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Rguhs thesis 2008
best fonts use essay The Modern Language Association (MLA) provides explicit, specific recommendations for the margins and spacing of academic papers. (See: Document Format.) But their advice on font selection is library thesis less precise: #8220;Always choose an easily readable typeface (e.g. Times New Roman) in which the regular style contrasts clearly with the italic, and essays life abortion set it to a standard size (e.g. 12 point)#8221; ( MLA Handbook , 7th ed., §4.2). So which fonts are #8220;easily readable#8221; and have #8220;clearly#8221; contrasting italics? And what exactly is a #8220;standard#8221; size?
For academic papers, an #8220;easily readable typeface#8221; means a serif font, and a #8220;standard#8221; type size is between 10 and 12 point. Serifs are the tiny strokes at thesis, the end of ielts a letter#8217;s main strokes. Serif fonts have these extra strokes; sans serif fonts do not. ( Sans is library thesis French for #8220;without.#8221;) Serif fonts also vary the thickness of the letter strokes more than sans serifs, which have more uniform lines. Books, newspapers, and magazines typically set their main text in a serif font because they make paragraphs and case long stretches of text easier to read. Sans serifs (Arial, Calibri, Helvetica, Gill Sans, Verdana, and so on) work well for single lines of rguhs digital text, like headings or titles, but they rarely make a good choice for body text. Moreover, most sans serifs don#8217;t have a true italic style. Their #8220;italics#8221; are really just #8220;obliques,#8221; where the on road accidents, letters slant slightly to the right but keep the rguhs thesis, same shape and spacing.
Most serifs, on the other hand, do have a true italic style, with distinctive letter forms and more compact spacing. Essays On Skateboarding. Since they#8217;re more readable for thesis, long passages and have sharper contrast in their italics, you should always use a serif font for essays life, the text of an library, academic paper. The standard unit for measuring type size is the point . Writing Essays. A point is 1 ⁄ 72 of an inch, roughly one pixel on a computer screen. The point size of digital thesis a font tells you the size of the #8220;em square#8221; in gmat essay which your computer displays each letter of the typeface. How tall or wide any given letter is depends on how the type designer drew it within the digital thesis, em square, thus a font#8217;s height and width can vary greatly depending on essays on pro life the design of the typeface.
That#8217;s why if you set two fonts at the same point size, one usually looks bigger than the other. Compare the following paragraphs, both set at 12 point but in digital thesis different fonts: For body text in academic papers, type sizes below 10 point are usually too small to read easily, while type sizes above 12 point tend to look oversized and bulky. So keep the text of your paper between 10 and 12 point . Some teachers may require you to writing exemplification, set your whole text at 12 point. Yet virtually every book, magazine, or newspaper ever printed for visually unimpaired grown-ups sets its body type smaller than 12 point. Newspapers use even smaller type sizes. The New York Times , for example, sets its body text in digital library thesis a perfectly legible 8.7 point font.
So with proper spacing and margins, type sizes of 11 or 10 point can be quite comfortable to essays discrimination, read. I usually ask my students to use Century Schoolbook or Palatino for rguhs digital, their papers. Essays On Skateboarding Discrimination. If your teacher requires you to submit your papers in a particular font, do so. Rguhs Library Thesis. (Unless they require you to use Arial, in which case drop the class.) One thing to score 4.5, consider when choosing a font is digital how you submit your essay. When you submit a hard copy or a PDF, your reader will see the text in whatever typeface you use. Most electronic submission formats, on the other hand, can only use the fonts available on the reader’s computer. So if you submit the gmat essay score 4.5, paper electronically, be sure to use a font your instructor has. What follows is digital thesis a list of some widely available, highly legible serif fonts well-suited for academic papers. I’ve divided them into three categories: Microsoft Word Fonts, Mac OS Fonts, and Universal Fonts. Microsoft Word comes with lots of fonts of varying quality. If your teacher asks you to essays, submit your paper in Word format, you can safely assume they have Word and all the digital, fonts that go with it. Morris Fuller Benton designed Century Schoolbook in 1923 for study report, elementary-school textbooks, so it#8217;s a highly readable font.
It#8217;s one of the best fonts available with Microsoft Word. Because it#8217;s so legible, U. Rguhs Thesis. S. Discrimination. Supreme Court Rule 33.1.b madates that all legal documents submitted to the Court be set in Century Schoolbook or a similar Century-style font. Hermann Zapf designed Palatino in 1948 for titles and headings, but its elegant proportions make it a good font for body text. Rguhs. Named for Renaissance calligrapher Giambattista Palatino, this font has the beauty, harmony, and ielts on road accidents grace of fine handwriting. Palatino Linotype is the name of the rguhs digital, font included with Microsoft Word; Mac OS includes a version of the same typeface called simply Palatino. Microsoft Word includes several other fonts that can work well for rtl essay format, academic essays: Bell MT, Californian FB, Calisto MT, Cambria, Garamond, and Goudy Old Style. Apple has a well-deserved reputation for digital, design excellence which extends to its font library. But you can’t count on any of these Mac OS fonts being on a computer that runs Windows. Essays On Skateboarding. Finding his inspiration in the typography of Pierre Simon Fournier, Matthew Carter designed Charter in 1987 to look good even on crapy mid-80s fax machines and printers. Its ability to hold up even in low resolution makes Charter work superbly well on thesis screen.
Bitstream released Charter under an study, open license, so you can add it to your font arsenal for free. You can download Charter here. In 1991 Apple commissioned Jonathan Hoefler to design a font that could show off the Mac#8217;s ability to handle complex typography. Rguhs Digital Library Thesis. The result was Hoefler Text, included with every Mac since then. The bold weight of Hoefler Text on the Mac is rtl essay excessively heavy, but otherwise it#8217;s a remarkable font: compact without being cramped, formal without being stuffy, and distinctive without being obtrusive. If you have a Mac, start using it. Iowan Old Style, designed by Iowan sign painter John Downer, emulates 15th century Venetian typefaces by Nicolas Jenson and Francesco Griffo, but it blends these designs with more modern features that make it ideal for extended, immersive reading. Like Charter, Iowan Old Style comes with the iBooks app in OS X Mavericks (released in 2013). If you#8217;re running an older version of Mac OS, you won#8217;t have these fonts. Other Mac OS fonts you might consider are Athelas (another iBooks font), Baskerville, and Palatino.
Anyone you send your document to will have these fonts because they’re built in to digital, both Windows and Mac OS. Matthew Carter designed Georgia in 1993 for maximum legibility on essay score computer screens. Georgia looks very nice on web sites, but in library print it can look a bit clunky, especially when set at 12 point. Like Times New Roman, it#8217;s on gmat score 4.5 every computer and is quite easy to read. The name #8220;Georgia#8221; comes from a tabloid headline: #8220;Alien Heads Found in Georgia.#8221; Times New Roman is, for better or worse, the standard font for academic manuscripts. Digital Thesis. Many teachers require it because it#8217;s a solid, legible, and universally available font. Stanley Morison designed it in 1931 for The Times newspaper of London, so it#8217;s a very efficient font and legible even at very small sizes. Times New Roman is 4.5 always a safe choice.
But unless your instructor requires it, you should probably use something a bit less overworked.
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essays and rguhs library opinions Everybody has opinions. I have them, you have them. And we are all told from the essays moment we open our eyes, that everyone is entitled to his or her opinion. Well, that’s horsepuckey, of course. We are not entitled to our opinions; we are entitled to digital thesis, our informed opinions. Without research, without background, without understanding, it’s nothing. It’s just bibble-babble.
It’s like a fart in a wind tunnel, folks. -- Harlan Ellison. If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you; but if you really make them think, they'll hate you. --Don Marquis. In the fall of 1974, I landed my first full-time teaching job. My doctoral dissertation had been published earlier that year, but all I had to show for it was a piece of paper signed by essays on pro, Ronald Reagan (who was governor of California at the time) and thesis several hundred rejection notices from philosophy departments around the country. Lassen College hired me to teach philosophy, creative writing, music appreciation, sociology, and journalism. 4.5! In addition, I was hired as the baseball coach. Rguhs Digital Library! I was hired as a one-year replacement for a teacher who taught philosophy, creative writing (he'd actually published some poems), music appreciation (he was an accomplished musician), and skiing [He was an accomplished skiier and climber: his name is Joe Fitschen and he's written a book I highly recommend]. My Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of California at financial study San Diego meant little to getting the library job. My willingness to spread myself thin and financial my showing up to the interview in jeans and a pullover shirt were more important.
I had no doubt that I was qualified to teach philosophy. My qualifications for the other duties were ludicrous: I had written a scholarly book and a number of pathetic poems; I play guitar but can't read music, and I hardly know the difference between an opera and a ballet; I minored in sociology; I wrote letters to rguhs digital thesis, the editor; and I was decent baseball player until I was cut after my freshman year at the University of Notre Dame. Rtl Essay! Why was I hired? The school was desperate. Why would I take such a job? I was desperate. Rguhs Thesis! Another teacher went on leave and I was hired for a second year. Financial Study! That year I taught Native American Studies. Rguhs! I drew the format line at Bomb Shelter Management. The Dean of Instruction was disappointed in me when I turned that one down.
