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Media studies dissertation proposal

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apa short essay Its been my experience that there are two kinds of people in studies dissertation proposal, this world: those who can handle chaos and are happy to let the pieces fall where they may, and those of us who chase those people around trying to prevent disarray in the first place. We like neatness. Tidiness. Resume May Sample? Orderliness. I covered the importance of essay formatting and what it entails in a previous blog post . So go check it out if you havent already. Ill wait here. Media Studies Proposal? In this post, were going to white on human management, drill down into the specifics of APA formatting and how to ensure your essay looks just right . APA stands for American Psychological Association, a professional organization for, well, psychologists. However, the organizations official style guide, which is proposal, called the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , is service to mankind, used by students and professionals in a number of disciplines.

But if you just want to quickly learn the basics and turn in a tidy, well-formatted essay, keep reading! What Are the Most Important Elements of APA Essay Format? There are a couple of little formatting details you can take care of right off the bat as they will apply to your entire paper. Last but not least, the entire documentfrom the cover page to the reference listshould be double-spaced with paragraphs indented 1/2 an media studies proposal inch. One of the distinguishing features of an APA-formatted essay is the running head. Hybrid Cars Cars Essay? This is dissertation proposal, a short version of your titlefewer than 50 charactersthat appears in the header of hybrid cars vs gas, your document, justified with the media proposal left margin. On the first page of your essay, usually the cover page, the running head is preceded by the words Running head followed by a colon.

On subsequent pages, though, the running head is just the title. If you need help making your header different on the first page, check out this helpful tutorial from Northeast Lakeview College. Dont you feel better just thinking about snuggling with it? Pro tip: Make sure that your running head is descriptive enough to give the reader some idea of the content. If the title of your paper is report monkey business, Never Too Old: The Calming Effects of dissertation, Blankies for College Students, for book b jones and a little monkey business, instance, your running head should be something like EFFECTS OF BLANKIES FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS rather than NEVER TOO OLD or just BLANKIES. While were on the subject of the header, lets go ahead and talk page numbers. In APA style, you include the page number in the header of every page . Dissertation Proposal? As you can see in the examples above, the page numbers should be right-justified opposite your running head. Stewart Kay L? Another key element of APA essay format is the cover page. While the use of a cover page is media, not unique to APA, the cars vs gas cars manual does specify a preferred layout, which includes not only the aforementioned running head, but also the following elements: The full title of your paper Your name The name of your school (or wherever you are doing your research/writing). These items are roughly centered on the top half of the page and, like the rest of your essay, are double-spaced. APA papers often include an studies dissertation proposal abstract, which is a short (150-250 words) summary of resume, your essay, including brief descriptions of your topic, purpose, methodology, and/or findings. The point of an abstract is to inform potential readers of your essays topic and purpose so that they can determine whether the essay is useful or relevant to media studies dissertation proposal, their own research.

Whether you need to white paper resource, include an abstract depends partially on the whims of your instructor, so if you arent sure, just ask! After formatting the media abstract, move to resume, a fresh, new page to begin the body section of your paper. Well combine two steps here to media dissertation proposal, simplify things and save your eyes a little reading. Hybrid Vs Gas? First, you need to restate the title of your paper. This serves as a label to signify the start of the actual paper. Studies? I know, it seems sort of resume may sample, silly with the running head right there for all the world to see. But silliness aside, it is an APA requirement, so well comply. Then, its time to set up the introduction.

Im trying to save you from media studies proposal one of the most common errors I see in APA-formatted essays: a labeled introduction. You see, the writing stewart folks at the APA assume that readers are smart enough to know that the first section of a paper is the introduction. (And really, arent they right?) Besides that, its a small detail that will make you look like you really know your stuff. Heres how the first page of the body of your paper should look: After your introduction, though, theres a good chance that you will want to dissertation, use headings for specific sections of your paper. Lets look at how you should handle those. Block quotations (40+ words in length) Sometimes, youll find a particularly meaty quote that you cannot resist adding to your paper. Just remember that, if the quotation is more than 40 words in length, you need to create a block quotation. The closing punctuation also goes immediately after the text of the quote, and no period goes after the resume parenthetical citation. Check out these examples from the APA blog to see block quotes in action. Weve covered the formatting of APA references pretty extensively in past posts.

Read APA Citation Made Simple (it includes a handy infographic!) or How to media proposal, Write APA Citations in 4 Easy Steps if you need to review those guidelines. First, center the word References (no quotes) at the top of the pageno bold, no italics, not followed by a colon. (I see all of these variations pretty frequently.) Let me reiterate: Next, be sure that you list your entries in b jones business, alphabetical order according to the authors last name (or whatever comes first in dissertation, the entry). Double-space the list, but do not leave an extra space between entries. Basically, there should be one full empty line between each line of text (because of the book and a double-spacing). Use a hanging indent so that the studies first line of each entry is aligned with the book report junie and a monkey left margin. Second and subsequent lines are indented ? inch. Heres an example reference list: APA Essay Format: Putting It All Together (Plus Some Handy Resources) Annnnd thats the end of the paper! Youre done formatting. You can totally remember all of this, right? Its not going to stress you out to comb through this in-depth explanation every time you write a paper using APA essay format?

You can print it out, mark it up, doodle your crushs name in the marginsoh, and media studies dissertation proposal, check off all of these APA formatting concerns as you revise or edit your paper. To make these rules even clearer, I thought it would be helpful to show you what a short and sillybut complete!essay looks like in writing kay l, APA format. Click the link below to open the paper in Google Docs. You can compare your essay draft to media, this example to make sure youre on the right track as you write. With the checklist and example essay Ive provided, you have the tools you need to format an service APA-style paper that would make even the neatest neat freak proud. Need a second set of eyes to make sure everything is just right? Run it by media, a Kibin editormost of us are one of those people we talked about at the beginning.

Psst. Ќ_‹? 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Media Dissertation Proposal? Erin H. has been wowing Kibin customers since her first edit in August 2013. She is now Kibin's community manager and a regular contributor to Kibin's blog. She lives in Indiana with her husband and daughter. If the service of online writers like paper written com are good, you can easily get best work.

These online writers first examine the topic by discussing it and then research the topic widely. They always write the __ф_у_ Ќ_‹ __уО‡_ paper by following the media dissertation best writing style.

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moscow essay INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF. RUSSIAN STUDIE S. RIVALRY BETWEEN MOSCOW AND ST PETERSBURG THE CONTRASTING IDEOLOGIES OF CONSERVATISM AND WESTERNISM IN RUSSIA EMBODIED IN THE TWO CAPITALS. This paper argues that the two capitals of Russia, namely Moscow and St Petersburg, have each played a unique and defining role in the birth and development of the media studies dissertation, ideologies of Westernisation and hybrid vs gas essay, conservatism in studies Russia. With their distinctive characters and essay, ways of media studies dissertation proposal, life, the to mankind essay, two cities have constituted two poles in Russian political history as well as literature and art. Media Proposal? This paper tries to give the reader a brief picture of both cities from an architectural, cultural, historical and above all political and __ф_у_ Ќ_‹ __уО‡_, ideological perspective. Thus, in an attempt to explore the different roles the two cities have played in studies dissertation proposal Russian political history, the paper takes a brief look at the history and dynamics that shaped the distinctive ideologies of the two capitals.

Finally, the paper tries to make a clear identification and comparison of the character and essay writing for canadian kay l, roles of the two capitals in Russian political life and history. Key Words: Moscow, St Petersburg, Autocracy, Conservatism, Moscow-Third Rome, Petrine Revolution, Westernisation, Slavophilism. There is no doubt that Moscow and St Petersburg are among the most popular tourist destinations in the world today. The two capitals of studies dissertation proposal, Russia, with their outstanding beauty and rich history, attract millions of tourists every year from all over the world. No place better represents Russia than Red Square (Krasnaya Ploshchad). Its name comes from the essay writing students stewart, word krasnyi, which once meant beautiful, and has only come to media dissertation proposal, mean red in the contemporary Russian language. The name became official in the middle of the 17th century; previously it had been Trinity Square. Cars Vs Gas Cars? [1]

Trinity Cathedral, which is often known as the media studies dissertation, predecessor of writing for canadian students, St Basils, gave its name to the square. It was also known as Fire Square, due to media studies dissertation proposal, the number of fires that swept away medieval Moscow. There is also a myth that it was named red because of the bloody executions that were publicly held in the square. Whatever its name means, one can witness thousands of years of history walking the brick road of this plaza, which was long used by the Kremlin for celebrations and especially military parades. The Teatralnaya Ploshchad, or Theater Square, which is located near Red Square, hosts the world-famous Bolshoi Theater and t he lesser known Maly Theater. Walking south-west, you reach Okhotny Ryad to white paper, Manezhnaya Ploshchad, or Manezh Square.

The square centres on the statue of Marshall Zhukov, the heroic commander of the Red Army in the Second World War. The former Central Lenin Museum [2] provides the background. Entering Red Square through the Resurrection Gate, you see Kazan Cathedral on studies proposal your left . The amazing State History Museum is __уО‡_, located at the north end of the square. The enormous, elaborate facade occupying the east side of the square is the State Department Store, better known as GUM. The mighty towers of the Kremlin dominate the west side of the square. Lenins Mausoleum, which is located near the centre of the Square, is media, still open for visitors.

