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ben stein cbs essay There's this e-mail that makes the rounds now and essays exercises then. It's always reported as being written by Ben Stein, though actually only the first part of it is (the bit about Christmas trees). You should be able to get the basic idea of what the e-mail says because the text of the criminal justice, entire e-mail is embedded in writing essays, between my responses, but if you're interested in the original article itself and the validity thereof, you might want to read these things first: Anyway, my mother forwarded this to me (as it was forwarded to her) and she said, Love to criminal, hear your response to this. And respond I did. After writing it, I decided some of the points I made were things I wanted to writing, say on my site, so here they are. The e-mail text is in the Courier font. Enjoy! The following was written by Ben Stein and recited by him on on how an essay CBS Sunday Morning Commentary.

I am a Jew, and every single one of my ancestors was Jewish. And it does not bother me even a little bit when people call those beautiful lit up, bejeweled trees Christmas trees. I don't feel threatened. I don't feel discriminated against. That's what they are: Christmas trees. Writing! Very true. Referencing Ieee! Christmas trees are Christmas trees.

Well, considering many people decorate them because they're carrying on exercises a tradition they don't even realize was invented to celebrate Pagan traditions, this is analysis a bit ironic, but I don't have any problem with someone decorating a tree in celebration of writing Christmas if they think it helps their holiday seem merrier. Discuss Your Essay! I do have to wonder what they think a decorated tree has to do with Jesus, though. Ancient Pagans revered a tree that could stay green in writing essays exercises, winter as a symbol of the Green Man's birth and a promise of spring. If a Christian has any insight as to why they celebrate Christmas on December 25th even though the Bible makes it obvious that the birth couldn't have happened in thesis, the dead of writing essays exercises winter, I'd love to hear it. Justice! But considering it's always been common knowledge (among those who actually pay attention to the past, that is) that early Christians deliberately appropriated the time frames and celebration styles of the cultures they were trying to indoctrinate as it made conversion easier, I think I already have my answer as to writing essays exercises, what Christmas trees symbolize. Your Career Goals! . . . It doesn't bother me a bit when people say, Merry Christmas to writing, me. I don't think they are slighting me or getting ready to put me in a ghetto. In fact, I kind of discuss like it.

It shows that we are all brothers and sisters celebrating this happy time of year. It doesn't bother me at writing, all that there is a manger scene on display at a key intersection near my beach house in Malibu . If people want a creche, it's just as fine with me as is the Menorah a few hundred yards away. It doesn't really bother me to get wished a Merry Christmas, but acting as though everyone really celebrates it even if they don't believe in God is the attitude I don't appreciate. Ieee! We're NOT all brothers and sisters celebrating this happy time of writing year any more than we're all brothers and sisters celebrating this happy time of referencing thesis year when the kids get out of school and talk about summer vacation as if everyone gets to go on leave just because they are. Writing Essays! I don't know about you, but I have to work even if it's summer, so summer vacation doesn't apply to me and I wouldn't want people to assume I'm celebrating it. I don't like getting pushed around for being a Jew, and I don't think Christians like getting pushed around for being Christians.

I think people who believe in God are sick and tired of getting pushed around, period. I have no idea where the cmm operator resume, concept came from writing essays that America is an explicitly atheist country. I can't find it in the Constitution and resume I don't like it being shoved down my throat. Nobody likes getting pushed around for anything they hold dear. That's universal.

It's not just the people who believe in God. Writing Exercises! And I've got news for anyone who thinks everyone's pushing people who believe in strategic analysis, God around: More than 98% of the people in the world believe in some form of supreme spiritual being, and the remaining maybe one and a half percent are NOT bossing around the rest of writing essays you in a dictatorship. They're just not. People who believe in God are in power. Known atheists are significantly less likely to thesis ieee, get elected for public office than even homosexuals, and we all know how much the Religious Right hates THEM. If not being a theist basically means everyone thinks you don't have the moral integrity or the proper values to lead, that means you don't get to exercises, whine that you're getting pushed around for believing in oxford, God.

You should NOT be offended that your faith gets attacked when it steps in places it was never meant to step. Many people who believe in God still don't believe other people should be forced or encouraged by government or society to believe in their religions. Nobody claims America is an writing essays exercises, explicitly atheist country. In fact, many places in America are the most religious on oxford 1961 Earth--Europe is a lot more atheist than we are. Essays! The Constitution doesn't say we should not believe in God. Strategic Analysis Blockbuster Study! It just says that we should never establish an official religion or use the government's power to enforce adherance to writing essays exercises, any religious creed whatsoever. Or maybe I can put it another way: where did the idea come from that we should worship Nick and Jessica and we aren't allowed to worship God as we understand Him?

I guess that's a sign that I'm getting old, too. But there are a lot of us who are wondering where Nick and Jessica came from and where the America we knew went to. . . . Is someone saying somewhere that worship should be transferred to celebrities and now thou shalt not worship God how you want? Yes, where DID this idea come from? From this e-mail. In Jurisprudence! Because nobody is essays exercises saying that. In light of the many jokes we send to one another for essays in jurisprudence 1961, a laugh, this is a little different: This is not intended to be a joke; it's not funny, it's intended to writing essays exercises, get you thinking. Referencing Ieee! Billy Graham's daughter was interviewed on the Early Show and Jane Clayson asked her How could God let something like this happen? (regarding Katrina) Anne Graham gave an extremely profound and insightful response. Essays! She said, I believe God is referencing thesis deeply saddened by essays, this, just as we are, but for years we've been telling God to get out of our schools, to get out of our government and to get out of our lives. Resume! And being the gentleman He is, I believe He has calmly backed out. How can we expect God to give us His blessing and His protection if we demand He leave us alone? Ahh yes.

Katrina (or 9/11, or Turkish earthquakes, or fires in California) happened because of what humans did to God. Wow. Exercises! This has to cmm operator, be one of the most stunningly ignorant and ARROGANT statements I've ever heard. First off, Billy Graham's daughter is writing exercises speaking for God, and right there that's the picture of tips to write in an arrogance. Writing! She's claiming that because some people did some things that won't let her religion get its grubby little fingers into the nooks and crannies that the Constitution decrees it shouldn't, God reared back and said Fine then. Have a natural disaster and see how you like it! (But I'll make sure to aim it at essays, a place where no direct correlation can be drawn, so people like Billy Graham can claim it's because of homos or abortion being tolerated there.) I don't know if people who say this kind of thing are really just this short-sighted, but guess what? Natural disasters have ALWAYS happened. And they are just that: Natural. Forest fires and writing hurricanes and floods and earthquakes exist because they are part of how nature renews itself.

They are side effects of a planet with weather systems and a plate tectonics mechanism, and that's a fact. THEY HAPPENED LONG BEFORE HUMANS GOT HERE. Thesis! Can they seriously believe that putting the smackdown on writing essays exercises display of the Ten Commandments or something like that could CAUSE natural disasters? What's really ironic about this is that probably almost all of them have shrugged and said that's absurd! when presented with the idea that some American Indians believe in rain dances. But secondly, the oxford, bit about writing essays exercises being the gentleman He is, I believe He has calmly backed out . . Discuss Your Goals Essay! . I hardly even know how to start. Maybe I shouldn't, and should just say . Writing Exercises! . . if you think God's way as described in to write, the Judeo-Christian tradition is to calmly back out when denied or ignored because of writing essays exercises being such a gentleman, then . Blockbuster! . . you should READ A BIBLE.

Because you obviously HAVEN'T. The God of exercises Abraham is only the most jealous, obsessive, foul-tempered, bad-mannered deity in all of cmm operator Western literature. When he says don't look back and you look back, you get turned into a pillar of salt. And on a grander scale, if God gets sick of the essays, way everyone's acting, He tends to referencing, do things like, oh, flood the whole world and essays exercises drown everyone. God of the Bible is extremely intolerant, especially of anything that involves belief in and respect of criminal justice scholarships HIM. Not to mention that if He backed out, does that mean the hurricane or terrorist attack or earthquake happened by itself because His presence disappeared? Or does it mean He sent it in retaliation for our actions? (That last sounds more like Him, as per the Bible.) Regardless of exercises whether it's Him standing by and doing nothing in the wake of tips to write in an exam a disaster or whether He sent them purposely, is this gentlemanly behavior, Anne? The statement Billy Graham's daughter made was hardly profound and writing insightful.

It was just a demonstration of strategic blockbuster case study ignorance and arrogance . . . and furthermore, sadly, it is all too prevalent an attitude among those who think themselves the true followers of God's real message. In light of recent events. terrorists attack, school shootings, etc. I think it started when Madeleine Murray O'Hare (she was murdered, her body found recently) complained she didn't want prayer in our schools, and we said OK. Wait, things started going wrong recently? You found a starting point of humans-ignoring-God-related disasters? This is getting silly! Maybe this is a joke e-mail after all. School is a government-run institution. If you want to have a moment of silence for some reason, dandy. But you can't announce that it's prayer time and definitely can't dictate a correct prayer to the students because doing so is writing essays directly in opposition to the Constitution's tenets.

And yes, leading students in prayer or suggesting anything that they should be praying about in cmm operator resume, a school setting DOES indicate that this is the school's position on such things. Essays! If your family was Christian and you were taught Christianity all your life but then you just happened to tips to write an essay, be the minority in some area, I would think you would be grateful for any rule that says your children wouldn't be subjected to the majority religion in writing exercises, a place they are required by law to go every day. Then someone said you better not read the Bible in resume, school The Bible says thou shalt not kill, thou shalt not steal, and love your neighbor as yourself. And we said OK. Actually if you take certain parts of the Bible as literature they are interesting parables, and it's true that no understanding of Western literature is complete without at least a basic understanding of the Old and exercises New Testaments' contribution to the body of literature. On How An Essay In An! In fact, I read the story of writing essays Job in high school as required reading, and I didn't think there was anything wrong with that assignment. Reading the essays, Bible is not outlawed in school. Teaching it as if it should be regarded as the eternal, inerrant Word of God is another matter. And the Bible says a hell of writing a lot more than thou shalt not kill, thou shalt not steal, and love your neighbor as yourself.

The Bible does NOT have the monopoly on morality, and the Bible is not the only place you can find it. People learn everyday courtesy, morals, and important social concepts in school all the time without any help from religion, and nobody thinks it's wrong to teach don't kill, don't steal, and love your neighbor. It's just that the document that's been repeatedly posted and discuss your career removed in classrooms worldwide is a RELIGIOUS DOCTRINE. So most people who want this doctrine posted in writing, schools hop up and down screaming there's nothing wrong with the case study, Ten Commandments! Even if they came from a religious source they're still a good idea! Our children need moral guidance! But do they even KNOW what the commandments are? I think there are only four of them that are obviously good ideas in all situations, and exercises then there are two more that are probably good ideas in most situations. Then there are four that are specifically religious and outside the context of the religion they are irrelevant. Yes, it's a good idea to not murder, not steal, not lie, and oxford essays 1961 not commit adultery. And yes, it's usually a good idea to honor your father and mother (though what exactly does that mean, and what if your dad tells you you should do something that this list says thou shalt not??), and it's usually a good idea to not covet (though again what exactly that means is a little hairy--are they saying you shouldn't be jealous--a feeling you really can't help, since it's in the human nature supposedly created by this God--or are they just saying you shouldn't try to get it for your own?

That's already covered in stealing, I thought). But then, thou shalt have no other gods before me, thou shalt not make idols (or graven images), thou shalt remember the essays, Sabbath, and thou shalt not take the strategic case, lord's name in vain . . . these are RELIGIOUS. EXPLICITLY SO. They are not just good ideas. They are specific religious practices. And if a school or other government-funded institution posts these things, this is the writing, same as declaring a position, which is resume unconstitutional. It is illegal to not pay your taxes. Writing! I think it's only cmm operator resume fair that it be illegal to writing essays, use the goals, tax money to support actions that break the writing essays, same laws that say I have to thesis ieee, pay the taxes.

It's a double standard, and it's wrong and stupid. Not to mention I somehow doubt that it's because the Ten Commandments weren't on the wall of the classroom that some kids got disgusted and started a school shooting. Saying that's the case is misdirection of the worst kind. How many psychotic people have murdered others specifically in the name of exercises God? A lot. What they had in common was being psychotic.

And considering the essays in jurisprudence, Old Testament depicts one of its heroes being willing to writing, sacrifice his son to God because he heard a voice in his head saying God wanted him to kill his kid as a show of career goals faith, I don't think the essays, Bible is criminal necessarily a good document to help people figure out where their morals should lie. Essays! A modern dad who did that would totally get put away. Think he shouldn't? Maybe we should read that ol' Bible a little more to get our morals on straight. Then Dr.

Benjamin Spock said we shouldn't spank our children when they misbehave because their little personalities would be warped and we might damage their self-esteem (Dr. Spock's son committed suicide). We said an expert should know what he's talking about. And we said OK. This is kind of non sequitur. Child rearing is different for everyone and there are experts on both sides for discuss your career essay, and against spanking. Is this e-mail trying to tell me that if we teach children that all their transgressions will be answered with violence, they will grow into writing exercises, less violent people? I think it's important that there be CONSEQUENCES and that children recognize that their actions have effects.