The only philosophy course Lassen College had at that time was an introductory course. I got a course in rguhs digital thesis Logic approved by the curriculum committee. Twenty-five students signed up; five finished the course. Three stayed because they liked me; one stayed because he didn't know how to drop a course; and one actually understood the material from Irving Copi's classic, Introduction to Logic. Fortunately, soon after arriving at Lassen I was introduced to case, Howard Kahane’s Logic and library Contemporary Rhetoric: The Use of Reason in Everyday Life . I replaced Copi's book with Kahane's and writing exemplification have never looked back. I was eventually hired by Sacramento City College to teach philosophy and humanities courses, including logic. Rguhs Library! I taught there for thirty years and, until I wrote my own text, used Kahane's book through several editions.
Nobody called Kahane's text a critical thinking text in format 1971, when the book was first published. At that time, two other expressions were vying for primacy: ‘informal logic’ and rguhs digital library thesis ‘practical logic’. Rtl Essay! The publisher had a blurb for the book on the back of the 10th edition (which I looked at rguhs library before participating in a critical thinking workshop for the Amazing Meeting 5) that notes that it “puts critical thinking skills into a context that students will retain and use throughout their lives.” (The text is now in its 11th edition and has had a co-author since Kahane's death in 2001.) A blurb about the essays on pro life abortion author notes that Kahane was one of the founders of the digital library thesis “critical thinking” movement. Kahane, who had already published a popular formal logic text, wanted the essays on skateboarding discrimination new text to be practical. It included no formal logic. No Aristotle. No Venn diagrams. No truth tables. No sentential or predicate logic.
No tedious exercises trying to symbolize ordinary language arguments. Instead, there are chapters on advertising, textbooks, and the mass media, and how they affect our thinking. There is a chapter that focuses on how language can be used to mislead and deceive us. Thesis! Traditional baby logic texts focused on uses of language; Kahane focused on abuses of language. There are several chapters on fallacies in reasoning, the kinds of fallacies it was not too difficult to find examples of in daily life, many of rtl essay format, them supplied by advertisers or by library thesis, public figures, especially politicians. On Road Accidents! Kahane was the first of the textbook writers, as far as I know, to introduce the study of doublespeak into a logic text. Kahane's text appeared too political to some, but it was actually neutral. Rguhs Digital Library! Each new edition changed its examples, depending on who was in power. In some editions, Republicans look like fools; in others, the Democrats got their turn to serve as bad examples of reasoning.
Kahane was right in exposing the way language is gmat score 4.5 used to manipulate thought. Rguhs Thesis! We now know that this manipulation runs deeper than any of us were aware of in the 1970s. Harsh interrogation is on skateboarding discrimination doublespeak for torture. Rguhs Library! The current euphemism replaced debriefing, enhanced coercive interrogation, and the like. (Former CIA director Porter Goss said: “we don’t torture, we do debriefings. Torture doesn’t get results. Writing! We get results with our methods.”) We now know that even if people know what terms like 'harsh interrogation' or 'rendition' mean, the expressions have little or no emotive content and evoke little emotion. Thus, they don't evoke much response.
Think of collateral damage. We know the expression means that innocent men, women, and children were killed in a military attack, but the digital expression fails to rtl essay format, evoke much feeling for those innocent people. The expression arouses little call to action that might express opposition to dropping bombs on or shooting missiles into areas heavily populated by digital library thesis, civilians. Kahane's section on accidents, the emotive and digital thesis cognitive meaning of words was a major contribution to financial study report, the creation of what we now call critical thinking textbooks. Doublespeak continues, however, and combating it may seem useless at times. But where would we be if we did or said nothing at all about abuses of language? Would Alberto Gonzales still be Attorney General of the United States?
Since first using Kahane's text I have been sympathetic to the view that critical thinking instruction should be about more than just skills like recognizing contradictions and identifying fallacies. Digital! I tried to writing exemplification essays, encourage my students to develop a disposition to critically examine the presuppositions of their own culture as expressed in textbooks, TV news, daily newspapers, political speeches and policies, religions, science, and in their personal values and beliefs. I wanted my students to have no sacred cows and to become skilled in making judgments about whatever subject they were investigating. I wanted them to thesis, understand that a critical thinker doesn't just have opinions, but has cogent reasons for those opinions. Skepticism is a useful tool in the process of evaluating evidence and arguments, but it is on skateboarding not the rguhs digital goal of essays on skateboarding, critical thinking. Suspending judgment until all the evidence and arguments have been fairly evaluated is essential to arriving at the most reasonable judgments. Digital Library Thesis! Suspending judgment, which may have been the rtl essay format goal of rguhs library thesis, some of the ancient Greek skeptics, is case study report not the goal of critical thinking. Rguhs Digital Library Thesis! Making informed judgments is the goal. A question I was asked frequently over my thirty-five years of teaching college students was: Do you want our opinion in our essays? My stock answer was: Of course.
I want your well-reasoned opinions. But I don't want a list of financial case report, your beliefs. Many of my students had been wrongly taught that facts are good, opinions are bad. How many times have we heard: that's not a fact; that's just your opinion. We've seen this sentiment expressed by many creationists, who think that theories are opinions and evolution, being a theory, is not a fact but an opinion. Evolution, however, is both a fact and an opinion (a theory). It is a fact that evolution has occurred and there are various theories that try to explain how it occurred. There is a common misconception that facts are opposed to opinions. This error seems to be one of the chief cognitive deficits of those who think they have offered a meaningful criticism of something they disagree with by simply asserting that their opponent is expressing his opinions. At one of the rguhs library thesis annual critical thinking conferences sponsored by Sonoma State University, a speaker claimed that he had tracked down this erroneous opinion on opinions and found that many years ago (in the 1930s, I think) sociologists used to give a critical thinking test that asked people to determine whether each item on a list was (a) a fact or (b) an opinion. (This was more than twenty years ago, so I hope you'll forgive me for on pro not recalling who the speaker was.) Some of my students claimed that they'd been asked the same thing on standardized tests that claim to be evaluating something meaningful about a person's critical thinking skills.
Students in critical thinking courses should be able to digital thesis, distinguish statements of abortion, fact from statements that express judgments, of course. Digital Thesis! But to ask them to distinguish facts from opinions on a list of items is not the same thing. I include the following in essay chapter two of my Becoming a Critical Thinker text: As we said in digital library the first chapter, facts are what we take to be certain or true and that we consider unreasonable to doubt. Opinions , on the other hand, are often contrasted with facts as being uncertain and reasonable to doubt. For example, if someone claims (1) she perceived a dark object of human proportions moving across a field at night and (2) she believed that the object was her neighbor, her first claim might be taken as a fact but the life abortion second claim would be taken as an opinion. The difference seems to be due simply to rguhs digital library thesis, the amount of interpretation the perceiver does. If the perception requires simple and ordinary sense perception (e.g. of shapes and colors) and a minimal amount of interpretation, the event perceived is considered a fact.
If the perception requires making judgments that go beyond simple sense perception (that a shape is the rtl essay shape of one’s neighbor) the rguhs digital thesis event related is considered an opinion. The opinion may turn out to be true, however. So, it is not accurate to say that facts are certain and essay on road true, while opinions are not. Some opinions are based on mounds of evidence and rguhs library thesis have a high degree of probability. Another reason for not distinguishing facts and opinions as certain versus uncertain is that ‘fact’ is also used to mean ‘event’, ‘actuality’, or ‘reality’. Rtl Essay Format! Many things which are claimed to be actualities or realities turn out not to rguhs digital thesis, be so after all. Format! [The person might have been hallucinating the colors and shapes, for digital library example.] What was claimed to be a fact turns out to be false. Rather than think of opinions as uncertain claims, it would be better to think of them as beliefs that reflect judgments. Judgments reflect interpretations or evaluations.
It may be a fact that the local river is filled with dead fish, but it is a judgment (opinion) that the fish died because of lack of food. That judgment, however, might come to score, be taken as a fact (i.e., as certain) if the evidence supports it beyond a reasonable doubt. There is, in other words, no clear line that separates facts from opinions in rguhs library terms of certainty. Perhaps it would be less confusing if the distinction were made between statements of fact and statements of rtl essay, opinion , rather than between facts and opinions. Determining whether something is a fact requires knowing whether or not it is library true.
Determining whether something is a statement of fact requires knowing only whether or not it is stated as if it were true. Determining whether it is a fact that the fish died because of lack of essay, food requires more specific and detailed knowledge than would be required to determine whether the statement “The fish died because of lack of food” is stated as a fact or as an opinion. It is obvious that it is rguhs digital library thesis stated as a fact. If it were stated as an opinion, the speaker would indicate this by using expressions such as ‘it is my opinion that’ [the fish died because of. ], or [the fish] ‘might have’ [died because of. ] or [the fish] ‘probably’ [died because of]. In sum, facts and opinions each run the on pro life abortion gamut from uncertain to very certain. [ note: the above excerpted material has been slightly revised ] Ask yourself: is it a fact or an opinion that the Boston Celtics won the thesis NBA championship in 1924? If they won the championship, then it's a fact. The certainty of the claim should depend on what you know to be true.
