beheld. Today the native of China, no less than the South American Indian, the selfish Hindu, no less than the Polynesian, have come to prefer to the products of their native art, magazine covers, rotogravure sections and calendar girls. How is this virulence of kitsch, this irresistible attractiveness, to be explained? Naturally, machine-made kitsch can undersell the native handmade article, and the prestige of the West also helps; but why is coast essays kitsch a so much more profitable export article than Rembrandt? One, after all, can be reproduced as cheaply as the other.
In his last article on gene the Soviet cinema in the Partisan Review, Dwight Macdonald points out coast essays that kitsch has in the last ten years become the dominant culture in Soviet Russia. For this he blames the political regime -- not only for gene essay the fact that kitsch is the official culture, but also that it is actually the dominant, most popular culture, and essay, he quotes the following from gene, Kurt London's The Seven Soviet Arts : . . . the essay attitude of the masses both to the old and new art styles probably remains essentially dependent on the nature of the gene essay education afforded them by their respective states. Macdonald goes on to say: Why after all should ignorant peasants prefer Repin (a leading exponent of ways essay, Russian academic kitsch in painting) to selfish, Picasso, whose abstract technique is at least as relevant to their own primitive folk art as is the former's realistic style? No, if the masses crowd into the Tretyakov (Moscow's museum of contemporary Russian art: kitsch), it is largely because they have been conditioned to keys, shun 'formalism' and to admire 'socialist realism.' In the first place it is not a question of a choice between merely the old and merely the new, as London seems to think -- but of a choice between the bad, up-to-date old and the genuinely new. The alternative to selfish gene, Picasso is not Michelangelo, but kitsch. In the second place, neither in backward Russia nor in the advanced West do the masses prefer kitsch simply because their governments condition them toward it. Where state educational systems take the romanticism essay trouble to mention art, we are told to respect the essay old masters, not kitsch; and yet we go and hang Maxfield Parrish or his equivalent on our walls, instead of Rembrandt and Michelangelo. Moreover, as Macdonald himself points out, around 1925 when the Soviet regime was encouraging avant-garde cinema, the Russian masses continued to prefer Hollywood movies. No, conditioning does not explain the potency of kitsch. All values are human values, relative values, in art as well as elsewhere.
Yet there does seem to have been more or less of a general agreement among the cultivated of mankind over the ages as to what is good art and what bad. Taste has varied, but not beyond certain limits; contemporary connoisseurs agree with the eighteenth-century Japanese that Hokusai was one of the greatest artists of his time; we even agree with the ancient Egyptians that Third and Fourth Dynasty art was the most worthy of being selected as their paragon by those who came after. We may have come to kerja, prefer Giotto to Raphael, but we still do not deny that Raphael was one of the best painters of his time. Selfish Gene! There has been an agreement then, and this agreement rests, I believe, on a fairly constant distinction made between those values only to be found in art and the values which can be found elsewhere. Kitsch, by virtue of a rationalized technique that draws on science and industry, has erased this distinction in practice. Left: Repin, Cossacks ; Right: Piacsso, Woman with a Fan. Let us see, for example, what happens when an ignorant Russian peasant such as Macdonald mentions stands with hypothetical freedom of choice before two paintings, one by Picasso, the other by Repin. In the first he sees, let us say, a play of lines, colors and thesis, spaces that represent a woman. Selfish! The abstract technique -- to accept Macdonald's supposition, which I am inclined to doubt -- reminds him somewhat of the icons he has left behind him in the village, and he feels the attraction of the familiar. We will even suppose that he faintly surmises some of the great art values the kerja cultivated find in Picasso.
He turns next to Repin's picture and sees a battle scene. Gene! The technique is not so familiar -- as technique. But that weighs very little with the peasant, for he suddenly discovers values in Repin's picture that seem far superior to the values he has been accustomed to find in romanticism, icon art; and the unfamiliar itself is one of the sources of those values: the values of the vividly recognizable, the miraculous and selfish gene essay, the sympathetic. In Repin's picture the peasant recognizes and sees things in the way in which he recognizes and ways essay, sees things outside of pictures -- there is no discontinuity between art and life, no need to accept a convention and say to oneself, that icon represents Jesus because it intends to represent Jesus, even if it does not remind me very much of a man. That Repin can paint so realistically that identifications are self-evident immediately and without any effort on the part of the spectator -- that is miraculous. The peasant is also pleased by the wealth of self-evident meanings which he finds in selfish essay, the picture: it tells a story. Picasso and the icons are so austere and barren in comparison. What is more, Repin heightens reality and makes it dramatic: sunset, exploding shells, running and falling men.
There is no longer any question of Picasso or icons. Repin is what the peasant wants, and nothing else but Repin. It is lucky, however, for east coast fishery Repin that the peasant is protected from the products of selfish, American capitalism, for essay he would not stand a chance next to a Saturday Evening Post cover by Norman Rockwell. Ultimately, it can be said that the cultivated spectator derives the selfish gene same values from Picasso that the peasant gets from romanticism introduction, Repin, since what the selfish latter enjoys in for teachers, Repin is selfish essay somehow art too, on however low a scale, and he is sent to look at pictures by the same instincts that send the cultivated spectator. Coast! But the ultimate values which the cultivated spectator derives from Picasso are derived at a second remove, as the result of essay, reflection upon the immediate impression left by the plastic values. It is only then that the recognizable, the miraculous and the sympathetic enter. They are not immediately or externally present in Picasso's painting, but must be projected into it by the spectator sensitive enough to react sufficiently to plastic qualities. They belong to application for teachers philippines, the reflected effect. In Repin, on the other hand, the selfish reflected effect has already been included in the picture, ready for the spectator's unreflective enjoyment.(4) Where Picasso paints cause, Repin paints effect.
Repin predigests art for the spectator and spares him effort, provides him with a shore cut to the pleasure of art that detours what is necessarily difficult in genuine art. Repin, or kitsch, is synthetic art. The same point can be made with respect to kitsch literature: it provides vicarious experience for the insensitive with far greater immediacy than serious fiction can hope to do. And Eddie Guest and the Indian Love Lyrics are more poetic than T. S. Eliot and Shakespeare. If the avant-garde imitates the processes of art, kitsch, we now see, imitates its effects. Essay Introduction! The neatness of this antithesis is more than contrived; it corresponds to and defines the tremendous interval that separates from each other two such simultaneous cultural phenomena as the avant-garde and kitsch.
This interval, too great to be closed by gene essay all the infinite gradations of popularized modernism and east, modernistic kitsch, corresponds in turn to a social interval, a social interval that has always existed in formal culture, as elsewhere in selfish gene, civilized society, and whose two termini converge and diverge in fixed relation to on relationship marketing, the increasing or decreasing stability of the given society. There has always been on one side the minority of the powerful -- and therefore the cultivated -- and on the other the great mass of the exploited and essay, poor -- and therefore the ignorant. Formal culture has always belonged to the first, while the keys last have had to content themselves with folk or rudimentary culture, or kitsch. In a stable society that functions well enough to gene essay, hold in romanticism, solution the contradictions between its classes, the cultural dichotomy becomes somewhat blurred. The axioms of the few are shared by the many; the latter believe superstitiously what the former believe soberly. And at such moments in history the masses are able to gene, feel wonder and to improve, admiration for the culture, on no matter how high a plane, of its masters.
This applies at least to plastic culture, which is accessible to all. In the Middle Ages the plastic artist paid lip service at least to the lowest common denominators of experience. This even remained true to some extent until the seventeenth century. There was available for imitation a universally valid conceptual reality, whose order the artist could not tamper with. The subject matter of art was prescribed by those who commissioned works of art, which were not created, as in bourgeois society, on speculation. Precisely because his content was determined in advance, the artist was free to concentrate on his medium. He needed not to selfish, be philosopher, or visionary, but simply artificer. As long as there was general agreement as to romanticism, what were the worthiest subjects for selfish art, the artist was relieved of the necessity to be original and inventive in his matter and contoh resume, could devote all his energy to formal problems. For him the medium became, privately, professionally, the content of his art, even as his medium is today the public content of the gene essay abstract painter's art -- with that difference, however, that the medieval artist had to suppress his professional preoccupation in public -- had always to suppress and subordinate the in school personal and selfish, professional in resume, the finished, official work of art. If, as an essay, ordinary member of the Christian community, he felt some personal emotion about fishery, his subject matter, this only contributed to the enrichment of the work's public meaning. Only with the selfish gene Renaissance do the inflections of the personal become legitimate, still to be kept, however, within the limits of the simply and universally recognizable.
And only resume words, with Rembrandt do lonely artists begin to appear, lonely in their art. But even during the Renaissance, and gene, as long as Western art was endeavoring to perfect its technique, victories in ways in school, this realm could only be signalized by success in realistic imitation, since there was no other objective criterion at hand. Thus the masses could still find in the art of their masters objects of selfish essay, admiration and wonder. Even the bird that pecked at the fruit in Zeuxis' picture could applaud. It is application letter for teachers philippines a platitude that art becomes caviar to the general when the reality it imitates no longer corresponds even roughly to the reality recognized by the general.
Even then, however, the resentment the common man may feel is silenced by the awe in which he stands of the patrons of this art. Only when he becomes dissatisfied with the social order they administer does he begin to criticize their culture. Gene! Then the plebian finds courage for introduction the first time to voice his opinions openly. Every man, from the Tammany alderman to the Austrian house-painter, finds that he is entitled to his opinion. Most often this resentment toward culture is to be found where the dissatisfaction with society is a reactionary dissatisfaction which expresses itself in revivalism and puritanism, and selfish gene essay, latest of all, in fascism. Here revolvers and torches begin to be mentioned in the same breath as culture. In the name of godliness or the blood's health, in the name of simple ways and romanticism introduction, solid virtues, the statue-smashing commences. Returning to our Russian peasant for selfish essay the moment, let us suppose that after he has chosen Repin in preference to Picasso, the contoh state's educational apparatus comes along and tells him that he is wrong, that he should have chosen Picasso -- and shows him why. It is quite possible for the Soviet state to do this.
But things being as they are in Russia -- and everywhere else -- the peasant soon finds the necessity of working hard all day for his living and the rude, uncomfortable circumstances in which he lives do not allow him enough leisure, energy and comfort to train for the enjoyment of Picasso. This needs, after all, a considerable amount of gene essay, conditioning. Superior culture is one of the romanticism essay introduction most artificial of selfish gene, all human creations, and the peasant finds no natural urgency within himself that will drive him toward Picasso in spite of all difficulties. In the romanticism essay introduction end the peasant will go back to kitsch when he feels like looking at pictures, for he can enjoy kitsch without effort. The state is helpless in selfish, this matter and remains so as long as the problems of production have not been solved in a socialist sense. The same holds true, of course, for capitalist countries and makes all talk of art for the masses there nothing but demagogy.(5) Where today a political regime establishes an official cultural policy, it is for the sake of demagogy. If kitsch is the official tendency of culture in Germany, Italy and Russia, it is not because their respective governments are controlled by philistines, but because kitsch is the culture of the application philippines masses in these countries, as it is everywhere else. The encouragement of kitsch is merely another of the inexpensive ways in which totalitarian regimes seek to ingratiate themselves with their subjects. Since these regimes cannot raise the cultural level of the masses -- even if they wanted to -- by anything short of a surrender to gene, international socialism, they will flatter the masses by bringing all culture down to their level.
It is for application philippines this reason that the avant-garde is outlawed, and not so much because a superior culture is inherently a more critical culture. (Whether or not the avant-garde could possibly flourish under a totalitarian regime is not pertinent to the question at this point.) As a matter of fact, the main trouble with avant-garde art and literature, from the point of view of fascists and Stalinists, is not that they are too critical, but that they are too innocent, that it is too difficult to inject effective propaganda into them, that kitsch is more pliable to this end. Kitsch keeps a dictator in essay, closer contact with the soul of the people. Resume! Should the selfish official culture be one superior to the general mass-level, there would be a danger of isolation. Nevertheless, if the masses were conceivably to ask for avant-garde art and literature, Hitler, Mussolini and letter, Stalin would not hesitate long in attempting to satisfy such a demand. Hitler is a bitter enemy of the avant-garde, both on doctrinal and selfish essay, personal grounds, yet this did not prevent Goebbels in 1932-1933 from strenuously courting avant-garde artists and writers. When Gottfried Benn, an Expressionist poet, came over to romanticism essay introduction, the Nazis he was welcomed with a great fanfare, although at that very moment Hitler was denouncing Expressionism as Kulturbolschewismus . This was at a time when the Nazis felt that the prestige which the avant-garde enjoyed among the cultivated German public could be of advantage to selfish gene, them, and practical considerations of this nature, the Nazis being skillful politicians, have always taken precedence over Hitler's personal inclinations. Later the Nazis realized that it was more practical to for teachers philippines, accede to the wishes of the masses in matters of culture than to those of their paymasters; the latter, when it came to gene, a question of preserving power, were as willing to sacrifice their culture as they were their moral principles; while the thesis on relationship former, precisely because power was being withheld from them, had to be cozened in every other way possible. Selfish Gene! It was necessary to promote on a much more grandiose style than in the democracies the illusion that the masses actually rule.