At the far end of Red Square, the colourful confusion of onion domes and tent peaks is the Cathedral of St Basil the Blessed , the book junie and a little monkey business, 16th-century church that is probably Moscows most recognisable sight. The original name of the church is the Intercession of the Virgin Cathedral, named for the feast day on which the army of Ivan IV the Terrible captured the city of Kazan in 1552. One chapel was built over the grave of Vasily (Basil) the Blessed, whose name has stuck for the whole church. From here you can continue strolling south to the Moscow River for dissertation proposal fabulous views of the gold domes of the Kremlin churches rising up over resume the red brick walls. The so-called Seven Sisters are perhaps the most recognisable contributions of the Stalinist period to the city.

Seven massive skyscrapers scattered throughout the city at about an equal distance from the Kremlin still echo the Communist past of Russia. St Petersburg, the undisputed cultural capital of Russia, is often referred to as the proposal, Venice of the North with its beautiful canals, bridges and architecture. The city was intentionally planned and may sample, built by Peter the Great (1672-1725) as the window of Russia to the West. Since its foundation, St Petersburg pioneered the idea of Westernisation and became a fortress of its supporters. The location of the new capital where the Neva River meets the Baltic Sea also symbolised the liberation of Russia from studies dissertation proposal its obsolete traditions and revealed the Ќ_‹ __уО‡_, process of the Russian awakening.

St Petersburg was created not only by architects, but by poets. Media Studies Dissertation? Russias new capital [3] became an inspiration for essay the works of the greatest poets of Russia, from media studies Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin to Marina Tsvetaeva. Russias greatest poet, Pushkin, drew a marvellous image of this beautiful city in his famous narrative poem - The Bronze Horseman (1833): , , , [4] I love you, work of Peter, I love your sober and book report junie b jones and a, harmonious outlook. Pushkins poem further describes how Peter the Great decided to studies proposal, cut a window on Europe. . [5]

Here nature instructs us, To cut a window on Europe. Today, St Petersburg still remains Russias window to the West. It is a common observation that far more English is spoken here than in Moscow, and St Petersburgers have a more welcoming attitude towards tourists. St Petersburg is often considered compact and report monkey business, calm compared to urban and noisy Moscow. The Nevsky Prospekt features the best architecture of the proposal, city.

Standing on the Troitsky Bridge, one can see a great panoramic view of the city, where reflections of the palaces and main buildings shimmer on the Neva River. On the other side of the Neva is to mankind essay, located the Peter and Paul Fortress, which was built to defend the city and studies dissertation proposal, was later used as a prison. The magnificent spire of the Peter and Paul Cathedral with its winged angel blessing the writing for canadian students kay l, city constitutes a great composition with the fortress and media studies proposal, the Neva River. Along the left bank of the Neva there is a line of palaces culminating in the royal Romanov Winter Palace, which is currently home to the world-famous Hermitage Museum. The museum not only offers the most famous masterpieces of painters such as Rembrandt, da Vinci and Matisse, but also displays magnificent ballrooms and service, throne rooms, reminders of the days of imperial life. Dissertation? The museum offers such a grand collection of paintings that if a visitor stops in front of every exhibit for at least 30 seconds, a tour of the entire collection would take more than seven years (given an eight-hour viewing day). The beautiful Palace Square in front of the Hermitage features the Alexander Column. It was near the Senate building where the essay stewart, rebel Decembrists faced the firing squads of the Emperor in 1825.

At night, St Isaacs Cathedral and the Senate building offer a magnificent view in the beams of projectors. The famous monument of Peter the media dissertation proposal, Great, the Bronze Horseman, stands as a symbol of the city, reminding its viewers of Pushkins unforgettable poem. If you take a walk near the Neva at dawn, you will see the 13 beautiful drawbridges of Petersburg lifting up their hands to the heavens while beneath them slide vessels. Crossing the Moika Canal one can reach the Yusupov Palace, where Grigory Rasputin was murdered. The bridge across the Griboyedov Canal offers a perfect view of __ф_у_ __уО‡_, Kazan Cathedral, which reminds visitors of a small-scaled version of St Peters Basilica in Rome. One of the most beautiful cathedrals of Saint Petersburg, the Saviour-on-the-Blood, was erected on the spot where Russian Emperor Alexander II was murdered on 1 March 1881. Petrodvorets (Peters Palace), t he Anichkov Bridge across the Fontanka Canal with Pytor Klodts four famous sculptures wild horses with their tamers adorning its four corners, the Mariinsky Theatre, Vasilievsky Island, the Old St Petersburg Stock Exchange between the Rostral Columns, Mikhailov Gardens, and the classical Russian Museum are only some of the countless beauties that the city of white nights offers. This bright and lively Petersburg gives a completely different picture than Fyodor Dostoevskys image of Petersburg. In his masterpiece Crime and Punishment , Dostoevsky describes the city from the eyes of the hero of his novel, Raskolnikov.

Dostoevskys Petersburg is a terrible, cold, merciless and suffocating city where lonely souls are lost inside the crowds. It is a city that kills the good inside and liberates evil from its chains. Dostoevskys criticism of Petersburg is not the media proposal, sole example in Russian literature and political thought. The rivalry between the report junie b jones and a monkey business, two capitals of studies, Russia, Moscow and Petersburg, has often been materialised in the works of famous writers. Gogol was perhaps the Ќ_‹, foremost among them.

Being the poles of the longstanding dispute between Slavophilism and Westernism, the two cities contrasting personalities have been apparent in their social composition, cultural outlook and even architectural styles. This great difference of atmosphere between the two cities is easily sensed by visitors. The two capitals, each playing its own role in Russian history and political thought, demonstrate the two different faces of Russia. In an media studies, attempt to identify the differences of character between the two cities, this paper will examine the reasons for for canadian stewart kay l the division of roles of the two capitals of Russia. The Birth of Moscow. Archaeological evidence indicates that the territory that is now Moscow has been occupied since the media studies, Neolithic epoch. The oldest settlements, dated at three thousand years before our era, were discovered within the resume may sample, area of the present-day city. In the studies dissertation, 8th and 9th centuries Slavic tribes started to occupy areas near the Moskva River. These were the tribes of the Kryvichi and Vjatichi, who are regarded as the kernel of the future Moscow population. The first reference to the village of may sample, Moscow was made in an old Russian manuscript of studies, 1147. In 1156, Prince Yuri Vladimirovich Dolgoruky erected timber walls on the present-day site of the Kremlin . He is regarded as the founder of the resume, city of Moscow. [6] His monument, which is located near Tverskaya Street, is among the citys most visited touristic attractions.

Surrounding forest belt provided the city a limited degree of protection from the invaders. Its unique location adjacent to several rivers also helped it to become a trade centre. From the 10th to the 13th centuries, Kievan Rus [7] (Russia of Kiev) was the dominant figure of the Russian land, and it was well-integrated into the medieval economic system. The Tartar (or Tatar) invasion, which resumed in 1237 and lasted more than 250 years, tore Russia away from the West. The invasion, facilitated by dissertation, the breakup of Kievan Rus , was followed by the division of the East Slavic people into three separate nations: modern day Russia , Ukraine and Belarus . Book Junie Little Business? Despite having devastating consequences for Kievan Rus, the Tartar rule played an important role in media studies proposal the rise of Moscow and subsequently the Russian Empire . Moscow became the seat of the grand dukes of Vladimir-Suzdal (1271), who later assumed the title of grand dukes of Moscow. By 1325, Moscows princes obtained the service to mankind essay, sole right to rule over media the Russian territories and collect tribute for the Golden Horde . During the rule of Dmitri Donskoi , the first stone walls of the Kremlin were built (1367). With its location at the crossroads of trade routes and its leadership in the struggle against the Tatar rule, Muscovy gradually achieved dominance over the neighbouring principalities. The head of the Russian Orthodox Church relocated to Moscow in hybrid vs gas the 14th century in recognition of the citys growing authority.

The Prince of Moscow, Ivan III, rolled back the Tatar invaders , following which the city became the capital of the expanding Muscovite state. By the 15th century Moscow became the capital of the studies dissertation, Russian national state, and in 1547 Grand Duke Ivan IV became the first to assume the title of service to mankind essay, Tsar. Media Proposal? The Moscow Kremlin, which was built in the beginning of the 15th century, is a benchmark of that epoch. During the period of expansion, the young state was thrown into chaos when Ivan IV passed away without leaving an heir. In the ensuing power struggle, the country was invaded by several foreign armies before the Russian people were able once again to gain control of Moscow and elect a new Tsar, marking the beginning of the Romanov dynasty (16131917). During the reign of Peter the Great, there was strong progress in the arts and sciences in Moscow, and in Russia as a whole. In 1703 the first printed newspaper appeared ( Vedomosti ), and in 1755 Moscow University was opened. The large-scale growth of manufacturing in Moscow during the 17th century, which necessitated an outlet to the sea, was instrumental in Peters decision to build St Petersburg on the Baltic. The capital was transferred to St Petersburg in 1712, but Moscows cultural and social life continued uninterrupted and the city remained Russias religious centre. Following the Battle of book b jones and a little business, Borodino in August of 1812, Moscow was left to Napoleons troops. [8] However, before the arrival of the French in the city, it was burnt by the Moscovites [9] almost entirely.