Does the statement become an opinion if the Celtics didn't win the NBA championship in 1924? No, but it then becomes certain that the claim is false. Is it a fact or an opinion that cigarette smoke is format carcinogenic? It's a judgment and digital library thesis therefore it's an opinion, but it's about as certainly true as any empirical causal claim can be. Is it a fact or an opinion that child abuse should be illegal? Most people would probably say it's true and writing they believe that if something is a fact then it's true. Does it matter that philosophers claim that only statements can be true or false, and that imperatives are not statements and therefore are neither true nor false? I haven't updated my critical thinking text since the rguhs library second edition was published in 2005, but if I were to update the exercise on identifying and writing essays distinguishing statements of fact and statements of opinion, I would add these two statements to the exercise: 1. Global warming poses a dire threat to human civilization that is second only to nuclear weapons.*
2. Digital! Most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations.* By the time my students have come to the exercise, they should have read the following: 3.4 Sneaking in judgmental words: opinions put forth as facts. Another way to keep others from thinking is to use judgmental words that evaluate the situation so they can be spared the agony of on skateboarding discrimination, thinking for rguhs digital thesis themselves. Financial Report! There is nothing wrong with making judgments and using the appropriate words to express those judgments. However, some writers may give you their evaluation of the situation under the guise of rguhs, a factual report. For example, a writer says that “an accurate assessment of the situation was made by the Pentagon” or “the President took justifiable pride in essays signing the Trade Agreement with China.” The writer is making judgments for you, telling you that an assessment is accurate or suggesting that a trade agreement was a good one.
There are always those who are ready to give us the right view, the correct opinion, trustworthy advice, reliable information, or the true story about some scoundrel, dishonest barracuda, interested party, pervert, or communist dupe ! Beware of such language. It indicates people less interested in having you think than in having you think as they do . Nowhere is this better exemplified than in the successful 1992 campaign in rguhs Colorado to pass a constitutional amendment barring laws that specifically protect homosexuals from discrimination. The leader of the campaign, Will Perkins, stated that “Language doesn’t shape the score 4.5 campaign--it is the campaign.” The hope was to influence and shape public opinion by rguhs digital library, characterizing homosexuals as people with a sexual preference rather than sexual orientation, who have an agenda rather than goals to secure special rights rather than their civil rights. On the rtl essay format other side, gay activists were trying to get the term “sexual preference” eliminated from digital library thesis, public discourse because it implies that homosexuality is chosen rather than given to essays, a person by nature or nurture. Each side recognized that the rguhs digital library thesis words used to frame the issues would affect how people would be encouraged to rtl essay, think about those issues without actually thinking about the issues. Opinions don't always come with nice indicators like 'my opinion is. ' Many opinions are stated as facts. Digital Library Thesis! Being stated as a fact suggests certainty, but being stated as a fact doesn't make something a fact.
The point is that language is score fluid, most terms have several uses, and one of the most common abuses of language is to criticize an rguhs library thesis argument or explanation as being an opinion or 'just an opinion' and think that you have said something profound or meaningful. Your claim is about as important as saying about Einstein's special theory of relativity that it's just his opinion or it's just his ideas. Opinions run the gamut from wild speculation based on essays, almost no evidence (like the opinion that quantum holograms explain psychic phenomena) to strongly supported positions (such as the view that humans are a significant causal factor in global warming or that HIV causes AIDS), to thesis, the nearly indisputable (such as cigarette smoke is carcinogenic). A critical thinker doesn't make empty claims and financial case report try to rguhs digital library, pass them off as reasonable criticisms, which is what one does when one says nothing more about another's argument than that it's an life opinion. Library Thesis! A critical thinker notes when an opinion is put forth without any support, perhaps, or notes errors, falsehoods, or weaknesses in the reasons given for an opinion. But one identifies oneself as a weak thinker with little cognitive ability if all one can muster up against a position you dislike or disagree with is it's an on skateboarding discrimination opinion. We already know that without even knowing what you're talking about. Rguhs Digital Library Thesis! What we want to know is Is the exemplification essays opinion backed by cogent reasons?
If not, tell us what is wrong with the evidence presented. Don't think you've told us anything interesting or valuable if all you can tell us is that it's wrong or biased. Rguhs Library! If you can't tell us why it's wrong, you're wasting our time. Unlike many of the gmat score 4.5 people who criticize my work, I'm interested in getting it right. I don't just list my opinions on UFOs, 9/11 conspiracies, homeopathy, psi, etc.
I present a case for my positions. Nobody benefits from rguhs library, pseudo-criticism that asserts only that that someone has stated an opinion. You might as well criticize somebody for having an idea. Writing Exemplification Essays! Stating opinions or having ideas are not faults to be identified by a critical thinker. I truly am interested in my opponents' opinions as long as they are well-reasoned and digital library backed by solid evidence and argument. On Skateboarding Discrimination! Otherwise, if all you have to rguhs digital library thesis, say is you're wrong or you're just giving your opinion, please keep your empty claims to yourself.
You're just blowing air and you've got onions and other foul odors on your breath.
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10 Famous People Who Turned Down a Knighthood. Of all the honors that the digital library thesis Queen of ielts essay accidents, England bestows on her subjects, a knighthood is digital thesis, easily the most coveted. To British citizens, few titles could be greater than having a “Sir” or “Dame” in front of their name. So what kind of person would turn down such a title? Surprisingly enough, many notables have done so. Here are some of financial, them. A few rock stars have been knighted, including Sir Paul McCartney, Sir Elton John and rguhs digital library thesis Sir Mick Jagger – much to the anger of his fellow Rolling Stone, Keith Richards, who felt that Jagger should have declined … like another of score 4.5, Sir Mick’s friends, David Bowie. Digital Thesis? Bowie turned down a knighthood in rtl essay format 2003. Digital Library Thesis? “I would never have any intention of accepting anything like that,” he said. “I seriously don't know what it's for.
It's not what I spent my life working for.” The Oscar-winning actress is often considered one of the gmat essay 4.5 “grand Dames” of the rguhs digital library British stage. But unlike Dame Judi Dench and exemplification Dame Helen Mirren, Redgrave actually turned down the title in digital thesis 1999. Known for supporting various left-wing and humanitarian causes, she might have thought (like many others) that a knighthood would make her too much a part of the establishment. Still, she was happy to be awarded the next-highest honor, a CBE (Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire). Writing? The artist, famous for paintings of the Lancashire industrial scene, turned down more honors from the Queen than any other individual – a total of five, including an OBE in 1955, a CBE in 1961 and a knighthood in 1968. Always a friend to rguhs digital the working class, he turned down the honors because, according to a friend, he did not want to “change his situation.” The Australian statesman turned down a knighthood in 1887, when Australia was still a colony of Great Britain.
He went on to become one of Australia’s founding fathers (it became a nation in essays on skateboarding 1901) and serve as Prime Minister three times. It seems that his refusal of a knighthood was due to a combination of humility (he would turn down several honors) and his preference for rguhs library thesis, Australia becoming a republic, severing the last of its political links to the British Empire. Australia continued to award knighthoods (conferred by the Crown) after winning independence from Britain, even though many saw them as a remnant of the colonial past. Though it has still not become a republic, Australia finally stopped awarding knighthoods in 1983. The actor and playwright, famous for playing a variety of rotund eccentrics, accepted an Order of the British Empire (OBE) in 1957, but turned down a knighthood in 1975. Other actors to writing exemplification essays turn down knighthoods included Trevor Howard, Alistair Sim and rguhs library thesis Paul Scofield. Discrimination? The essayist and rguhs thesis author ( Brave New World ) refused a knighthood in 1959, only four years before his death. Random fact: Huxley, C.S.
Lewis and John F. Kennedy all died on November 22, 1963. When she was young, the Nobel Prize-winning author was an ardent communist, rebelling against the monarchy and the British political system. Financial Case Study? In 1993, at the age of rguhs digital, 74, she refused to be made a Dame. “Surely, she said, there is something unlikable about rtl essay a person, when old, accepting honors from an institution she attacked when young?” Some years earlier, she had turned down an OBE, as the honor came from a “non-existent empire.” In 2000, however, she accepted a Companion of Honor (CH), claiming to prefer it because “you’re not called anything. The great sculptor, a major figure in the modern art movement, was always keen to rguhs thesis remember his roots as the essays abortion son of a Yorkshire coal miner. Hence, he turned down a knighthood in 1951 because he didn't want to be seen as an establishment figure. One of India’s great hyphenates – spiritual man, the first non-European to win a Nobel Prize (for literature, in 1913), poet, songwriter, dramatist, novelist, painter, educator – Tagore was offered a knighthood by King George V in 1915… and digital library thesis accepted it. However, he renounced his knighthood in 1919, following the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, in which hundreds of Indians, suspected of ielts essay, plotting an insurrection, were gunned down by British troops. Library? Just to prove that turning down knighthoods isn’t just for modern-day rebels, Faraday (1791-1867), the great chemist and physicist who discovered the on pro life abortion electromagnetic field, also turned down a knighthood. Rguhs Thesis? Over a century later, another famed scientist, Stephen Hawking, also reportedly said no to essays on pro life the Queen.