The literature and art they enjoy and romanticism, understand were to be proclaimed the only true art and literature and any other kind was to be suppressed. Under these circumstances people like Gottfried Benn, no matter how ardently they support Hitler, become a liability; and we hear no more of them in selfish, Nazi Germany. We can see then that although from one point of view the resume keys personal philistinism of Hitler and selfish gene essay, Stalin is not accidental to the roles they play, from another point of view it is only an incidentally contributory factor in determining the for teachers philippines cultural policies of their respective regimes. Their personal philistinism simply adds brutality and double-darkness to policies they would be forced to support anyhow by selfish gene essay the pressure of all their other policies -- even were they, personally, devotees of avant-garde culture. What the acceptance of the isolation of the Russian Revolution forces Stalin to do, Hitler is compelled to do by his acceptance of the contradictions of thesis marketing, capitalism and his efforts to freeze them. As for Mussolini -- his case is a perfect example of the disponsibilité of a realist in these matters.
For years he bent a benevolent eye on the Futurists and built modernistic railroad stations and government-owned apartment houses. Selfish! One can still see in the suburbs of Rome more modernistic apartments than almost anywhere else in the world. Perhaps Fascism wanted to show its up-to-dateness, to conceal the fact that it was a retrogression; perhaps it wanted to conform to the tastes of the wealthy elite it served. At any rate Mussolini seems to have realized lately that it would be more useful to resume words, him to please the cultural tastes of the Italian masses than those of their masters. The masses must be provided with objects of admiration and wonder; the selfish gene latter can dispense with them. And so we find Mussolini announcing a new Imperial style. Marinetti, Chirico, et al ., are sent into the outer darkness, and the new railroad station in Rome will not be modernistic.
That Mussolini was late in coming to this only illustrates again the relative hesitance with which Italian Fascism has drawn the necessary implications of its role. Capitalism in decline finds that whatever of to improve discipline, quality it is still capable of producing becomes almost invariably a threat to its own existence. Gene! Advances in culture, no less than advances in philippines, science and industry, corrode the very society under whose aegis they are made possible. Here, as in every other question today, it becomes necessary to quote Marx word for word. Today we no longer look toward socialism for a new culture -- as inevitably as one will appear, once we do have socialism.
Today we look to socialism simply for the preservation of whatever living culture we have right now. 1. The example of selfish, music, which has long been an abstract art, and which avant-garde poetry has tried so much to emulate, is interesting. For Teachers Philippines! Music, Aristotle said curiously enough, is the most imitative and vivid of all arts because it imitates its original -- the state of the soul -- with the greatest immediacy. Gene! Today this strikes us as the exact opposite of the truth, because no art seems to us to have less reference to something outside itself than music. However, aside from the fact that in a sense Aristotle may still be right, it must be explained that ancient Greek music was closely associated with poetry, and depended upon to improve in school essay its character as an accessory to verse to make its imitative meaning clear. Plato, speaking of music, says: For when there are no words, it is very difficult o recognize the meaning of the harmony and rhythm, or to see that any worthy object is imitated by them. Selfish Gene Essay! As far as we know, all music originally served such an accessory function. Once, however, it was abandoned, music was forced to withdraw into itself to find a constraint or original. This is found in the various means of its own composition and performance. Return to text
2. I owe this formulation to a remark made by Hans Hofmann, the art teacher, in ways to improve in school, one of his lectures. From the point of view of this formulation, Surrealism in plastic art is a reactionary tendency which is attempting to restore outside subject matter. The chief concern of a painter like Dali is to represent the selfish processes and ways to improve essay, concepts of his consciousness, not the processes of his medium. Return to text 4. Gene Essay! T. S. For Teachers! Eliot said something to the same effect in accounting for the shortcomings of English Romantic poetry. Indeed the Romantics can be considered the original sinners whose guilt kitsch inherited. They showed kitsch how. What does Keats write about mainly, if not the effect of poetry upon selfish gene essay himself? Return to text 5. It will be objected that such art for the masses as folk art was developed under rudimentary conditions of production -- and that a good deal of folk art is on a high level.
Yes it is -- but folk art is not Athene, and it's Athene whom we want: formal culture with its infinity of essays, aspects, its luxuriance, its large comprehension. Besides, we are now told that most of what we consider good in folk culture is the static survival of gene essay, dead formal, aristocratic, cultures. Our old English ballads, for instance, were not created by the folk, but by the post-feudal squirearchy of the English countryside, to survive in the mouths of the folk long after those for whom the ballads were composed had gone on to other forms of literature. Unfortunately, until the machine age, culture was the exclusive prerogative of discipline, a society that lived by selfish gene the labor of serfs or slaves. Marketing! They were the real symbols of culture. For one man to spend time and selfish essay, energy creating or listening to poetry meant that another man had to produce enough to keep himself alive and the former in discipline, comfort.
In Africa today we find that the culture of gene essay, slave-owning tribes is generally much superior to romanticism essay, that of the tribes that possess no slaves. Return to text
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The Selfish Gene Essay -- Biology …
Research paper topics, free example research papers. You are welcome to search thousands of free research papers and essays. Search for your research paper topic now! . oon became the selfish, guidebooks for passage through a successful trip. (Westhues 40-41) Through his writing, he spread the hippie motto of Turn on, Tune in, Drop Out. Ken Keseys acid tests and his adventures with the Pranksters drew further attention to the acid movement, as it came to application, be known. In The Electric Kool Aid Acid Test, an account of gene essay, his adventures, he metaphorically states, There are going to be times, when we cant wait for somebody. Resume Words. Now, youre either on the bus or off the bus. If youre on the bus, and you get left behind, then youll find it again.
If youre off the bus in the first place- then it wont make a damn. Youre either on the busor off the bus (Wolfe 74). The hippies believ . Narrator Influence The role of the selfish, narrator influences the type of relationship we have not only with him or her but also with the story (Landy 75). This quote was taken from our Literary Studies book in which we have read several stories concerning different styles of narration. Narration is one of the most important components of a story. The characters, plot, setting, and theme are also significant, however the narrator sets the mood and also the pace of the story. Application. Two good examples of narration is the short tale The Zebra Storyteller by Spencer Holst and The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman. These are stories in which the narrators retain certain styles of narration. Gene Essay. An out . -------------------------------------------------- ---------------------- As promised, here are the derived characters with which Gauthier (in his 1986 paper) unites Archaeopteryx with modern birds, outside of all other theropods (with Gauthier's original clarifiers in parens) [and with my editorial comments in brackets]: Premaxillae elongate, narrow, and more pointed anteriorly, with longer nasal processes [similar condition in on relationship marketing, bullatosaurs, and in the nondinosaurian Megalancosaurus, but unique to Archie and later birds in selfish essay, Maniraptora]. Essay. Maxillary process of premaxilla reduced so that maxilla participates broadly in external naris (also in troodontids). Enlarged brain/basicranium (temporal mu . The Privileged Position Of Business THE PRIVILEGED POSITION OF BUSINESS Hudson first states what he believes to gene, be the central assumption of the Pluralist description of American politics that there is no one dominant group in American Society.
He argues that there is a dominant group, business. I agree that the pluralist ideology is wrong and that business is contoh very dominant in our political society. He continues by stating that there are two faces of the political privilege of selfish, business. The first involves business actively manipulating the political system to obtain their political objectives. Hudson starts by stating that the first aspect, that of the active manipulating of the political . . eplied, There werent no rats in the building, so someone must have brought this one from outside. (page 7) These dead rats truly symbolize the plague being spread from one unexpecting place to to improve in school essay, another before the people had even begun to worry. As the death number continued to rise, a telegram was sent from the Prefect that read, Proclaim a state of plague stop close town. (page 61) Even though this was the only means to be taken by the authorities, it shows that the people are giving up the battle against the plague and they are trying to fence in the disease and the people. One could read into this that the authorities have decided to sacrifice the unlucky people of Oran. This state of . Tartuffe: Morals And Ethics Tartuffe: Morals and Ethics From the moment of our conception, who we are and how we will one day believe and behave is completely laid out for us. Truly our upbringing and everyday environment play a role in who we are and how we present ourselves but, the reality is, we are who we are meant to be. We each serve a very specific purpose in life.
Granted some of us are blessed with a more dignified role, and others, well, were not as lucky in the casting department. Selfish Gene. However, within those of us who were graciously bestowed a sense of morality, lies a specific amount of morals, or ethics. On Relationship. The question of course, is how much and why, why do we believe as we do. Well, . Emerging Markets Abstract: Focuses on the United States government's policy on the Big Emerging Markets (BEM), which include the Chinese Economic Area, South Korea, Indonesia, India, South Africa, Poland, Turkey, Mexico, Brazil and Argentina. BEMs' investment on infrastructure projects; BEM's share of global gross domestic product; Projected increases in world imports; Lessons learned from the BEM strategy. THE BIG EMERGING MARKETS During his tenure as Under Secretary of Commerce, the gene essay, author was one of the to improve discipline, architects of the Clinton administration's Big Emerging Markets policy under Secretary of essay, Commerce Ron Brown. He is now dean of the Yale School of Management. The Clinton policy emerged ou . . Words. grow together much more closely than ever before. This growth again shows how Huck believes that Jim is his equal, and not a subordinate.
The scene in which Huck matures the most because of the selfish essay, King and the Duke is when the group hears of the death of Mr. Wilkes. Contoh Kerja. This man, who had a substantial amount of money, had willed it to not only his relatives in America, but also his brothers in England. The King and gene essay, Duke pretend to be his brothers from coast fishery England, and come to selfish gene essay, collect their inheritance money. Of course that just isnt enough for the two, so by sheer generosity, they selflessly give up their share of the inheritance money. By this display of caring the two manage to application letter philippines, twist events to selfish essay, t . Huck Finn Themes Themes The primary theme of the novel is the conflict between civilization and for teachers, natural life. Huck represents natural life through his freedom of essay, spirit, his uncivilized ways, and his desire to escape from essay civilization. He was brought up without any rules and has a strong resistance to anything that might sivilize him.
This conflict is introduced in the first chapter through the efforts of the Widow Douglas: she tries to force Huck to wear new clothes, give up smoking, and to learn the selfish essay, Bible. Throughout the romanticism introduction, novel, Twain seems to suggest that the uncivilized way of life is better; he draws on the ideas of Jean-Jacques Rousseau in his belief that civilization corrupts rather th . The Daewoo Group Organization MSA 650: Organizational Theory Sunday, March 19, 2000 DAEWOO GROUP ORGANIZATION FACTS: Woo-Chong Kim founded the Daewoo Group in 1967. Selfish Essay. It became one of the Big Four chaebol in South Korea. Daewoo is an industrial and fishery, multi-faceted service conglomerate. Daewoo was prominent in expanding its global market through joint ventures all over the world. During the gene, 1960s, after the downfall of the Syngman Rhee government, the new government intervened to promote growth and development in the country.
They increased access to resources, promoted exports, financed industrialization, and provided protection from competition. Resume. In exchange for gene a company's loyalty, the east, governme . . breadth, complexity and multidimensionality, in focusing on a fragment of a much larger statement when she states categorically that 'women's supposed complicated, pain-enduring, multipleasured physicality hardly seems a very hopeful basis on which to build resistance to their social subordination. ' (14) Well no, it wouldn't be, if that were actually what Rich was proposing. I turn to a fragment from Integrity, from A Wild Patience to illustrate something of the complexity to be found in selfish gene, the poetry This extract is from 'Integrity', collected in A Wild Patience: Anger and tenderness: my selves. And now I can believe they breathe in application philippines, me as angels, not polarities. Selfish Gene. Anger and tenderness: the . Volstead Act The Volstead Act of 1919 was the contoh resume, law that made the sale of gene essay, alcoholic beverages illegal, supporters of this act thought that this would make the country better as a whole. They said this law would lower crime rates and would increase the health of Americans. This law did the ways discipline in school, exact opposite of what they expected, overnight this law created a black market that lead to the rise of organized crime. The health of people who drank alcoholic beverages also decreased because there was no quality control in the illegal market.
Thousands of selfish essay, Americans were poisoned by the impurities of the romanticism essay, illegal Alcohol. These are just some of the reasons why I think that Prohibition was not the best law . ALFRED HITCHCOCK He was known to his audiences as the 'Master of Suspense' and what Hitchcock mastered was not only the art of making films but also the selfish gene, task of taming his own imagination. Director of many works such as Vertigo, Psycho, The Birds and The 39 steps, Hitchcock told his stories through intelligent plots, witty dialogue and tales of mystery and murder. In doing so, he inspired a new generation of film makers and revolutionized the thriller film, making him a legend around the world. His brilliance was sometimes too bright: He was hated as well as loved. Hitchcock was unusual, inventive, impassioned, yet demanding. Alfred Joseph Hitchcock was born on August 13, 1899(Sennet 108). H . Dualism I believe that the keys words, popular or ghost in the machine form of substance dualism best solves the mind body problem. My views in this area have been influenced by my twelve years of Catholic education. Selfish Gene Essay. The soul, or mind, depending on your level of belief, was a complete and separate entity and was the romanticism essay introduction, center of a human being. The body was an ambulatory device that the soul directed.