If there is an understanding, a connection, between a mistake and its consequences, children learn. Maybe some don't learn as well if the consequence isn't physically painful. Career! I don't know, but like I said, this doesn't really have much to do with anything. (Oh yeah, and essays exercises Dr. Spock doesn't have a son who committed suicide, either. What a rotten thing to make up and spin so it looks like Spock's advice hurts children so badly that they kill themselves. Smooth. Thesis Ieee! One of his grandsons, who was schizophrenic, did commit suicide, but it'd be disgusting to assume that a mentally ill young man must have killed himself because his grandfather didn't know what he was doing when it came to child-rearing. It's horrifying that someone would take a family's personal tragedy and try to writing essays exercises, make it an advertisement for the truth of a unrelated religious agenda!) Now we're asking ourselves why our children have no conscience, why they don't know right from oxford essays in jurisprudence 1961 wrong, and why it doesn't bother them to kill strangers, their classmates, and themselves.

Except that people have been shaking their heads at the state of the world and writing exercises whining about kids today since antiquity. It is career essay no worse today than it was. It's just DIFFERENT, which makes some people think it's worse. I guarantee you, if you went back in writing exercises, time a few hundred years, say to the time of slavery, and saw that white masters were allowed to torture or kill their slaves just because they were thought sub-human due to their skin color, you would shake your head and say OH, what has happened to the state of the world? This is upside-down! How can people be so cruel? We would never act like this in my time! That's just how it was then, and it was horrible, and case study now the horrible things in our world regarding how we treat each other just happen to exercises, be different. We're not really going in a downward spiral. Cmm Operator! Some things are worse than they were, and some are better.

Believe it or not, documents like the Ten Commandments were written in the times of the writing essays exercises, early Jews thousands of years ago specifically BECAUSE morals have always been a struggle for the human species. Making a generalization that children today have no conscience and kill people and claiming it has something to criminal justice, do with a lack of God in writing essays, their lives is obscenely ignorant. During the Crusades Christian soldiers killed strangers for cmm operator resume, God plenty of times, and during the Inquisition witch-hunters tortured people in the name of what God wanted (by their understanding of writing Him--and I guarantee you, it was Bible-based). Probably, if we think about it long and hard enough, we can figure it out. I think it has a great deal to career goals essay, do with WE REAP WHAT WE SOW. Funny how simple it is for exercises, people to career goals, trash God and then wonder why the world's going to writing, hell. Funny how we believe what the your career essay, newspapers say, but question what the Bible says. Considering believing in writing exercises, God, being religious, or even attending church has NO correlation with being a good person, I'd say this is misleading. It is not God that keeps people on scholarships the straight and narrow--and it never was.

If anyone honestly thinks that declaring martial law and force-feeding everyone a Judeo-Christian, Bible-based education would make the world a better place, they are completely nuts. They tried that in exercises, seventeenth-century England. Referencing Thesis! Guess what happened? The United States of America happened. People ran away from that kind of brutality, that kind of enforced adherence to a specific moral philosophy as seen by the ruling party, and they started their own place where people would be free to think what they wanted about writing God and everything else. This society WAS founded on freedom--NOT on God. This country's founders, the people who wrote the Constitution, were Deists, and many of them weren't even Christian in the real sense of the word. Strategic Analysis Blockbuster Study! When they wrote in our founding document that there should be no officially recognized state religion, they spelled out that they meant freedom of religion--and freedom FROM it, if desired. They did NOT mean This great new country is going to be a place where people can worship Our Idea of God any way they want based on Judeo-Christian values. If you're going to moan about essays exercises where the America we used to know went to, try taking a look at what it's become compared with what it was meant to be. Our country's motto is now In God We Trust, and idiots who seek to pull the wool over scholarships, our eyes act as though it's always been that way.

Nope. It became our motto in 1956. It used to writing, be E Pluribus Unum. Exam! Out of essays exercises many, one. And that was the intention of the people who WROTE the founding documents. (In 1782, incidentally. Analysis Case Study! It has a bit more history than In God We Trust. Writing Essays Exercises! Especially since it's Latin.) We ended up with a motto that doesn't represent all of us because the your goals, people in power believe this way. How dare you claim YOU'RE the ignored, the shunned, the stepped-upon when it's your bigotry and essays small-mindedness that's causing a lot of the problems we have . . . and to write an essay in an exam now you're blaming the problems on people's failure to essays, further accept your hijacked platform! Those of us who don't believe in God the way you do--or don't believe in thesis, God at all--generally practice religious tolerance. Writing Exercises! We have to oxford essays in jurisprudence 1961, do so in order to exercises, avoid committing immoral acts like killing, lying, and stealing--we have to tolerate you because it is cmm operator your right to practice something even if it's dumb, and exercises we aren't planning on killing you, lying about you, or stealing your country to deny you that pleasure.

Unfortunately you're trying to cmm operator, do that to us, and you have always done so because those are the writing, kinds of morals you find in those Bibles of tips on how yours. Essays Exercises! You complain that we take them out of the schools and that's why people don't know what's in career, them, but DO YOU? Do you know in what situations God recommends that you kill your enemies? Do you know that God commands His followers to do so countless times in those stories? Do you even realize that that's what you're essentially doing? You're trying to bury us as if it's a sad state of essays exercises affairs that your religion isn't in referencing, charge of writing essays what people do and think. What's a sad state of affairs is when people think it needs to be.

Morals are perfectly capable of being taught and passed down outside of a religious context. Do you refrain from robbing banks simply because you know the police will probably catch you and oxford essays 1961 throw you in jail? Or do you refrain because you know that money isn't yours and it's wrong to do it? I vote for the latter. And I for one have never needed the looming figure of an angry God in my head threatening me with hellfire in order to behave like a decent human being.

I behave decently because my mother taught me to respect other people and essays exercises do things to and for them only to increase their happiness, if possible. (Or at least don't hurt them.) I never heard her say one word about how if I behaved badly I would get punished by God, nor did she tell me I should depend for my sense of what is criminal justice scholarships right and wrong on exercises a book. I have a conscience because I am human and I had good morals socially reinforced in my mind before it was fully formed by a GOOD UPBRINGING, not because I follow any particular God. Funny how you can send 'jokes' through e-mail and they spread like wildfire but when you start sending messages regarding the Lord, people think twice about sharing. Funny how lewd, crude, vulgar and obscene articles pass freely through cyberspace, but public discussion of God is suppressed in the school and workplace. Are you laughing? Funny how when you forward this message, you will not send it to many on your address list because you're not sure what they believe, or what they will think of you for sending it. I wouldn't send this to anyone on MY address list because it's a bunch of preachy, hypocritical bullshit. Funny how we can be more worried about what other people think of us than what God thinks of cmm operator resume us. Or what some arrogant son-of-a-bitch is trying to tell me God thinks of me because of my unwillingness to follow a revealed text written by men thousands of years ago.

The men who wrote the books of the Bible probably didn't know what was good for my soul any more than the writing essays, doctors of that time knew what was good for my body. Tips! Speaking for God like this just takes the cake. Pass it on essays exercises if you think it has merit. Thesis! If not then just discard it. no one will know you did. Writing Exercises! But, if you discard this thought process, don't sit back and complain about what bad shape the strategic analysis blockbuster case, world is in.

Yeah, I guess if I don't pass on this drivel, it means I lose my rights to complain. That makes a whole lot of sense. Essays! The whole thing was written with this smarmy tone as if obvious truths were being conveyed here; as if everyone who reads it would necessarily agree with the idea that rejection of the Bible (and the God described in it) is the cause of all these problems we have in the world. Justice Scholarships! Truthfully? I found it pompous, pretentious, presumptuous, and not at all profound. It's obvious the writing, author of this piece thinks this is really laid out criminal justice scholarships, clear here and that all who read it will see where the real blame lies. *I* think the writing, real blame lies in case, trying to blame everyone else for not seeing the light by your definition. The light is all of us being allowed to writing exercises, create our own, and being free to justice scholarships, live by it as long as it doesn't snuff anyone else's out. If you don't like light, just put out writing, your eyes. Don't put out the sun. Criminal Justice Scholarships! Some of us like it where it is.

My Best Regards, Honestly and respectfully, MY Best Regards, Honestly not respecting you very much right now, May the Force be with you. Any comments left here are PUBLIC. If you are not comfortable with that, mail me directly. Comments from others: Toon Review: I read this whole thing out loud. (Yet to myself, which is weird.) I honestly agree with everything that you've said. I know that sounds like a lot of butt kissing, but trust me. I'm not exaggerating. Exercises! First of all, I doubt this was written by Ben Stein, so says my gut instinct. Second, you've raised many interesting and scholarships educational points, so much so that I think this should be a big long four-part youtube video. (If it isn't already.) And, I kid you not, I had the writing essays exercises, EXACT same thought some time ago when you were talking about Abraham killing his son as a sign of faith, and how if someone were to do that today, (In the name of God,) well, I don't think very many people will believe him. I used the same ideology to wonder. Strategic Analysis Study! For instance, there are a lot of Christians I know (I'm not one of them) who say they are waiting for the Messiah to come back, for Jesus to return.

Uh huh. And if someone TODAY were to writing essays, show up and claim he was the son of God, everyone would think he's a maniac. I could say more on the matter, but I don't want to fill up too much space. Tips On How! :P. Writing Exercises! Thank you for to write in an, a very interesting read! Keep it up. And may the Force be with you as well. Bunks: That's a very well-written piece. I was impressed with some of the info you provided (most notably how religious unrest in writing essays, England led to cmm operator resume, the founding of America).

Ben Stein makes me sad. Ever since that movie came out, every time I see him, I just shake my head sadly. I used to exercises, like him a lot; he's a smart guy very funny. But this kind of cmm operator resume thing destroys all credibility. Synesthesia: Ben Stein kind of exercises annoys me.

Mainly because of his video about evolution I should see one day. It's just that creationism or intelligent design shouldn't be taught in discuss your, schools as science because it's just not real science, but theology! Anyway, the person who wrote that part about Spock's son was wrong. His son didn't commit suicide. Suicide has little to do with not getting spanked. I wish these people would realise that you can raise well adjusted kids without inflicting pain on them. That to say that when spanking was mainstream every single child in writing essays, the whole country was good, patriotic and pure is discuss your career goals just plain false. It's like they don't want to look at the whole picture but they just want to believe that the essays, 50s was such a perfect time and only recently now that there's Happy Holidays instead of Merry Christmas, and oxford essays 1961 since there's not enough paddling in schools only NOW has the country suddenly turn evil. What are these folks smoking? Joe: I'm a Catholic, so I respectfully disagree with the majority of this essay: although I disagree with Stein as well. Writing Essays Exercises! odd. I consider your points very well put together and I can definitely see where you're coming from; this is one of the best religious essays I've read.

The problem is that you don't have all the facts in some of your cases. For example: And considering the Old Testament depicts one of its heroes being willing to sacrifice his son to God because he heard a voice in discuss your career essay, his head saying God wanted him to kill his kid as a show of faith, I don't think the Bible is writing essays necessarily a good document to help people figure out where their morals should lie. A modern dad who did that would totally get put away. Analysis Blockbuster Case Study! Think he shouldn't? Maybe we should read that ol' Bible a little more to get our morals on straight. Well, here's the thing. You didn't quite finish the exercises, story. Abraham did not kill his son. The voice in his head also happened to tell him not to: that it was just, as you noted, to show his faith and commitment. I'm not trying to start a debate (unless you're interested, in strategic analysis blockbuster case study, which case I'm game), I just figured it might be worth pointing out. Bree: when watching your asexuality video, i found one about an atheist who refused to participate in prayer during sports because she felt it was disrespectfull to them.

Because of that, she was excluded and harrased by exercises, teachers and students. When interviewed, a person who lived there didnt even know what atheists beleived! (a basic understanding of word stems could have could have clued them in. On How An Essay Exam! ) Wolfgang: Great essay. Exercises! Small nitpick: when you say They tried that in tips on how in an exam, seventeenth century England. Guess what happened? The United States of exercises America Your history is just a bit off there. People who wanted to persecute based on their religions in blockbuster, England, but the Anglicans were already doing that, so they reached a compromise, because England had a lot of land in essays exercises, the New World on their hands.

The crown gave people colonies for a diverse number of reasons, but most with total religous freedom only had it incidentally. Then there was this thing called the French-Indian War, the aftermath of which the thesis ieee, Crown handled poorly, which ended up creating lots of new taxes. Like the people in current U.S. Exercises! territories, the Crown Colonies were taxed without their representation, which gave the Brittish Colonists something to unite against. A lot of the your goals essay, scholars of the day were Deists, and scholarly, charismatic men took to leading this Revolution. Realizing that the country they were planning to create was filled with bottom-of-the-barrel religions that England was quick to toss out for being too conservative (Puritans) or too liberal (Quakers), they decided that the exercises, Union as a whole shouldn't have a religion. Since their original post-Revolutionary Union, what with it's Articles of Confederacy that pretty much said Do what you want, States, but pretty please help us be a Union., didn't work out so well (see: Shays' Rebellion) they made a new Constitution in Order to create a more perfect Union. When they added the tips on how to write an essay, Bill of writing rights, the same charismatic scholars who led the Revolution decided Okay, let's build a wall of seperation between Church and on how to write in an state, because that was a popular idea at the time. And that's how America was made! Wow. for a historical nitpick, that was pretty long. Anyway, my point was that we should stop pretending stuff isn't complicated. Michael W. Gephart: It is writing not necessarily anti-Christian to call a Christmas Tree a Holiday tree.

Many people leave their tree up until after New Years. Since they use it to celebrate two holidays, it can rightfully be called a Holiday tree. Strategic Analysis Blockbuster Case! Merry Xmas, non-believers!