While turning down returning an MBE, Lennon spelled out his reasons in a letter to digital library the Queen: Your Majesty, I am returning this in protest against Britain's involvement in the Nigeria-Biafra thing, against our support of America in writing essays Vietnam and against rguhs digital, Cold Turkey slipping down the charts. With Love, John Lennon of Bag. Years before Bryan Fuller created the accidents visually stunning Hannibal , there was the equally pretty and just plain strange world of Pushing Daisies . Lee Pace starred as Ned, a pie-maker who could bring the dead back to digital thesis life with a simple touch—and back to the dead again with a second touch. After the love of his life, Chuck (Anna Friel), is murdered, Ned brings her back to life and essays discrimination develops a romance with her, though the two can never touch. Chi McBride played Emerson Cod, a private investigator who enlists Ned’s help in solving cases. Digital Thesis? In a touch of irony mentioned many times by now, Pushing Daisies had the misfortune of being pronounced dead by ABC in 2008, right before it became standard practice for cult shows to rtl essay format be resurrected. Here are some facts about the rguhs digital library thesis beloved series, which premiered 10 years ago today. 1. IT WAS ORIGINALLY INTENDED TO BE A SPINOFF OF DEAD LIKE ME . Essays Life? Pushing Daisies creator Bryan Fuller left his former creation, Dead Like Me , before its second season, during which he planned to introduce Ned as an adversary for George's grim reaper. Ned would have revived dead bodies before George could claim them, and a romance would have transpired. 2. ADAM BRODY TURNED DOWN PLAYING NED.
Fuller wanted Lee Pace for the role of Ned, but was told by Pace’s agents that he was only interested in movies. So he approached Adam Brody, who said he wasn’t ready to do another series so soon after The O.C. had ended. Rguhs? Then Pace’s manager went around his agents and gmat essay 4.5 got Pace the pilot script, which the rguhs thesis actor loved. 3. CHI MCBRIDE PITCHED EMERSON’S BACKSTORY HIMSELF. Chi McBride suggested to life abortion Fuller that his character became a private investigator to find his daughter, who disappeared after his ex ran off with her. Rguhs Digital Thesis? According to the actor, Fuller initially had a “completely different” story in mind for on road accidents, Emerson. 4. ANNA FRIEL HAD A LITTLE RITUAL BEFORE SHOOTING A SCENE. Dubbed “The Anna” by director Barry Sonnenfeld, Anna Friel would pump her arms rapidly, like someone running in place, before each scene to keep her energy up. Library? Eventually, Pace, Swoosie Kurtz, and exemplification Ellen Greene (who played her aunts) did it, too. 5. FRIEL USED AN AMERICAN ACCENT ALL DAY ON SET.
The English actresses only slipped back to digital thesis her British accent when her mother called (Mrs. Friel didn’t like the American accent). Jim Dale, the show's narrator, didn’t even realize that Friel was British until I heard her being interviewed. 6. LEE PACE STAYED IN CHARACTER WHENEVER FRIEL TRIED TO HUG HIM. Since Ned and Chuck could never touch, Pace and Friel attempted to not make physical contact with one another for a week, and failed repeatedly.
Friel once tried to give Pace a hug, and Pace instinctively flinched. Ielts? It's just playing Ned, Pace explained. I shouldn't be flinching when a beautiful girl like Anna Friel gives me a hug, but I flinched! That's weird, that's odd, that's not normal. 7. THERE WAS A NOTED AM E LIE INFLUENCE. Cinematographer Michael Weaver said that Fuller, Barry Sonnenfeld (who directed the first two episodes of Pushing Daisies ), an executive producer for digital library thesis, the series, and ielts accidents he all agreed to give the show a feel “somewhere between Amelie and library thesis a Tim Burton film—something big, bright, and bigger than life.” Pushing Daisies music composer and arranger Jim Dooley described his score as “having an on skateboarding discrimination, Amelie type of sound.” 8. Library? BARRY SONNENFELD HAD A NO BLUES RULE. Production designer Michael Wylie’s instruction from essay on road accidents, Sonnenfeld was “virtually no blues.” Friel told ITV, “there’s no blue at all. The director hated blue,” before revealing another big influence for the show was the work of Nighthawks artist Edward Hopper.
9. KRISTIN CHENOWETH MADE A VERY SPECIFIC SONG REQUEST. Kristin Chenoweth told Fuller that she wanted to sing Eternal Flame on the show. Fuller granted her wish, and Chenoweth's Olive sang her heart out in the episode “Comfort Food.” Had the show continued, there would have been an all-musical episode. 10. Library Thesis? THE VIEW OF THE TOWN FROM THE PIE HOLE WAS A 180-FOOT LONG, 18-FOOT HIGH ‘TRANSLIGHT.' It was created from photographs of a series of essays, matte paintings. Rguhs Digital Library? 11. THE VISUAL EFFECTS SUPERVISOR WAS SO GOOD, SOMETIMES HIS JOB WASN’T RECOGNIZED. Because there wasn’t enough in essay the budget to get permission to rguhs digital library thesis shoot in the classic Bradbury building, which was used for movies like Double Indemnity and rtl essay Blade Runner , William Powloski was tasked with recreating it.
He went to the building, took 2000 digital photos, and created a digital version of the building. Our crew saw the result and asked, 'When did you go shoot the Bradbury building? Because the footage cuts right in thesis with our set,' Powloski recalled. I hear this from colleagues, too, 'Hey, great shot inside the Bradbury.' And you really can't see the difference between the physical set and the very specific extension of one of the rtl essay format city's most well-known interiors. You know what, I know where to look and I don't see the library thesis seams either. I just love that!
12. IT HAD MORE EMMY NOMINATIONS THAN EPISODES AFTER ITS FIRST SEASON. Gmat Essay Score? Because of the 2007-2008 Writers Guild of America strike, Pushing Daisies 's first season was only nine episodes long. The show was nominated for 12 Emmys, and won three (including awards for Sonnenfeld and Dooley in their respective categories). Rguhs Digital Library? In 2009, a year after Fuller had confirmed the essays abortion series' cancellation, Pushing Daisies won four more Emmys, including one for Chenoweth as Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series. 13. FULLER NEVER WANTED TO REVEAL HOW NED GOT HIS POWERS. Fuller said that if that part of the library thesis mythology was ever revealed, “then all the rtl essay fun goes out the window.” 14. HAD THE SERIES CONTINUED, THE NARRATOR WOULD HAVE APPEARED, AND THE CORONER WOULD HAVE HAD A CRUSH ON EMERSON.
Fuller intended to put Jim Dale in front of the library thesis camera. Exemplification? He also later revealed that Sy Richardon’s coroner character was gay, and his infatuation with Emerson would have been introduced if Daisies had not been cancelled. 15. A FUTURE MOVIE AND/OR MUSICAL ISN’T OUT OF THE QUESTION. In 2014, Fuller claimed he had met with Sonnenfeld about finding financing for a musical, and talked to Netflix about a “lost season.” Though that was a few years ago, fans are still hoping that Pushing Daisies will rise again. The little pinprick spots on apples, pears, and potatoes are called lenticels (LEN-tih-sells), and thesis they’re very important. Plants need a constant stream of exemplification essays, fresh air, j ust like people, and that “fresh air” means carbon dioxide. Digital Thesis? Flowers, trees, and fruit all take in carbon dioxide and give off oxygen. Accidents? But unlike people, plants don’t have nostrils. That's where a plant's lenticels come in. Thesis? Each little speck is an opening in the fruit or tuber’s skin or the tree’s bark.
Carbon dioxide goes in, and oxygen comes out. Through these minuscule snorkels, a plant is able to gmat essay score “breathe.” Like any opening, lenticels are vulnerable to infection and sickness. Digital Thesis? In an apple disease called lenticel breakdown, a nutrient deficiency causes the ielts essay accidents apples’ spots to darken and turn into brown pits. This doesn’t hurt the inside of the fruit, but it does make the apple look pretty unattractive. In the equally appealing “lenticel blotch pit,” the skin around the apple’s lenticels gets patchy and dark, like a weird rash. Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at [email protected] LIVE SMARTER BIG QUESTIONS WEATHER WATCH BE THE CHANGE JOB SECRETS QUIZZES WORLD WAR 1 SMART SHOPPING STONES, BONES, WRECKS #TBT THE PRESIDENTS WORDS RETROBITUARIES.
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Essay: The Arab Uprisings and Their Global Repercussions. by Arch Puddington. The political uprisings that swept across the rguhs library thesis, Arab world over the past year represent the most significant challenge to authoritarian rule since the collapse of Soviet communism. Discrimination. In a region that had seemed immune to rguhs democratic change, coalitions of activist reformers and ordinary citizens succeeded in removing dictators who had spent decades entrenching themselves in power. In some cases, protest and report, upheaval was followed by the beginnings of democratic institution building.
At year’s end, two countries with unbroken histories of library thesis fraudulent polling, Tunisia and essays abortion, Egypt, had conducted elections that observers deemed competitive and credible, and freedom of expression had gained momentum in many Middle Eastern societies. Unfortunately, the gains that were recorded in Tunisia, and to a considerably lesser extent in Egypt and Libya, were offset by more dubious trends elsewhere in the region. Indeed, the overthrow of autocrats in these countries provoked determined and often violent responses in many others, most notably in rguhs digital thesis, Syria, where by year’s end the Assad dictatorship had killed over 5,000 people in its efforts to crush widespread antigovernment protests. Similar if less bloody crackdowns took place in Bahrain and Yemen. This pattern of protest and repression—with an emphasis on the latter—was echoed elsewhere in case, the world as news of the Arab uprisings spread beyond the Middle East and North Africa. In China, the authorities responded to events in Cairo’s Tahrir Square with a near-hysterical campaign of arrests, incommunicado detentions, press censorship, and stepped-up control over the internet.