The idea that the mind is a separate entity and that it is independent of the selfish gene essay, physical body is the central point of substance dualism. Churchland explains that substance dualism claims that the mind is a distinct nonphysical thing, a complete nonphysical entity that is independent of any physical body to contoh, whi . Conflict Or Order Crystal Weigel November 7, 2000 Conflict or Order: Satisfaction With Everyday Life in the US Introduction The motivation of this attitude survey is to test structural-functional model and the social conflict model for how society works in the United States. The social-functional paradigm is gene essay a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability. Basically this is an idea that our lives are guided by stable patterns of social patterns which are determined by on relationship the consequences for the operation of society. The social-conflict paradigm is a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of . Heart of Darkness - Cruelty In Joseph Conrad's book Heart of Darkness the Europeans are cut off from civilization, overtaken by greed, exploitation, and material interests from his own kind. Conrad develops themes of personal power, individual responsibility, and social justice. His book has all the essay, trappings of the conventional adventure tale - mystery, exotic setting, escape, suspense, unexpected attack. The book is a record of things seen and done by Conrad while in the Belgian Congo. Conrad uses Marlow, the resume keys, main character in the book, as a narrator so he himself can enter the story and tell it out of his own philosophical mind. Conrad's voyages to selfish, the Atlantic and resume keys, Pacific, and the coasts . Ebola Virus The Ebola Virus Cause of Disorder Ebola is a virus and selfish, part of the negative-stranded RNA family known as filovirus.
It was discovered in 1976 in Africa and was named after a river in Zaire. When the virus is looked at under an electron microscope the fishery essays, filoviridae appear as being long, thin and occasionally they have 'branches' sprouting from one place or another. Ebola can also take the form of a 'U' or a 'b'. There are four known strains of the virus; they are Ebola Sudan, Ebola Zaire, Ebola Reston and Ebola Tai. Ebola Reston only causes disease in gene essay, monkeys but as the rest of them take approximately 8 hours to duplicate itself. How is it Transmitted The Ebola virus can easily be t . Medicinal Marijuana: A Wonder Drug Or Danger To Society? Cannabis sativa, most commonly known as marijuana, has been used for discipline in school essay recreational and selfish gene essay, medical purposes for contoh thousands of years.
Many have smoked marijuana to experience the essay, drug's psychedelic effects, while others use the drug to treat various illnesses and pain. Within the past century, however, the drug's medicinal value has come under much scrutiny. Those supporting the essay, legalization of marijuana feel that the gene essay, government has withheld a soothing drug from on relationship marketing those who are suffering from severe illnesses, and as a result, these advocates find the gene, government to letter, be uncompassionate to those in gene essay, pain. Nevertheless, those against the legalizatio . A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man A Portrait of Stephen Dedalus as a Young Man A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is above all a portrait of Stephen Dedalus. It is through Stephen that we see his world, and it is coast his development from sensitive child to rebellious young man that forms the plot of the novel. There are many Stephens, often contradictory. He is selfish gene essay fearful yet bold, insecure yet proud, lonely and at the same time afraid of ways discipline in school essay, love.
One Stephen is a romantic who daydreams of selfish, swashbuckling heroes and romanticism, virginal heroines. The other is selfish a realist at home on Dublin's most sordid streets. One Stephen is too shy to kiss the young lady he yearns for. The other readily turns to application philippines, prostitu . The Civil War The Civil War During both the civil war and civil war reconstruction time periods, there were many changes going on in the Union. The Emancipation Proclamation, as well as legislation such as the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth amendments, was causing a new awakening of democracy; while the renouncing of secession by the South marked a definite triumph for Nationalism.
As well, the government was involved in selfish gene, altercations of resume, its own. During reconstruction, the legislative and executive branches eventually came to blows over gene, the use of power. Marketing. The nation was being altered by forces which caused, and later repaired, a broken Union. The first of these forces, was the expansion .
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The Selfish Gene - Wikipedia
6 Things Attorneys and Law Students Need to Remove from Their Resumes ASAP If They Want to selfish gene essay, Get Jobs with the Most Prestigious Law Firms. At the highest levels, legal recruiters put an resume kerja incredible amount of thought into how you are perceived. You can drastically increase your odds of essay, getting hired by removing various items from your resume. If this is all too much for you … then just have your legal resume professionally done. Resume? See Attorney Resume. If you submit your resume here, I will review it and give you some feedback.
Overview. Selfish Essay? With a resume, you are applying to be a firm#39;s employee and go to work for them. Romanticism? Your resume is essentially an application. Selfish Gene Essay? Everyone in the legal community knows what going to ways to improve discipline, Stanford Law School and being a second-year associate at Mayer Brown means. Gene Essay? Everyone in application letter for teachers philippines the legal community knows what going to University of Chicago and spending eight years at essay, Kirkland Ellis means. If you are in contoh resume law school and looking for your first job, everyone knows what going to Duke for college and being in the top half of your class at selfish gene essay, Columbia Law School means. While I hate to be so generic, this is really (for the most part), the most important information for keys large law firms hiring laterally or hiring people out of gene, law school. Everything else on your resume presents a giant opportunity for you to mess up. The most important thing most big firm attorneys can do is strip down (and not puff up) their resumes . Application Letter Philippines? The more crap that is on there, the more reasons people can find not to gene essay, hire you. If you take one thing from this article, you need to understand that. Most large law firms do not like people who try to thesis on relationship marketing, stick out.
In their experience, these people can be problems: they will leave if they do not get lots of praise, may turn on the firm and selfish gene essay, undermine morale, are likely to seek unnecessary attention from letter for teachers, clients (and may even try and steal them), and are most likely to leave if something better comes along. Selfish? Being in a large law firm requires a lot of selflessness: You need to let partners, senior associates and others take credit for your hard work. You need to put in time before large rewards come. You need to be working for the team and to improve essay, the group and not just your own self-interests. You need to be motivated to work hard even when there is no immediate benefit. You need to stay with the law firm when things are bad and not leave at the first signs of trouble. If your resume gives any indication to law firms that you are anything other than a soldier, you are going to look like an asshole and will have a difficult time getting hired. Gene Essay? It is not about you. It is never about you. Resume Keys? It is selfish about the employer. Essay Introduction? 1. Too Many Personal Details.
Avid hunter and outdoorsman. Depending on where you are located, a number of the people you are interviewing in are not going to be too impressed with the fact that you enjoy killing animals in your spare time. This is not a good idea. While this may work in certain states more than others, it is simply not smart to have on selfish gene essay, there. If you piss off just one interviewer, this will harm you. Member of the First Baptist Church. Nothing wrong with being part of a church.
However, if you are interviewing with a law firm in a large city, the odds are pretty good you will be interviewing with gays, Jews and people of various religions and contoh resume, backgrounds. Broadcasting that you are part of a particular religion is not a good idea. Member of the gay law students association. There is nothing wrong with being gay (and proud of it!) but you need to understand that many people in law firms may have very conservative views about sexual orientation. Gene? There are plenty of gay attorneys in most law firms in big cities, but they got their jobs without advertising this on their resumes. There are people in every law firm that have prejudices against gays. Why would you put this on your resume? Member of the Black Law Students Association. Sadly, many law schools and recruiters urge people to marketing, put their race on their resumes so they will be more likely to be hired.
Their thinking is that broadcasting your race will make law firms more likely to hire you. What if the selfish essay, firm has recently been sued for racial discrimination? What if the firm has hired a series of non-performers who were of a particular race? Your objective is to get a job. My experience has shown: If I send out two equally qualified attorneys who are black (same practice area, caliber of law schools and kerja, law firms), and one has a bunch of selfish, stuff about application philippines, their race on their resume and the other does not, the person without the racial information is more likely to essay, get interviewed and hired. Discrimination? Maybe. Or, it could just be that the law firm does not like the person playing the race card to try and get a leg up on the competition. Alternatively, interviewers want to feel the person got hired on their merits and not because the ways to improve discipline essay, resume advertised their race.
Member of the Muslim Law Students Association. Same logic as above. Why put something on your resume that is going to possibly alienate others? After September 11th, I remember several people with this on their resumes that were blackballed in essay the entire city of resume keys words, New York and could not get jobs despite incredible qualifications. Essay? Obviously, there was discrimination going on there, but it would be insane to leave this on your resume. Member of the Jewish Law Students Association.
Anything that can alienate others should be removed from your resume. Missionary for two years (LDS) in Brazil. Do Mormons approve of gays? Weren#39;t blacks barred until the 1970s from marketing, holding the Mormon priesthood? You get the idea.
Why risk alienating others? Married mother of selfish essay, three. Coast Fishery? Married? You are gorgeous but not that qualified. I#39;m moving on. I spend my life in this office and am looking for a potential mate to be my associate! Never a good idea to put this on your resume. Don#39;t kill the messenger here (this is just how many attorneys think). Three kids? Does that mean you are going to be jumping up during meetings to take phone calls from your kids?
Does that mean that that you are going to miss work when they get sick? What if you cannot find childcare? Creative email address. While I have taken a bit of liberty here, I#39;ve seen some emails like this in the recent past: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] . I#39;m not kidding. These are more common than you think. If you were a billion dollar corporation hiring an gene essay attorney (or a law firm that hired attorneys to work on matters for large corporations like this), would you want someone with an email address like this? Leave this stuff off of ways to improve, your resume.
No one wants to see it. Make sure your personal email address is essay professional. Your work email address. This is resume very common. Really? You want us to communicate with you at your work email address?
What this says is pretty simple: c. I must not respect my employer very much. d. I must not be very loyal. Selfish? e. I must not care what my employer thinks of me. f. I do not care if my employer learns I am looking for a job on their time. Application Letter For Teachers? g. Maybe I was fired and selfish, my employer knows I am looking which is east fishery why I don#39;t care (hey, I#39;m bad at my job anyway!) h. I will do the same to you if you hire me! An email address like Harvard.edu, Stanford.edu, UChicago.edu, Princeton.edu, Yale.edu. You went to gene, a prestigious college or law school! Good for you! What have you done since then? Do you think you need to advertise what a great school you went to? I went to Ohio State you arrogant asshole!
Get a Gmail or similar personal email address. There are people everywhere that use their law schools or colleges as a badge of superiority, and it pisses a lot of people off who do not have the contoh, same credentials. Many people in selfish gene large law firms grew up poor and worked very hard to in school, get into prestigious state schools that their parents could afford and then worked very hard once they were in college. Princeton? Are you kidding? 2. Irrelevant Work Experience and Education.
Left a law firm and started a business (with a description of the business). You started a business and failed? Sorry, our law firm does not hire people who fail. What#39;s wrong? You did not like practicing law? You think you are better than us? People leave law firms all the time to selfish gene essay, start businesses and letter philippines, want to gene essay, come back. It is thesis marketing rare that large law firms will ever welcome these attorneys. Gene Essay? Large law firms are sort of kerja, like medieval guilds from selfish gene, which you can never return once you leave. The biggest issue with leaving a large law firm is that, in almost 100% of the cases, the ways to improve discipline essay, person who leaves to start his own business will do so again and be plotting their escape from the second they step back in the door.
In addition, these people are a threat to partners because they could steal their business. These attorneys are rarely hired. Essay? This telegraphs a lack of deferring your wants to a group as well as other issues. HOW TO TELL IF YOU ARE MORE OF AN ENTREPRENEUR THAN AN ATTORNEY: I know a guy that makes over resume kerja, $500,000 a year (in cash) washing windows in a suburb outside of Detroit. He has been doing this for decades. He has two pickup trucks and about $1,000 in equipment (4 or 5 ladders, some rags, squeegees and selfish gene essay, buckets). He hires people for $10 an hour to go to homes to clean windows during the spring and fall. He works about six months a year. Ways To Improve In School? Would you rather do this or work as an attorney for $180,000 a year?
Personally, I would rather be an gene attorney due to the sense of a higher purpose, working with talented people and other reasons. Many people would rather run the window washing business. If this is you, you are far more of an romanticism entrepreneur than an attorney. Essay? Took business courses while at a law firm and got a certificate. Essay? Wait a minute.
You took a six-week course in financial accounting while working full time as a litigation associate at Jones Day? Are you serious? I have seen intellectual property attorneys list real estate courses they took at New York University Law School and corporate attorneys list courses they took in How to be an entrepreneur. Anything that shows a lack of commitment to being an attorney should not be on there. If you are a tax attorney that took a bunch of classes in tax law, that should be on your resume. Just do not put anything on there that is likely to detract from selfish gene, showing your commitment to resume keys words, being an attorney. Selfish? Too much emphasis on what you did as an undergraduate.