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Sample IELTS essay questions and topics. If you read enough IELTS books (or take the exam too often!), you’ll soon realise that there are very definite IELTS topics. There is a good reason for writing exercises this: IELTS is goals essay, a very international exam and the topics have to be suitable for all countries and all cultures. Accordingly, (nice word that) the exercises, people who set the exam tend to choose relatively everyday topics – the sort of topics all educated people should be able to speak and an essay exam, write about in their own language. So one obvious way to prepare for the exam is to practise writing and speaking about these topics. They are: While the topics are predictable enough, the actual questions are invariably extremely precise.

Again, there is also a good reason for this: the examiners do not want you to learn an essay, they want to test your English and see if you can answer a precise question, rather than produce a general answer to a general topic. Remember that in essays the exam these words are always included: Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from blockbuster case study, your knowledge or experience. This is no small point because it tells you that whatever the form of the writing, question, you need to be able to explain and essays 1961, exemplify your answer ( see coherence). How to like it, share it and save it.

Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by essays, email. 108 Responses to Sample IELTS essay questions and topics. if the goals essay, task or question is “to what extent do you argree or disagree” should i still present both sides of the writing essays exercises, argument and on to write an essay in an exam my conclusion i? will sight my opinion? or at the first part of the essay (introduction), should i give my side already? and on essays the body would be the evidences or reasons why i chose such side of the strategic study, argument? Another good question. There is no definite right or wrong answer here. But let me give you a few guidelines. One of the things the examiner is looking for is a clear point of view sustained throughout the essay.

Accordingly, it makes sense to state your point of view clearly in the introduction. Essays Exercises. This way it makes it easy for your essay the examiner to see what you are doing. Writing. The one problem with this approach is that it makes your conclusion slightly harder to write, as you have already given your answer in the introduction. That much said, you can still wait until the cmm operator, conclusion to give your own personal opinion after looking at exercises both sides of the argument. Cmm Operator. This is writing, perhaps the slightly more academic approach and strategic analysis blockbuster study, makes for writing exercises a better balanced essay normally. If you do take this approach, my advice would be to state clearly in the introduction that you are going to in jurisprudence, look at both sides of the issue first before giving your personal opinion. would there be a difference in the essay outline or format if the question is essays exercises, “do you agree or disagree” and “to what extent do you agree or disagree”? or same approach could be used? thanks so much! God bless? you! This is a good question and I apologise for not answering sooner. The short answer is that there is no major difference of tips exam, approach required. If the question was “Do you agree or disagree?” Then you can still answer in your conclusion that “There are strong arguments on essays both sides of the issue, but I tend to think that…” ie you can always agree to criminal justice scholarships, some extent.

Likewise, if the question is writing exercises, “To what extent…” then you can still fully agree or fully disagree. Are there any sample question papers of writing? What about a discussion? Is the another format to write it or it can also be considered as a for tips on how to write in an exam and against essay? “To What Extent” should be answered by exercises, choosing arguments to support one of in jurisprudence 1961, 3 major stances: to a great extent, to a certain extent / to writing exercises, some extent, or to a lesser extent. The question is asking for a measurement. I have been experienced some issues about how to understand the your career essay, “main” question whenever I come accross “to what extent do you agree or disagree?” For example: “Creative artists should always be given the freedom to express their own ideas (in words, pictures, music or film) in whichever way they wish. There should be no government restrictions on essays exercises what they do.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?(Cambridge IELTS 4)” Is it OK if I say that the main question is ” Does government restrict freedom of discuss goals essay, speech?” As you said before, what’s the use of writting a good essay if you are not answering the question, but, how are we going to be sure that we have understood the “hidden” argument? Thanks in advance! A really good question. Writing Exercises. One possible problem is that the question comes in 2 parts. This is really quite common in IELTS. If you do get a question like this, you need to make certain that you answer both parts of the question. in strategic blockbuster your example. That is writing exercises, not really the scholarships, case as the “they” in exercises “There should be no government restrictions on what they do” clearly links to the creative artists in the first sentence. So your reformulation does not work as it does not relate to “creative artists”.

In practical terms, my best suggestion is to underline key words in the question to make sure that you do not miss them out. one thing that why ielts exam performance sheet is not provided to candidate after result . Thesis Ieee. beacuse if a candidate is not scoring the bands more than 5 or 5.5 then after knowing mistakes a person will able to correct it in next exam. How do we respond an essay that asks for essays exercises our opinion ? Do we simply give our views all the way through? No one answer to this. All I would say is that you should make sure that any opinions are backed up with reasons/examples.

If you do this, your essay will not just be all opinion even if every paragraph contains opinion. Can I please ask you two questions? Many people told me that I am not suppose to use ” I ” , “we” and justice scholarships, ” you ” things like that in my writting. But I noticed you actually use them quite often. does that mean I could use these words in essays exercises my writting? Also, how to overcome umfamiliar topics? I feel one of the most frustrate thing is to think out ideas. I never can produce an essay in a limited time. I guess the oxford 1961, problem for me is writing essays exercises, I do not have opinions at all. do you have any good suggestion about this? PS : I am going to have my IELTS exam this 29th, urgently need your advice! ;-))) There are no hard and fast rules here. Criminal Scholarships. But it would certainly be a mistake to essays exercises, overuse personal pronouns in your writing.

However, given that that the essay task is frequently an tips an essay opinion based task and essays, asks you for to cmm operator resume, use your own experience, it would be strange if you avoided the “I” altogether. IELTS is not academic writing – it is its own genre, The best advice is to answer the question. plz suggest me some tips my exam is on 18 may ,2016 And i am very confused bcos i am going to give this test first time. Dear Dominic Cole, in this forum, Could I ask you an assessment of essays exercises, my essay relate to cmm operator, IELTS writing assessment ? Sorry, not for now. I may start a grading service soon but sadly my time is exercises, too short. Hi What about if you are not familiar with asked essay topic. Can you answer the question with general writing? You should do your best to answer the question as asked.

You may get severely penalised if you write too generally and referencing ieee, don’t answer the question. The idea is that the essays exercises, questions are designed for anyone to answer and if you can’t you have a language problem. That sounds a little harsh, no? The trick is to use examples from your experience and that way you should find enough to write. I do recognise the cmm operator, problem though and writing essays, I am planning a series of postings giving ideas and language to discuss your career, deal with the most common topic areas. Thanks for the post, keep posting stuff. I was taking IELTS classes from a tutor. When she marked my Essay , because I gave example from my own experience she said I am subjective.She thinks in writing essays Academic Writing one should write on general ie effects on society. However, I argue and told her that question stated that you can give example from your own experience.Do you think if I give my own experience the examiner will mark me down? Absolutely not.

I hate to contradict other teachers – a very bad habit – but in this case I will. The rubric to the essay question almost always contains these words: “include any relevant examples from your own knowledge and criminal, experience” This means that you actually ought to include examples from your own knowledge/experience. From this point of view, academic IELTS is not exactly the essays exercises, same as general academic writing where you typically don’t do this so much. The question remains though how you do it. Strategic Analysis. I would suggest that you don’t want to use the first person “I” too much and that maybe is what your tutor is writing essays, worried about. This is an extremely good point that you have raised and I will post a lesson on this in the next couple of days. It’s very true that it doesn’t matter if your writing is subjective or not.

The way you express your ideas and construct your writing matter. IELTS is cmm operator resume, designed for the purpose of testing English capability so it shouldn’t take into account the writing essays exercises, level of your education. Feel free to express your ideas but on top of everything, keep it academic! Sir, i have been teaching ielts for about four years with excellent results. Tips To Write An Essay In An Exam. The latest rubrics for wrtiing task 2 state that the essay has to be based on knowledge OR experience and writing essays exercises, NOT on both. Please maintain contact with me for further details. Thank you for the correction on the exact wording. I do take issue with your interpretation of it though.

It is cmm operator resume, entirely possible for candidates to use one example based on their knowledge and writing essays, another based on strategic analysis case study their experience: this satisfies both the writing essays exercises, rubric and the grading criteria. Candidates can choose between the two options and are not restricted to one or the other: if that were the scholarships, case, the rubric would read “either knowledge or experience”. What has not happened is exercises, that the new rubric has invented a new dichotomy between “knowledge-based” and strategic analysis case study, “experience-based” essays. Incidentally, the rubric was changed to put the emphasis on the task itself and to delete “complicated” language such as “written argument”. The idea is supposed to simple and the key to understanding the new rubric is that it explicitly asks candidates to be “relevant” in writing exercises their examples and that these support the main points. Strategic Blockbuster Study. Read this report by the chief IELTS examiner in writing essays Australia: http://www.englishaustralia.com.au/index.cgi?E=hcatfuncs#038;PT=sl#038;X=getdoc#038;Lev1=pub_c06_07#038;Lev2=c05_hogan. i am from Iran (just wanted you to know that people from my country visit your website, too).

I’ve been searching the net for ages to find a website that can help me with my ielts essay questions and i now i can say yours is one of the bestests #128521; i have some questions. will you help me with them please? 1. in criminal your “The three different types of IELTS essay question” you have clearly mentioned in which type of essays, essay we should give our own opinion. can you see this page please: http://hubpages.com/hub/How-to-identify-the-type-of-essay-to-write-in-the-IELTS. i am confused a little. in tips to write in an exam which type should i reflect my opinion? and more importantly in writing essays exercises which paragraph? 2. under which type does advantage/disadvantage, cause and effect/ problem/solution essays fall? discussion or argument? you seem to insist that all of them are argument type, but hubpages.com seems to differ. 3. what is in an, explanatory essay?

Except theses common essay topics that you’ve mentioned, are there any more to add to essays, this list?in Iran it seems the recent ielts test have been exposing the examinees to some different topics (speaking:what qualities should a leader have?does your political one have?, etc) thanks an resume ocean for essays spending time for us. hlo dominic i do not get the ideas while writing an essays essay,what would you like to suggest to do thats why my essay is always too short and to make it bigger i repeat some lines in diffent way. Typically, I advise my students to think of essays exercises, examples and reasons. It is very easy to get stuck when you are looking for ideas. Ask yourself the questions “Why is that true?”or “how can I explain that?” if a question says ‘agree’ or ‘disagree’,then what should i write in th body paragraphs. whether i have to cmm operator resume, stick to agree only exercises through out the whole essay or also have to write something about why i diasgree please answer me correctly. hello mister Cole. In the tips on how to write in an, ielts academic exam ( writing ) , I heard that there will only be an argumentative essay. is essays exercises, that true ? and if not what else ? Ah. It depends what you mean by strategic blockbuster case study, argumentative.

The problem is writing exercises, different teachers use different words to describe types of essay. I am guilty of this too. To try and answer your question, there are different types of essay you need to be able to write. These include: discussing both sides of an issue. commenting on a proposal to solve a problem. looking at two different options and deciding which is better.

giving solutions to a problem. I could go on. Tips To Write An Essay In An Exam. You should understand that you need to be able to answer different types of questions. The secret as ever is to read the writing essays, question and think hard about on how an essay in an exam, it before writing. Think about what it is asking you to writing exercises, do.

The mistake is to learn one model essay and try and write the cmm operator, same essay all the writing, time. Very helpful post for IELTS Students. (I am writing here since I could not find an email to tips an essay in an exam, write to) first of all I want to compliment you for your website. It is a very usefull resource for writing essays the preparation of the IELTS Test, the information are presented in a clear and nice way. They are structured very well and the user does not end up being overwhelmed by the amount of information.

This is a very important point -at least to me-, because reading your site had the discuss your career essay, result of calming me me and improve my self confidence for the exam. This is writing essays, often not the case on the internet, where you mostly hand up panicking, which is higly counter-productive. Nevertheless I am writing you because I would like to present to you my essay for the writing academic task 2. I would really like to cmm operator, have a feedback from exercises, you, because unfortunately I can’t find no one to cmm operator, correct me one and I would like to have an opinion before I take the exam (which is in 7 days: unfortunately I have found your website late #128577; ). I am not asking you to correct every mistake, just to read it once and give me your impression and maybe the main points that I have to essays exercises, be careful about in the test (the first being word number: by rewriting to the computer I have just seen a lot of mistakes that I could have corrected if I had the time, thing which I haven’t). Oxford. If it possible can you say to me around band score I am? Or, is this essay enough good for a minimum band score of 5.5? I am really looking forward to read an answer from you and I thank you in advance for writing essays exercises your courtesy.

Write about the following topic: In many countries schools have severe problems with student behaviour. What do you think ar the causes of this? What solutions can you suggest? One of the your career goals essay, most important problem in essays the schools is the student behaviour. In fact it is known that in many countries episodes of vandalism, disrespect or bullism are frequent in the schools.

This issue should be handled particularly carefully, because we have not to forget that the school has to discuss essay, prepare the students to become responsible adult. It is therefore very important to individuate the causes and the possible solutions to essays, be applied, in resume order for exercises the school to fullfill its educational role in the best way. We should take into account the basic fact that no one has a bad behaviour only for the reason to be “bad”. Often those behaviours are the expressions of other, hidden problems. On How To Write In An Exam. One of the main cause could be the stress that the writing, students frequently have to face in the school. Exams, homeworks, presentations for many subjects put an incredible pressure over the students, that sometimes will be incapable of handling the stress. Bad behaviour thus manifests itself has a rebellion against the stress, a hidden “stop it” shout. Nevertheless it is my opinion that the main source of bad behaviour of students is to be found outside the school, namely in the private life of the students. Tips On How To Write An Essay. With both my parents being teachers, I know with certainity that an instable family environment is very often the cause of arrogant and writing essays exercises, generally bad behaviour. Where the career goals essay, kids are left alone or treated bad by their family members, they can end up manifesting their anger at the school, during the lessons or in the corridors. Those problems suggest their solutions.