The Chinese Communist Party’s pushback, which aimed to quash potential prodemocracy demonstrations before they even emerged, reached a crescendo in December with the sentencing of rguhs thesis a number of dissident writers to long terms in prison. In Russia, the state-controlled media bombarded domestic audiences with predictions of study report chaos and instability as a consequence of the Arab protests, with a clear message that demands for political reform in Russia would have similarly catastrophic results. In other Eurasian countries and in parts of Africa, the authorities went to considerable lengths to suppress demonstrations and rguhs thesis, isolate the democratic opposition. The authoritarian response to change in the Middle East had a significant impact on the state of global freedom at essays discrimination year’s end. Rguhs Digital Thesis. The findings of Freedom in the World 2012 , the latest edition of Freedom House’s annual report on political rights and civil liberties, showed that slightly more countries registered declines than exhibited gains over the course of 2011. This marks the score 4.5, sixth consecutive year in which countries with declines outnumbered those with improvements.
The continued pattern of rguhs library thesis global backsliding—especially in such critical areas as press freedom, the rule of law, and the rights of writing essays civil society—is a sobering reminder that the institutions that anchor democratic governance cannot be achieved by protests alone. Yet if there is an overarching message for the year, it is one of hope and not of reversal. For the rguhs library thesis, first time in some years, governments and rulers who mistreated their people were on the defensive. Gmat. This represents a welcome change from the dominant trends of just a year ago, when authoritarian powers repressed domestic critics and dismissed mild objections from the democratic world with brazen contempt. In 2010, China conducted a bullying campaign against the Nobel committee for honoring jailed dissident Liu Xiaobo, Russia imposed a second prison term on former oil magnate Mikhail Khodorkovsky after a fraudulent judicial proceeding, and Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak’s National Democratic Party claimed to have won heavily rigged parliamentary elections with well over 80 percent of the seats. In 2011, by contrast, the thesis, signal events were the overthrow of Mubarak, Tunisia’s Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali, and Libya’s Mu’ammar al-Qadhafi; successful elections in Tunisia; and democratic ferment throughout the Arab world.
Meanwhile, China’s perpetual campaign of repression, directed at writers, lawyers, journalists, religious believers, ethnic minorities, and ordinary citizens who had spoken out against injustice and state abuses, seemed only to show the staggering fears and ielts essay accidents, weaknesses of library thesis a regime that otherwise presents the image of a confident, globally integrated economic powerhouse. And in Russia, Vladimir Putin faced his first serious political crisis, as election fraud and the prospect of 12 more years without new leadership drew tens of thousands of protesters to the streets. Whether the events of 2011 will lead to a true wave of democratic revolution is uncertain. Tunisia was clearly the greatest beneficiary of the year’s changes. It experienced one of the largest single-year improvements in the history of the Freedom in the World report, rising from among the worst-performing Middle Eastern countries to achieve electoral democracy status and scores that place it roughly alongside such Partly Free countries as Colombia and Philippines. But much remains to be done, and there are some questions about the case, positions of the new leaders on thesis such crucial issues as minority rights, freedom of belief, and freedom of expression. Egypt also made significant gains, but they have been overshadowed in many respects by the continued political dominance of the military, its hostility toward media critics, its campaign against human rights organizations, and its humiliating treatment of female protesters. In many other Arab countries, democracy movements have yet to reach even the initial milestone of forcing the format, resignation of their longtime rulers. The perceived success or failure of these efforts will either continue to inspire similar changes in the rest of the world, or bolster authoritarian calls for “stability” at rguhs digital library thesis any price.
The number of countries exhibiting gains for the past year, 12, lagged somewhat behind the number with declines, 26. The most noteworthy gains were in the Middle East—in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya—and in three Asian countries—Burma, Singapore, and Thailand. It should be noted that despite their gains, Burma, Egypt, and Libya remained in the Not Free category. Gmat 4.5. Moreover, while the Middle East experienced the most significant improvements, it also registered the most declines, with a list of worsening countries that includes Bahrain, Iran, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Declines were also noted in a number of countries in Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia, including Albania, Azerbaijan, Hungary, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine.
Glimmers of Hope for the Most Repressed: Burma, which has ranked alongside North Korea as one of the world’s most closed societies, experienced what many hope will become a major political opening. Rguhs Library Thesis. The government of President Thein Sein has permitted more public discussion, tolerated a measure of press commentary, freed longtime opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi, and cleared the path for her party’s participation in elections. Another country that endured decades of brutal misrule, Libya, now has the potential for significant gains thanks to the overthrow of essays al-Qadhafi. Cuba, also one of the world’s most repressive countries, experienced a small improvement linked to the limited reduction of economic restrictions by the government of Raul Castro. Rguhs Library. Unlike in Burma, however, Cuba underwent no political liberalization. (Some) Good News in Asia: In a region whose dominant power, China, maintains the world’s most sophisticated and comprehensive system of authoritarian political control, the recent trend has been largely positive.
Aside from the essay, improvements in Burma, the past year was notable for more open and competitive elections in Singapore, whose unique variant of “guided democracy” has been in place for several decades. In fact, for the countries of Asia proper, practically every indicator measured by Freedom in the World improved to rguhs thesis some degree. Sectarian Strife in the Middle East: The intensified violence between Sunni and Shiite Muslims in Iraq as U.S. Case Report. forces completed their withdrawal touched on a broader threat posed by sectarianism to democracy’s future in the region. Differences among various strains of Islam complicated the crackdown on mainly Shiite protesters in Bahrain, and digital library, played a role in the crisis in Syria, principally propelled by President Bashar al-Assad’s desperate efforts to essays on skateboarding remain in power. Sunni-Shiite rivalry also presents a serious threat to political stability in Lebanon, while in Egypt, anti-Christian sentiment flared into rguhs digital library thesis violence during the on skateboarding discrimination, year, with notable help from the military. Long-Term Setbacks in library, Energy-Rich Eurasia: The past year featured the continuation of a decade-long trend of setbacks for essay on road accidents, the wealthiest and most “modern” former Soviet countries: Russia, Kazakhstan, and Azerbaijan.
The level of freedom fell further despite rising popular demands for reform and warning signs from the Middle East. Indeed, beginning with the “color revolutions” of 2003 to 05, authoritarians in Eurasia have consistently responded to freedom movements outside their borders with intensified clampdowns at library home. Year-end protests in Moscow and violent labor unrest in Kazakhstan should remind the world that repression does not in fact lead to essay accidents stability. Danger Signs for New Democracies: Until recently, Ukraine, Hungary, South Africa, and Turkey were regarded as important success stories for democratic development. Now, increasingly, the democratic credentials of each is coming under question. The steepest decline in rguhs digital thesis, the institutions of freedom has taken place in Ukraine, where a series of negative developments was punctuated by the conviction of opposition leader Yuliya Tymoshenko on dubious charges. In the past two years, Ukraine has moved from a status of Free to Partly Free and suffered deterioration on most indicators measured by writing, Freedom House. Developments in Turkey are also worrying, given the country’s role as a model for democracy in Muslim-majority countries and its aspirations to regional leadership.
While the government of Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan has instituted important reforms since coming to rguhs digital library power, stepped-up arrests of advocates for Kurdish rights and exemplification essays, the continued pursuit of the wide-ranging and politically fraught Ergenekon conspiracy case, which has led to lengthy detentions without charge, are both causes for concern. In Hungary, the government of Prime Minister Viktor Orban, taking advantage of a parliamentary supermajority, has pushed through a new constitution and a raft of laws that could seriously weaken press freedom, judicial independence, and a fair election process. And in South Africa, new media regulations and evidence of pervasive corruption within the African National Congress leadership threaten to thesis undermine the country’s past achievements in peaceful democratic change. The number of countries designated by Freedom in format, the World as Free in 2011 stood at 87, representing 45 percent of the rguhs digital, world’s 195 polities and 3,016,566,100 people—43 percent of the global population. The number of Free countries did not change from the previous year’s survey. The number of countries qualifying as Partly Free stood at 60, or 31 percent of all countries assessed by the survey, and they were home to 1,497,442,500 people, or 22 percent of the world’s total. The number of Partly Free countries did not change from the previous year. A total of exemplification essays 48 countries were deemed Not Free, representing 24 percent of the world’s polities. Rguhs Digital Thesis. The number of people living under Not Free conditions stood at 2,453,231,500, or 35 percent of the global population, though it is important to note that more than half of this number lives in just one country: China. The number of Not Free countries increased by one from 2010 due to essays on pro life the inclusion for the first time of rguhs digital library thesis South Sudan, a new state that was given a Not Free designation.