Fires and hunger forced the French army to leave Moscow. [10] After the liberation of the city, a commission was authorised for the reconstruction of Moscow. The present-day appearance of the media studies, Moscow city centre is rooted in those times. Thus, the Alexandrov Garden and Theatre Square appeared with the on human, Bolshoi and Maly theatres, as well as the buildings of Manezh and the First Gradskaya hospital. Towards the end of the 19th century it became the second industrial centre in Russia (after St Petersburg), partially due to the rapid growth of railway communication. The first telegraph line was constructed in 1852, connecting the two Russian capitals. The first telephone lines were organised between Moscow and Petersburg in the late 1890s. The 19th century is media proposal, considered as the golden age for arts and science, and Moscow was the intellectual birthplace of many famous Russian artists, writers like Pushkin, Gogol, Tolstoi, Chekhov and Herzen. The 19th century also marked the development of the may sample, Slavophile movement, whose holy centre was Moscow. The process of rapid industrialisation and the formation of the labour class helped the communistic ideas of media proposal, Karl Marx to spread among the working classes and intelligentsia in Moscow.

The Krasnaya Presnya rebellion of essay for canadian kay l, 1905 and studies dissertation, the July strikes of 1914 were the important milestones in the revolutionary process, which was finalised by the Great October Revolution of 1917. In 1918 the resume may sample, Soviet government, headed by V. Dissertation Proposal? Lenin, transferred the capital back to Moscow and fostered spectacular economic growth in resume the city. The Soviet Union was announced on 30 December 1922 by media dissertation proposal, the All-Russia Communist Party of Bolsheviks (VKPB) with Moscow as its capital. During World War II, Moscow was the goal of the German offensive. The German troops were stopped only 3540 kilometres (near todays Sheremetyevo Airport) from the citys centre. Moscows architecture changed drastically with the __ф_у_ Ќ_‹, construction of Soviet-style blocs to answer the increasing need for studies dissertation proposal housing. The most active construction process took place during the rule of Nikita Khrushchev in the 1960s. These small-sized flats, which are often referred to as Xrushovki in the Russian language, were constructed quickly to meet the urgent demand and are, therefore, far from being beautiful or diverse. Due to inadequate public funds, Moscows infrastructure suffered after the 1991 demise of the Soviet Union.

In the late 1990s many ambitious reconstruction projects were launched and Moscow experienced a real-estate boom. Today, with its gigantic size, huge population and unbearable traffic jams, Moscow is considered one of the most expensive metropolises of the world. Muscovite Russia The Centre of Autocracy and Absolutism. The political evolution of Russia has occurred in an opposite direction compared to that of the may sample, West due to geographic, political and cultural reasons. Media Studies Proposal? After the conquest of hybrid cars, Siberia, the borders of Russia were extended vastly, covering an immense territory and making her the largest kingdom on earth in the 17th century. This vast territory was exposed to the threat of Mongol and Turkic tribes. These conditions created a suitable environment for the development and media dissertation proposal, justification of the concept of autocracy in Russia. This feeling of insecurity led in writing students stewart kay l Muscovite Russia to the development of a military dictatorship. The entire Russian nation consisted of serfs: the development of a privileged aristocracy and media studies, a class of self-governing burghers was impeded.

The absence of private property led to the complete concentration of power in the hands of Russias rulers. Until the junie b jones, 19th century, Muscovite Russian cities were mainly made up of rural populations engaged in agriculture and lacking powers of self-government. The consequence of these conditions in medieval Russia was the absence of an independent nobility and private property. Thus, the lack of these two key institutions, which served to limit the studies dissertation proposal, powers of kings in the West, helped the Russian rulers to consolidate their absolute power. Another contributing factor to the rise of an extreme form of autocracy was the vs gas essay, Orthodox religion. Media Studies? Byzantine dogma held politics to be the Ќ_‹, responsibility of the rulers and this helped the emergence in Russia of a form of monarchy that, in dissertation proposal its powers, exceeded anything known in the West even in the age of __ф_у_ Ќ_‹, absolutism. European travellers to Muscovy perceived its rulers as possessing unlimited authority and disregarding private property rights.

The Russian monarchy emerged as a sovereign power in the second half of the proposal, 15th century. B Jones And A Monkey? Until then, Russian rulers had been vassals of both Byzantium and of the Mongol-Tartar Golden Horde. The capture of Constantinople by proposal, the Turks in 1453 ended Russias dependence on the Byzantine Empire. Shortly afterward, the Golden Horde fell apart. As a result, by 1480, in the reign of Ivan III, the rulers of Muscovy could claim, at first cautiously and then boldly, the title of samoderzhets, a translation of the Greek autokrates, which meant sovereign: that is, a ruler dependent of hybrid cars, any external power. The term Tsar, an adaptation of Caesar, now also began to gain currency: it was formally adopted in 1547. Media Studies? [11] During the may sample, century that followed, the rulers of Muscovy came to studies dissertation proposal, claim imperial prerogatives on the grounds that they were the worlds only Orthodox sovereigns and, as such, the book report b jones business, worlds only true Christian rulers. However, from the 1470s onward, Russias rulers were also addressed by studies, another term, one which survived until 1917: gosudar, commonly translated as sovereign.

This terminology provides a clue to the patrimonial nature of emergent Russian absolutism. Once they had shaken off Mongol domination, the rulers of Moscow suddenly became sovereigns. They considered their realm as patrimonial property, property inherited from their fathers, for which Russians used the term votchina. Thus, it comes as no surprise that both Ivan III (14401505) and his son Basil III (14791533), like Ivan I before them, continued to refer to Muscovy as their patrimony (votchina). [12] During the reigns of Ivan III, Basil III and Ivan IV, neither privileged status nor private property were tolerated. Thus, the kind of aristocracy seen in Western Europe could not be created. On Human Resource? The Boyar Duma (1547-1711), often referred to as the boyars, was a royal council. Media Studies Proposal? Its officials were invited by the Tsar.

The Duma was not able to take the initiative to convene and it dealt only with matters that were submitted by the Tsar himself. In sum, the Duma was unable to limit the on human resource management, authority of the Tsars. The Zemskie sobory, or Land Assemblies, which are considered to have been founded in 1549 or 1550, were also unable to restrain the media studies dissertation proposal, Muscovite rulers. The majority of their deputies were government officials appointed by the crown. Their sole purpose was to strengthen the governments control over the provinces. Thus, the Assemblies never became politically influential institutions like their European counterparts. In this patrimonial state, the monarchs were free to legislate and were confronted by resume may sample, neither private property nor established social estates, which, by their existence, set limits to authority. The Birth of the Conservative Ideology: Muscovy The Third Rome. In the 330s, Emperor Constantine deserted the Tiber for the Bosphorus and built there a New Rome, which became the centre of the seven ecumenical councils and the home of the proposal, Orthodox emperors and patriarchs. __ф_у_ __уО‡_? [13] In line with the decision of the Council of Constantinople held in 381, the Byzantines themselves actually regarded their state as the New Rome.

For over a thousand years, the New Rome dedicated itself to the duty of preserving three great heritages: the classical Greek, imperial Rome and studies dissertation, the church fathers. During that time the empire and the church became so inextricably interrelated that the clergy could not imagine Christianity without the emperor. A corollary of junie little, this was the studies dissertation, concept that the empire must endure as long as Christianity itself. [14] In search of Western military assistance against the Ottoman threat, Byzantium agreed at the Council of Florence-Ferrara in 1439 to rejoin the service to mankind essay, Catholic Church. Media Dissertation? Thus, the primacy of the Pope was acknowledged and all doctrinal issues dividing the two churches were conceded by the Byzantium. This accord was denied and writing stewart kay l, considered as a betrayal of faith by the Russian Orthodox Church. According to Orthodox theology, there could be no Christian church without a secular power to protect it and enforce its teachings; there had to be a Third Rome with its own emperor. When Constantinople was conquered in 1453 by the Ottomans, Russia remained the only rightful claimant to the status of Third Rome. Studies Dissertation? [15] This notion, in turn, led to the development of the theory of Moscow - The Third Rome formulated apparently sometime in the 1530s by the monk Filofei (Philotheus). [16] Filofei articulated his theory in one terse sentence: Dva Rima padosha, a tretii stoit, a chetvertom ne byti: Two Romes have fallen, the third stands, and a fourth there will not be. [17] Implicit in that statement was the belief that Russia was destined to rule the world and that the resume may sample, Russian Tsar was the studies, ruler of all humanity.

The responsibility of preserving the worlds cultural heritage was now on the shoulders of Muscovy. Even in the 19th century, this religious mission remained one of the main springs of Pan-Slavist thinking. With the resume may sample, preparation of The Book of Degrees of the Royal Genealogy ( Stepennaia kniga ) by Metropolitan Macarius [18] in 15601563, Ivan IV was presented as the legitimate heir of the Roman and Byzantine emperors. With the support of the Church, the media dissertation, Russian rulers were now endowed with unrestrained power and cars vs gas essay, the Church itself came under the full authority and control of the Tsars. The rulers of Moscow appointed the highest of dignitaries and removed them at will. This voluntary subordination of the Russian Church to the state led to the bureaucratisation of the media studies dissertation proposal, clergy and spared Russia the kind of struggle between the ecclesiastical and secular authorities that had afflicted Catholic Europe through much of the Middle Ages. The highly bureaucratised Russian Church also became hostile to all independent religious thought and condemned all sorts of independent thinking.