The amount of stress to essays, which the discuss your career essay, students are underponed should be carefull analyzed by the teachers and accurately be revised and adjusted. The task is of course not easy, because a certain amount of stress is inevitable, is the quality of the school has to be preserved. Regarding family problems, it is writing essays exercises, my firm convinction that child that were raised (or still are) in instable family environment should be followed carefully by expers, such as psyhcologists and pedagogists, and sustained by teachers, in order to allow them to retrieve their happiness and bring their life back on the tracks. Summarizing, students can answer to exagerate stress acting bad: thus the solution is to carefully control and strategic blockbuster case study, adjust the pressures on the students. A more important cause of problematic behaviour is the family where student lives, that can already be a source of writing essays, problems and instability. Students should be therefore sustained by expers in their personal issues. (you can answer me via email if you want) Sorry for the delay. Had a quick look and 1961, it looks an extremely good essay. My one concern is length. sometimes shorter can be better. Sorry but I simply don’y have the time to essays exercises, look at individual essays.

This is a very good job. It was clearly given how to resume, approach a task since you already have given the clue how to practice a certain topic, and so, through this, many IELTS writing examinees will have the idea now on writing essays exercises how to write and speak appropriately. TheIELTSSolution.com. it is my first acknowlegment of this wonderful site. Please, i have started to practice writing essay and I need a professional tutor to assess my writing. I would like to know if I can send my essays to be assessed. hey can any one (specially Dominic Cole) tell some essay topics that might be asked in referencing thesis ieee September 2011 (24th Sep.). please reply fast i need some important topics . Sorry, I have no way of telling – there’s a pretty large stock of essays exercises, questions.

My general advice is to revise vocabulary for the key topic areas before the exam (you can find these on the essay question page) and then to make sure you read the exact question in the exam as closely as possible. I know that this is really boring advice – but be very careful about looking at “recent essay questions”. For me, their only criminal real value is to tell you the types of topic you will need to write about and what sort of vocab you need. Very frequently, the task part of the question – the bit that tells you what you need to do – is writing exercises, wrongly reported. Thank you very much for essays your helpful hints and appreciable and writing, dedicated efforts.As a candidate who took nearly 10 exams, I confess that I owe too much to criminal, you. This is a very simple way to say thank you. Pleasure.

I hope it’s worked out for you now. 10 tests is a lot – painful. Hi Dominic, very good exam website thankyou. Please, how much is band reduce for short answer? Happy world rabies day!

It rather depends how short the answer is. My understanding/recollection is that you cannot get above 5.0 for task response unless you use 250 words. Your blog seems really good since you give sample IELTS essay questions and topics that would somehow helpful to those IELTS writing examinees. This would serve as a guideline for them because it discusses and shows the exam process of IELTS writing through giving sample question formats, topics and essays exercises, tips. Through this, they can practice more in writing their essays and would develop their skills more on writing.

TheIELTSSolution.com. dear Dominic Cole, can you please suggest me i started my writing task 1 and task 2 at appropriate place but.in task 2 i need another page the tips to write exam, invigilator give me page and stick behind task 2..but unfortunately i continue my task 2 on writing exercises the first page (task 1)..if they will penalised me..p;ease answer me because i m in dilemma i write both task very well. when i came home then one of my friend told me that you have to write on 3rd page becz it’s task 2..no one give announcement for that..will it affect my score?? please answer as soon as possible.. I’m afraid I don’t have the answer to that one. I suspect that it wouldn’t make any difference. The examiner is likely to have worked out what you did.

sir, i humbly wish to draw your kind attention to the fact the according to the latest rubrics, ielts essays have to be based on discuss career essay knowledge or experience NOT knowledge AND experience .i have been teaching ielts for around four years and ask my students to scrupulously keep this fact in mind.Please answer. Are you seriously suggesting that candidates would be penalised for using both knowledge and experience?! As someone who holds a masters in writing essays philosophy, I would be delighted if you could enlighten me as to exact distinction between them. I feel perfectly certain that 100% of essays 1961, IELTS examiners would be unable to split that particular epistemological hair. I believe you will find that “or” enables candidates to do both. If I offer you “coffee or tea”, I would not be offended if you decided to have both. The purpose of rephrasing the rubrics was to make them more accessible – if you read the source papers.

The purpose was not to introduce a new challenge to candidates. sir, i personally think that words i , we , you should be eschewed from task one along with copying the introduction from the statement of question (from task 2 as well) and sole emphasis should be laid on grouping the subject matter and writing exercises, comparisons . This is what i ask my students to do . Eschewed! a long time since I saw that word used in earnest. Thesis. I see your point about “you” and exercises, “I” in task 1, but cannot agree with you about cmm operator, “we”. I agree with you about exercises, copying wording from the question. The (difficult) skill is to rephrase the question without repeating it so that you have a valid introduction. I have given the IELTS recently and scored overall band 8 but the problem I faced was in my writing section I got only cmm operator resume 6.5 and I need a score of writing exercises, minimum to get into the university I desire for. CAN YOU PLEASE HELP ME.. Your blog is very helpful. Discuss Your Goals. With these guidelines, Ielts exam takers can have a better understanding and therefore feel more confident in their exams.

pls can anybody suggest me reading techniques ?? specially for headings n yes/no/not given i cnt get more thn 6. You will find my own suggestions on the reading page. The key is to understand the difference between No and Not Given. help me #128578; write for and against writing exercises argumentative essay Taking exams : for strategic analysis blockbuster case study and against. I’ll see what I can do for writing exercises you. It’s the sort of justice scholarships, topic you need to be able to write and essays, speak about. I’ll try and post something next week. Thanks but I need it for Monday. #128578; good job, Dominic. which kind of cmm operator resume, English should i register for, general or academic? my intention is to apply for a job as a nurse.

I’ve seen somewhere, they were saying there are some professions which requires academic English, i am afraid nursing might fall under that category but I’ve already registered for essays exercises general English. If you are headed for thesis ieee the UK, it will be academic IELTS you need. I’m not sure about Australia, but I imagine that there too the writing essays, IELTS requirement would be academic. When did you apply? Normally, you can get a refund of your fee if you cancel 5 weeks before. Contact your local test centre. It may be that they might also take pity on you and allow you to transfer to academic. This is the criminal, first time i visited this site. In Australia, you need a minimum of 7.0 in every exam including the OBS. And the requirement there is Academic.

I have a very big problem with preparing for IELTS( Academic). I took IELTS for 3 times and my overal band score was 6.0 in writing essays exercises all of oxford in jurisprudence 1961, them. My first time I scored 6.0 in exercises every module. The second and the third I had 5.5 in essays in jurisprudence 1961 Listening, 6 in Reading and essays, Writing and discuss your goals essay, 6.5 in Speaking. I really don’t know from writing exercises, where to start with studying,

I have many books for analysis blockbuster case study IELTS, but I don’t know which one is the best. Please suggest me only 4 four books (one for every part of the exam) which are the best according to you. I desperately need 7.0 in every part of the writing exercises, test. Appreciation for this infmortiaon is over 9000-thank you! Can i use pencil to attempt IELTS writing test?please anyone must reply me. I want to find out whether it is appropriate to write less that three words where it is tips on how to write, stated that one should use no more than three words. Also, I would like to inquire maybe it is important to interpret a graph, line, table or chart by beginning from any point. Front, Middle or Back. I shall be looking forward to receiving your reply.

Thanking you in advance. No more than 3 words means 1, 2 or 3 words. you helped me a lot. I have studying on your website recently. I found it great and a resourceful webpage. I have taken the essays, IELTS at least 7 times now, and on how to write in an exam, I have not achieved my required results yet. I need a band score of 8 in essays exercises each module.

My next exam is on the 31.03.12, any more advice Sir?In my last 2 exam, I got 6.5 in Writing. Your website is of great help for those who want to take IELTS #128521; I just want to ask you this question: Other cultures highly value old people, while others value young people. Discuss both opposing views and give your opinion. I wanted to ask you a question about the IELTs and in partictular about paragraphs.

When I did my ielts test, I finished the writing task 2, and left one line empty between each paragraph. However, when I wrote the conclusion, I left 4-5 empty lines and referencing thesis ieee, then started the conclusion. I did this because I was sort of running out of time, and didnt know if I wanted to writing, add anything else in the last paragraph( the one before conclusion. so it looked a bit like this. Do you thing this will affect the mark I get? No, I very much doubt it- examiners are intelligent people. I am really grateful to you as I only prepared for my IELTS examination from this website and I got band 8 in strategic analysis all modules except writing where I got 7.5. You are awesome. In simply words . No you shoulndot give your side immediately give yours conclusion step by step.

Firstly explain both sides and writing essays exercises, then which you like most give him side . Agree or disagree is most important part choose 1 thing . Yes you should choose a type of argument the main factor. i m so confused which book to choose for preparing ielts so plz woud u like to suggest me which book to study. After I initially commented I clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now each time a comment is added I get 4 emails with the cmm operator, same comment. Is there any means you possibly can remove me from that service? Thanks!

Sorry there is writing essays exercises, nothing I can do about that as I do not have details of that service. I can only suggest that you move the referencing thesis ieee, post to spam!! Congrats on writing essays exercises your blog. One question thou, some literature state there are 4 different types of essays instead of the strategic blockbuster case study, 3 types you mention in your blog, these are: Do you agree with this? if so, when we have a “to what extent do you agree or disagree” type of question, which kind of essays, essay will that be from the 4 types mentioned above?x. Hmmmm. I do need to go back to that post. The division you maker does make sense. In truth though I increasingly wonder how helpful it is to categorise different essay types rather than just looking at the particular question in front of you and answering the question as it is asked. I say this because I feel some candidates get trapped by trying to justice scholarships, follow a particular formula.

I will put this on my to exercises, do list. Thank you for blockbuster your comment. firstly thanks for essays the effort you have made for us.anyway i am having problem in differentiating between agree/disgree and to what extent do you agree/disagree..i have seen essays written both by blockbuster case, discussing both topic in 4 paragrpah model and also taking only essays one position.does the topic content make difference on choosing the cmm operator resume, format of such essay? Good question. You will find advice that gives you quite strict guidelines on how to essays, answer different question types -setting out cmm operator, formulae/formulas for each type of question. I am never really convinced by that approach, I much prefer the approach of looking at each question on its own merits and focussing on answering the question as it is asked. I realise that that may not seem particularly helpful, so here is my general advice. The introduction and conclusion are the writing essays, areas where you need to focus on addressing the question and giving your clear answer to it.

So in those paragraphs you need to outline your your position in relation to the question and give your answer. Criminal Justice Scholarships. Even if the question is “do you agree?”, it is open to exercises, you to criminal justice, say I agree but only exercises up to a point. Oxford In Jurisprudence. The content paragraphs are where you introduce the reasons for your point of view. Writing Exercises. Typically, the academic thing to do is to look at essays in jurisprudence both sides of the writing, issue – even if you have a strong opinion for one point of view. This can work with almost IELTS agree/disagree type questions.

Certainly, with my own students, I encourage them to look at analysis blockbuster study both sides of the issue, as for them IELTS is simply a passport to writing, academic courses at university and analysis case study, I want them to learn the skills of academic writing.That said, it is open to you to exercises, take just one position and argue that – on condition that you outline this is your introduction and the question does not ask you to look at essays in jurisprudence 1961 both sides of the question. Hi Dominic Cole i introduced of your blog before few days of my IELTS exam; i also took suggestion as far as possible. i participated on IELTS exam 1st September 2012 but unfortunately my writing task was out of my general knowledge of the topics. I frustrated what i should write? my topic was quoted you. It was. ” It is a natural process of animal species to become extinct (e.g dinosaurs, dodos etc). There is no reason why people should try to happening this. Do you agree or disagree?” in this case how i prepare myself to get excellent score? any suggestion? please. Hi Dominic cole, I have given Ilets exam in General three times and exercises, every time i got 6.5 in writing but i need 7 each.How can i practice writing at ieee home and know where is the writing, mistake in criminal scholarships my writing to improve.Please give some tips. Thank you.

i m having my exam on 22nd sept i m not able to pass i m giving 2nd time plzz give some suggestion what should i do i m not having that much time to prepare plzzz try to essays, give suggestion abt ielts. you done very well. Strategic Analysis Case. your blog guide me to significant progress… thanks a lot… Hi there to writing essays exercises, every single one, it’s in fact a pleasant for blockbuster study me to go to writing exercises, see this website, it includes precious Information. Awesome blog! Do you have any suggestions for aspiring writers? I’m planning to start my own blog soon but I’m a little lost on. everything.

Would you suggest starting with. a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many options out there that I’m completely confused .. Any recommendations? Cheers! Practiced essay need to tips in an, get it reviewed, How can i do that. I suggest you contact one of the tutors on the site. As an ESOL teacher , this is writing essays exercises, a well thought out, clearly presented and, importantly, helpful website.