You were in a fraternity? You must be the type of thesis marketing, person who made it difficult for me to sleep when you were partying all night while I was trying to gene, get good grades in college. Application Letter? If you played a varsity sport in college, or were president of some non-polarizing student organization (think CHESS CLUB and not REPUBLICANS AGAINST ABORTION) then it is fine to have this on gene essay, your resume. In general, though, no one cares about: Your race Your religion Your pro-feminist leanings Your socialist leanings Your political affiliation Your sexual orientation. Why on earth would you put any club, organization or other information on your resume that would force an interviewer to choose sides? Wars, protests and killings occur due to peoples#39; passion for one religion, political affiliation and other organizations.
Leave this off your resume. Jobs prior to law school that are irrelevant or do not help to show you in a good light. If you worked for three years at a top American accounting firm, law firm, or investment bank prior to law school, this is good. It shows your commitment to being part of the labor force and resume, working hard. If you worked as a waiter, nanny, or some other less-than-serious job, this is unlikely to impress employers. If you were in the military, a policeman, fireman, or did something else that society values, then that position is selfish fine to leave on your resume. For Teachers? You just do not want anything on there that shows you are not a high performer. Bar in selfish gene essay a different state despite the fact that you have only ever worked in coast one state. Many attorneys take the essay, bar exam in coast fishery the state they are from and where they are working.
Someone from California working in New York may take the California Bar Exam in addition to the New York Bar Exam. Someone in Chicago may take the bar exam in Florida. This does not help you. Having a bar in a different jurisdiction (unless this is where you are applying) simply shows that you are interested in working somewhere else and probably will at some point. Anything that does not show your 100% commitment to the location where you are working is suspect and can disqualify you from jobs. Essay? Take this off your resume. Parenting time between jobs. Women sometimes take years off between jobs. In the experience of 95% of legal employers, if a woman takes more than a year off, she is (1) unlikely to philippines, come back to selfish gene, the workforce for thesis long, or (2) is likely to jump around to jobs seeking less and less accountability when she does come back. Selfish Gene? Law firms want people who are 100% committed and willing to work hard.
If you took off more than a few months after having children, law firms will assume that you were not 100% committed to your firm and its clients. Your class rank and words, grade point average (unless it is extraordinary) . Many attorneys are proud to have graduated in the top half of gene essay, their class or earned a 3.0 grade point average. The problem with doing something like this is that it draws attention to the fact that you were nowhere near the best. On Relationship? Why on earth would a large law firm hire you if you are not the best? RULES FOR WHEN TO LIST CLASS RANK AND GRADE POINT AVERAGE ON RESUME. Top 10 law school: If you were in the top 20% this is fine. I still do not recommend this, though.
If you were in the top 10%, I recommend this. Selfish Gene Essay? Top 11-25 law school: Top 10% and letter for teachers philippines, above is OK. Gene? I recommend this, though, in the top 5% only. Second-tier law school: Top 5%. Third-tier law school: Top 5%.
Fourth-tier: Only list if you were #1 through #5 in resume keys your class. Skills that everyone should have as an attorney. Selfish Essay? You are being paid to analyze complex legal matters as an attorney. Putting on your resume that you understand Westlaw and application for teachers, Lexis, or are proficient in Microsoft Word is insane. I see this every day, however. Please get this off your resume. You make yourself look really stupid when you list this on your resume. If you are a person with a high school education applying to work in a records room, this is fine. It does not belong on the resume of an attorney seeking a position in a major US law firm, however.
Grades in law school classes (or worse yet, college classes). This is something I see all the time too. No one cares. Selfish Essay? If you take the time to essay, talk about your best grades, people will assume that the rest of them were not that good. Leave this off. It makes you look like you are not big firm material. Classes you took in law school.
No one cares about this either. If you list this, you look weak as well. The fact that you took corporations in law school does not qualify you to be a corporate attorney . Gene Essay? Your mind, ability to think, motivation and application for teachers philippines, a bunch of selfish essay, other factors are more relevant to this than anything else. Titles of papers and in school essay, theses that you wrote in selfish gene essay college or law school that show anything other than your commitment to practicing law. For whatever reason, people continually put this stuff on their resume, and it is not helpful. If you are a patent attorney and wrote about something science-related that#39;s great; however, for on relationship marketing the most part, looking like an intellectual is selfish not the smartest thing you can do. Coast Fishery Essays? With the exception of appellate attorneys, most attorneys are not that intellectual and selfish gene essay, are expected to reach conclusions in a direct way without massive analysis. I have seen attorneys list topics like: Why Corporations are Cheating Americans Out of application letter philippines, a Middle Class Life An Analysis of Female Genital Mutilation Ceremonies in the African Subcontinent Why Gays and Lesbians Need Separate Proms: A Case for Separate But Equal in Public Education Why Black Reparations Should be Priority #1 of the selfish, Obama Administration Plato v. Socrates and the Foundations of Western Empiricism An attorney sitting in a small office in a high rise who has been working 50 hours a week for thesis decades for demanding clients in essay an ultra-competitive environment has no time for that nonsense. If you are sitting around writing that sort of words, stuff while he is selfish gene essay proofreading a 200-page stock prospectus for the eighth time at 2:00 a.m. on Sunday morning, you are not going to identify with him. Essay Introduction? He also does not have much time for people with these sorts of interests.
In addition, why are you interested in this crap anyway? A ridiculous regurgitation of stuff everyone in your position does. There are certain things every litigator does (respond to gene, discovery, conduct legal research, write memos, draft motions, draft discovery and review documents). Putting this on your resume makes you look like a moron. Get it off there! If you drafted an appeal to the US Supreme Court, or did a trial you can put this on kerja, there.
Other than that, everyone knows what Litigation Associate at selfish essay, Morrison Foerster means. If you have specific experience (environmental law, intellectual property litigation and fishery essays, other subject matter expertise), then it is useful to leave this information on your resume. It is just not a good idea to have mundane tasks on selfish gene essay, your resume that everyone who has this position does. This is no different than a waiter writing Waited on tables on their resume. East Coast? Use of colors and fancy/unusual fonts. For some people, their resume becomes an art project. For attorneys and law students applying to large law firms, their experience speaks for itself. If you draw attention to yourself with crazy fonts and colors, you are just going to selfish gene, look weird. It would be no different than wearing a pink suit to a funeral when everyone else is wearing black. You are applying to work in a giant law firm and be part of romanticism essay, a group of people who are (1) conforming, (2) working together and (3) basically pretty dry.
If your resume looks too different or strange, people are going to assume you are strange. You do not want to look strange. Your objective is to get a job. Listing words for HR software on gene essay, the top of the resume. Someone out romanticism essay, there is selfish gene essay telling attorneys to do this. I have literally seen resumes with words like this at to improve in school, the top right under the selfish gene essay, person#39;s name: attorney, lawyer, counselor, litigation, law firm attorney, Westlaw, Lexis, AV Rated.
Huh. If you are the one doing this to legal resumes, PLEASE STOP! You are doing incredible amounts of damage to good people. Putting your objective on the resume. This one confuses me so much. Let me make something clear: Most law firms where the average partner makes over essay, $1 million a year ASSUME that everyone wants to work there. You do not need to put something like some of the statements I have seen on gene essay, your resume: Objective: To get a job with a major US law firm. Objective: To work at introduction, an international law firm with a strong patent practice. Objective: To find a law firm that affords me the opportunity to have work-life balance while working on gene essay, sophisticated matters. Shut up! No one cares what your objective is.
In addition, if your objective is to simply work at a huge law firm then why us? Your resume should get you in ways to improve in school the door and then allow you to make your case. No giant law firm is going to hire you with this crap on your resume. If you are applying for a high-paying and demanding job with a giant law firm, that is your objective. Do not waste space on your resume with this. Putting References Available upon Request on the resume. Are you kidding? If you are interviewing for a $250,000 a year job (or one with the potential to pay that much in a few years), you better believe you will need references. Selfish? The law firm is likely to review all of your social media profiles, run a light background check and find out what they can about contoh resume kerja, you before ever hiring you (and some cases even before bringing you in the door for an interview).
You better believe you will need references. Do not waste any law firm#39;s time putting this on your resume. In addition, it sounds pretty presumptuous. Putting a summary of yourself on gene essay, your resume. Here are some that come to mind I#39;ve seen recently: Ivy league-educated corporate attorney currently practicing at contoh, the law firm ranked as the 32nd largest in the world. Fearsome, aggressive and tenacious litigator able to bond easily with clients and opposing counsel. (This was a first-year attorney.) Great! Again, no one cares. Is that how you see yourself: Ivy league-educated? Most of our attorneys went to gene, the University of Minnesota. You sound like a pompous asshole!
Our law firm is not even in the top 200 largest law firms. Thesis On Relationship Marketing? Is that all that matters to selfish essay, you? Why are you applying here? Patent Attorneys. You should put together a list of patents you have written or assisted with. You should always have this second page attached. Long, professional scientific resumes (a second resume) are also sometimes requested by law firms. Corporate and keys, Real Estate Attorneys. Deals and transactions you have worked on (with names of clients omitted). You can send this regardless of whether it is asked for (and should). Litigators.
Many law firms will ask for writing samples. Copies of briefs you have signed that you are proud of are fine to send (when asked). Selfish Gene? Cooking Animals Reading historical Judaic literature Spending time with your family Volunteering at church Horseback riding Polo Golf If you have benign interests like cooking, this is not going to impress most law firms. In general, I recommend leaving your interests off. You should generally only have interests on resume keys words, your resume that are relevant to the job.
Otherwise, leave them off. Using giant words that not everyone knows. Attorneys are paid to selfish gene essay, communicate clearly and concisely. Judges, corporations and others that they are dealing with are not interested in hearing words that draw attention to the attorney and away from whatever the issue is. Your resume should not use large words that draw attention to your vocabulary.
No one cares. You are being hired to serve others and communicate clearly and concisely. Using adjectives to romanticism essay introduction, describe yourself. Attorneys like to call themselves things like detail-oriented and selfish gene essay, hard workers, for example. You need to keep in mind that when you are applying for coast fishery essays jobs where the upper income bracket could be over $1 million, and you have an outside shot at gene, this, any positive adjective you could possibly use (outside the box thinker… blah, blah, blah …) is philippines already assumed. You are competing with the essay, best. Do you think a professional boxer would have a resume that describes him as aggressive, motivated and hard hitting? If someone is getting in thesis the ring and getting beat up and selfish gene essay, beating others up, this is to improve discipline in school assumed. Don#39;t weaken your profile with the use of a bunch of adjectives. Too many words.
Many attorneys love to write and talk. No one wants to read a long diatribe of a resume that goes into unnecessary detail about you in selfish gene essay a ton of words. If you have to say a lot, many attorneys will assume that something is wrong with you. You need to communicate in your resume with brevity and ways, make it easy for people to read and understand. You also do not want to use a lot of words in your resume when you could say the same thing in gene fewer words. Saying less is saying more because it shows (1) you can edit your work down and (2) you have enough confidence in yourself to not overdo it. Including testimonials in the body of your resume. Romanticism? Quotes from superiors and others should not go in your resume. Quotes from reviews often go in peoples#39; resumes as well.
Not a good idea. This makes you look desperate for attention. The most confident attorneys have strength that comes from within and are not dependent on others for their validation. Using words the wrong way (or misspelling them). Your resume is no different than a legal brief, a corporate document, or a patent. Gene? A mistake in it could be very serious and literally cost you interviews and jobs. Understanding the difference between various meanings of similar-sounding words is also a huge issue that can cost you jobs. Here are some of the biggest screw-ups I see that have hurt attorneys (that are never caught by spell-checkers and make you look dumb): Learn the difference between Principal and Principle Learn the difference between Discreet and Discrete Learn the difference between Precede and fishery essays, Proceed Learn the difference between Insure and Ensure Learn the difference between Adverse and essay, Averse Learn the words, difference between Eager and selfish essay, Anxious Learn the application letter for teachers, difference between Affect and Effect Learn the selfish, difference between Criteria and romanticism essay introduction, Criterion Spelling errors. Even more serious are spelling errors. If you have spelling errors, the odds are pretty good you will not be hired. Just because you run a spell check does not mean you will catch every spelling error.
Omitting exact dates. You need the month and year, not just the year. Attorneys who were at gene, a job a few months, or lost a job for one reason or another, like to put in years for employment dates rather than months and the year. Attorney interviewers are smart and will generally ZOOM IN on this information and find out ways discipline in school, why the selfish essay, attorney did this. They will always assume the worst ! If you worked at some place for a short time, that is marketing fine. You do not need to cover it up. Trying to essay, hide something makes you look weak and sneaky and could cost you a job. Contoh Kerja? Inappropriate dates. On a weekly basis, I see the following: Attorneys with dates on their resumes indicating they started as an associate at a major law firm a decade before they even graduated from law school. Attorneys who have the same date for two different jobs. Attorneys where the dates indicate they graduated from law school before college.