Thus, at the beginning of her new autonomous existence, Muscovy was given a sharp thrust towards conservatism and an admonition to watch warily against perverting influences from the outside, especially from Western Europe. Book Report Junie B Jones Business? [19] St Petersburg Russias Window to Europe. The name of St Petersburg has been changed three times in history due to the changing political climate in Russia. Dissertation? However, the city is still called simply Peter by its residents. Petersburg did not grow up like other towns. Neither commerce nor geopolitics can account for its development. Rather, it was built as a work of art. Service To Mankind Essay? Petersburg was conceived as a composition of natural elements water, stone and sky. Amsterdam and Venice were early inspirations for the layout of the palace-lined canals and embankments. Peter the Great was eclectic in his architectural tastes and borrowed what he liked from Europes capitals.

The austere classical baroque style of Petersburgs churches, which set them apart from Moscows brightly coloured onion domes, was a mixture of St Pauls cathedral in London, St Peters in Rome and the single-spired churches of Riga, in what is media proposal, now Latvia. [20] Important capitals of Europe like London, Paris or Vienna were built over several centuries with the accumulation of a great heritage, tradition and culture, reflecting different styles of diverse periods. However, Petersburg was completed within only fifty years and according to essay writing stewart kay l, one single set of studies dissertation proposal, principles. According to Orlando Figes, St Petersburg was more than a city. It was a vast, almost utopian, project of resume may sample, cultural engineering to reconstruct the media studies proposal, Russian as a European man. [21] For Dostoyevsky, it was the writing for canadian students stewart kay l, most abstract and intentional city in the whole round world. Media Proposal? [22] In fact, every detail of the city was intentionally designed for the refusal of medieval Muscovy and to compel the resume may sample, Russians to proposal, adopt a more European way of to mankind essay, life. As Peter conceived it, to become a citizen of Petersburg was to leave behind the dark and backward customs of the Russian past in Moscow and to enter, as a European Russian, the modern Western world of studies proposal, progress and enlightenment. [23] Laying the basis of a modern European state, Peter did not forget the noble class. By establishing a Table of Ranks, which ordered the nobles hierarchically according to their offices, he turned all nobles into servants of the Crown. He also allowed commoners to be given noble status for their service to book report b jones and a monkey business, the state. Thus, Peters new aristocracy was defined entirely by dissertation proposal, its position in the civil and military service, and rights and privileges were set accordingly.

The obsessive regulations introduced by Peter and may sample, the obligatory imitation of the European way of dissertation, life gave St Petersburg the image of a hostile and oppressive place. Criticism of __уО‡_, St Petersburg as a threat to the Russian way of life started to play a central role in Russian literature. This criticism was above all seen in proposal Gogols novels. Gogols Petersburg was a cold and cruel city with lonely, haunted figures. [24] In Dostoevskys novel Crime and Punishment (1866), it was the home of criminals and hybrid vs gas, murderers like Raskolnikov. [25] The northern capital was an insular world teeming with ambition, where politics, culture and social life were inseparable and a careless remark could make or break a career. The city was, as Peter had intended, Russias window to Europe. Diplomats and emigres played important roles in media studies proposal the society. Ethnic non-Russians filled the upper reaches of government; there were also European tutors and governesses, foreign-language newspapers, Catholic and Protestant churches and foreign scholars in the Imperial Academy of Sciences; finally, many foreign merchants and well-travelled Russian naval officers lived in the empires largest port city. Its location, its European architecture and its Germanic name further strengthened its identity as a bridge between Russia and report b jones and a business, Europe. [26] Looking from the architectural perspective, St Petersburgs characteristic was a perfect synthesis of the Italian and Russian baroque styles. The harmonious network of avenues, squares, canals and parks, which were mostly planned and built by Italian architect Bartolomeo Rastrelli, gave an architectural unity to media dissertation, the city.

Water, through the perfectly designed canals and the Neva River, added lightness to white paper on human, the heavy baroque style and studies, movement to the buildings set along its edge. While the golden spire of the Admiralty became the topographical centre of the city, Falconets equestrian statute of Peter the Great, The Bronze Horseman, became the new emblem of Russias destiny. Rivalry between Moscow and St Petersburg: A Comparison of the Distinct. Characters of the Two Cities. A) Architectural Distinctions. As St Petersburg was intentionally built for the sole purpose of Ќ_‹, forcing the Russians to adopt the European way of life, its architecture also resembled an adoption of the studies dissertation, Western cities. Its style was dictated by European fashion, whereas Moscow had a distinct rural atmosphere. Following the construction of St Petersburg, the population of Moscow fell drastically.

It had been reduced to a provincial capital and maintained that image until the middle of the 19th century. According to the Empress Catherine, Moscow was a symbol of fanaticism while St Petersburg symbolised progress and service essay, civilisation. When in the early 1770s a part of media studies, Moscow had to cars essay, be burned due to the Black Death, which swept through the city, Catherine saw an opportunity to reconstruct Moscow in the European style. However, this grand project could not be realised due to financial insufficiencies. When the flames of the big fire of 1812 swallowed the city, a large construction process started. This was another chance to rebuild the city in a European style following the example of St Petersburg. Dissertation? Yet during this grand reconstruction process, the planners of the service essay, city did not try to imitate Western cities. They rather successfully mixed the European design with the distinctive Russian style. Moscows architectural character was defined largely by the Russian provinces.

Being located on the crossroads of Europe and the Asiatic steppe, it had absorbed these diverse influences and created its own distinctive style. The streets of Moscow reflected a mixture of oriental customs, colours and motifs. The poet Konstantin Batiushkov saw the city as a bizarre mix of East and West. In the image of media proposal, Moscow one could still make out the influence of Genghiz Khan. Moscows semi-oriental nature was given full expression in __ф_у_ __уО‡_ the so-called neo-Byzantine style of architecture that dominated its reconstruction in the 1830s and 1840s. The architecture mixed elements of the media, neo-Gothic and medieval Russian styles with Byzantine and __ф_у_, classical motifs. [27] The city also imposed its style on its provinces. Dissertation? Many provinces, Kazan being the __ф_у_, most remarkable example, adopted the media studies dissertation proposal, architecture of Moscow as a model. Moscows role as the cultural capital of the report and a monkey, Russian provinces was thus confirmed.

B) Europeanisation versus Isolation. In an attempt to achieve his ambitious goal to create a continental military power and a European Russia, Peter the Great travelled to European cities. Hiding his identity, he worked as an ordinary shipbuilder in studies proposal Holland to learn new maritime technologies. Following his return, he started an enforced adaptation process of European models of resume, navy, military schools, law and Table of Ranks (civil service), which he believed to be necessary for Russia to become a modern European state. Pioneering the Westernisation process, Peter dressed in media studies dissertation proposal Western clothes, shaved his beard and did not strictly follow the religious duties of the Orthodox Church. Book Monkey Business? He hated everything that Moscow symbolised: archaic culture, superstition, religious fanaticism and resentment of the West. The Petrine Revolution [28] in Russian culture and politics created a contrast between Moscow and St Petersburg. While St Petersburg symbolised everything about Westernisation, Moscow was the symbol of the historical and cultural isolation of Russia from Europe.

The Renaissance and the Reformation, which swept the whole of Europe, did not have any influence on Muscovy. It took no part in maritime discoveries or the proposal, scientific revolutions of the early modern era. It had no great cities in the European sense, no universities or public schools apart from monastery academies and no real middle class. The projection of Russia into Europe has always been the raison detre of St Petersburg. It was not simply Peters window on Europe as Pushkin once described the capital but an open doorway through which Europe entered Russia and service to mankind essay, the Russians made their entry into the world. [29]

C) Contrasting Ideologies. Russias cultural turn away from Europe accelerated during the reign of Nicholas I. [30] The Tsar and his ideologists felt sympathy towards the Slavophile doctrine that associated Russia with the eastern traditions of media studies dissertation proposal, Byzantium. This departure of Russia from the European tradition led to students stewart kay l, the re-emergence of proposal, Moscow as the resume may sample, genuine capital of Russia. This conscious rejection of Europeanisation and return to the ancient native traditions was soon mythologised as a national renaissance. The ideological confrontation between the Westernisers and the Slavophiles laid the basis of the opposition between Moscow and St Petersburg. For the Westernisers, Petersburg was the symbol of their Europe-oriented ideas for Russia. Media Studies Dissertation Proposal? The Slavophiles, however, idealised Moscow, whose way of life was more provincial and was closer to the habits of the Russian people. For them, the customs and traditions of the old Rus were embodied in Moscow, reflecting the resume, real Russian character. D) The Role of Religion.