The number of electoral democracies increased by two and stands at writing essays 117. Library. Three countries achieved electoral democracy status due to writing exemplification essays elections that were widely regarded as improvements: Niger, Thailand, and Tunisia. One country, Nicaragua, was dropped from the electoral democracy roster. One country moved from Not Free to Partly Free: Tunisia. One country, The Gambia, dropped from Partly Free to Not Free. Middle East and North Africa: The Arab Spring’s Ambiguous Achievements. Even in a region that was notorious for its leaders’ disdain for honest government and civil liberties, Tunisia had long stood out for the thoroughness of rguhs digital thesis its system of control and oppression. On Pro Life. Its longtime strongman, Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali, had seemingly smothered all significant sources of digital library thesis opposition. Dissenters had been jailed or exiled, press censorship was scrupulously enforced, and the judiciary was under strict political control.
This country seemed a highly unlikely setting for a democratic revolution. Yet it is Tunisia that has emerged as the most dramatic success story thus far in the series of essays popular uprisings that took place across the Arab world during 2011. It has been transformed from a showcase for Arab autocracy to an electoral democracy whose new leaders have pledged themselves to rguhs moderation, adherence to civil liberties, and the rule of law. The press is essay on road accidents critical and digital, vibrant; there are practically no taboo subjects. On Pro Abortion. Civil society has proliferated, and elements within the new leadership appear committed to tackling the problem of pervasive corruption, though achieving such deep institutional reforms will likely require many years of effort. Some gains were also made in Egypt and Libya, but in rguhs digital library thesis, both of these societies, the on road, future prospects for democratic reform are still very much in doubt. In Egypt, governing authority shifted from the Mubarak regime to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF), a group of military leaders who have dispensed justice through military tribunals, engaged in periodic crackdowns on critical media, raided the offices of civil society organizations, mistreated women activists, and engaged in violence against Christians. While a protracted election process, still under way at year’s end, was conducted with an rguhs library thesis adherence to fair practices that stood in vivid contrast to the sham polls of the Mubarak regime, the gmat, dominant forces in the new parliament will be Islamist parties whose devotion to democracy is open to question. And while Libya has benefited greatly from the demise of the rguhs library thesis, Qadhafi dictatorship, the essays on pro, country confronts an array of daunting political and security challenges, and has yet to hold its first elections. In other regional countries, demands for freedom have been met with stepped-up repression. In the worst case, Syrian leader Bashar al-Assad responded to widespread peaceful protests with a campaign of arrests, torture, and urban fusillades that took the lives of an estimated 5,000 Syrians by year’s end.
In Bahrain, a prodemocracy movement consisting principally of members of the Shiite majority encountered violent repression by digital library thesis, the monarchy and intervention by the Saudi military. The government’s tactics included mass arrests, torture, and the use of military justice in cases of political activists. In Yemen, security forces loyal to President Ali Abdullah Saleh killed hundreds of essays discrimination civilians as Saleh repeatedly slipped out of rguhs digital agreements on a transfer of power. The authorities in Saudi Arabia intensified their persecution of Shiites and other Muslim sects, while Iran escalated its persecution of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civic leaders who were critical of regime actions. Lebanon suffered a decline in civil liberties due to life the violent treatment of protesters and punitive measures against those demanding regime change in neighboring Syria. Digital Library. The United Arab Emirates also experienced a civil liberties decline after the government tightened restrictions on free speech and financial study, civil society and arrested those calling for political change. Israel’s relations with Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and with other countries in the region, worsened as the year’s tumult raised expectations and shook old assumptions. Rguhs Digital. Israel also faced condemnation for a series of measures that were either introduced in rtl essay, the Knesset or signed into law and were seen by critics as threats to freedom of speech. One measure that was enacted called for punishment of those who support boycotts against Israel or its institutions, including universities and businesses located in digital library thesis, West Bank settlements. Asia-Pacific: Important Gains, Despite China and Conflict. Over the past five years, the Asia-Pacific region has been the essays, only one to record steady gains in the majority of indicators that are measured by Freedom in the World . Progress is especially noteworthy in the countries of digital Asia proper, excluding the small Pacific island nations.
The most impressive gains have come in the institutions of electoral democracy—elections, political parties, pluralism—and in freedom of association. The embrace of free institutions has taken place in the face of significant regional obstacles, including, most notably, the influence of gmat essay China. In recent years China has accelerated its efforts to project its power beyond its borders, and digital, its Asian neighbors have been important targets of this effort. Despite several incidents in format, which critics of the library, Chinese government and exiled Chinese minorities encountered repression in ielts on road accidents, Nepal, Indonesia, and rguhs thesis, Vietnam, the allure of the so-called China model—combining state-led economic growth, a Leninist one-party political system, and strict control over the media—has gained only modest traction in the region. Meanwhile, the Chinese leadership has demonstrated no serious interest in political liberalization at home, and has devoted impressive resources to internet censorship, the suppression of minorities, and the elimination of even oblique political dissent. Essays On Pro Abortion. In 2011, the authorities carried out a major campaign of repression in the wake of the rguhs digital library, Arab uprisings by censoring public discussion of the movement for Arab democratization, prosecuting or arbitrarily detaining scores of social-media commentators and human rights lawyers, and strengthening the online censorship of domestic social-networking services. Another regional challenge is the explosion of life civil and sectarian strife in South Asia. Rguhs Digital. In Afghanistan, violence continued unabated in 2011, with high-profile political assassinations and high civilian casualty rates. In Pakistan, there was growing discord over case enforcement of the country’s blasphemy laws, punctuated by the murders of Punjab governor Salmaan Taseer and Shahbaz Bhatti, the minister for minority affairs, both of whom had criticized the blasphemy statutes. Rguhs Digital Thesis. Bangladesh also suffered a decline due to the ruling Awami League’s prosecution of ielts essay accidents opposition politicians and efforts to muzzle NGOs. On the other hand, India, the world’s largest democracy, showed increased room for peaceful demonstrations, particularly with the rguhs thesis, rise of an anticorruption movement that brought tens of writing exemplification thousands of people to rguhs the streets.
Indian-administered Kashmir experienced a notable improvement in the space for open public discussion amid growing use of social media and a drop in violence. The most significant gain occurred in Burma, which had endured decades of political repression under a military junta. What observers interpreted as a major political opening was initiated during 2011. In a series of steps toward a more liberal domestic environment, the leadership allowed opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi and her political party, the National League for Democracy, to report register and compete in forthcoming by-elections, eased press censorship, and legalized political protest. At the same time, many cautioned that it was still unclear whether the changes in rguhs, Burma were durable or simply cosmetic improvements by the regime. In Singapore, the system of managed democracy engineered by the former prime minister, Lee Kuan Yew, was loosened, and opposition candidates gained popular support in national elections, though the system ensured that this did not translate into gmat essay significantly increased representation in the parliament. Conditions also improved in Thailand, whose deeply polarized political life had been dominated by riots and crippling demonstrations for several years. A July election led to a peaceful transfer of power to the opposition party and the installation as prime minister of Yingluck Shinawatra, the digital thesis, sister of controversial former prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra. However, there has been some backsliding on civil liberties since the end of rtl essay November. Central and digital library, Eastern Europe and Eurasia: Stability and Stagnation.
The protests that roiled Moscow and other Russian cities in the wake of deeply flawed December parliamentary elections were stark reminders that no authoritarian leadership, no matter how sophisticated its methods, is writing immune to popular demands for change. While the immediate trigger for rguhs digital, the mass demonstrations were widely circulated YouTube videos that suggested ballot-stuffing and other forms of election fraud, the protests also reflected displeasure with the earlier announcement that Prime Minister Vladimir Putin and exemplification, President Dmitry Medvedev had forged an agreement to swap positions at the end of Medvedev’s term in 2012. The two men had failed to fulfill long-standing promises to reform Russia’s corrupt, stagnant, and unresponsive government system, and the idea of Putin’s return for a third and possibly fourth presidential term helped drive ordinary Russians to the unprecedented demonstrations. There are many questions about the ability of the forces that led the postelection protests to influence future politics in Russia. But clearly Russia is not alone in its vulnerability to popular discontent with authoritarian leadership. As the 20th anniversary of the Soviet Union’s disintegration was marked at digital library thesis year’s end, most Eurasian countries were still subject to autocratic rule of one variant or another. Whereas prior to 2011 the “president for life” phenomenon was principally associated with the essays on pro life, Middle East, it is today more likely to apply to the long-term leaders of the former Soviet Union. The authoritarian temptation poses a threat even in countries with recent histories of free-wheeling democracy. Thus Ukraine suffered a major decline due to President Viktor Yanukovych’s moves to crush the political opposition through a variety of antidemocratic tactics, including the digital library thesis, prosecution of opposition political leader and former prime minister Yuliya Tymoshenko. Other “color revolution” countries also faced problems.
Kyrgyzstan, recovering from a 2010 revolt against an authoritarian president, held national elections that were judged to be relatively fair and competitive. Nevertheless, deep divisions lingered between the ielts essay on road accidents, majority Kyrgyz and minority Uzbeks, and little progress was made in bringing to justice those responsible for anti-Uzbek violence in rguhs digital library thesis, mid-2010. Exemplification Essays. In Georgia, President Mikheil Saakashvili continued to face criticism for his apparent efforts to marginalize potential opposition figures. Meanwhile, in several cases, the region’s most repressive regimes declined still further. In Azerbaijan, the government of President Ilham Aliyev used force to break up demonstrations, jailed opposition activists, tried to neutralize the international press, and misused state power to evict citizens from their homes as part of grandiose building schemes.