You get the gene essay, idea. This needs to stop! Attorneys with large law firms are paid to look for errors and root them out. Application For Teachers? You need to have at least three or four people review your resume carefully for things you may have missed. Your resume is an extremely important document, and one typo can doom you! 5. Gene Essay? Lying or Exaggerating on Your Resume. If you lie about on relationship, your hours billed at your previous firm, you will generally not be fired because your former employer will not cooperate with another firm in disclosing this information. However, you will not be trusted, and selfish essay, this will do long-term damage to resume words, your career.
If you are caught lying (severely) about how much business you have as a partner, you will generally lose your job and have a difficult time in selfish the legal community thereafter. If you lie about why you left your existing position, you will in almost all likelihood not lose your job, and your reputation will not suffer too much. Letter For Teachers Philippines? In some cases, though, the firm may go ballistic. Selfish Gene? If a firm learns you were fired while they are interviewing you, they will generally not hire you. Attorneys should never lie on their resume and doing so is very dangerous. You need to on relationship marketing, have the trust and the respect of the selfish essay, people you are working with.
6. Kerja? Saying Anything Negative About Any Former Employer. Gene Essay? When I was growing up, my mother decided to essay, retire from her government job. She had worked for the government for over two decades and started applying for various jobs. She figured that it would not be too long before she found a new position, and she was bored working in a drab, government office with a bunch of unenthusiastic employees. She took a course on selfish gene essay, resume construction.
She hired an expert to advise her on her resume. She began spending hours in east fishery the living room perfecting her resume each night (I am getting old and selfish gene essay, am sorry to report she did this on contoh resume kerja, a typewriter, as we did not yet have a computer). Gene Essay? The completed resume was several pages long and had all sorts of action verbs and other aspects to it that described her limited experience in one organization in incredible terms. The completed resume contained: Tons of bullets, large words, massive amounts of formatting, things she had done decades ago, and, all sorts of irrelevant information. Her resume could easily have been one page. It did not need to have all this detail.
It would take a person an hour to go through it and fully understand it. What do you think are the most important things attorneys and law students should include in contoh kerja their resumes to get top law firm jobs? Why are law firms so particular about what they expect in selfish gene attorney and law student resumes? CURIOUS ABOUT COVER LETTERS? See the on relationship, following for more information about attorney cover letters: Interested in Learning More About Attorney Resumes? See more articles from BCG Attorney Search here: AGREE/DISAGREE? SHARE COMMENTS ANONYMOUSLY! We Want to essay, Hear Your Thoughts! Tell Us What You Think!! Download Article as PDF Email a Colleague Printable Version.
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conformity essay P entecostalism is arguably the most important mass religious movement of the twentieth century. Today, this movement is the second largest sub-group of global Christianity. It has over 30 million American adherents and a worldwide following of 430 million. 1 Pentecostalism’s inauspicious beginnings at gene essay, the turn of the century make the movement’s growth all the more surprising. This essay will examine how historians have interpreted the origins of marketing, American Pentecostalism and will suggest some areas for further study. Before discussing the historiography, it will help to gene essay, survey the movement’s early history. Pentecostalism grew out for teachers, of the Holiness revival during the selfish gene, second half of the nineteenth century.
This revival was an expression of both social and theological discontent among the nation’s lower and middle-class groups. Holiness advocates disapproved of the impiety in contoh resume kerja, mainline denominations and selfish gene were alienated by the growing wealth and elaborateness of their churches. Not content to remain in mainline churches, they formed new religious communities committed to the theological doctrine of perfectionism. 2 These former Methodists, Presbyterians, and Baptists believed they were experiencing a renewed outpouring of the Holy Spirit much like the early church experienced in the book of Acts. In School? The holiness revival spawned zeal for Spirit Baptism (a divine empowerment of believers) and for selfish gene, other gifts of the New Testament church such as healing and prophecy. Holiness leaders such as Charles Cullis, John Alexander Dowie, and Albert B. Thesis? Simpson established healing missions across the U.S. They, like other holiness advocates, believed a new, miraculous era of the spirit was occurring which would end in the second coming of essay, Christ. Pentecostalism took Spirit Baptism and the restoration of New Testament gifts one step further. In January, 1901, holiness minister Charles Fox Parham asked the students at his Topeka Bible school to study the scriptures and determine what evidence might be given of Spirit baptism. Using the pentecost account in Acts chapter two, they concluded that speaking in tongues was the confirmation of Holy Spirit baptism.
This first wave of Pentecostalism spread in the revival that followed, but remained regional, moving into Kansas, Missouri, Texas, and Arkansas. The 1906 revival at in school essay, Azusa street, Los Angeles marks the second phase of the Pentecostals’ origins. William Seymour, who studied under Parham in Houston, Texas, carried the message of pentecost to Los Angeles where he began a revival in one of the poorer sections of the city. The Azusa street revival gathered the ethnic minority groups of Los Angeles, who discovered a sense of dignity and community denied them in the larger urban culture. Gene? 3.
From Azusa street the revival spread throughout the U.S. Fishery? Holiness leaders from the Church of God in Christ (Memphis, Tenessee), the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee), and the Pentecostal Holiness Church (Georgia and the Carolinas), were present at Azusa, and carried its message back to their churches. Diversity characterized their beliefs and theology; Pentecostals ranged from Wesleyan-holiness, to Reformed, and Unitarian. 4. The historiography of selfish gene essay, Pentecostalism is as multifaceted as the movement itself. East? The initial historical works on Pentecostalism came from within the movement. Selfish Essay? Pentecostal historians wrote within a providential framework and focused on the role of romanticism essay, God rather than human and natural causation.
These histories, as Grant Wacker indicates, were apologetic and largely ahistorical. They depicted the Pentecostal revival as dropping from heaven like a sacred meteor. This approach is evident in selfish essay, the titles of such early works as The Apostolic Faith Restored (1916), and in such account as Suddenly From Heaven: A History of the Assemblies of God (1961). Letter? 5. Before 1970 few historians outside of Pentecostalism were interested in the movement. Academics’ unfamiliarity with the world of ecstatic religion might have been one reason for this oversight.
But just as likely, scholars thought the conservative religion of Pentecostalism, like Fundamentalism, was regressive, crude, and not worthy of their interests. In the late 1960s, the historian William G. McLoughlin argued that Pentecostalism did not constitute a dynamic new force in American Religion. For McLoughlin, Pentecostalism, like other reactionary religious movements in American history, would fade away with time. 6 David Edwin Harrell argues that before the 1970s, scholars limited their study to articulate religious bodies and to essay, groups that were pertinent to scholars’ own academic interests. 7. Since the 1970s, historians both outside of and within the movement have critically engaged Pentecostalism. The rapid expansion of Pentecostalism in the U. S. and abroad drew scholars’ interest. At the same time scholarship on Pentecostalism grew along with the romanticism essay introduction, increase in university and seminary-trained Pentecostal historians. The establishment of the Society for Pentecostal Studies in the early 1970s evidenced this new historical enterprise. 8.
As historians have analyzed Pentecostalism, they have developed several explanations for its origins and growth. Some scholars focus on the historical-theological roots of the movement and selfish essay emphasize the primacy of doctrine. Contoh? They note the importance of Pentecostalism’s historical and theological predecessors and emphasize the religious appeal of the movement to it adherents. A few historians look at the movement’s interracial character to assess its origins and growth. In its initial stages, Pentecostalism was multi-ethnic and often challenged racial norms. Scholars looking at the interracial aspect view the movement as a radical protest to segregation and as a dynamic force of social change. With the ascendence of the new social history in the early 1970s, scholars began to analyze the demographics of Pentecostalism, assessing the movement’s adherents according to social status and class.
But before the rise of historical enquiries, sociological studies used class analysis and selfish theories of deprivation to application for teachers, understand the movement’s appeal. The theology of Pentecostalism was not of primary importance for these scholars. Selfish? They reflected Richard Niebuhr’s class analysis of religion and posited that theology mirrored cultural and political conditions. 9 The prevailing view was that Pentecostalism flourished because it compensated for its adherent’s loss of social and political status. Application Letter? 10. David Edwin Harrell’s historical study of Pentecostalism followed this pattern. Gene Essay? Harrell found that the racial and essay social views of Pentecostals were conditioned by selfish essay, class values rather than theological presuppositions. 11 Robert Mapes Anderson also rooted the movement in its class status. In Vision of the Disinherited , Anderson studied the social class origins of words, Pentecostalism and selfish essay discovered that extreme social strain among the nation’s poor and dispossessed was the source of on relationship, Pentecostalism. Selfish Gene? Following Eric Hobsbawm and E. P. Thompson, Anderson located social tension (such as class conflict and class stratification) in industrialization.
The shift from an agrarian to an industrial society fed estrangement and application letter those most at odds with this change suffered status anxiety and turned to Pentecostalism. 12 To explain how Pentecostals coped with status anxiety, Anderson looks at two major features of the movement: millennialism and speaking in tongues. Pentecostals’ belief in the immanent, apocalyptic return of Jesus, he contends, brought order to their chaotic lives and alleviated social strain. Similarly, speaking in essay, tongues provided psychic escape through religious ecstacy. Discipline Essay? 13. Anderson concludes that Pentecostalism represented a dysfunctional and maladjusted reaction to social pressures. Because of the Pentecostals’ negative appraisal of selfish gene, society and their pessimistic outlook for the future, they were an apolitical, conservative bulwark of the status quo. They channeled their social protest into the harmless backwaters of contoh resume, religious ideology. 14 For Anderson, the radical social impulse inherent in the vision of the disinherited was squandered away in escapism and conservative conformity. As Grant Wacker notes, Anderson’s study is the most thorough monograph on the origins of Pentecostalism. The breadth of Anderson’s book and the amount of data he looked at selfish gene essay, makes it a monument in the field of Pentecostal history.
At the same time Wacker is critical of some of east fishery essays, Anderson’s basic arguments. Wacker contends that Anderson assumes Pentecostals’ faith is selfish irrelevant if it does not foment social and economic protest. Wacker also criticizes him for judging religious rewards to be less satisfying than material ones. 15 For Wacker, and a number of other scholars, theology and doctrine, as much as social class, explains the roots of the ways to improve essay, movement. Wacker dwells on the positive functions of faith in the origins and spread of Pentecostalism. He notes that the movement provided individuals with certitude about the reality of the gene essay, supernatural. Resume Kerja? Pentecostals coped with economic uncertainties, social ostracism, and racism by ordering their lives with a primitive faith. Gene Essay? Seeing the world as morally degenerate, Pentecostals championed scriptural inerrancy, opposed scientific evolution and biblical criticism, and coast essays issued numerous cultural prohibitions.
Pentecostalism, Wacker contends, was appealing because its doctrines were situated in a traditional, mythic system that protected believers from the encroachments of modernity. Selfish Gene? 16. Scholars, including Grant Wacker, Edith Blumhofer, and D. William Faupel, have looked at the restorationist and millennial roots of the movement. Application Letter For Teachers Philippines? Wacker describes the restorationist impulse as a yearning to return to a time before time, to a space outside of space, to a mythical realm that Alexander Campbell [founder of the Disciples of Christ] called the selfish essay, ‘ancient order of things. Thesis Marketing? This was not a nostalgic longing for frontier revivalism, but a desire to return to gene, first century Christianity.
17 Pentecostals linked the sprititual gifts they received, such as speaking in tongues, prophesying, and healing with those described in the book of words, Acts. Edith Blumhofer sees restorationism and millennialism shaping the selfish, foundation of the Assemblies of God. Pentecostals, according to Blumhofer, asserted that the new era of the spirit, before Christ’s second coming, would bring about a return to primitive Christianity. The early Assemblies of God were caught up in this historylessness and sought a return to primitive ecclesiastical foundations. Church leaders advocated a strict congregational government and opposed creeds and the formulation of doctrine. Kerja? 18.
This millennial vision, according to James R. Goff Jr., led to increased missionary activity among Pentecostalis. Charles Fox Parham, for example, concluded that speaking in foreign tongues would allow Pentecostals to missionize the world before Christ’s second coming. 19 Goff indicates that this missionary impulse explains both the origins and rapid growth of Pentecostalism. Preaching Christ’s immanent return, Pentecostals won converts among their uneasy listeners. Pentecostalism spread, says Goff, because of its adherents’ millennial urgency. Scholars also have accounted for essay, the origins of Pentecostalism by locating the movement within late nineteenth century religious currents. Donald Dayton suggests that the in school, roots of gene essay, Pentecostalism lie in the emergence of four theological doctrines during the second half of the coast essays, nineteenth century: salvation, healing, baptism of the Holy Spirit, and the second coming of Christ. 20 Dayton traces how these doctrines developed within the Holiness movement and gene were then taken up by Pentecostals.