I have found it extremely useful for discuss your career goals my own and my students’ use. Hy, I dont have much to ask for right now. Exercises. Just wanted to strategic analysis, clarify a query for writing test. Do we get choice to essays, select the criminal, essay types as in, for exercises instance choose 2 from justice, given 3 topics…kind of. I hope you get what I mean in this context. Please excuse my lame language. Hello, I was just wondering is there any difference in essays exercises scoring of academic and general writing ? I felt, the vocab section in discuss essay academic test , requires more academic words.If not, candidates will not score a 7 or 8 in writing essays it (. ). And what about ‘ agree or disagree / positive or negative types questions? Is it necessary to stick with one side in the opinion paragraph? ie; 2 positive points and 1 negative point. Can I still conclude it as ‘positive’ ? Logically, it doesn’t make sense as the negative side would nullify one of the positive effects, wouldn’t it? Could we go like ‘ it may be positive’ in this case ( if the blockbuster case study, question is exercises, ‘ is this positive or negative’)?

Why many students are not getting 9 in scholarships task response? Is it mainly because of the lack of relevant example ? If you could be any of writing essays exercises, my assistance, I’d really grateful. I have had a question for referencing thesis writing task 2. When I went to essays exercises, school to prepare for IELTS, they said I should not use “I, you” when I write task 2. I could use “It is said/ believed/ stated that…”. Generally, they said I should not use 1st 2nd like “I, U”, should use negative voice. What do you think about cmm operator resume, this opinion? Good question. My own preference is to writing, avoid the your career, “I”, but that does not mean you can never use it. There are times when you want to make it clear that this is your opinion and then personal language is more appropriate. It may be more stylist though to use “In my view” rather than “I think” what will happen if i write agree/disagree while question ask for both view.

Thank you for the great ideas. I have to focus on some time I choose to adopt to write a article. It is very important that you keep to the topic. Don’t stray onto something else! Hey DC .. Writing Essays. I need essay writing templates that include some general words, necessary for any kind of essay.. Please help me. dear dominic i m writing from india my exam on 6 september 2014 …..pls help me in writing topics….for ex…….SMOKING SHOULD BE BANNED ON PUBLIC PLACES……TO WHAT EXTENT DO U AGREE OR DISAGREE……..can i discribe in introduction that smoking should banned …then in first body paragraph problems by smoking in public places then in to write an essay exam second paragraph effects of writing essays exercises, smoking in public places …..then in conclusion about goverment should take hard step to stop this………….also tell me in agree disagree we must have to dicusss both …….answer soon..

I find your website really helpful. but i have faced a problem regarding your section of letter writing for general ielts. I need to prepare for strategic blockbuster general ielts but as soon as i click on the section, error occurs. So please fix the problem. Regards. Can you point me to the exact link that doesn’t work. It all seems fine to me. Many of the links for the topics are broken. How many people have visited your website? Of them, what is the % from China? DCielts provides useful information in helping Chinese students who are planning to writing essays exercises, sit Ielts or Toefl.

Thanks. I found your website very useful for me. Thanks to your sample essays, I was able to get 8 for writing. Thank you very much sir. Actually I m very confuse about writing task 2 ( Essay Writing ).Is it possible that Same Essay topic will come again next IELTS exam?Which topic I refere maximum for exam?Can you please guide me sir? thank’s dominic you helped me a lot. Sir my IELTS test will be on next week: and i need at criminal least 6 bands in writing:

Some people claim that not enough of the waste from homes is recycled. They say that the only way to increase recycling is for exercises governments to make it a legal requirement. Mostly the recycled product is come from the home wastage’s, but nowadays concerned department are claiming that waste material from home is blockbuster, not properly enough as it should be. Some people of the society believe that it is the writing essays exercises, negligence of people that waste material are not receiving enough by the concerned organization from the society, therefore, they believe that a legislation should be passed for making it a legal requirement. Tips On How. As far as my opinion is concerned there should be a law for recycling, but, it is also the responsibility of the society and media as well. Organizations for recycling are doing their job in a proper manner. They collected every garbage from the street even from the gutters as well. In contrast, residents of the society are not participating with the recycling workforce; moreover, it happens due to lack of awareness in people for the importance of recycling garbage.

Secondly, there is the negligence factor as well in the society in participating with recycling department. For instance, people throw their house waste material into writing exercises their dustbins without separating the recycled material from the un-recycled material. Even a recently conducted survey revealed the oxford 1961, fact that the 50% materials which can be recycled are wasted because they are not separated from the non-recyclable material by the residents of the exercises, society. Secondly, citizens of the society are not giving enough importance in the recycling of wastage, therefore, government should pass the tips to write an essay in an, legislation that garbage should be separated as recycled and non-recycled wastage, moreover, people should pack that recyclable product and writing exercises, put them in a separate box instead of throwing in the dustbin. In addition, government should also penalize those people who are not obeying the law. Therefore, these acts restrict the citizens to follow the law and help the recycling department to get as much garbage as the organizations wanted to recycle. After viewing above all discussion, it would lead me to conclude on the note that people should feel the importance material and legislation should be passed for waste material.

These kind of acts would be enough to enhance the proportion of waste material. […] Sample essay questions and sample essays […]

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101 Writing Prompts and Ideas: Fiction Non-Fiction. Christin has been successfully self-employed for over 17 years. Her passion is helping others hone their skills and find good opportunities. Writing Prompts for Creative and Non-fiction Writers. Exercises! When is the last time you challenged yourself to write outside of your comfort zone? I love to write and have found an appreciation for the benefits that come from challenging myself to engage in different writing styles. Writing is cathartic in many ways, from personal journals, to just having a place to allow your mind to explore.The best writers are well-rounded and always open to exploring new ideas and analysis case writing techniques.

Writers thrive when they challenge themselves to do something different.For those of us who primarily write non-fiction or informational articles, we should challenge ourselves to also write fiction or poetry. It helps develop creative thinking and makes our informational writing more colorful and engaging. Essays Exercises! Informational writing is better when it grabs readers by invoking feeling. When is the last time an encyclopedia really got your blood pumping? When readers value what we write; they come back for more. Creative writing gives that edge to standard, informational writing. On How In An Exam! On the other hand, those who primarily do creative writing also benefit by writing essays writing that is more structured. Criminal Justice! For creatives, structure allows ideas to flow more cohesively and helps develop story lines that flow nicely and are easy to follow and essays exercises understand. I know I quickly get frustrated with stories that “jump around” or are carelessly worded and arranged. I appreciate the study effort it takes for writing essays exercises a writer to really make their prose flow well.

Both writing styles work to enhance each other and we should avoid being only “one type of to write in an exam writer”. Empower yourself to be the strongest writer possible by exploring many different styles. Below are 101 random writing prompts or ideas. Some are creative and others are for non-fiction work. The idea is to writing essays pick one that seems challenging and just start writing. Cmm Operator Resume! Free writing is a great way to get your ideas out on paper. Go back to writing exercises it later and strategic blockbuster study develop the good parts into other works. Who knows?

Maybe there will be some good hub ideas born here! You may also find that you learn some things about yourself in the process and that’s always wonderful too! I really believe that writing has the power to writing change our lives. 1) If I were a superhero my special power would be…… 2) If I were an cmm operator resume, animal I would choose to be a ……., because……….. 3) Describe a random inanimate object near to you right now – without saying what it is.Paint a word picture that makes people understand what you are writing about. 4) Pick an essays exercises, inanimate object and tell a story through its eyes as though it were a living being. 5) What 3 words best describe you and why.

6) If you could interview one person, alive or dead, who would it be and what 3 questions would you ask them? What do you think their answers would be? 7) What have you always wanted to your goals essay try that you have never done? 8) Name the top five best vacation spots according to your experience and “sell” people on the idea. 9) Who do you think you are? 10) How to essays exercises win at ___________. Strategic Analysis Blockbuster Case! (pick a game you are good at) 11) The best free activities to enjoy in your area. 12) You are a talk show host – how do you run your show and what is it about? 13) The best way to deal with a difficult relative. 14) Is honesty always the best policy? Why or why not?

15) A day in the life of your cat/dog through his/her eyes. Exercises! 16) What is the cmm operator resume best season of the exercises year and why? 17) How do you save money on criminal justice scholarships groceries? 18) What is your favorite color and how does it make you feel? 19) Coffee or Tea?

20) How do you handle a cold? 21) Describe yourself as your favorite mythical creature (unicorn, fairy, dragon etc.) 22) Today is your last day on Earth – what do you do with it? 23) What is your extended definition of essays exercises maturity? 24) Create an extended definition for the first word that pops into your head. 25) What do you hate about writing?

26) This morning I sat up quickly and looked out the window and there it was, a ………. 27) Suddenly it moved, startling her and she……….. Discuss Career Goals! 28) What does it mean to writing essays exercises be a Man/Woman? (Define both if you really want a challenge ;) ) 29) The craziest thing I ever believed was….. 30) Top 10 ways to spend a lazy day. 31) Top 10 favorite (movies/songs/whatever) and why. 32) The best thing that ever happened to on how exam me was…. 33) The most wonderful thing about today so far is exercises, …….. 34) Persuade – Is texting a good thing? Why or why not.

35) Persuade – any subject you are passionate about that is not religion or politics – think outside the resume box. 36) Persuade – why do you deserve a raise? 37) The best way to prepare oatmeal. 38) Tips for making awesome cookies or whatever dessert comes to mind. 39) Is all soda bad for you – why or why not? (use sources to writing essays back your claim) 40) What is the criminal best way to eat healthy? 41) Combine the follow 3 things into a work of writing: a coffee cup, fear of exercises snakes, and a sunny day. Career Goals Essay! 42) Your character suspects his/her spouse is writing essays, lying to them or worse, cheating. When they investigate they discover a big surprise and it’s … 43) You walk out of your front door and discover there are no people around – everything is quiet and eerily not right… what happened? 44) Your character thinks the boss is about to fire him so he …. 45) Pick one of criminal justice your greatest strengths and writing develop a character of the opposite strategic analysis blockbuster case gender who also has that strength. 46) Develop the writing exercises scene of a great ghost story. 47) Picture an tips on how an essay, ideal land/place in your mind and then describe it in vivid detail.

48) Hey, what’s that up there in writing essays, the sky? 49) Holy cow! I can’t believe they did that! (What did they do?) 50) Pick your favorite meal and describe in detail how you prepare it. In Jurisprudence 1961! Do you struggle with keeping your thoughts, ideas, notes and writing essays plans organized? If so, you should consider investing in referencing thesis ieee, Scrivener. This software has a virtual cork board with note cards that allows you to visually move things around. It also has an outliner feature where you can organize ideas using as many levels as you want with drag and drop capability. Essays! It also has a targeting and statistics feature that shows a continuous live word/character count on the screen. You can even set goals for word count so if you are NaNoWriMo participant it comes in very handy.

This is an tips on how to write an essay in an, amazing organization tool and writing essays exercises worth every cent for all the features you get. Getting organized can help you overcome the writer's block and procrastination that comes from being overwhelmed by too much clutter in your workspace, writing, and brain :). 51) Would a monkey make a good pet? 52) What would life be like if you were only one foot tall? 53) What would life be like if you were 10 feet tall? 54) What foreign country would you most like to visit and to write in an exam why? 55) If there was a planet of essays alien life forms what do you suppose they would be like?

56) How do you take a great picture? 57) If you could do anything you wanted to right now, with no limitations, what would it be? 58) You’re driving down the road when suddenly…. 59) It was a lovely day to go for a walk so she took a different route and what she discovered was… 60) Describe what it’s like to sit by the ocean. To Write In An! 61) What are the benefits of spending time alone?

Do you do it often enough or too much? 62) Which of your relatives do you like the least and writing exercises why? 63) What is your greatest accomplishment? 64) What do you want to justice be remembered for? 65) Write your own eulogy (tough one!) 66) What historic figure do you admire the most? 67) Which historic person do you feel you are most like and why? 68) The biggest lie I ever told was…. 69) How do you write a great short story? 70) What steps do you take as a writer to really polish your writing. 71) What are your best writing tips. 72) Pick a hobby and describe how to do it in 10 simple steps.

73) Who is the most interesting person you have met? 74) The most unusual thing happened to me today …. 75) She opened up the door and …… 76) When I was a child my favorite thing to do was … 77) How do you grow a _______ plant? (Pick one – whatever you like to grow an herb, veggie, flower etc.) 78) How to be a great (whatever your career or hobby is here) 79) 5 simple ways to make more money. 80) 5 simple ways to add more joy to your life. Writing Essays! 81) Why credit is good/bad. Essays! 82) Develop a plan to exercises build something and share it.

83) Complicate something simple ;) the opposite of what we normally do.Take something simple and really break it down in very basic parts. – getting out of bed, starting the day, eating breakfast or anything else you can think of. Blockbuster Case Study! 84) Describe a unique ritual or habit you have and how it came to writing exercises be. 85) Do you love yourself the same way you love others? Why or why not? 86) Choose a random photograph from your collection.Look at it for cmm operator a few minutes and then write about how it made you feel and essays exercises the thoughts that came up. 87) “Silence is golden” – why? 88) What were you like 10 years ago? What will you be like 10 years from now? 89) What do you want to do right now? 90) What are you afraid of? Create a character with the your career goals essay same fear or phobia and describe them in detail.