Kazakhstan suffered a decline due to the adoption of legislation that restricted religious belief. In December, conditions deteriorated further when the regime used violence in an effort to put down labor protests by oil workers. Digital. And in Belarus, the financial study, regime of rguhs digital library President Alyaksandr Lukashenka held scores of political prisoners and rtl essay format, adopted a series of digital thesis bizarre policies—such as outlawing public clapping in unison—to prevent creative expressions of popular discontent over political repression and economic decline. For most of Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltics, by contrast, the year was notable for the ability of most countries to weather the European economic crisis without major damage to the basic institutions of democracy. At the same time, a number of countries in format, the region remained highly vulnerable to precarious economies, the library thesis, merging of business and political interests, and corruption. Latvia, Bulgaria, Romania, and the Western Balkans could face problems as Europe’s economic woes persist. Hungary poses the case study, most serious problem in digital library thesis, Central Europe. The government of gmat score 4.5 Viktor Orban has taken advantage of a two-thirds parliamentary majority to push through a new and problematic constitution without adequate input from the opposition, and a series of laws that are widely seen as threats to press freedom, judicial independence, and library, political pluralism. Ielts Essay Accidents. Albania experienced declines due to violence against demonstrators, flawed municipal elections, and the failure of the courts to deal effectively with major corruption cases.
On the positive side, Slovakia was credited for having adopted legislation designed to shield the press from political intimidation. The Balkans achieved mixed progress on the road to democratization and European Union (EU) accession. In July, Serbia’s government finally surrendered the rguhs digital library, last of the 161 suspected war criminals indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, including Ratko Mladic, a leading figure in exemplification essays, the 1995 Srebrenica massacre who had evaded arrest for 16 years. Mladic’s extradition met with disapproval from over 50 percent of Serbia’s population, triggering sizeable protests. Nationalism in much of the Balkan region continues to undermine regional reconciliation efforts and complicate relations with the EU. Pressures on free media increased across the Balkans, particularly in rguhs thesis, Macedonia, where an opposition-oriented television station and several newspapers were harassed and closed. Sub-Saharan Africa: Civil Society Under Pressure.
A decade ago, sub-Saharan Africa was notable for the steady if sometimes halting progress that its societies were making toward the establishment of democratic institutions. In recent years, however, that progress has first stalled and then been somewhat reversed. The year 2011 gave evidence of on skateboarding discrimination moderate decline, with particular problems in countries where members of the library, opposition and civil society made pleas for change in emulation of protests in the Arab world. Five of the 10 countries that registered the most significant declines in the Freedom in the World report over the two-year period from 2010 to 2011 were in Africa: The Gambia, Ethiopia, Burundi, Rwanda, and Djibouti. Likewise, over the five-year period from case 2007 through 2011, Africa as a region has exhibited declines in each of the topical subcategories measured by rguhs library, Freedom in the World . On Pro. Particularly substantial declines were recorded for rule of library thesis law and format, freedom of association. The Gambia experienced the most notable decline over the past year. Its status moved from Partly Free to Not Free due to a presidential election that was judged neither free nor fair, and President Yahya Jammeh’s suppression ofthe political opposition, the media, and civil society in the run-up to the vote. Five other regional countries experienced declines for the year. Ethiopia continued a decade-long trend of digital thesis growing authoritarianism, with the ielts essay accidents, government of Prime Minister Meles Zenawi making increased use of antiterrorism laws against the political opposition and journalists. Library. In Sudan, the administration of President Omar al-Bashir engaged in stepped-up arrests of opposition leaders, banned a leading political party, used violent tactics against demonstrators, and case study, persecuted the media. In Uganda, President Yoweri Museveni cracked down on critical members of the press in a year.
that also featured flawed national elections, repressive tactics against protesters, and continued harassment of the gay community. Malawi witnessed pressure against journalists and violence against digital protesters as well as violations of academic freedom. Antigovernment protests were also met with repressive tactics in Djibouti, where the intimidation of opposition political parties was followed by the election of President Ismail Omar Guelleh to a third term in office. Two countries with recent histories of political upheaval registered gains. Conditions in Cote d’Ivoire improved somewhat after Alassane Ouattara assumed the report, presidency, ending months of civil strife associated with incumbent president Laurent Gbagbo’s refusal to surrender power despite his defeat in 2010 elections. Gbagbo was later turned over to the International Criminal Court for prosecution. Niger experienced a major improvement in its political rights rating due to credible national and local elections that marked the end of more than a year of military rule. Americas: Continuity Despite Populist Threat.
Over the past decade, left-wing populist leaders have risen to power in a number of library Latin American countries, causing some to predict that the authoritarian model established by Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez would come to dominate the politics of the region. In fact, authoritarian populism has remained a minority phenomenon, as most societies have embraced the model of private-sector growth, social-welfare initiatives, and adherence to democratic standards established by leaders in exemplification essays, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. Nevertheless, events in 2011 demonstrated that quasi-authoritarian populism still stands as a threat to the region’s political stability. In the most serious case, Nicaragua suffered a steep decline in political rights due to irregularities in advance of and during the presidential election, which gave Sandinista leader Daniel Ortega another term in office. Likewise, Ecuador suffered a decline due to rguhs library thesis President Rafael Correa’s intensified campaign against media critics, the government’s use of state resources to influence the outcome of essays on pro abortion a referendum, and a restructuring of the judiciary that was in rguhs library thesis, blatant violation of constitutional provisions. Chavez himself was preoccupied with medical treatment, mostly carried out under less-than-transparent conditions in essays life, Cuba, reportedly for rguhs thesis, prostate cancer. Chavez has announced that he will seek reelection in 2012, but the campaign promises to format be more competitive than in the past due to the apparent unity of the library thesis, opposition. Violent crime, much of it generated by case report, drug-trafficking groups, continued to plague societies throughout the region, causing ripple effects in the political system and contributing to rguhs thesis a growing trend toward the militarization of police work.
In Mexico, government institutions remained unable to protect ordinary citizens, journalists, and writing exemplification essays, elected officials in thesis, many areas from organized crime. Mexican journalism in certain regions remains shackled by drug-gang intimidation, with some editors significantly altering coverage to avoid violent repercussions. Essays. In Venezuela, the rguhs digital library, kidnapping for ransom of professional baseball catcher Wilson Ramos stood out as a vivid reminder of the financial case study, violent criminality that more commonly affects the population at large. In Brazil, the rguhs thesis, government’s efforts to bring down crime in the most troubled urban districts in advance of the 2014 World Cup soccer tournament have been met by determined resistance from organized gangs. In other developments, Guatemala registered an improvement in political rights due to progress made by an international commission set up to investigate impunity and corruption in the country’s institutions. Puerto Rico suffered a civil liberties decline stemming from gmat score 4.5 reports of widespread police misconduct and rguhs thesis, brutality. Western Europe and North America: Economic Crisis, Protests, and Civil Liberties. In the face of the most serious economic crisis in the postwar period, the life abortion, countries of Western Europe and North America maintained their traditionally high level of respect for democratic standards and civil liberties.
This was even the case in countries that were compelled to make major cuts to social-welfare provisions in response to high levels of indebtedness. Throughout Europe, citizens mounted massive demonstrations to protest policies, often dictated by the EU and the International Monetary Fund, that called for fiscal austerity and the removal of various protections for many workers and industries. By and large, the demonstrations were peaceful and the police response nonviolent. Digital Library. The exception was Greece, where anarchists frequently set fires and threw projectiles at police, and on skateboarding, the police responded with batons and tear gas. It is unlikely that Europe’s democratic standards will suffer serious setbacks in the wake of the ongoing debt crisis. Nonetheless, the digital thesis, region does face major challenges. A number of essays on skateboarding European countries are already confronted by rguhs digital thesis, problems associated with the exemplification essays, influx of immigrants from the library thesis, Middle East, Asia, and Africa, and have shown little willingness to devise rational and writing, humane policies toward their integration. Economic decline could well exacerbate polarization over digital thesis immigration policy, as migrants seek refuge from upheavals in the Arab world and unemployment levels in some European countries are at record levels.
Until recently a marginal phenomenon, the parties of the anti-immigrant right emerged as major forces in Denmark, Switzerland, Austria, France, Finland, and the Netherlands during the past decade, and they occasionally achieve voter support of over 20 percent. Many European countries have opted for policies that restrict future immigration and, in some instances, asylum applications. Exemplification. A growing number have taken steps to curtail customs identified with Islam that much of the population finds offensive. Rguhs Thesis. In 2011, women in France and on pro, Belgium were arrested in cases related to the wearing of rguhs digital thesis ultraconservative Muslim female attire. Also during the year, observers raised doubts about the durability of the essays on pro life, current Turkish political model, in which a ruling party with moderate Islamist roots has committed itself to the norms of liberal democracy. While the Justice and Development Party (AKP) was credited with instituting important reforms during its early years in rguhs digital thesis, power, its recent behavior has triggered concern among supporters of press freedom and civil liberties.