He stresses both the Wesleyan-holiness origins, which accented the perfectionist side of Spirit baptism, and letter for teachers the Keswick-Reformed origins, which emphasized Spirit baptism as a spiritual empowerment in selfish gene, the believer. Romanticism? 21 Like Dayton, Raymond J. Cunningham has studied the roots of Pentecostalism in the healing and faith cure movements of the late nineteenth century. By accentuating divine gifts, these groups often fed directly into Pentecostalism. 22. Vinson Synan’s The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition is a general survey which highlights the nineteenth century roots of the movement. Synan situates the origins of Pentecostalism in the Wesleyan-holiness doctrine of sanctification or the second blessing.
For Methodists and pre-Pentecostals, sanctification perfected the believer after conversion. The Pentecostals, states Synan, made the second blessing synonymous with the pentecost account in Acts. Thus, speaking in tongues became a sign of sanctification. 23. Scholars from the essay, Reformed wing of Pentecostalism have argued that the Keswick-Reformed roots better address the resume kerja, movement’s origins. These scholars contend that Pentecostals were not as influenced by selfish gene essay, Wesleyan-perfectionism as they were by Keswick theology. 24 Keswickians stressed the finished work of conversion and did not believe in a second work of grace as did Wesleyans. Edith Blumhofer’s 1977 Harvard dissertation challenged Synan’s thesis by accenting the theological contributions of Reformed and romanticism essay introduction Fundamentalist leaders. 25 Blumhofer argues that these leaders provided the Pentecostals with an understanding of Spirit Baptism which little resembled the selfish, Wesleyan view.
For them, Spirit baptism empowered the believer to serve God, but was not a morally perfecting experience. Assemblies of God historian William Menzies also challenges Synan’s view. Menzies argues that the second-blessing advocates were less influential than Reformed, finished work Pentecostals. For most early Pentecostals, Menzies contends, speaking in tongues was associated with spiritual power and with an anointing to serve rather than spiritual perfection. 26. These internecine historiographic battles get at resume keys words, an important point: from the beginning Pentecostals experienced internal and external antagonisms that helped shape and essay transform them. 27 Both Donald Dayton and Grant Wacker have written about these struggles and application philippines how they affected Pentecostalism. Wacker, writing on the anti-Pentecostal forces within radical evangelicalism, shows how doctrinal differences precipitated conflict.
Contrary to Anderson, Wacker contends that class variation did not cause conflict as much as doctrinal distinctions did. The reason non-Pentecostal Holiness leaders so vehemently opposed Pentecostals, says Wacker, was because Pentecostals demanded that all sanctified Christians must speak in tongues. 28 Doctrine also gave rise to schisms within the gene, movement. The Wesleyan factions (the Apostolic Faith Union and romanticism essay introduction the Church of God) fought with the Reformed wing (Assemblies of God), and Reformed, Trinitarian Pentecostals waged war on Unitarian Pentecostals. Scholars have also focused on selfish gene essay how Pentecostals reacted to the culture around them. Kerja? Most agree that while Pentecostalism was largely apolitical, early Pentecostals’ opposition to essay, America’s political and social culture was politically charged. To Improve Essay? 29 Pentecostals were centered on soul-winning and selfish perceived politics and national events to be dangerous diversions. But early Pentecostals were also both prohibitionists and pacifists (many chose C. O. status during WW I). According to Mickey Crews, the predominately rural Church of introduction, God (Cleveland) often stood in opposition to the prevailing contemporary attitudes toward wealth, recreation, and dress.
Likewise, during the Jim Crow era the Church of God was one of the more racially integrated churches in selfish gene, the South. The early years of this church were marked by racial cooperation. Like Populism, Crews indicates, the romanticism essay, Church of God offered women as well as blacks opportunities to serve in positions of essay, leadership which they would not have had in traditional organizations. 30. A few historians of Pentecostalism trace the movement’s success to introduction, its racial progressiveness. Church of God in Christ historian Leonard Lovett contends that historians have not viewed black Pentecostalism in its proper historical context and have failed to appreciate the selfish gene, movement’s black roots. Lovett stresses the on relationship marketing, prominence of the black leader William Seymour and selfish gene the importance of Azusa’s interracial character. He also gives attention to the Africanisms of the in school, early revival. 31 Similarly, Iain MacRobert studies the selfish gene essay, black roots of Pentecostalism, emphasizing both the role of Seymour in the revival and the place of African concepts of community, spiritual power, spirit possession . . . equality, black personhood, dignity, and kerja the desire for revolution. MacRobert attributes schisms in the movement to white racism.
He argues that the white leadership in the Apostolic Faith Union and the Assemblies of God turned their backs on their interracial heritage, segregating their churches according to race. 32 In a more recent work, Harvey Cox suggests that the inter-ethnic character of essay, Azusa street was the movement’s sine qua non . 33. Edith Blumhofer and Joe Creech have countered that a myth of Azusa street prevails in these accounts. Resume Words? Early Pentecostalism, they contend, was not a homogenous movement but developed from a variety of sources. Blumhofer argues that Azusa street could not hold the selfish gene essay, allegiance of its own enthusiasts, who broke away to form numerous rival congregations nearby, none of which was known to thesis, replicate the racial mix of the mother congregation.
34 Creech maintains that Azusa has remained important in the historiography because it provides historians with a racially progressive narrative of Pentecostalism and because it serves to unify and selfish gene homogenize a heterogeneous movement. 35. Pentecostalism’s diverse heritage has drawn the attention of application letter philippines, historians who have sought an explanation for the movement’s origins. The rise of Pentecostalism at the turn of the century tells us how a number of America’s poor coped with the economic, social, and religious challenges of modernity. Like Fundamentalists, Pentecostals built their faith on doctrinal certitude and religious zeal. Pentecostals faced their disordered world by returning to primitive Christianity and a by re-instituting New Testament spiritual gifts.
Convinced of Christ’s immanent return, their social outlook was often otherworldly. Although Pentecostals did not engage politics directly, their actions reveal political and social protests nonetheless. Selfish Essay? Early Pentecostals were often pacifists as well as prohibitionists. Concurrently, in religious practice they stood in opposition to both racism and the denigration of women. 36. It is becoming more difficult for historians to dismiss Pentecostals as socially irrelevant. Pentecostal’s views on race, gender, and kerja theology were complicated and deserve more scholarly attention. Since the 1970s the movement has been studied in greater detail. However, the selfish gene, fields of ways to improve in school essay, American history and American religious history would benefit from a broadening of the current scholarship.
There are various areas of Pentecostal history that still have not been studied. Certain institutional and biographical histories need to be written. A scholarly history of the predominately black, six million member Church of God in Christ has yet to selfish gene, be undertaken. Similarly, few scholars have studied the histories of the numerous Unitarian Pentecostals. East Fishery Essays? There is still a paucity of biographies on essay some key leaders, including William J Seymour, A. J. Tomilson (Church of God Cleveland), Charles H. Mason (Church of in school, God in Christ), and Gaston Barnabas Cashwell (Fire Baptized Holiness Church, Pentecostal Holiness Church, Church of God, Pentecostal Free-Will Baptist Church). Historians of Pentecostalism have not taken advantage of the full range of extent sources. Many have relied on institutional records and sources from the movement’s leadership. Essay? The documents of Pentecostalism’s rank and file remain unstudied; personal records, diaries, and correspondences are virtually untouched.
37 Pentecostalism still needs to have histories written from the bottom up. On Relationship Marketing? Such works might reveal how Pentecostalism differed among the lower levels of the movement. Gene Essay? Did doctrinal controversies plague the laity as it did church leaders? Did the laity differ significantly from the clergy in application letter for teachers, social or economic status? 38 How did the laity accept gender and racial norms within Pentecostalism?
The role of women in the early movement in particular has received slight attention. 39 Historians know that women often acted as worship leaders and evangelists in early Pentecostalism, but as of yet no one has critically assessed the role of women in the movement as a whole. Did women enjoy more opportunities within Pentecostal sects than they did in selfish gene essay, mainline churches? If so, were women drawn to the movement who might otherwise have not joined Pentecostal churches? Did the roles of women in Fundamentalist churches differ from those of women in Pentecostal ones? The confluence of essay, race and gender is also an area that merits careful consideration.
A church such as the Church of God in Christ did not ordain women, but still had the selfish essay, most powerful Women’s Department of any black denomination in the U. Contoh Resume Kerja? S. Selfish? Were women’s roles in this church like those Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham describes in the National Baptist Convention? One Historian of Pentecostalism suggests that they were similar. East Coast Fishery? The Church of God in Christ, according to Cheryl Sanders, rejected the norms of white patriarchy and affirmed black female personhood by esteeming women leaders and educators. Sanders also suggests that it was not gender, but spiritual gifts that qualified individuals for leadership in the Holiness and Pentecostal churches. Gene? 40 Whether this was true in application letter, most Holiness and selfish gene essay Pentecostal churches is unlikely, but these sects often broke with racial and kerja gender norms. Another area of promise for further research is the study of Pentecostalism and selfish gene essay Populism as parallel social protests. Secular and religious historians have raised similar questions about both movements. Both arose during a period of economic and social instability, in which America underwent drastic changes. In this regard, both have been analyzed as protest movements of the dispossessed and marginalized.
Scholars also have been concerned with whether the Holiness-Pentecostal and the Populist movements moved beyond racial and gender norms. 41 Scholars generally agree that both groups’ demographics are remarkably similar. Nonetheless, no one has published a work dealing with these groups as parallel movements. Such studies might reveal why some were attracted to Holiness-Pentecostalism and others to the Farmers’ Alliance and Populism. Was affiliation arbitrary? Or, was it dictated by such factors as region, class, and religious world view? Could the success of Pentecostalism in the South and Midwest after 1900 and 1906 be accounted for by the introduction, failures of Populism in these same regions?
Similarly, a major study of their congruities might shed light on how these movements differed as social protests. In the coming years scholars may be asking these and other questions in their search for the origins of Pentecostalism. Before the 1970s the history of selfish, Pentecostalism was not a dot on the horizon of American historiography. The state of the field has grown significantly in the last thirty years and will continue to advance in the twenty first century. As of yet, however, the amount of scholarship is not equal to the movement’s numeric strength. Pentecostalism’s mass appeal should challenge historians to look deeper into the movement’s distant past.
1. Grant Wacker, Searching for Eden with a Satellite Dish: Primitivism Pragmatism and the Pentecostal Character, in Religion and resume kerja American Culture , David G. Hackett, ed. Gene? (New York and London: Routledge, 1995), 440. Grant Wacker, a prominent historian of Pentecostalism, defines Pentecostals as believing in resume, a post-conversion experience known as baptism in the Holy Spirit. Pentecostals, he says, believe that a person who has been baptized in the Holy Spirit will manifest one or more of the nine spiritual gifts described in 1 Corinthians 12 and 14. Ibid., 441. 2. Melvin Easterday Dieter, The Holiness Revival of the Nineteenth Century (Layham, Maryland and London: Scarecrow Press Inc., 1996), 199-200. Examples of these new sects include: the Fire-Baptized Holiness Church, the selfish gene essay, Church of God (Anderson, Indiana), the Pentecostal Church of the letter philippines, Nazarene, and the Apostolic Holiness Union. 3. Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979), 69. 4. The best surveys of selfish gene, early Pentecostal history in America are: Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited , Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition: Charismatic Movements in the Twentieth Century (Grand Rapids and Cambridge: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 1997), Edith Blumhofer, Restoring the Faith: The Assemblies of God, Pentecostalism, and American Culture (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1993), 1-141, and Wacker, Pentecostalism in Encyclopedia of coast fishery, American Religious Experience, Vol. 7 , Charles H. Lippy and Peter Williams, eds. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1988), 933-945. 5. Wacker, Are the Golden Oldies Still Worth Playing?
Reflections on History Writing among Early Pentecostals, Pneuma: The Journal for Pentecostal Studies (Fall 1986): 86. For a discussion of the providential approach, see, Augustus Cerillo, Jr., Interpretive Approaches to gene essay, the History of American Pentecostal Origins, Pnuema 19, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 31-36. 6. McLoughlin was responding to Henry P. Van Dusen’s Life magazine article which acknowledged the growing importance of American sects. Van Dusen The Third Force’s Lesson for thesis, Others, Life (June 9, 1958):122-123. McLoughlin, Is There a Third Force in selfish gene, Christendom? Religion In America, William G. McLoughlin and Robert N. Bellah, eds. Romanticism Essay Introduction? (Boston: Beacon Press, 1968), 47, 52, 56. Gene Essay? American historians have been slow to recognize the movement’s importance. There is no mention of Pentecostalism in all the following: Arthur M. Schlesiger Jr.’s The Almanac of American History (Greenwich, Connecticut: Brompton Books Corporation, 1993), Eric Foner and John A. Garraty, eds. The Readers Companion to American History (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1991), George Brown Tindall America: A Narrative History, Vol.
II (New York and London: W. W. Norton and Company, 1988). 7. David Edwin Harrell, White Sects and Black Men (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1971), 5, 6. 8. Cerrillo locates this change in Pentecostal denominations’ growing historical consciousness, the rising social status of Pentecostals, and a greater interest in higher education. The number of introduction, Pentecostals completing their Ph.D.s at major universities was rising in the 1960s and selfish gene 1970s: Vinson Synan (University of east coast fishery, Georgia), Grant Wacker (Harvard), Edith Blumhofer (Harvard), James Goff (University of Arkansas), Mickey Crews (Auburn), Leonard Lovett (Emory). The Origins of American Pentecostalism, Pnuema 15, no. 1 (Spring 1993): 78.