91) Create a single character based on a composite of your mother and father. 92) Describe the perfect place for a pair of soul mates to exercises meet. 93) Describe the scent of freshly brewed coffee or bread baking. 94) Describe various colors to a person who has always been blind to help them conceptualize them. 95) You find yourself alone in a spooky old house so you …. Criminal Scholarships! 96) You look in writing essays exercises, the mirror and your face is missing – instead you see …. 97) Your top ten cooking tips. 98) How do you ride a bike? 99) What is the best national park in your area and why? 100) Describe your favorite local restaurant and tips to write exam convince someone why they should go there. 101) What is the best piece you have ever written and what makes it so? Overcome Writer's Block Caused by essays Lack of tips in an exam Motivation. by Natalie Frank 4.

Flash Fiction, the exercises Shortest Stories in Creative Writing. by C. A. Blockbuster Case Study! Chancellor 6. 36 Blog Writing Prompts for essays any Niche. by on how to write in an exam Christin Sander 6. by BessieBooks 14. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. by ajbarnett 305. How to Describe Yourself - 180 Words for Your Positive Qualities. by Susana S 360. Christin Sander 2 months ago from Midwest. you're very welcome laura :) glad you enjoyed them. Exercises! Christin Sander 5 months ago from justice Midwest. horriable nsome thing? Maybe you need a new hobby hon - or maybe you're a spam bot either way. lol. Christin Sander 6 months ago from Midwest. Writing Essays Exercises! Well lulu, I suggest you sit down and try. Writing requires effort and just doing it.

Prompts are just that - prompts, you have to do the work. Christin Sander 7 months ago from discuss Midwest. Writing Essays! You're welcome Lilly! :) Christin Sander 8 months ago from Midwest. You're welcome Lili. Discuss Career! I like this thanks.

Christin Sander 8 months ago from Midwest. Cool page.Love it! Christin Sander 8 months ago from Midwest. You're very welcome Isabella, so glad you found them helpful :) This is a amazing page, Ive started doing texts in writing, a book and used this page for when I was stuck for topics. Tips To Write In An Exam! Christin Sander 10 months ago from essays exercises Midwest. Cmm Operator Resume! Oh that's awesome szaretsky :) So glad it helped you win and congratulations! This helped me win an essay contest at school. jay crypto 23 months ago from essays USA. Cmm Operator Resume! thanks for sharing the writing exercises info. many ideas to help me, so yes, some more useful than others because I see more attractive fiction. Your Career Goals Essay! Christin Sander 2 years ago from Midwest. hi, you're welcome :) Christin Sander 2 years ago from Midwest.

Thanks Kristen glad you enjoyed the writing essays exercises hub. Hope it helps you get your muse going :) Kristen Howe 2 years ago from Northeast Ohio. Essays In Jurisprudence 1961! Great writing prompts, Christin. I've been pulling a blank for the past couple of months, before I tackle my next novel this year. Christin Sander 3 years ago from Midwest. Thanks Seasons. It is indeed a good challenge and then going through them all makes it even better. :) Laura Brown 3 years ago from Ontario, Canada. I wrote a 101 writing prompts post once. It was a good challenge in writing exercises, itself. :) Christin Sander 4 years ago from Midwest.

Thanks everyone for the votes and sharing. Glad you enjoyed the prompts Paul :) hope some great hubs come from analysis blockbuster case study one or two of them. Paul Richard Kuehn 4 years ago from Udorn City, Thailand. Writing! You have listed a lot of very interesting and useful writing prompts. If I could think more out of the box like you, I think it would be easier for me to write. Voted up and sharing. Michelle Liew 4 years ago from Singapore. Criminal! Coming in to share this again! Christin Sander 4 years ago from writing exercises Midwest. Resume! thanks so much for reading and writing essays sharing :) much appreciated. Michelle Liew 4 years ago from Singapore. Christin, I have put this in my reading list.

Thanks for the writing prompts and I will use them. Sharing! Christin Sander 5 years ago from your essay Midwest. B Leekley - Thanks so much for the comment and the votes and writing shares! - much appreciated :D. Brian Leekley 5 years ago from Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA. Good advice and good prompts. Up, Useful, Interesting, shared, and your bookmarked.

Christin Sander 6 years ago from Midwest. Hi ktrapp I love writing exercises. I never really gave them a shot until one of my college writing classes and they really opened me up to some new techniques and ideas. :) Glad you enjoyed the hub. Kristin Trapp 6 years ago from writing exercises Illinois. Tips To Write An Essay In An Exam! Very useful. Thanks for the writing-prompt ideas.

We used to do this first thing in the beginning of my 8 a.m. freshman composition class in college. It was actually one of my favorite parts of the school day! Christin Sander 6 years ago from Midwest. Thank you John I appreciate the compliment :) Glad you enjoyed the hub. Writing Essays Exercises! John Yeoman 6 years ago from Story writing land in the centre of England. Great tips! And I speak as a PhD in blockbuster case, creative writing. Christin Sander 6 years ago from Midwest.

Thank you for the comment - glad you found some useful prompts. I agree sometimes just getting started is the writing hard part. Free writing helps me with that because I know no matter what in the end I'll have something useful. Cheers :) RandomThoughts. 6 years ago from thesis ieee Washington.

Thanks for the motivating direction tips. Writing! sometimes it is hard to just get started. Danette Watt 6 years ago from strategic analysis Illinois. Hi Christin, lots of great prompts here. I agree with what you said regarding those who write primarily non-fiction, informational stuff (such as myself) need to practice at creative writing and vice versa. Voted up and useful, thanks for writing exercises sharing. attemptedhumour 6 years ago from Australia. Hi Christine, i certainly agree with about oxford in jurisprudence, being different.

We can be who we want to be, go where we want and scoot off on tangents if we so desire. I find it harder to write in a formal manner and have difficulty writing non-rhyming poetry. Writing Exercises! Your list is a good idea and will no doubt help to analysis blockbuster study avoid that dreaded writer's block. cheers. Christin Sander 6 years ago from Midwest. You're welcome Adrianne, I'm glad you found them useful and writing essays exercises encouraging. thanks for commenting.

Thank you Christin for sharing these wonderful writing prompts. I definitely feel more encourage to deep my creative writing! Christin Sander 6 years ago from tips in an exam Midwest. Thanks Lenore - so glad you found some of writing essays exercises them useful. I hope they lead you to scholarships a great piece of writing :) Lenore Robinson 6 years ago from Delaware. Thumbs up and useful! Many thought provoking ideas, thanks for sharing! NicholasA 6 years ago from Midwest. Essays! These are all awesome writing ideas. Discuss Your Career Goals! To only have a day that we could sit down and go through them all and write them out. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and writing essays exercises respective owners.

Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. Discuss Your Career Goals! HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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Corporate Social Responsibility: Strategic Implications. School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University Search for more papers by this author. Donald S. Siegel, Department of writing, Economics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 3506 Russell Sage Laboratory, 110, 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180-3590, USA ([email protected]). abstract We describe a variety of perspectives on corporate social responsibility (CSR), which we use to develop a framework for consideration of the your goals strategic implications of CSR. Based on this framework, we propose an agenda for additional theoretical and empirical research on CSR. We then review the writing papers in this special issue and relate them to discuss your career goals essay the proposed agenda. In recent years, scholars and managers have devoted greater attention to the strategic implications of corporate social responsibility (CSR).

Consistent with McWilliams and Siegel (2001), we define CSR as situations where the firm goes beyond compliance and engages in actions that appear to further some social good, beyond the interests of the firm and that which is writing essays exercises, required by tips on how exam law’. However, this is just one interpretation of CSR. Exercises! Numerous definitions of CSR have been proposed and often no clear definition is given, making theoretical development and measurement difficult. Criminal Justice! CSR activities have been posited to include incorporating social characteristics or features into products and writing essays manufacturing processes (e.g. aerosol products with no fluorocarbons or using environmentally-friendly technologies), adopting progressive human resource management practices (e.g. promoting employee empowerment), achieving higher levels of environmental performance through recycling and pollution abatement (e.g. adopting an criminal aggressive stance towards reducing emissions), and advancing the goals of community organizations (e.g. working closely with groups such as United Way). [1] Researchers are moving beyond just defining and identifying CSR activities, to examine the strategic role of CSR in organizations. Similarly, there is growing interest among managers in the antecedents and consequences of CSR, especially for executives at multi-national, multi-divisional companies. Essays Exercises! These corporate leaders are mindful of the case study fact that business norms and standards, regulatory frameworks, and stakeholder demand for CSR can vary substantially across nations, regions, and lines of business. They are also aware that their divisional managers are under constant pressure from employees, suppliers, community groups, NGOs, and government to increase their involvement in CSR. Unfortunately for both academicians and writing practitioners, the analysis of CSR is still embryonic, and thus theoretical frameworks, measurement, and empirical methods have not yet been resolved.

Furthermore, this topic cannot be analysed through the lens of a single disciplinary perspective. Thus, it appears that CSR is fertile ground for theory development and empirical analysis such as takes place in the Journal of Management Studies . The purpose of this special issue is to further the CSR research agenda by bringing together multiple perspectives. After issuing an criminal open call for essays exercises papers on case study the Academy of Management website and other venues, we received 32 manuscripts. We reviewed these papers and writing exercises selected several for presentation at a Special Issue Workshop at the University of Illinois at Chicago. [2] Among the oxford in jurisprudence 1961 authors and discussants at the workshop were scholars from writing essays exercises, several academic disciplines (management, political science, accounting, marketing, and tips to write an essay exam economics), many international contributors, and a high proportion of writing exercises, junior scholars. The papers presented at the workshop were critiqued by reviewers and participants and then reviewed again after the workshop. From these revised manuscripts, we selected the five best for publication in resume, the special issue. Several themes emerged from these studies: the relation between CSR and competitive advantage, the role of writing essays exercises, differences in institutional environments in framing stakeholder expectations regarding the propensity of firms to engage in CSR, a comparison of the social desirability of the strategic use of CSR versus coerced’ CSR, the role of oxford essays in jurisprudence, economic, philosophical, and global corporate citizenship perspectives on CSR, and the evolution and influence of the writing academic literature on CSR. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In the next section, we discuss a variety of theories that shed light on oxford the strategic implications of CSR.

Following that, we outline an agenda for theoretical and empirical research on essays exercises the strategic implications of CSR. We conclude with a brief review of each study in the special issue and discuss goals its importance to our proposed research agenda. Numerous theories have been brought to bear on the subject of CSR. We summarize selected articles on theoretical perspectives in Table I. Theodore Levitt could be credited with setting the agenda for the debate about the social responsibility of business in his Harvard Business Review article The Dangers of Social Responsibility’, in writing, which he cautions that government's job is not business, and business's job is not government’ (1958, p. 47). Milton Friedman (1970) expressed the same sentiment and added that the mere existence of CSR was a signal of an analysis blockbuster study agency problem within the firm. An agency theory perspective implies that CSR is exercises, a misuse of corporate resources that would be better spent on valued-added internal projects or returned to shareholders. It also suggests that CSR is an executive perk, in the sense that managers use CSR to advance their careers or other personal agendas. R. Edward Freeman (1984), building on Chester Barnard's (1938) inducement-contribution’ framework, presented a more positive view of managers’ support of CSR. Freeman's stakeholder theory asserts that managers must satisfy a variety of constituents (e.g. workers, customers, suppliers, local community organizations) who can influence firm outcomes. According to this view, it is not sufficient for criminal scholarships managers to writing essays exercises focus exclusively on the needs of stockholders, or the owners of the corporation. Stakeholder theory implies that it can be beneficial for the firm to engage in certain CSR activities that non-financial stakeholders perceive to be important, because, absent this, these groups might withdraw their support for the firm.

Stakeholder theory was expanded by Donaldson and Preston (1995) who stressed the thesis ieee moral and ethical dimensions of writing, CSR, as well as the business case for engaging in such activity. Another perspective, stewardship theory (Donaldson and Davis, 1991) is based on the idea that there is a moral imperative for managers to do the discuss essay right thing’, without regard to how such decisions affect firm financial performance. Institutional theory and classical economic theory have also been applied to CSR in a paper by Jones (1995). The author concludes that companies involved in repeated transactions with stakeholders on writing the basis of strategic analysis blockbuster case, trust and cooperation are motivated to be honest, trustworthy, and ethical because the returns to such behaviour are high. Institutional approaches have also been used to analyse environmental social responsibility. Writing Essays! More specifically, Jennings and Zandbergen (1995) analyse the role of institutions in shaping the tips to write in an exam consensus within a firm regarding the establishment of an ecologically sustainable’ organization. Finally, a recent paper by Waldman et al. (2004) applies strategic leadership theory to CSR. These authors conjecture that certain aspects of exercises, transformational leadership will be positively correlated with the propensity of firms to engage in CSR and essays that these leaders will employ CSR activities strategically.

To the extent that firms engage in CSR strategically, this behaviour can be examined through the lens of the writing resource-based-view-of-the-firm (RBV). RBV, as introduced by strategic analysis Wernerfelt (1984) and refined by Barney (1991), borrows heavily from earlier research by Penrose (1959). [3] This theory presumes that firms are bundles of heterogeneous resources and capabilities that are imperfectly mobile across firms. Writing Exercises! Barney (1991) maintains that if these resources and capabilities are valuable, rare, inimitable and non-substitutable, they can constitute a source of sustainable competitive advantage. The first theoretical paper to ieee apply the RBV framework to corporate social responsibility was Hart (1995), who focused exclusively on environmental social responsibility. Exercises! Hart asserted that, for certain types of firms, environmental social responsibility can constitute a resource or capability that leads to a sustained competitive advantage.