In the past few years, thousands of people have been arrested on charges of involvement with Kurdish terrorist organizations or participation in an alleged military conspiracy to overthrow the government. Those detained include journalists, scholars, and even defense lawyers. Britain was rocked first by a series of urban riots, which many felt were handled poorly by the authorities, and then by a “phone hacking” case in which members of the tabloid press were accused of widespread abuse of privacy rights in pursuit of exemplification essays sensationalistic stories about rguhs library thesis, celebrities and, most controversially, crime victims. At the same time, the coalition government of Conservatives and Liberal Democrats indicated that a law aimed at reforming the country’s punitive libel laws would be introduced in 2012. The measure is meant to deal with the phenomenon of “libel tourism,” in which foreign individuals use the plaintiff-friendly English courts to press libel suits against critical journalists and scholars. If adopted, the new law would place the burden of proof on the plaintiff rather than the exemplification essays, defense in libel cases.
Press freedom advocates have described Britain’s current libel laws as a serious menace to rguhs library intellectual inquiry and the robust exchange of ideas. The United States endured a year of deep political polarization and legislative gridlock. Despite the efforts of a bipartisan commission and a select committee of lawmakers drawn equally from both major parties, the legislative branch and exemplification essays, the White House were unable to reach agreement on a plan to reduce the federal deficit to manageable levels. Even as Congress and the president failed to agree on key economic measures, left-wing critics of the country’s wealth disparities and ties between politics and big business came together to rguhs digital launch the Occupy Wall Street movement. Beginning with an encampment near the gmat 4.5, financial district in New York City, the Occupy movement spread to cities across the country, with protesters camping out in parks or other public spaces for indefinite periods. After several months, municipal authorities moved to evict the protesters, often through peaceful police actions but in some cases using batons, tear gas, pepper spray, and arrests. Some observers voiced criticism of the police for employing confrontational tactics and military-style equipment when dealing with protesters. In fulfillment of a pledge made during his election campaign, President Barack Obama revoked the digital library, policy known as “don’t ask, don’t tell,” under which military personnel were not asked about their sexual orientation, but openly gay and lesbian individuals were barred from military service.
In another step toward observance of homosexual rights, the rtl essay format, state of New York legalized gay marriage through legislative action, joining a small number of other states that allow same-sex marriage or civil unions. Winning Freedom, Sustaining Democracy. As 2011 drew to a close, officials in Egypt made headlines by conducting a series of raids on NGOs that monitor human rights and rguhs digital library thesis, promote democracy. Most of the targeted organizations were Egyptian; a few were international groups (Freedom House was one of the latter). The authorities were insistent that the raids, which included the seizure of essay 4.5 files and computers, were legal and technical in rguhs library thesis, nature. Government officials emphasized and reemphasized that they believed human rights organizations had a role to play in a democratic Egypt. Their actions indicated otherwise.
In fact, the behavior of the essay score 4.5, Egyptian authorities, now and under Mubarak, reflects a deep-seated hostility to NGOs that support democracy and human rights. This in turn points to a broader institutional continuity between the current Egyptian state and the old regime that will present major obstacles to democratic development in the coming months and years, and rguhs library thesis, similar dynamics may play out in other countries where authoritarian rule is being defied. There were many heroes, many casualties, and many martyrs to freedom’s cause in 2011. There were also many extraordinary achievements. Authoritarians who aspired to rule in perpetuity were toppled in discrimination, Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya, and library thesis, autocratic heads of state in Yemen and Syria seem likely to follow. But unlike in communist Eastern Europe in 1989, today’s oppressive leaders have for the most part refused to go quietly, without a fight. Some have adopted a rule or ruin strategy that threatens to condemn those who would supplant them to rtl essay failure. Indeed, one of the great disappointments of the rguhs digital library thesis, Arab Spring is that its principal lesson—that people will eventually rise up against despotism and injustice—has been almost universally rejected by the world’s authoritarian powers. Rather than responding to popular demands for freedom with, at minimum, a gradual plan of on skateboarding discrimination moderate reforms, despots in the Middle East and elsewhere have either tightened the rguhs digital library, screws or flatly excluded changes to the status quo.
China fell into the first category with its frenzied campaign against political dissent. So too did Bashar al-Assad in Syria, with his repudiation of talks with the opposition and a murderous campaign against essay score 4.5 peaceful protesters across the country. Russia was front and center in the status quo camp, with its imposed Putin-Medvedev leadership swap and shameless election-day violations. Clearly, constructing successful democratic states in the Middle East and elsewhere represents a far more formidable challenge than was the case in Europe after the Berlin Wall came down. Rguhs Thesis. Adding to the difficulty is the role of China and Russia, both major economic powers and permanent members of the UN Security Council whose political elites have a stake in the failure of new and aspiring democracies.
There is reason to believe that the influence of these two powers could become magnified in the near future. As the ielts, European debt crisis deepened in 2011, there were widespread reports that EU leaders were looking to rguhs library Beijing for bailout assistance. Likewise, the Russian president traveled to several European capitals with a package of economic deals designed to help the beleaguered region in its time of ielts essay accidents need, with strings attached. Ultimately, China seems to have rejected serious involvement in rguhs digital library, Europe’s woes, and nothing of significance materialized from Medvedev’s initiative. But the essay, very fact that the world’s most successful league of democracies would countenance involving two of the world’s great authoritarian powers in rguhs digital library thesis, its financial rescue is a chilling commentary on the current state of both the global economy and the democratic world’s political morality, not to mention its survival instincts.
What of the United States? Can it be relied on to stand as the international beacon of freedom given its present economic torpor and political gridlock? American politics have sent conflicting signals over on pro abortion the past year. The notion that it is time for America to library thesis shrug off its global commitments has been increasingly posited by foreign policy analysts and some political figures. A prominent candidate for the Republican presidential nomination has put himself squarely in essay score, favor of backing away from the world’s problems, saying the United States should simply “mind its own business.” Leading figures from both major political parties criticized the Obama administration for its role in rguhs thesis, the NATO campaign that helped Libyan rebels overthrow the Qadhafi regime. On the positive side, the Obama administration has evolved from its early discomfort with democracy as a foreign policy theme to a position where it episodically places its words, and in a few cases policy muscle, behind struggles for freedom abroad. Despite the discrimination, unfortunate characterization that it was “leading from behind,” America’s firmness in assisting NATO’s Libyan campaign was an important step. After initial hesitation, the administration has also cautiously supported the process of building democratic systems in Tunisia, Egypt, and rguhs digital, Libya. At the same time, it has too often been hesitant in speaking out against antidemocratic backsliding, particularly in Egypt. President Obama himself has made several important statements about ielts on road, America’s commitment to democratic change around the world, but he has failed to invoke the authority of the White House on specific cases.
Instead it is Secretary of State Hillary Clinton who has publicly addressed violations of human rights in digital library, Russia, Hungary, and report, Turkey, and aligned the administration with the forces of rguhs digital change in Burma and elsewhere where prospects for freedom’s growth have opened up. If the past year has demonstrated that courage and sacrifice are essential to the achievement of freedom, a somewhat different set of characteristics are required to build the essay 4.5, democratic infrastructure that will ensure long-term observance of political rights and rguhs digital library thesis, civil liberties. These characteristics include the self-confidence needed to accept the complexities, and occasionally irresponsibility, of a free press; the fortitude to impose restrictions on oneself as well as on one’s political opponents as part of the ielts essay accidents, fight against corruption; and the perspicacity to accept that the rguhs library thesis, judiciary, police, and other critical institutions must function without political interference. In far too many parts of the world, these qualities proved to essays on pro be in short supply during 2011. Thus in rguhs digital thesis, addition to singling out the full-fledged authoritarians for special attention, it is. imperative to shine the spotlight on leaders who, having come to power through legitimate democratic means, have set about systematically undermining the case study, aspects of freedom that they find inconvenient. The temptation to create a quasi-authoritarian regime, in which standards that reinforce the leader’s authority are embraced and those that complicate his goals are dispensed with, can have disastrous consequences for democracies with shallow roots.
Prosecuting an opposition leader or closing a television station can be the first steps down a slippery slope, as witnessed in the careers of Vladimir Putin and Hugo Chavez, both of whom dragged seriously flawed political systems into new depths of dysfunction and stagnation. Still, while the year 2010 ended on a pessimistic note, with authoritarianism seemingly on the march, the events of 2011 have presented more hopeful prospects. Unaccountable and oppressive rulers have been put on notice that their actions will not be tolerated forever. Digital Thesis. The year of Arab uprisings has reminded the world that ordinary people want freedom even in essay score 4.5, societies where such aspirations have been written off as futile. This is digital library thesis a lesson to report which the world’s leading democracies, especially the United States, should pay special heed. It should dispel free societies’ persistent doubts about the strength and universal appeal of their institutions and values. The opportunities that have been opened up by brave people in Tunis and rguhs digital library, Cairo should prompt a reenergized democratic world to abortion address the rguhs library thesis, twin challenges of rtl essay how dictatorships can be overturned, and how stable and durable fellow democracies can be built in digital library thesis, their place.
Eliza B. Essays Life Abortion. Young and Tyler Roylance assisted in digital thesis, the preparation of this report.
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