9. H. Richard Niebuhr maintained that religion is so interwoven with social circumstances that the formulation of theology is gene essay necessarily conditioned by these. The Social Sources of Denominationalism (Cleveland and New York: The World Publishing Company, 1957), 17, 75-76. 10. In the 1940s, sociologists Liston Pope and John Holt argued that Pentecostalism found most of marketing, its adherents among society’s dispossessed, rural poor. For Holt and Pope, Pentecostalism’s response to social crisis was a natural byproduct of social disorganization. Holt posited that, migration and concomitant urbanization of an intensely rural, and religiously fundamentalist population led to the creation of holiness sects which attempted to recapture their sense of security . . . Holiness Religion: Cultural Shock and Social Reorganization, American Sociological Review 5, issue 5 (Oct. 1940): 740-741.
Pope, Millhands and selfish gene Preachers: A Study of application for teachers, Gastonia (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1942), 84-91, 126-140. For sociologists like Charles Y. Glock and Howard Ellinson, religion served as an escape mechanism for selfish, the deprived and was unable to alter social status. Glock, The Role of Deprivation in on relationship marketing, the Origin and Evolution of Religious Groups, in gene essay, Religion and contoh resume Social Conflict, Robert Lee and Martin E. Marty eds. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1964), 27, 29. Howard Elinson, The Implications of Pentecostal Religion for Intellectualism, Politics, and Race Relations, American Journal of Sociology 70 (1965): 403-415. For a counter view, see, Harry G. Lefever, Religion of the Poor: Escape or Creative Force?
Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 16, no. 3 (September 1977), 525-534. 11. Harrell, Black Sects and selfish gene White Men , xvi, 130-131. Resume? Racial integration most often occurred, says Harrell, in selfish, the poorest sects like the Church of God (Cleveland) and the Church of God of Prophecy which were not vying for middle-class status. 12. Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of east fishery, American Pentecostalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), 113. Anderson compiled biographical data on forty-five leaders in the early Pentecostal movement and found that the group as a whole lay in a sort of limbo between working and middle-class. Neither quite one nor the selfish gene, other, they were marginal men and women. ibid., 108, 136. In his study of the Church of God Cleveland, Mickey Crews also emphasizes the class origins of Pentecostalism. Crews argues that the Populist movement and the Church of God arose among farmers in similar socio-economic circumstances.
Church of words, God: A Social History (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1990), 1-18. 13. Selfish Essay? Ibid., 80, 113, 96. 14. Ibid., 239. R. Laurence Moore also notes that the otherworldliness of Pentecostals cut short social protests by diffusing class hostilities. Religious Outsiders and the Making of Americans (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 140-142.
15. Wacker, Taking Another Look at the Vision of the words, Disinherited, Religious Studies Review 8, no. 1 (January, 1982): 18, 19, 20. 16. Wacker, The Functions of Faith in Primitive Pentecostalism, Harvard Theological Review 77, no. Essay? 3 (1984): 355, 356, 363. Contoh Resume Kerja? D. William Faupel, The Restoration Vision in Pentecostalism, The Christian Century 107, no. Selfish Gene Essay? 29 (October 17, 1990): 938.
On the importance of restorationism to application letter for teachers philippines, Pentecostal eschatology, see Faupel’s, The Everlasting Gospel: The Significance of Eschatology in the Development of Pentecostal Thought (Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 1996) 17. Searching for Eden with a Satellite Dish, in Religion and American Culture: A Reader, David G. Hackett, ed. Essay? ( New York, London: Routledge, 1995), 442-444. Wacker, Functions of Faith, 361, 364. 18. Blumhofer, Restoring the Faith , 4-5, 84, 116. 19. James R. Goff Jr. Fields White Unto Harvest: Charles F. Parham and the Missionary Origins of ways in school essay, Pentecostalism (Fayetville and London: The University of essay, Arkansas Press, 1988), 15, 164. 20.
Dayton, The Theological Roots of Pentecostalism (Metuchen, New Jersey: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1987), 11, 173-174. Pentecostals often speak of a four-square gospel, using these doctrines to identify themselves. 21. Ibid., 92-104, 104-106. Timothy Smith has written on the evolution of Wesleyan perfectionism into Pentecostalism in How John Fletcher Became the resume kerja, Theologian of Wesleyan Perfectionism, 1770-1776, Wesleyan Theological Journal 15, no. 1 (Spring 1980): 67-86. On Sprit Baptism as an enduement of power, see: John Fea, Power from on High in an Age of Ecclesiastical Impotence: The ‘Enduement of the Holy Spirit’ in selfish, American Fundamentalist Thought, 1880-1936, Fides Et Historia 26, no. 6 (Summer 1994): 23-35. 22. Raymond J. Cunningham, From Holiness to Healing: The Faith Cure in America 1872-1892, Church History 43, no. 3 (September 1974): 507, 508.
23. Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition , xi . Synan is a member of the Holiness-Pentecostal Church, which is Wesleyan in orientation. 24. This name comes from the holiness conferences held in romanticism, Keswick, England beginning in 1875. Leaders of the essay, Keswick Convention, mostly evangelical Anglicans, held to the teachings of John Calvin, who taught that sin in the believer would not be eradicated until death. William W. Menzies, The Non-Wesleyan Origins of the Pentecostal Movement, in keys words, Aspects of Pentecostal Charismatic Origins , Vinson Synan ed. (Plainfield, New Jersey: Logos International, 1975), 85-89. 25. Edith Waldvogel (Blumhofer), The ‘Overcoming Life’: A Study in the Reformed Evangelical Origins of Pentecostalism, (Ph.D. diss., Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University, 1977), 1-148.
Blumhofer looks at such leaders as Reuben A. Torrey, Albert B. Simpson, Dwight L. Moody, and a number of British Keswick leaders. Allen L. Clayton argues that the prominence of the Reformed wing, which was Christocentric rather than pneumatocentric in orientation, gave rise to the Oneness, Jesus only Pentecostals. By emphasizing the central role of Christ, Oneness Pentecostals began to baptize in Jesus’ name only. The Significance of William Durham for Pentecostal Historiography, Pnuema (Fall 1979): 38-39. 26.
William W. Menzies, The Non-Wesleyan Origins of the selfish gene essay, Pentecostal Movement, 93. 27. According to Wacker, the secondary literature on Pentecostalism is almost as contentious as the east coast fishery essays, controversies it describes. Essay? Travail of a Broken Family: Evangelical Responses to Pentecostalism in America, 1906-1916, Journal of to improve discipline in school essay, Ecclesiastical History 47, no. 2 (July 1996): 509. 28. Ibid., 508, 526-527.
Dayton, The Limits of Evangelicalism: The Pentecostal Tradition, in The Variety of American Evangelicalism, Dayton and Robert K. Johnston, eds. (Downers Grove, Illinois: Inter Varsity Press, 1991), 49-51. Dayton gives insight on the recurrent battles between Holiness and Pentecostal Wesleyans to gene, lay claim to the Wesleyan heritage, Wesleyan Tug-of-War on Pentecostal Link, Christianity Today 23 (December 15, 1978): 43. On the enmity between Pentecostals and Evangelicals, see Horace S. Ward Jr., The Anti-Pentecostal Argument, in Aspects , 102-107, and fishery essays Wacker, Travail of a Broken Family. Others look at the communal and societal opposition the movement experienced: Synan, Old Time Power: A Centennial History of the International Pentecostal Holiness Church (Franklin Spring, Georgia: LifeSprings Resources, 1998), 140-145, Crews, Church of selfish, God , 117-123, 74-78. Kurt O. Berends analyzes the resume, communal antagonism Pentecostals spawned in Social Variables and Community Response in Pentecostal Currents in American Protestantism , ed. Edith Blumhofer, Russell P. Splitter, and Grant A. Wacker (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1999), 68-89. 29. Both R. Laurence Moore, Religious Outsiders , 142, and Wacker, Early Pentecostals, 155, have made this point. 30.
Crews, The Church of God , 17-18, 93-107. 31. Lovett, Black Origins of the Pentecostal Movement in Aspects , 127, 137-138. 32. Iain MacRobert, The Black Roots and White Racism of Early Pentecostalism (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1988), 36. 33. Harvey Cox, Fire From Heaven: The Rise of Pentecostal Spirituality and selfish essay the Reshaping of Religion in the Twenty-First Century (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1995), 58-59. 34. Blumhofer, For Pentecostals, a Move Toward Racial Reconciliation, The Christian Century 3, no. 14 (April 27, 1994), 445.
35. Joe Creech, Visions of Glory: The Place of the Azusa Street Revival in Pentecostal History, Church History 65, no. 3 (1996): 408, 409, 410. 36. On the participation of women in the Holiness-Pentecostal tradition, see Cheryl J. Sanders’, Saints in Exile: The Holiness-Pentecostal Experience in African America Religion and Culture (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 32-34. Letter? According to Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, although the major black Pentecostal bodies denied women ordination, they nonetheless assumed powerful roles as exhorters, church mothers, missionaries, teachers, and deaconesses. Selfish Gene? ‘Together and in Harness’: Women’s Traditions in the Sanctified Church, Signs 10, no. 4 (Summer 1985): 683. 37. Ways Discipline? David Bundy, The Historiography of the selfish gene, Wesleyan/Holiness Tradition, Wesleyan Theological Journal 30, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 70.
38. Words? Mickey Crews suggests that in the Church of selfish gene essay, God there was a difference: Although the overwhelming majority of letter for teachers, Church of God members and ministers came from the essay, lower socioeconomic classes, their principal spokesmen did not. The Church of ways to improve, God , 6. 39. Two biographies exist on key women leaders of Pentecostalism, but nothing has been written on less notable women, Wayne E. Warner, The Women Evangelist: The Life and Times of selfish essay, Charismatic Evangelist Maria B. Woodworth-Etter (Metuchen, New Jersey and London: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1986). Blumhofer, Aimee Semple McPherson (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans, 1993). Scholarship on resume kerja gender and gene Fundamentalists may provide some clues to how similar studies on Pentecostals might look: Margaret Lamberts Bendroth, Fundamentalism and application philippines Gender, 1875 to the Present (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1993), Betty A. DeBerg, Ungodly Women: Gender and the First Wave of American Fundamentalism (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990). 40. Gene Essay? Sanders History of Women in the Pentecostal Movement, Cyberjournal for ways to improve discipline, Pentecostal/Charismatic Research [http:www.pctii.orgcybertab1.html] 2 (July, 1997): 5.
41. On Populism and women see, Julie Roy Jeffrey, Women in gene, the Southern Farmers Alliance: A Reconsideration of the Role and Status of Women in the Late Nineteenth-Century South, Feminist Studies 3 (Fall 1975): 72-91. Thesis On Relationship Marketing? Marion K. Selfish Gene Essay? Barthelme, Women in the Texas Populist Movement: Letters to east coast fishery, the Southern Mercury (Austin: Texas A. M. University Press, 1997), 3-76. Michael Lewis Goldberg, An Army of Women: Gender and selfish essay Politics in essays, Gilded Age Kansas (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997). On women in selfish gene essay, the Pentecostal-Holiness Movements see, Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, ‘Together and in Harness’: Women's Traditions in the Sanctified Church, in Black Women in America: Social Science Perspectives , Micheline R. Malson, Elisabeth Mudimbe-Boyi, Jean F. O'Barr and Mary Wyer, eds. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990). On Populism and Race see, Herbert Shapiro, The Populist and the Negro: A Reconsideration, in The Making of Black America, August Meier ed. (NY: Atheneum, 1969), 32. For Teachers? Gerald Gaither, Blacks and essay the Populist Revolt: Ballots and Bigotry in essays, the New South (Tuscaloosa, AL:University of Alabama Press, 1977). Essay? On Holiness-Pentecostal movements and race, see, Iain MacRobert , The Black Roots and White Racism of Early Pentecostalism in the U. Essay Introduction? S. A. Harrell, White Sects and Black Men . Randall J. Stephens is a doctoral student in History at the University of gene essay, Florida. Mr. Stephens wishes to express special thanks to Dr.
David G. Hackett and Bland Whitley for their comments on earlier versions of this paper.
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Down but not out! The power of the past! Snail mail can work! Today the selfish, pace of technological change is phenomenal and coast, the process of gene searching for a new job has moved away from the more traditional methods towards online, electronic strategies. Tried and tested techniques once standard for job seekers are now becoming at best outdated, and in some cases, totally obsolete. Career coaches are constantly hammering home to job seekers how important it is in today’s job search market to keep abreast of the wide variety of job seeking tactics that are available to us all on the internet. Included in this list are professional platforms such as LinkedIn, online job listings, other social networking sites, company websites and so on.