Russo and Fouts (1997) tested this theory empirically using firm-level data on environmental and your essay accounting profitability and found that firms with higher levels of environmental performance had superior financial performance, which they interpreted to be consistent with the RBV theory. Using the RBV framework, a more formal theory-of-the-firm model of profit-maximizing’ CSR was posited in McWilliams and Siegel (2001). These authors outlined a simple model in which two companies produce identical products, except that one firm adds an additional social’ attribute or feature to the product, which is valued by some consumers or, potentially, by other stakeholders. In this model, managers conduct a cost/benefit analysis to determine the level of resources to essays devote to CSR activities/attributes. Oxford Essays 1961! That is, they assess the demand for CSR and also evaluate the cost of satisfying this demand. The theory of the firm perspective on CSR has several strategic implications. The first is that CSR can be an integral element of a firm's business and corporate-level differentiation strategies. Therefore, it should be considered as a form of strategic investment. Even when it is not directly tied to a product feature or production process, CSR can be viewed as a form of reputation building or maintenance. A second strategic implication of a theory of the firm perspective is that one can apply the writing essays exercises RBV logic to referencing ieee CSR, in the sense that it is possible to generate a set of predictions regarding patterns of investment in CSR across firms and industries.

For example, we expect to observe a positive correlation between CSR and both RD and advertising (McWilliams and Siegel, 2000), an assertion that we will explain below. Expanding on this theory of the firm perspective, we can shed further light on the strategic implications of CSR. In particular, we wish to focus on exercises issues relating to industry evolution, market structure, firm dynamics, and the role of asymmetric information in justice scholarships, the context of essays, CSR. We first note that in the context of using CSR to differentiate products, it is important to distinguish between two types of product differentiation. The first is vertical differentiation which occurs when most consumers prefer one product to another. Other things being equal, most consumers prefer a more fuel-efficient vehicle. In the context of CSR, such a situation could occur when it is clear in the mind of consumers that the product with a CSR characteristic is better than the study product without such a characteristic.

For example, a hybrid’ version of a Honda Accord generates less pollution than a standard Honda Accord. Thus, it is clear to most consumers that the hybrid car is better than the standard model. Some consumers are willing to pay a price premium for the hybrid car, given that the writing essays social characteristic of thesis ieee, less pollution is valuable’ to essays them. This type of differentiation can strengthen or maintain the reputation of the firm which adds value in addition to cmm operator allowing the essays firm to meet a particular market demand (Fombrun and Shanley, 1990). In contrast, horizontal differentiation occurs when only some consumers prefer a particular product, but the discuss preference is based on taste, rather than quality. Essays Exercises! For example, some consumers choose a particular vehicle because of the colour. This type of differentiation does not contribute to the reputation of the firm and does not allow the firm to charge a premium price. Horizontal differentiation also operates for different brands. For example, some consumers prefer Coke to Pepsi, while others have the opposite view. In contrast to the ease of valuing CSR attributes, consumers often find it difficult to determine if a firm's internal operations meet their moral and political standards for social responsibility.

The level of asymmetric information regarding internal operations can be mediated by the firm itself or by activists. For instance, companies such as McDonalds, Motorola, and Nike publish annual reports on social responsibility. Oxford 1961! One can view this activity as a form of advertising, especially for more general types of writing essays exercises, CSR. While such reports may be useful, some consumers perceive this information as biased, since it is filtered through senior management. Fedderson and Gilligan (2001) assert that activists can play an important role in addressing this concern, by supplying consumers with information they can rely on to choose socially responsible firms. The relationship between CSR and thesis advertising is an interesting one, which bears further reflection. Several stylized facts relating to industry evolution and the nature of exercises, advertising are useful to consider. Criminal! The first is that we expect levels of investment in CSR to be higher for established firms in more mature industries, since the extent of production differentiation will be greater in such sectors and consumers will, in general, have more sophisticated tastes and exercises knowledge regarding products and firms. It is clear that such companies are likely to strategic analysis blockbuster study derive greater benefits from the use of CSR for reputation enhancement/protection. Writing Essays! A second point is essays, that if some forms of CSR do indeed constitute advertising, then it is important to distinguish between persuasive CSR advertising and writing exercises informative CSR advertising. Persuasive CSR advertising attempts to positively influence consumer tastes for products with CSR attributes.

It follows that this type of advertising need not be firm-specific. Criminal Scholarships! Informative CSR advertising merely provides information about the essays exercises CSR characteristics or CSR managerial practices of the firm. Following Milgrom and Roberts (1986), one could also view a high level of CSR advertising (either persuasive on informative CSR advertising) as a signal of product or firm quality. Another critical issue concerns the nature of the market structure of the firm's industry. A key conclusion of the McWilliams and Siegel (2001) paper was that, in equilibrium, firms that engage in CSR will earn the same rate of cmm operator resume, profit as firms that do not engage in CSR.

We refer to this finding as the neutrality result. This finding was misinterpreted by writing essays Piga (2002) as implying that CSR can only occur in monopolistically competitive industries, since some oligopoly models of vertically differentiated markets predict that (in equilibrium) firms selling the higher quality product (in our case, the firm that sells a good with a CSR characteristic) reap abnormal’ profits. A monopolistically competitive industry consists of numerous firms, some product differentiation, and relative free entry. Strategic Blockbuster Study! Some examples of such sectors are restaurants and retail establishments. Writing Essays Exercises! On the other hand, oligopolies are characterized by a consolidated industry structure, considerable entry barriers, and substantial product differentiation (e.g. autos, computers). We believe that the neutrality result holds under both oligopoly and cmm operator monopolistic competition. Exercises! This is thesis ieee, implied for exercises monopolistic competition because sectors with such a structure are characterized by both horizontal and vertical differentiation, a fragmented industry structure, and very low entry barriers. Under this scenario, it is referencing thesis ieee, impossible for essays exercises firms to use CSR to outperform rivals. Examples of cmm operator resume, firms in monopolistically competitive industries that engage in CSR include restaurants, hotels, companies selling organic produce, and different types of writing, retail establishments. The neutrality result likely holds for monopolistic markets as well.

That is because, while some oligopoly models predict that firms producing a higher quality product earn abnormal’ returns, these findings hinge on in jurisprudence the assumption that costs are constant and independent of quality. These assumptions were not invoked in the McWilliams and Siegel (2001) model. Furthermore, recent economic models of CSR (Baron, 2001; Fedderson and Gilligan, 2001) identify an writing essays exercises important countervailing force on the ability of companies to engage in strategic CSR in oligopolistic industries: activists who target leading firms (e.g. the attack on Nike's Asian production). This countervailing force makes it difficult for oligopolistic firms to achieve a competitive advantage through the strategic use of CSR. The question of tips to write, whether firms can use CSR to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage is another important question. Writing! A paper by Reinhardt (1998) finds that a firm engaging in a CSR-based strategy can only cmm operator resume generate an abnormal return if it can prevent competitors from exercises, imitating its strategy. In competitive markets this is unlikely, since CSR is justice, highly transparent, with little causal ambiguity. Other theoretical studies (Dutta et al., 1995; Hoppe and Lehmann-Grube, 2001) show that any early mover advantages that might be gained by offering higher quality products (recall that CSR is modelled as a quality improvement’ in McWilliams and Siegel, 2001) are eroded when competitive strategies are observable.

However, CSR may be used in the context of political strategies that result in regulatory barriers to imitation. One such strategy would be for firms to use government regulation to essays exercises impose CSR on rivals who do not employ an appropriate technology, thus raising the costs of those rivals relative to the initiating firm. Marvel (1977) provided an example of on how an essay exam, this in the British textile industry in the early 1800s. The first child labour law was passed in Great Britain after the mill owners who employed modern technology banded together and lobbied for restrictions on essays exercises child labour, which was used more by the older, smaller mills. McWilliams et al. (2002) applied the RBV framework to demonstrate how US firms can use political strategies based on an essay exam CSR to raise regulatory barriers that prevent foreign competitors from using substitute (e.g. low labour cost) technology. This discussion focused primarily on understanding CSR from an applied perspective. Writing! However, it begins to point to a broader and deeper set of research issues that have yet to be resolved. RESEARCH AGENDA ON THE STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS OF CSR. There are numerous unresolved theoretical and empirical issues relating to strategic analysis case the strategic implications of CSR.

These include defining CSR, identifying institutional differences in CSR across countries, determining the motivations for CSR, describing CSR strategies, modelling the writing essays effects of CSR on the firm and stakeholder groups, determining the effects of leadership and corporate culture on CSR activity, assessing the effect of CSR on the firm and stakeholder groups, measuring the demand for CSR, measuring the costs of CSR and assessing the current knowledge base. Theoretical Issues To Be Resolved. As noted in cmm operator resume, our introduction, there is a no strong consensus on a definition for exercises CSR. CSR has been used as a synonym for business ethics, defined as tantamount to corporate philanthropy, and considered strictly as relating to environmental policy. CSR has also been confused with corporate social performance and corporate citizenship. The lack of consistency in the use of the referencing thesis term CSR makes it difficult to compare results across studies, hampering our ability to understand the implications of writing exercises, CSR activity. Goals! As other issues are resolved, we hope that they lead to the emergence of an agreed-upon definition of CSR.

Having a good definition of CSR, with a common terminology, would aid us in modelling the writing essays role of organizational culture and leadership in determining the importance of CSR within an organization. Researchers could analyse how changes in corporate control, particularly through merger or acquisition, affect the tips to write in an type and level of CSR activity within firms. Alternatively, changes in writing, top management (CEO or team) might be examined to determine whether leadership style and characteristics are more important than corporate control/culture for predicting CSR activity. Understanding the role of leadership could be extended to understanding the decision making process and study how decisions about essays, CSR activity are affected by demands from multiple stakeholders. Asymmetric information makes it difficult to study the antecedents and criminal justice consequences of writing exercises, CSR.

Managers may perceive that many external stakeholders view CSR activity more favourably if it is divorced from any discussion of the bottom line. With this in mind, managers may not reveal the more practical motivations (such as product promotion, labour cost control and reputation building) behind their CSR activities, especially in corporate publications such as annual reports. This lack of candid information has made it difficult to distinguish and discuss the different motivations for CSR, which may be private or social. The use of criminal justice, CSR to capture value is referred to as strategic CSR by Baron (2001) who points out that it is the motivation for the action that identifies socially, as opposed to privately, responsible action’. That is, if the motivation is to serve society, at the cost of writing essays, profits, the action is socially responsible, but if the motivation is to serve the bottom line, then the action is privately responsible. For privately responsible actions, there may well be social benefits that exceed the cost of the action to criminal justice scholarships the firm. However, this does not change the motivation, unless these social benefits are of value to managers. For example, providing day care may lower the number of juvenile crimes in a community, but the writing essays exercises firm might provide the day care only because it increases the availability of workers and lowers the cost of absenteeism. This is reminiscent of the consideration of positive externalities associated with innovative activity. An externality is defined as the impact of an economic agent's actions on the well-being of a bystander. Strategic Case Study! Pollution is a classic example of a negative externality, while innovation (whose benefits cannot be entirely appropriated by its creator) is a classic example of a positive externality.

While the private returns to innovation (or those that accrue to the company) may be high, the social returns to innovation (through the creation of writing essays, new or improved products and processes) may be even greater. Researchers need to use more direct methods, such as interviews and surveys, to tease out’ less self-serving information about the motivations for CSR activity and improve the precision of measurement of the private and social returns to analysis CSR. In addition to understanding the writing essays motivation for the provision of social benefits, we need to understand how the provision of these goods, through strategic CSR, affects society. An example of justice, strategic CSR is when a firm links the provision of a public good to the sale of their (private) products (e.g. eco-labelling). Bagnoli and Watts (2003) model this behaviour and find that the propensity of firms to engage in strategic CSR depends on two factors: the intensity of competition in the market and the extent to which consumers are willing to exercises pay a premium for social responsibility. The authors conclude that there is an tips an essay in an inverse relation between intensity of competition and provision of CSR. That is, in more competitive markets, less of the public good will be provided through strategic CSR. Conversely, in less competitive markets, more of the public good will be provided. This is easy to understand, since more competition results in lower margins and, therefore, less ability to provide additional (social) attributes or activity. Conversely, less competition leads to the potential for higher margins and exercises more ability to provide additional attributes or activity.

An analysis of the provision of public goods by private firms is a welcome addition to the management literature on CSR, which has been primarily concerned with answering the following question: do firms do well by doing good’? Showing that a firm does well by doing good is often referred to as making the business case for CSR. While understanding the relation between firm performance and social performance is of primary importance in the management literature, a more thorough understanding of the CSR phenomenon requires that we take account of other stakeholders as well. These stakeholders include: customers, employees, governments, suppliers, taxpayers, community groups, and underrepresented groups. Our understanding of CSR should be extended to an examination of the 1961 strategic use of CSR activities. Fombrun and Shanley (1990) established that investing in CSR attributes and activities may be important elements of product differentiation and reputation building. McWilliams and Siegel (2001) suggest that CSR activities be included in strategy formulation and that the level of resources devoted to CSR be determined through cost/benefit analysis. Analysis of the strategic implications of CSR is hampered by cross-country/cultural differences in the institutions that regulate market activity, including business, labour and social agencies. Institutional differences lead to different expectations and different returns to activity.

For firms operating in multiple countries/cultures this complicates the process of determining which activities to engage in and how much to invest. As the knowledge base of CSR develops world-wide, we will be better able to analyse and advise on CSR. In summary, the CSR literature suffers from definitional questions that limit the future research. Distinguishing among strategic CSR, altruistic CSR, and even coerced CSR (e.g. Husted and De Jesus Salazar, 2006) constitutes a significant theoretical breakthrough. However, until theory and research can adequately agree upon what, specifically, constitutes CSR, research will continue to provide a lack of consistent results.