Muscovy was the religious centre of Russia while St Petersburg symbolised a modern secular European state. Reflecting the spiritual traditions of the Eastern Church back to Byzantium, Moscow resembled the medieval culture of central Europe. Media Studies Proposal? The dominance of the church impeded all sorts of secular movements that had taken shape in Europe with the Renaissance and white paper on human resource management, Reformation. The focal point of the Russian Orthodox Church was the icons, and it was hostile to the development of other forms of art like literature, painting, sculpture or instrumental music. St Basils of Red Square symbolised the studies, triumphant restoration of the Orthodox traditions of Byzantium and set in stone the imperial mission of Moscow as the capital of the hybrid essay, religious crusade that was set out in the doctrine of Moscow as the Third Rome. The double-headed eagle of the Byzantine emperors, which is currently the symbol of Russia, was added by Moscows princes to their coat of arms. As was explained above, the support of the Russian Orthodox Church was fundamental to Moscows emergence as the mother city of media studies proposal, Holy Rus. The Church marked the enemies of Moscow as the enemies of Christ.

The union of Moscow and Ќ_‹ __уО‡_, Orthodoxy was cemented in the churches and the monasteries. Moscow was a centre of the Old Believers, who radically opposed reform in the Russian Church. Studies Proposal? Moscows messianic destiny as the Third Rome and the last true seat of __ф_у_, Orthodoxy was the centre of their faith. Living in proposal enclosed communities, they were hostile to the influences of the West and any innovations from the cars essay, outside world. They regarded Peter as the Antichrist, and thus St Petersburg was considered by dissertation, them as the kingdom of the Devil. E) The Images of the cars vs gas essay, Two Cities in Russian Literature. The liberation of the nobles from obligatory state service in 1762 opened the door to Europe for the curious Russian gentry. Visiting European capitals like London, Paris, Amsterdam and Vienna, they started to question Russias place in Europe. The virtues of the distinctive Russian character started to be reflected especially in travel writing. Dostoevsky used the terms corrupt, materialist and egoistical to describe Europe. [31] This lexicon started to be frequently seen in the works of Russian writers, the Slavophiles being the foremost among them. For Dostoevsky, it was Russias messianic mission and destiny to save the fallen West.

In the eyes of these writers, St Petersburg, as the symbol of the dissertation, European Russia, was the centre of corruption, foreign artifice, alien conventions and pretension. Resume? They idealised Moscow as the symbol of real Russian character and soul, uncorrupted by civilisation or artificial European influences. Especially in the national narrative of the 19th century, the old romantic ideal of native soil placed Moscow at media studies the centre of the image of pure Russia with real Russian virtues. In sum, Moscow, in a sense, became the antithesis of St Petersburg in Russian literature. F) The Impact of the French Revolution and essay writing for canadian students, War with France. During the reign of Catherine II, the influence of French culture on the upper class of St Petersburg was felt even more strongly. The Voltaireanism of Catherine gave St Petersburg society a rationalist and sceptical view of life that was at odds with the sentimentalism and media proposal, mysticism common in Moscow. [32] However, everything changed with the French Revolution. The bloodshed caused by the Jacobin reign of terror following the revolution of 1789 created dismay and reaction among the Russian gentry, who believed in book b jones and a little monkey business the supremacy of French culture and idealised the French way of life. The belief that France was the centre of studies dissertation, civilisation, progress and resume, enlightenment soon faded away. The once Francophile nobility became opponents of France, consciously striving to liberate themselves from the intellectual empire of the French. Media Proposal? The use of French words, which was once common among Russian nobles, was now creating reactions even in the salons of St Petersburg.

The Russian government finally broke off relations with revolutionary France. Essay? Moscows importance increased and its place as a symbol of studies, everything Russian in the real sense was further strengthened following the French revolution. When Russia went to war with France in 1805, Moscows indisputable place as the service to mankind, heart of Russia was confirmed. Before the Battle of Borodino, Napoleon Bonaparte is believed to have said: If I take Kiev, I will take Russias legs, if I take Saint Petersburg, I'll take its head. But if I take Moscow, Ill take its heart. G) The Role of the dissertation, Noble Classes.

With Moscow being the former capital of Russia, the service, majority of its elite and intelligentsia was brought up in an ancestral patriarchal tradition. Despite being distant from St Petersburg, this elite, through friends and media dissertation proposal, relatives serving in the St Petersburg bureaucracy and military ranks, had a sensible influence in politics. While the St Petersburg aristocracy represented the European fashion, the presence of wealthy nobles and the provincial gentry brought to Moscow the traditional attitudes of the writing students stewart, countryside. Governmental measures emanated from Petersburg, but the media studies proposal, way to understand and evaluate them, and to judge them, was determined in Moscow, along with their moral power. Much more than Petersburg, Moscow remained the centre of the countrys spiritual life, and it approached politics with a defiant spirit of nationalism and fronde [33] . Dominance of Moscow in Current Politics in Russia: The Victory of Autocracy Over. The foundation of St Petersburg and on human management, the enforced process of Europeanisation (or Westernisation) caused by the Petrine Revolution in Russian culture created an uncertainty on media studies dissertation the part of the Russian nation about its place in __ф_у_ Ќ_‹ __уО‡_ Europe. This ambivalence, embodied in the characters of its two capitals, is still continuing in Russia today. Living in the crossroads of Europe and Asia, the Russians have never been quite sure if they belong to the East or to the West.

During the reign of Peter, the upper classes of St Petersburg were forced to imitate the European way of life, while Moscow remained the symbol of real Russian character and soul. During the ideological clash of the Cold War era, Russia remained isolated from Europe, reminiscentof the days of medieval Muscovy. Since the collapse of the proposal, former Soviet Union in 1991, Russian academics, policy-makers, philosophers and bureaucrats have been trying to develop a new concept that could play a guiding role in building a new and powerful Russia. In the current debate on how to for canadian students, accomplish the media dissertation proposal, revival of Russia as a great power, the Westernisers and the conservatives constitute two opposing poles. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, there have been important developments that strengthened the essay, position of the conservative camp against the Westernisers. The war in Chechnya, the eastward enlargement of NATO along Russias western borders, the American military bases in Central Asia, the orange revolutions liberating ex-Soviet countries from Moscows orbit, Washingtons missile defence shield project that includes some central and media studies proposal, eastern European countries, the violent terrorist attacks of Chechen radicals in various Russian cities, the war in Georgia and most recently the incidents of December 2010 played an important role in the rise of conservative and book report junie b jones and a, nationalist feelings.

The increasing involvement of the Russian Orthodox Church in politics has also played an important role in the strengthening of conservatism in Russia. The Russian Orthodox Church, whose centre has been Moscow since 13251326 [34] , played the key role in studies dissertation proposal empowering the Russian Tsars with unrestrained and indisputable strength, and __ф_у_ __уО‡_, this fact contributed to the strengthening of conservative Muscovy. Today, we observe that t he Putin administration receives the open support of the Orthodox Church, an echo of the type of cooperation between the Church and the Tsars of Muscovite Russia. This revival of the Russian Orthodox Church and its increasing influence in current Russian politic marks the defining role of Moscow, and thus the conservative orientation of the Russian state. The influence of the conservative nationalist circles inside the Kremlin no doubt plays a defining role in the anti-Western authoritarianism and autocracy that is currently prevailing in Russian politics. Putin, a cautious personality with a KGB background, has a circle of advisers comprised of tiny groups with strong nationalist ideology.

The best known of these groups is the Siloviki (men of power), which deals with issues of proposal, national security and international affairs. The Siloviki are mostly officials with military or KGB backgrounds who dominate the countrys security and Ќ_‹, intelligence ministries and believe in absolute state control of economic, political and social life in Russia. Media? They are mostly from St Petersburg since Putin usually recruits from his native city when filling key posts in the state apparatus and hybrid essay, state-controlled corporations. It is ironic that the Siloviki, despite having mostly St Petersburg origins, do not reflect the Western-oriented ideology of their native city. The leader of the Petersburg Siloviki and the third most powerful man in Russia after Putin himself and President Dmitry Medvedev is Deputy Prime Minister Igor Sechin, who is sometimes referred to as the Russian Richelieu [35] because of his control over a diverse network of officials and bureaucrats. Following the advent of President Dmitry Medvedev, the media studies dissertation, concerns of the Siloviki network started to grow. Medvedev, despite being a protege of the Siloviki and a native of St Petersburg, does not have a KGB background. He is a civilian who represents a more liberal portrait than the aggressive rhetoric and tone of Putins Siloviki.

President Medvedev, in his first days in office, stripped Defence Minister Sergey Ivanov of resume, his title as First Deputy Prime Minister. This sudden demotion of media studies, Defence Minister Ivanov was regarded as a challenge to the Siloviki. Medvedev continued his liberal approach by inviting pro-democracy activists to the Kremlin for tea and giving interviews in the liberal media. Whereas the Prime Minister defined the paper resource, democrats as jackals begging around foreign embassies, President Medvedev treated them with marked respect. Medvedevs push for modernisation, innovation and the rule of law, juxtaposed against the sound resistance shown by the Siloviki to the Europeanisation of media dissertation proposal, politics in Russia, reminds us of the report b jones monkey, days of Peter the Great when St Petersburg symbolised modernisation and civilisation while Moscow was the symbol of conservatism and anti-Europeanism. The victory of Putin in the Presidential elections of 4 March 2012 brings us to the conclusion that the conservative camp, whose ideology is largely shaped by Orthodoxy, autocracy, nationalism and to some extent Slavophilism, will preserve its control over the Russian state and media studies proposal, politics in the foreseeable future. Thus, it seems possible to envisage that the central place of Moscow as the heart of Russia and its conservative ideology, which is largely dominating Russian politics today, will remain unchanged in report and a the near future. According to Tolstoy, every Russian considered Moscow as a mother. [36] Tolstoys understanding of Moscows central place for the Russians is even more clearly defined in a Russian proverb, Petersburg is our head, Moscow is media, our heart - - , . [1] .. , .. Paper On Human Resource Management? , , , 2010 , p. 138. [2] The V.I.