However, there is east, now a half a generation at least, who know of selfish essay no other way of contoh looking for a job other than online. Older demographics are also starting to understand that change is inevitable and selfish, even the Luddites embrace parts of this brave new world, albeit reluctantly: posting LinkedIn profiles, joining Facebook, uploading CVs electronically and raising their online visibility. But younger demographics, mainly out of east ignorance, can at selfish gene times be just as closed to trying out something, not necessarily new, but new to ways discipline in school them. Other than seeing things on old movies or Mad Men, they are not familiar with, and have no experience of, job search processes that weren’t carried out via the internet. However, there are times when traditional time-honoured methods cannot be totally ruled out and can even bring some benefit. Need help targeting and focusing your job search? Check out the personalised career transition programmes.
I was working recently with a young man based in Buenos Aires. He is engaged to selfish essay be married and wants to relocate to application philippines Europe, to at least be on the same continent, preferably in the same country as his fiancee, who lives in essay Munich. They had agreed that he would be the one to move: he was entitled to Italian nationality via his grandmother and could therefore work in the E.U. For Teachers Philippines! He also speaks 5 languages fluently, compared to his wife to be, who has a mere 3 under her belt. Together we created a career transition strategy, identified his transferable skills, raised his general visibility and targeted the companies he would like to work for. Gene! Despite his best efforts, progress was slower than he would have liked, which was putting pressure on his relationship. So I thought and suggested (somewhat tentatively) that he could write some letters. Resume Keys! There was a silence. Then the dialogue went something like this: Pietro : – ” But I have written.
I’ve sent all sorts of mails and selfish essay, LinkedIn messages” Me: ” I know – but what about writing a letter, printed on paper ( I’ve seen his hand writing – not good. It would be hard to believe he is older than 9) put it in an envelope and thesis, post it in the mail with a copy of your CV. It’s something you haven’t done and might be at least worth a shot’ Pietro: “Wow – you mean like a letter? Like in snail mail? That will take ages. How do I know they will get there, or anyone will read it?” Me: ” Yes I mean like a letter, like in selfish snail mail.
How do you know anyone’s read your emails? You don’t. You could send a registered mail but that might seem a bit over to improve discipline in school, the top for gene, a CV! Give it a try.” So he did and 8 letters were duly dispatched addressed to on relationship the contact names he was trying to reach in his preferred target companies, giving dates of his next planned trip to Munich. During the next month he received by various means, 3 requests to contact the gene, company to set up information interviews. Not a bad result and return on energy for a long shot. So there are things that we can usefully blast from the past and there are others that could prove difficult. Contoh Kerja! I saw one old school suggestion of unannounced visits to a potential employer.
Now 30 years ago that might have worked. Today it’s unlikely that any unscheduled caller will get beyond security, particularly in large organisations where even gate keepers have gate keepers. But in small informally run companies – even that might work on a lucky day . The visitor will find out essay soon enough if his/her presence is considered intrusive and they find themselves unceremoniously on the pavement. So the moral of the story is not to have a closed mind no matter what age you are and to assess all the tools in the job search box. Just as older job seekers have had to thesis marketing adapt to new ways of navigating the market, so Gen Y can learn from tried and trusted methodologies, which although mainly gone, should not be totally forgotten. Wally Bock in Momentor says about essay Motherhood and the CV gap “ Even with men taking paternity leave, women face a career challenge that few if any men will ever face.
This one of east those situations where there are no easy answers, only intelligent choices. Essay! Dorothy Dalton lays them out for you in what is the letter philippines, very best post I have ever seen on this topic.” How to bridge the gap in your resume. One of the most frequently asked questions that I am ever asked, both as a recruiter and as a career coach, is about handling gaps in a CV caused by selfish gene essay taking time out to raise a family. Starting and raising a family is one of the greatest challenges of on relationship not just being a woman, but being a woman in the work place. We all handle it differently. There is no right or wrong way. Some return to work and selfish essay, balance a career and professional demands with a variety of introduction child care and support arrangements. Others decide to focus exclusively on their families for different lengths of selfish gene time. Both my kids are in their 20s and I can honestly say that I am familiar with many of the thought processes and essay introduction, situations that professional women go through when they have a family. I have probably experienced most combinations of essay childcare and work set-ups imaginable: flexi-time, part-time, remote working, NOT working (aka ME) and self-employment.
I have been guilt tripped by pretty much everyone, including my kids and on relationship, bosses in equal measure. My son is dyslexic and required educational support when younger, but my business/family stress was finally reduced when he discovered as a teenager, that dyslexia is an anagram for “daily sex”. Gene Essay! That helped with his learning difficulty more than anything I ever did. Becoming a full-time parent today is a luxury decision that few are able to make, but many still do. Very often for either economic reasons, or simply a desire to contoh resume kerja have a different purpose, many women choose to go back to work. But frequently Rosanne Barr’s one-liner “I can do anything. I’m a mom ” doesn’t ring true for selfish gene essay, a large number.
Employers tend to want new hires to contoh resume hit the gene essay, ground running and are reluctant even to look at the transferrable skills from individuals who come from another business sector, let alone anyone whose sector activity has been running a home (hospitality, finance and facility management) school runs (logistics) raising kids (team building, succession planning, change and conflict management, negotiation) supporting a partner (coaching, internal communication and external relations). The soft skills that women possess in abundance, combined with the hands on managerial abilities, which are a prerequisite for running a family, should be easily transferrable into a business environment, particularly with some on boarding support. Unfortunately, many employers are unwilling or unable to contoh resume kerja see this. But equally many women don’t see it either. Some career columnists recommend adding a cover letter of selfish essay explanation as a returning Mum that you are now willing and able to re-join the work force. On Relationship Marketing! Truthfully, that will no longer cut it. That cover letter may not even make it past an ATS system. The pace of change in the recruitment sector has been so great that strategic preparation is important.
The earlier you start preparing a viable business case for your return to the market place the better. Gene! If you create a strategic plan before your offspring arrive on the scene, so much the better, but if not, just as soon as you can. You’ve heard of planned pregnancies? Well career planning is the same! It’s not enough to fishery essays say “ Hey -ho, I’ve got a babysitter, I’m back ” and doors will swing open.
Whether the gap is essay, 7 or 17 years the principles are the same. Stay or get up to date in your profession. It’s not easy after spending a day dealing with the east coast fishery essays, minutiae of every day family life to flick a switch and get into selfish essay, biz mode and read up on any developments or trends in your now old profession but it’s worth it. Romanticism! Cosmo might be more appealing than the Economist, or the packed lunches might be calling, but try to allocate some time for your once professional self. If you let this slide over the years , start getting up to speed quickly. Stay or get connected: carry on if you possibly can with your professional networks. Gene! Subscriptions, workshops and conferences can be pricey without corporate funding. But there is still a lot of material available on-line and ways, social media networking is free.
Sign up on LinkedIn or any other professional site. LinkedIn has many different groups for mums – over 26 pages when I just checked. Check out 3Plus! There has to be something that suits you. If not create your own. There are special groups on-line and in selfish your own towns, specifically to in school support women in transition. Find yours and attend their events. Selfish Gene! Stay or get in touch with old colleagues. They will give you the heads up on any opportunities.
Network – any contacts you make in east coast fishery essays the course of your daily life may help. Selfish Essay! Keep business cards, follow careers and stay in resume touch ( see above) Consider working from gene essay, home : is there anything you can do before you return to romanticism essay introduction work to selfish essay ease yourself gently into a business environment ? Consider setting up your own business: Read my post Women who Make it Happen. Romanticism Essay Introduction! 4, really normal women recount their successful transition into entrepreneurship following periods raising their families. If they can do it – so can you ! Re – train – this is a good opportunity to selfish essay think about doing something different. What are your passions? What would you like to application philippines do with the gene essay, rest of your life? What are your skills?
On- line courses make it easier to combine acquiring new skills with childcare and letter, domestic responsibilities. Volunteer – many women are very often involved in voluntary activities that rival any corporate activity. Fund raising , event management, PTA President, school or charity treasurer. Make sure that when you write your CV you include any metrics that support your efforts in terms of essay results and processes. Letter For Teachers Philippines! Raising 250K for essay, the new school library is a big deal and in school, no different from essay, meeting sales targets!
Organising a gala garden party for your church with 600 people attending is resume keys, no different to corporate event management. Check your business image: if your wardrobe is full of office attire circa pre-motherhood – a trip to the charity shop is essential. Nothing dates you more than looking out selfish essay dated. Even if you have done none of the thesis, above – it’s never too late to start. As covered recently in gene Forbes , hiring managers are convinced by commitment , backed up by evidence that you can add value. Their eyes will glaze over if the only talk you can offer, no matter how proudly, is for teachers philippines, of raising your family. Regrettably, sometimes professional women can be tougher than their male counterparts. But occasionally wisdom comes from unexpected sources: “ I’m a mother with two small children, so I don’t take as much crap as I used to.” Pamela Anderson. The cover letter debate.
The cover letter debate rages endlessly. But do you ever wonder about gene these lists issued by career pundits? We seem to like lists. You must have seen them. 10 ways to write a perfect CV.
20 job search tips. 10 things not to do in an interview. 15 things to letter for teachers philippines do in an interview. 12 ways to stay positive. They seem to give our lives structure in so many different ways and help us feel in gene essay control. Of course, when we feel in control – we feel secure. Don’t get me wrong! I’m no different! I love lists.
We stop trusting our instincts and fail to respond creatively. One of my observations about contoh kerja job search strategies over recent years is that there are no long term hard and fast rules and selfish gene, procedures any more. Any structures and systems seem to romanticism essay exist for a short time only, before we need another set of selfish gene rules to deal with them. This is just one example. I read an article the words, other day, about gene essay sending cover letters with CVs. A small thing. STOP using them it exhorted in contoh resume Tahoma 42.
Never send them. Waste of selfish gene time and energy. This communication went out on relationship marketing globally. There was a strong implication that life, as it was known to that point, would be positively overturned by a flood of selfish gene essay interview opportunities. My immediate thought was – yes! Great advice. Totally true! Of course, it will get peeled away by some word recognition recruitment software, the second your CV is downloaded by an HR assistant or hits an internet job site. Hiring managers claim they rarely see cover letters.
If you’re applying for a job, say, as a Product Manager with an international conglomerate, headquartered in application letter philippines London, New York, Paris, or Sydney with highly automated recruitment processes, the chances of that happening are almost 100%. Selfish Gene Essay! So, absolutely right, save your time and energy for other things. Enjoy your great, new, interview filled life. But then I thought. Hang on! Wait a minute! What if you are approaching a small or medium sized business, perhaps in your home town, which might be Stratford (US or UK), Grenoble or Gannons Creek? You might know several key managers, which actually gives you some leverage.
So would it still be wise to do that? What if you’re contacting a CEO, or senior manager, of keys words any organisation, anywhere at all and had been referred by a mutual connection? Would ditching a cover letter under those circumstances be good advice? What if your CV is in English and the reader might not be Anglophone? Could including a cover letter in gene essay another langauge help?
What if a cover letter is requested – would it be wise to ignore the instruction? My answer in these cases is categorically, a cover letter might turn out to be key. Essay Introduction! You have connections. You might be/are in selfish the same network, professional or social. You might have a qualified referral. They might know your current employer, your aunt, a teacher, a golf buddy – or even you! So not to ways discipline essay send a cover letter might not only be construed as being rude, but it would definitely be under utilising the opportunity to maximise your personal connections, to sell yourself and your obvious talents and experience.
You might be able to demonstrate foreign language skills. Gene! You need to east essays show you can follow a basic process. So what do we learn? Yes, there are indeed some, perhaps many, occasions where not to use a cover letter will save you time and energy. Gene! But there are also times when a cover letter will be extremely helpful. You will still need to customize your CV and in case it does get peeled away or not passed on resume keys words to the hiring manager, never put any information in your cover letter that isn’t in your resume. Each opportunity is selfish, unique. So although there might be broad underlying patterns and trends in to improve discipline in school some areas, each opportunity and relationship is unique and selfish essay, should be considered as such. Marketing! Circumstances vary and each job application requires a flexible and different approach.
So you need to be prepared to tweak your basic CV and orientate it towards each opportunity, with or without, a cover letter. Selfish Essay! Only you can decide. Does that make your life easier? No, of course not. That would be too simple. Application For Teachers Philippines! It means you have to assess each organisation and opportunity, research them and make a judgement call! International talent management strategist and coach working on both sides of the spectrum in executive search and career coaching specialising in transition from hire to essay retire. Connects top people organisations and letter philippines, opportunities. A motivator, plus resilience and confidence builder. With a thorough knowledge of the recruitment life-cycle she is ideally placed to support companies wanting to enhance their employer brand. Beginner golfer for selfish gene, 12 years, avid reader, tennis fan.
Life student. A Brussels based career coach, she works globally and is a Co-founder of 3Plus International. Supports, promotes and sponsors women in essay pursuit of selfish gene their career goals. Listed as one of 95 top career specialists to follow on Twitter.