Lenin Museum was founded on media studies dissertation proposal the decision of the 13th Party Congress on 31 May 1924 as a department of the Lenin Institute. On 15 May 1936, the Central Museum of V.I. Lenin was opened for visitors. In the almost 70 years of its existence the Lenin Museum was a powerful centre of propaganda for the ideas of Marxism-Leninism and for the formation of book report b jones and a monkey, intellectual and emotional fidelity to the Communist Partys policy and activity. Dissertation Proposal? On 12 November 1993 by presidential decree, the Central Lenin Museum ceased to exist as an independent historical and on human resource management, cultural institution. At present, the Lenin Museum is a branch of the State Historical Museum and has no exhibition. [3] In 1713, Peter the studies, Great moved the service to mankind, Russian capital from Moscow to St Petersburg. [4] , .. , - , 10 , . , , , 2.2 30 2002 , p. 284, http :// www . rvb . ru / pushkin / toc . htm . [5] .. , - , p . 285. [6] , 1153 . , , , - , , 2010 , p. 24.

[7] Kievan Rus ( Russian : ? ) is the name used by Russian historian Nikolai Karamzin for the medieval state of media studies, Rus. The state existed from approximately 880 to sometime in the middle of the 13th century, when it disintegrated. __ф_у_ __уО‡_? It was founded by East Slavic tribes and Scandinavian traders ( Varangians ) called Rus and was centred in Novgorod . The state later included territories stretching south to the Black Sea , east to the Volga and media studies proposal, west to the Kingdom of essay, Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania . [8] , 1812 , , 2009 , p. 165. [9] Count Rostopchin denied accusations that he had ordered the media proposal, blaze ignited to drive out the French. The fire was most likely accidentally begun by essay, French looters and was fanned by fanatic patriots among the media studies proposal, few Russians who had remained behind when Napoleon entered the city. Whatever the cause, the fire sparked an anti-French uprising among the peasants, whose raids, along with the cruel winter, helped force Napoleons retreat. [10] See details in , 1812 , pp. 181-223. [11] Richard Pipes, Russian Conservatism and Its Critics: A Study in Political Culture, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 2005, p. 13. [12] Pipes, Russian Conservatism and Its Critics: A Study in Political Culture, p. Book Junie Business? 14.

[13] According to the Appolinarian doctrine, taught by Bishop Appolinarius the Younger, bishop of Laodicea in Syria during the dissertation, 4th century, Jesus was not a man but the word of cars vs gas essay, God dwelling in the human body. This transgression caused the capital of true Christianity to shift to Constantinople, where it made its home for the next nine centuries. This doctrine was condemned as heresy by Roman councils in 377 and in 381 and also by the Council of Constantinople in 381. Dissertation Proposal? In spite of its repeated condemnation, Apollinarianism persisted into the 5th century. At that time its remaining adherents merged with the Monophysites, who held that Christ had a divine nature but no human nature, a view articulated in white resource management the second half of the 4th century by Bishop Appolinarius, [14] Thornton Anderson, Russian Political Thought: An Introduction, Cornell University Press, New York, 1967, p. 72. [15] The first to claim their capital as the heir of Byzantium were the Bulgarians, who as early as the 14th century designated the capital of their empire, Tyrnovo (Tirnova), as the media dissertation, New Rome. This claim lapsed in 1393 when Tyrnovo fell to __ф_у_ __уО‡_, the Turks. [16] , - 1500- , , - , , 2010 , p. 88. [17] Pipes, Russian Conservatism and Its Critics: A Study in Political Culture, p. 39. [19] Anderson, Russian Political Thought: An Introduction, p. Media Dissertation Proposal? 74.

[20] Orlando Figes, Natashas Dance: A Cultural History of Russia, New York, 2002, pp. 7-8. [21] Figes, Natashas Dance: A Cultural History of Russia, p. 10. [23] Figes, Natashas Dance: A Cultural History of hybrid vs gas, Russia, p. 10. [25] , , 1866, [26] Alexander M. Martin, Romantics, Reformers, Reactionaries: Russian Conservative Thought and Politics in the Reign of Alexander I, Northern Illinois University Press, DeKalb, 1997, pp. 57-58. [27] Figes, Natashas Dance: A Cultural History of proposal, Russia, p. 154. [28] See details in James Cracraft, The Petrine Revolution in Russian Culture, Belknap Press, London, 2004. [29] Figes, Natashas Dance: A Cultural History of Russia, p. 61.

[30] .. , - , 2010. [32] Martin, Romantics, Reformers, Reactionaries: Russian Conservative Thought and Politics in the Reign of Alexander I, p. 58. [33] Martin, Romantics, Reformers, Reactionaries: Russian Conservative Thought and Politics in the Reign of Alexander I, p. 59. [34] In 1299, Maksim, the report b jones monkey, Metropolitan of Kiev, moved his seat from Kiev to Vladimir to escape the Tatar menace, thus making Vladimir the seat of the media dissertation proposal, Russian Orthodox Church. Essay Writing Stewart? It remained there until the reign of Metropolitan Pyotr (1306-1326), when contacts between the head of the church in Vladimir, and the Moscow Princes and Grand Princes became closer. In 1325-26, Metropolitan Pyotr (who was canonised in 1339) moved his seat from Vladimir to dissertation proposal, Moscow, thus making Moscow the ecclesiastical center. In the same year, Ivan I (Kalita) laid the foundation stone of the report junie little, Cathedral of the Dormition, which was the first cathedral to be built in media studies the Kremlin. __ф_у_ Ќ_‹? It was consecrated on 4 August 1427. [35] Cardinal Richelieu was born in media proposal Paris on 9 September 1585. He became the prime minister of France in 1624.

Richelieu argued that the state is above everything, and that religion is a mere instrument to promote the policies of the state. When Richelieu rose to report junie b jones business, power, Frances King Louis XIII had not yet solidified his authority in France. Media Proposal? Richelieu severely punished nobles who plotted against the king and replaced his enemies in the government. Report Junie And A Little Business? In addition, he expanded the media proposal, kings authority in the provinces through the writing for canadian kay l, use of royal agents. Studies Proposal? Richelieu insisted that the king apply the law with severity; otherwise, the state could not survive.

He emphasised that rigorous punishment of even small crimes would forestall greater ones. Through this reasoning, Richelieu provided his sovereign a rationale for the harsh rule he knew to be requisite for strengthening and maintaining the authority of the French State. Anderson, Thornton. Russian Political Thought An Introduction, Cornell University Press, New. , . ( , , , , , , 1854, , . , 1866, , . Cars Vs Gas Cars Essay? 1153 ., , . , - , , 2010. Figes, Orlando.

Natashas Dance A Cultural History of media dissertation proposal, Russia, New York, 2002, p.7-8. M. Martin, Alexander. Romantics, Reformers, Reactionaries Russian Conservative Thought and. Politics in the Reign of Ќ_‹, Alexander I , Northern Illinois University Press, DeKalb 1997. .., i .. , , 2010. Pipes, Richard. Media Studies Dissertation? Russian Conservatism and Its Critics A Study in Political Culture, Yale. University Press, New Haven and monkey business, London, 2005, p.13. , - , . , . Media Dissertation Proposal? , 1867, , i , , - . 1500- , , - . , , 2010, p .88. .. , - I : , 2010.

* An?l Cicek - Dr., Head of Department at the Ministry of report junie b jones monkey, Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Turkey; completed his post-doctoral research studies at the University of Latvia as a part of the Jean Monnet Scholarship Program and media studies dissertation proposal, achieved Russian language certificate TRKIIII (advanced level) from the University of St Petersburg. 2010 , IJORS - INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RUSSIAN STUDIES.

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11 Unique Business Ideas to Inspire You in 2017. Free lunch (with a side of studies marketing) Every day, technology makes it more and more possible for employees and entrepreneurs to do their jobs and run their businesses from anywhere, which means businesses don't necessarily have to invest in their own office space. WeWork provides office space for service essay the office-less, with flexible month-to-month membership options for everyone from individual freelancers to large companies. Freelancers who prefer to work outside of dissertation proposal their homes can have a more reliable work space than a local coffee shop, and companies and other teams can have a place to collaborate and hold meetings and service, events, for example. WeWork, which was founded in 2010, has locations in media proposal more than a dozen cities across the United States as well as locations in Israel, the resume Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Proposal? The company also fosters a sense of community among its members, so you can network with peers and customers while saving money on rent and book report junie b jones and a little business, other fees that come with maintaining your own office space. Do you ever find yourself wishing you could go back to school, or maybe even teach a course in a subject you're skilled in? Skillshare, founded in 2011, makes both of dissertation proposal these things possible. The company allows experts to teach online courses on any subject they choose via short videos, while students can watch classes at book and a little business their own pace and use the media studies community to get feedback.

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essay on visigoths Goths, ancient Teutonic people, who in the 3rd to media studies dissertation proposal the 6th century AD were an important power in the Roman world. The Goths were the first Germanic peoples to become Christians. According to the 6th-century Gothic historian Jordanes, the Goths came from Sweden across the b jones monkey Baltic Sea to the basin of the Wisa (Vistula) River. By the 3rd century AD they had migrated as far south as the lower Danube, around the Black Sea. During that century Gothic armies and fleets ravaged Thrace, Dacia, and cities in Asia Minor and along the Aegean coast.

They captured and plundered Athens in 267 to 268, and threatened Italy. For about a century, wars between the Roman emperors and Gothic rulers devastated the Balkan territory and the northeastern Mediterranean region. Other tribes joined the Goths, and under the great king Ermanaric in media dissertation the 4th century, a kingdom was established that extended from the students stewart Baltic Sea to the Black Sea. About 370 the Goths divided into two separate groups. The Ostrogoths (Low Latin Ostrogothae, the eastern Goths) inhabited a large kingdom east of the Dniester River on the shores of the Black Sea (part of modern Ukraine and Belarus). The Visigoths (Low Latin Visigothi, the good Goths or the studies proposal noble Goths) were the western Goths, with a domain extending from the Dniester to the Danube rivers. About 100 years after the birth of for canadian stewart Christ an ancient Teutonic people began moving out of northern Europe. In time they overran the Roman Empire. The first of these barbarians to studies dissertation conquer Rome were the Visigoths, or West Goths. Where the Goths first came from is not definitely known. According to their folklore, their people had once lived far to the north, on the shores and islands of what is now Sweden.

After long, slow wanderings through the forests of western Russia, the Goths reached the shores of the Black Sea. In 100 years of contact with the Romans, they learned many things, especially the Christian religion. Christianity was spread among them by a converted Goth, a saintly scholar named Ulfilas. For more than 40 years he labored, first making a Gothic alphabet so that he could translate the Bible and then teaching his people the new faith. This Bible translated by Ulfilas has great historical value because it is centuries older than the earliest writing to survive in any other Teutonic language.

For a time the Goths ruled a great kingdom north of the Danube River and the Black Sea. Then, in AD 375, the Huns swept into Europe from Asia. __ф_у_ __уО‡_! They conquered the Ostrogoths, or East Goths, and forced the Visigoths to seek refuge across the Danube within the boundaries of the Roman Empire. In a battle fought near the city of media dissertation Adrianople in 378, the Visigoths defeated and murdered Emperor Valens. __уО‡_! For a time they lived peaceably on media studies dissertation proposal, Roman territory. On the death of Emperor Theodosius in 395, they rose in rebellion under their ambitious young king Alaric and overran a large part of the Eastern Empire. Rome itself fell into the hands of the Visigoths in 410. Alaric led the attack. Alaric's successors led their people out of for canadian students kay l Italy and set up a powerful kingdom in southern Gaul and proposal, Spain. In the year 507 the paper Visigoths in media Gaul were defeated by the Franks and book report junie b jones, were forced beyond the Pyrenees. For 200 years their kingdom in Spain flourished.

In 711, when the Moors crossed to Spain from Africa, the proposal Visigothic kingdom was destroyed. The Ostrogoths for service to mankind essay a time formed part of the media dissertation vast horde that followed the king of the Huns, Attila. They settled in the lands south of Vienna when the Hunnish kingdom fell apart. Their national hero was Theodoric the Great, a powerful and romantic figure who became king in 474. Resume May Sample! As a boy he had been sent as a hostage to Constantinople (now Istanbul) and had been educated there. In 488 he invaded Italy with the permission of the emperor at Constantinople. After several years of warfare, Theodoric captured and killed Odoacer. Odoacer was a barbarian who had usurped the Roman power and had founded a powerful kingdom that included all Italy together with lands north and east of the dissertation Adriatic Sea. Theodoric's reign was one of the ablest and best in this period. He failed, however, largely because no permanent union was effected between the barbarians and the Christian-Roman population. All his wise plans for bringing this about proved futile because the Ostrogoths, in common with most German barbarians, had been converted to service to mankind Arianism, a heretical form of Christianity, and so were hated by studies, the orthodox.

After Theodoric died in 526, the generals of the Eastern Roman Empire reconquered Italy ( see Justinian I). After fighting a last battle near Mount Vesuvius in 553, the Ostrogoths marched out of Italy. They merged with other barbarian hordes north of the white paper Alps and disappeared as a people from history. In 376 the Visigoths, threatened by media studies proposal, the Huns, sought the protection of the Roman emperor Valens, and they were given permission to settle into the empire's province of Moesia, which was south of the Danube. When Gothic soldiers were maltreated by Roman officers, the Goths revolted, and the resulting war climaxed in a decisive battle in 378 near Adrianople (now Edirne, Turkey), in which Valens was killed. The victorious Goths then threatened Constantinople (present-day stanbul). Theodosius I, who succeeded Valens as emperor in the East, made peace with the Goths and junie little business, incorporated their army into the Roman forces.

From that time on, the Visigoths were an important influence in media proposal the Roman Empire. Service To Mankind! Many who had settled in Moesia became farmers and studies dissertation proposal, were known as Moeso-Goths. Ulfilas, bishop of the resume Goths, translated the Bible into Gothic and was largely responsible for studies proposal the conversion of the Goths to a form of Christianity called Arianism. On the death of Theodosius in 395, the Visigoths renounced their allegiance to Rome and essay for canadian stewart, chose Alaric I as their ruler. Alaric invaded Greece and then Italy, and in 410 he captured and pillaged the dissertation city of Rome. In that same year he was succeeded by Ataulf, who led the Visigoths across the Pyrenees mountain range into Spain. From 415 to 418, under the next ruler, Wallia, the Visigoths extended their realm over a great part of __уО‡_ Spain and southern Gaul, with Toulouse as their capital. Wallia was succeeded by the reputed son of Alaric, Theodoric I, who died fighting as an ally of Rome against media studies proposal the Huns at the Battle of Chlons. The most notable of the Spanish Visigothic kings was Euric, who reigned from about 420 to 484.

He was a son of Theodoric I. Under Euric, who declared his rule to resource management be independent of any federation with Rome, the kingdom of Toulouse included almost all of Spain and most of Gaul west of the Rhne River and south of the Loire River. Euric introduced many aspects of Roman civilization and drew up a code of law combining Roman and German elements. Dissertation! The kingdom was, however, continually beset by both internal and external difficulties. The kingship was nominally elective, and the powerful Visigothic nobles stood against attempts to found a hereditary royal house. Externally, the Byzantine Empire and the Franks menaced the Visigothic lands. In order to instill greater loyalty in his rebellious Roman and Christian subjects, Alaric II in 506 introduced the paper on human management collection of laws known as the Breviary of Alaric.

A year later, Clovis I, king of the Franks, defeated the Visigoths at the Battle of Vouill, in which Alaric II was killed. Most of Provence was separated from the Gothic lands, and studies dissertation, the Visigothic kingdom was confined almost entirely to Spain. Despite the white paper on human attempts of a long line of Gothic kings to media studies dissertation hold the kingdom together, the power of the Visigoths steadily declined. The last king, Roderick, was defeated and probably killed by the Muslims in the Battle of white resource management Ro Barbate in 711. By 713 Spain was partially conquered by the Moors, and the Visigothic power survived in the independent Christian kingdom of Asturias. The first Germanic people to penetrate the frontiers of the media studies dissertation proposal empire were the West Goths , or Visigoths. Hybrid Cars Vs Gas Cars! The Goths had originally lived in southern Scandinavia and dissertation, around the Baltic. Service! But moving south in the second century they had split into two groups, the East Goths, or Ostrogoths, who had remained in southern Russia to live off the land as an media army of conquerors, and the West Goths, or Visigoths, who drove the Romans out of Dacia (modern Rumania). Essay! The Goths were receptive to Roman ways of life, developed a taste for Roman luxuries, and adopted the Arian form of Christianity.

Many were recruited into studies the Roman army, and even took offices of state in Constantinople itself. Thus, when the junie and a little monkey westward drive of a Mongolian people called the Huns from the steppes of Russia overwhelmed the dissertation Ostrogoths, the emperor Valens of Constantinople was not unwilling to permit the Visigoths to resource management move into the empire in 376 to defend its Danube frontier. Apparently outraged at the treatment they had received from imperial officials, the media dissertation proposal Visigoths took up arms against the emperor, who was defeated and killed at the battle of Adrianople in 378. Vs Gas Cars Essay! His successor Theodosius I placated the Visigoths with gifts of land and media studies dissertation, payment of tribute, and they in return furnished recruits to the imperial army. Relations with the Visigoths deteriorated after the death of essay stewart kay l Theodosius I in 395, when the empire was divided again between his two sons, Arcadius (reigned 395-408) who inherited the Eastern Roman Empire and Honorius (reigned 395-423) who inherited the Western Roman Empire. Furious at the conditions of military service imposed on media dissertation proposal, his people, Alaric, the leader of the Visigoths, led his troops against Constantinople in 395, but was persuaded to divert his army into Greece, capturing Athens. Alaric, after declaring himself king of the Visigoths, led them north into Illyricum ( Yugoslavia ). In Italy , Honorius sought seclusion and luxury in the city of Ravenna , which was well protected by broad marshes, leaving his regent, the Vandal soldier Stilicho, to deal with Alaric's invasion of Italy after 403. Stilicho used strategic cunning as well as bribery to keep the Visigoths away from Rome; but, after Stilicho was unjustly executed on charges of treason, Alaric was able to besiege and finally in August 410 to capture and to mankind essay, sack Rome. It was eight hundred years since a foreign invader had broken through the walls of Rome . The world sinks into ruin, wrote St. Jerome . Yes! but shameful to say our sins still live and flourish.

The renowned city, the capital of the studies dissertation proposal Ro- man Empire, is swallowed up in one tremendous fire; and there is no part of the earth where Romans are not in exile. Service To Mankind Essay! Fortunately, Jerome was exaggerating. Few people were killed; the houses of nobles were plundered. The Forum was set ablaze, but all the churches were spared. Alaric even organized a fine procession to dissertation proposal Saint Peter's to present the treasures he had saved for the pope.

Alaric died shortly afterwards, and a river was temporarily diverted to provide a secure grave for him in its bed. The Visigoths then moved on to southern France and Spain , where they finally settled. Al- though they were tolerant of the service Catholic worship in the areas they con- trolled, they were isolated from the Latin population for almost two centuries by their refusal to give up Arianism. They were finally converted toward the end of the proposal sixth century. When the Huns swept into Europe about 370, many of the Ostrogoths were conquered and compelled to aid their conquerors. They joined the king of the Huns, Attila, in his expedition against Gaul in 451 and many Ostrogoths were killed by the Visigoths at the Battle of Chlons. When the Huns were finally forced back, the Ostrogoths again became independent.

With the permission of may sample Rome, they settled in proposal Pannonia, an area now including western Hungary, northern Croatia, Slovenia, and eastern Austria. They were joined by other Ostrogoths who had taken refuge within the Roman Empire at the coming of the Asians. In 474Theodoric, the greatest of the Ostrogothic kings, was elected to the throne. After various periods of warfare and alliance with Zeno, the Byzantine emperor, Theodoric invaded Italy in 488 (with the consent and advice of the emperor), slew Odoacer, the first barbarian ruler of Italy, and became ruler himself. He held the power although not the title of the Western Roman emperors. A Roman consul was given nominal authority, and the two peoples lived together amicably, with Roman culture greatly influencing the Teutons. The unity of Romans and Goths could be preserved only by a ruler of the stature of Theodoric.

After his death in 526, disruption in Italy became so violent that in 535 the Byzantine emperor Justinian I sent his general Belisarius to conquer the peninsula. The Byzantines broke the book report junie little monkey Gothic power in 555, and the throne of Italy was filled by the exarchs (Byzantine governors) of Ravenna. The Ostrogoths themselves gradually became absorbed into other tribes, such as the Alani, Vandals, Franks, and studies dissertation, Burgundians, who had established themselves in white paper resource management the dominions of the old Roman Empire. Once they had broken loose from Hun control, the Ostrogoths moved slowly toward northern Italy . Their leader was Theodoric, one of the most talented leaders of studies proposal all the Germanic peoples. He had spent ten years in resume Constantinople as a hostage, knew both Latin and proposal, Greek, and had developed a profound admiration for the ancient civilization he had been forcibly acquainted with. He had not, however, lost his tribal skills, for after conquering most of northern Italy , he demonstrated his ability with the broad- sword by slicing in two his rival for control of Italy and his ruthlessness by exterminating the book junie b jones business rival's family. Media Studies! Theodoric then showed more constructive statesmanship. From 493 till his death in 526, he governed Italy and large parts of the Balkans as the regent of the emperor in Constantinople and service essay, as King of the media studies dissertation proposal Goths, establishing both in title and in actuality a successful policy of for canadian kay l racial coexistence. The Goths took one-third of the media dissertation proposal land and houses and all military duties. The Romans kept the rest, and book report monkey, devoted themselves to peaceful pursuits.

Gothic law applied to Goths, Roman law to Romans. Media Studies! Intermarriage was forbidden. Although Theodoric was an Arian Christian, he tolerated the essay writing students stewart Catholic religion and media studies dissertation proposal, even the Jewish and other faiths. Religion is not something we can command, he said. No one can be forced into a faith against his will. He showed great concern for Roman culture. He restored monuments that had fallen into ruin, including the Coliseum in Rome , where circuses were still presented. But it was at __ф_у_ Ќ_‹, the capital of Ravenna that the Ostrogothic king showed the media heights of civilization that could be achieved with the fusion of Germanic and Roman skills. Ravenna had been made the capital of the hybrid vs gas essay western part of the Roman Empire because of its excellent harbor and because it was protected by wide marshes. It was a city of islands, canals, bridges, and causeways, looking across lagoons to the Adriatic Sea . Here Theodoric found that the Roman artists had brought to perfection one of the most demanding and un- compromising of media dissertation proposal all artistic forms, the art of service essay mosaic; and it was for this achievement that his Ravenna would be principally remembered.

In mosaic the artist must set enormous numbers of tiny bits of marble, enamel, glass, and colored stone into damp cement. He cannot produce those subtleties of expression possible in an oil painting, but must seek an overall effect usually visible only from a distance. But in return he is able to media studies proposal use the play of light not only upon the many different angles of the tiny mosaic stones but within the mosaic itself. In Ravenna , the artists were developing new materials for writing for canadian students stewart kay l this art, applying gold leaf to glass cubes and covering them again with a thin film of glass, using metallic oxides to produce variations of color, or employing mother of pearl to produce just the right effect of creamy perfection. In the windows, they often used thick sheets of alabaster, so that the entering light already had a soft opacity before playing upon the planes of media studies yellow marble and the complexity of the mosaic surface. In Ravenna, they constructed buildings as though they were galleries meant to display mosaics, with bare wafls designed to permit the artist to create the largest, most complex compositions yet attempted in that exacting form of art.

One last advantage is still evident today; the process is almost permanent. Unlike frescoes, which fade fairly rapidly, many of the mosaics in students Ravenna have required no restoration, and shine as brightly today as in studies dissertation the sixth century. The building that turned Theodoric to the use of mosaic for his churches and palaces was the tiny mausoleum of Gaila Placidia, probably the tomb of an emperor's daughter who had been married to a Visigothic prince. The architecture was simple, a cross of paper unadorned brick with very small windows. Its mosaics however are the loveliest possible introduction to the art that was the glory of Ravenna and later of Constantinople itself. The mosaic over the entrance to media the mausoleum represents the good shepherd, a kindly protector, not feeding his sheep but patting them benevolently on the nose.

He is dressed in a stunning robe with red piping and deep blue stripes that could appear unchanged at a present-day fashion show. In the center of the tiny chapel, one turns to look upward to the dome, the Dome of Heaven, lit up by almost eight hundred golden stars; these become smaller as the dome rises, increasing the sensation of the service essay swirling distance wherein a gold cross symbolizes Redemption. Theodoric called on the skilled mosaic artisans to decorate one of the most beautiful basilicas in media studies Europe , Sant' Apollinare Nuovo. The church consists of a central aisle, with a narrow nave on each side separated by a line of columns, with a small semicircular apse at __уО‡_, the east end. As one steps inside the central nave one at once feels the rushing, forward motion built up by the long line of columns surmounted by media studies dissertation, the figures in the mosaics above. On each side are twelve columns of Greek marble, topped by delicately carved capitals. The mosaic carries on the forward motion of the to mankind pillars. On the dissertation proposal north side is a procession of twenty-two virgin martyrs, pre- ceded by a very lifelike group of the book report b jones little monkey three Wise Men bringing gifts to the Madonna and the child Jesus. Again the clothes are amazingly modem. The three kings seem to be wearing stretch pants decorated with the most imaginative designs in media studies orange and deep vermilion. Ќ_‹ __уО‡_! Indeed, King Caspar seems to be wearing a pair of leopard-skin tights.

We are a long way from the impersonality of studies dissertation proposal Greek sculpture, and the three men, one brown-bearded, one white-bearded, and one clean-shaven, are hardly idealized pictures of piety. On the opposite side of the church, above a line of twenty-two male martyrs, there is a whole panoply of scenes, each one worth looking at in detail. Perhaps most moving of all is the scene of the paralytic being lowered on ropes from a roofless building to be healed by Christ below. Theodoric died in __ф_у_ Ќ_‹ 526. His successors lacked his skills, and in less than forty years, the Ostrogoths were driven from Italy by the army of the Eastern Roman emperor; they moved north of the Alps , and rather surprisingly disappeared from history. Thus, the Visigoths, the Ostrogoths, and the Vandals, who were largely responsible for the disappearance of the Roman Empire in the West, left little lasting trace.

The Franks and the Anglo- Saxons, however, were to become the principal creators of medieval civilization.