It is to this empirical research that we next turn our attention. Problems with measurement of the costs and benefits of CSR activities continue to cloud our understanding of the strategic implications of CSR. Exercises! A major impediment to empirical research is the continuing confusion over definition that we mentioned above. It is impossible to measure what we cannot define and, as long as we use different definitions, we will get empirical results that cannot reliably be compared. Table II presents selected empirical studies of CSR. Most of these papers focus on strategic case the relation between CSR and firm performance. Early studies used either the event study methodology (which is based on analysis of writing exercises, short-run changes in stock prices as a proxy for firm performance in the aftermath of a CSR-related event) or regression analysis (which uses an accounting measure of profitability, such as return on assets, as the dependent variable in a regression model that explains’ firm performance). These studies usually attempted to answer the criminal scholarships question: do firms do well by doing good? The reported results have ranged from showing a negative relation between CSR and firm performance, to writing showing no relation, to showing a positive relation (e.g. the results of divesting from tips on how to write exam, South Africa shown in Table II). There is little consistency in these findings.

This may be a result of writing essays exercises, inconsistency in defining CSR, inconsistency in defining firm performance, inconsistency in strategic case study, samples, imprecision and inconsistency in research design, misspecification of models, changes over time, or some more fundamental variance in the samples that are being analysed. McWilliams and exercises Siegel (1997) critiqued the use of the event study methodology to measure the consequences of CSR. The authors reported that the findings of event studies of CSR appearing in top management journals were unreliable, due to serious flaws in cmm operator resume, the research design and essays implementation of the event study methodology (see also McWilliams et al., 1999). They also cautioned that the strategic analysis blockbuster study use of essays, stock price as a metric for performance is not appropriate for studying CSR. That is strategic analysis blockbuster study, because CSR is a firm level measure and many socially responsibility activities occur at the plant level or the product level. Another concern is that an analysis of stock price effects only relates to financial stakeholders and writing essays exercises it is clear that non-financial stakeholders are also affected by CSR activities. McWilliams and Siegel (2000) challenged the strategic blockbuster study conventional regression model used to assess the relationship between corporate social performance (CSP), which is often used as a synonym for CSR, and firm performance. They noted that the typical regression equation estimated was misspecified because it did not include two key variables: the level of writing essays, RD spending and advertising expenditure. Analysis Blockbuster Study! Both of these variables have been shown to be determinants of exercises, firm performance and, because all three (RD, advertising, and CSP) are elements of strategic case, a differentiation strategy, they hypothesized that RD and advertising would be correlated with a measure of CSP. The results of McWilliams and exercises Siegel's estimation of the correctly-specified, expanded equation demonstrated that the three explanatory variables were correlated. Thus, the model that excluded RD and advertising variables was misspecified.

Most notably, they showed that when RD and advertising were included in the model, CSP was not a significant determinant of firm performance, as had been reported in several widely-cited studies. Consistent with Baron's (2001) distinction between altruistic CSR and strategic CSR, Hillman and Keim (2001) conjecture that empirical tests of the relation between CSR and firm performance should disaggregate CSR activities into those that are strategic (stakeholder management) and those that are altruistic (social issue participation). Based on estimation of a disaggregated model, they report that there is a positive relation between firm performance (measured using market value added) and strategic CSR and a negative relation between altruistic CSR and firm performance. McWilliams and Siegel (2001) provide a framework for analysing CSR within the context of the theory of the firm. Based on this framework, they develop hypotheses regarding the provision of CSR attributes across industries and market structures. Your Career Essay! They hypothesize that the provision of CSR will depend on RD spending, advertising intensity, the extent of writing essays, product differentiation, the percentage of discuss goals essay, government sales, consumer income, the tightness of the labour market, and the stage of the industry life cycle’ (2001, p. 125). All of these should be tested empirically to see if the results support the hypotheses. McWilliams and Siegel conclude that there is some level of CSR that will maximize profits while satisfying the demand for CSR from multiple stakeholders. The ideal level of CSR can be determined by cost-benefit analysis’ (2001, p. 125). While costs of providing CSR attributes may be easy for writing exercises managers to determine, consumer demand (benefit) may not be. Discuss Your Career! Consumer demand for CSR could be difficult to measure because CSR attributes are among many attributes of a product.

For example, a particular shampoo may have the CSR attribute that it is essays exercises, not tested on oxford in jurisprudence animals’. But, it also has a particular scent, colour, consistency, and writing package. This makes it difficult to your goals separate out the demand for the CSR attribute. A method for assessing how much consumers are willing to pay for a given product characteristic or feature is hedonic pricing. Writing Essays Exercises! Hedonic pricing involves using data on actual purchases, in ieee, order to determine the implicit price’ of a particular attribute. Essays! For example, new homes have many attributes, one of which might be central air conditioning. Examining a large number of new home sales, with and without central air conditioning, but holding other attributes constant, it would be possible to determine how much consumers are willing to pay for the central air conditioning. Similarly, to determine the demand’ for not tested on animals’, researchers can compare sale data on tips in an many shampoos, with and without the CSR attribute and exercises can determine how much consumers will pay for that attribute.

This information could then be used in a cost/benefit analysis of the CSR attribute. To illustrate, we return to criminal justice scholarships the example of hybrid cars, which are highly fuel efficient. Given the high price of gasoline, it is clear that some consumers will be attracted to these automobiles because they want to save money on fuel. Others may choose to purchase a Honda hybrid, as opposed to GM hybrid, because Honda has a superior reputation for writing essays exercises quality. Still others are willing to criminal justice scholarships pay a price premium for writing the hybrid car, strictly because the social characteristic of less pollution is valuable’ to analysis blockbuster study them. The beauty of the hedonic method is that it allows us tease out the value to the consumer of each of these three factors (fuel efficiency, quality differential, and essays the social characteristic of less pollution). The hedonic method is on how in an exam, based on the notion that the (logarithm of the) price of a good or service is essays, related to its characteristics or features as follows: where #x25b; is a random error term and cmm operator resume Z is a vector of k characteristics or attributes. These attributes are typically sources of private satisfaction, such as the speed of a computer or the horsepower of an auto engine. The researcher typically estimates a regression, in exercises, order to determine the values of the β coefficients.

The β coefficients provide estimates of how much customers are willing to pay for a given attribute. Some characteristics may also have social dimensions, such as aerosol products with no fluorocarbons or environmentally-friendly lighting. Referencing Thesis! A major advantage of hedonics, relative to other methods (e.g. focus groups), is that it is based on observed, not hypothetical data. Hedonics have been used by government agencies and other researchers to price’ individual attributes of computers, autos, housing, land, and dowries. Essays Exercises! They are also increasingly being used for more abstract non-market environmental goods’, such as views, clean air, and tips on how an essay open space. These estimates can have important managerial and policy implications, since they help managers estimate demand for social characteristics and essays can also be used in national price/cost of living statistics.

The theoretical and empirical issues discussed above provide an important foundation for understanding the contributions of the articles in this special issue. These papers shed light on the definitional issues that plague this research, and demonstrate, both theoretically and empirically, how making clear, specific definitions can result in deeper understanding and guide more rigorous research in CSR. The article by Alfie Marcus and Marc Anderson (2006) poses an interesting research question, especially in your goals, light of our previous discussion of the strategic implications of CSR. Writing Essays! The authors ask whether a firm's dynamic capability’ influences its competence in CSR. To address this question, they provide a novel and criminal scholarships interesting application of the RBV framework to the case of CSR.

In the theoretical section of the paper, the authors make two important points. The first is that they distinguish between business and social competencies. Writing Exercises! They also consider a general dynamic capability’, a term coined by Ghemawat (2001), which describes such activities as enhancing the absorptive capacity of the firm, benchmarking, and experimentation. The authors examine their research question using a detailed firm-level survey in the US retail food industry. Specifically, they surveyed 806 grocery stores/chains with operations in North America as of 1997. The results indicate that a general dynamic capability has a positive influence on strategic a firm's competence in supply chain management, which is a key business competence in this industry. However, a general dynamic capability does not appear to have any influence on a firm's competence in environmental management, which is a key social’ competence in this industry. The authors conclude that their findings suggest that the factors driving competitive advantage are different than those that influence CSR. Jonathan Doh and exercises Terrence Guay (2006) assess the role of differences in the institutional environments of tips an essay in an, Europe and the USA in explaining expectations regarding the propensity of firms to be socially responsible. As such, the writing essays paper is an strategic case study interesting synthesis of neo-institutional and stakeholder theory. Essays Exercises! It is a qualitative analysis, consisting of three case studies.

Specifically, the authors assess the roles that US and European non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played in influencing CSR policies in three areas: the trade and regulation of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs), pharmaceutical pricing and distribution policies, and international environmental agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol Treaty. The case studies reveal the thesis ieee role of institutional differences in these two regions in influencing government policy, corporate strategy and NGO activism related to CSR. Specifically, the authors find that these factors play an important role in determining how CSR is perceived and essays exercises implemented in cmm operator resume, the USA and Europe. Writing Essays Exercises! A key implication of the Doh and Guay study is that any cross-country comparison of the propensity of firms to engage in cmm operator resume, CSR should take into account these institutional differences. In the writing exercises next article, Bryan Husted and Jos de Jesus Salazar pose another interesting research question: is it better for your goals essay firms to act strategically with respect to CSR than to be coerced into making such investments? More generally, the authors analyse the conditions under which firms can maximize profit and enhance social performance. As such, they take the theory of the firm perspective on CSR seriously, since they conduct a cost/benefit analysis of social responsibility. Essays Exercises! This technique was proposed by McWilliams and Siegel (2001). Husted and De Jesus Salazar model this cost/benefit analysis under three scenarios concerning the analysis case study firm's desire to engage in writing essays exercises, CSR: altruism, coerced egoism’, and the strategic use of CSR. Altruism describes the case when firms sincerely want to justice scholarships be socially responsible, without regard to how such activities affect the bottom line. Writing! Coerced egoism occurs when firms act in a socially responsible manner only when they are compelled by regulation (and other factors) to do so.

The strategic use of CSR is defined as instances where there are clear benefits to the firm for engaging in CSR. The authors employ standard microeconomic analysis to determine the optimal level of cmm operator resume, social output that results under each of these cases. They demonstrate that both society and firms are better off when firms use CSR strategically than when they are coerced into making such investments. This is a conclusion that would make Adam Smith smile. In the next paper, Duane Windsor (2006) examines different perspectives on CSR. Essays Exercises! As noted earlier, CSR is still an embryonic concept in the academic literature. Windsor's essay is cmm operator, a tour-de-force on the evolution on three opposing perspectives on writing exercises CSR: economic, philosophical, and global corporate citizenship. Goals Essay! As he defines it, the economic viewpoint focuses on the firm's ability to use CSR as a tool to create wealth, implies minimal government intervention to writing promote CSR, and advocates that the firm adopt prevailing business ethics. On the other hand, the philosophical perspective results in moral reflection on CSR and should lead to your goals higher levels of CSR and other forms of altruism. He also notes that this view supports active government intervention to promote CSR, as well as policy initiatives that strengthen stakeholder rights.

The global corporate citizenship perspective seems to fall somewhere in between the economic and philosophical views, although this perspective can be used instrumentally to enhance market opportunities and the firm's moral reputation. The author concludes by writing essays discussing the implications of each of these perspectives for justice scholarships CSR scholarship. This special issue concludes with an article by Andy Lockett, Jeremy Moon, and Wayne Visser (2006), which assesses the status of CSR research in the management literature. Specifically, they assess the focus and writing exercises nature of strategic analysis blockbuster case study, CSR research and essays the use of the accumulated knowledge in management and related fields. The authors also attempt to determine the key intellectual influences on the field of CSR and whether CSR research has a dominant paradigm. Their empirical analysis is cmm operator, based on data on writing CSR-related publications and referencing ieee citation analysis over essays the period 19922002.

The authors identified CSR-related articles in in jurisprudence, the following journals: Academy of Management Journal , Academy of writing essays, Management Review , Administrative Science Quarterly , Journal of Management , Organization Science , Strategic Management Journal , Journal of discuss career, Management Studies , Harvard Business Review , Sloan Management Review , and California Management Review . They analysed both the exercises articles cited in these CSR-related papers and the citations that CSR-related articles generated in other journals. They found that the field’ is in a continuing state of emergence’, a term coined by Thomas Kuhn (1962). That is, based on its overall profile in strategic analysis blockbuster case, these leading management journals and the citations these articles generate, CSR lacks a dominant paradigm. This is an obvious call to action for concerned researchers. It is writing, this state of emergence that we hope to advance with this special issue.

The papers here exemplify the tips on how to write an essay in an exam variety of perspectives that have been brought to bear on CSR. They also demonstrate an increasing ability to clearly define the construct of CSR (albeit not necessarily all agreeing on the definition) and build strong theoretical arguments and high-quality empirical studies that will provide an effective springboard for essays exercises future research in CSR. We thank participants at resume the April 2004 University of Illinois at Chicago/International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility Workshop on Corporate Social Responsibility, Ann Buchholtz, Steve Floyd, Mark Shanley, and essays Mike Wright for their insightful comments on a previous version of this paper. The second author also gratefully acknowledges financial support from the School of Humanities and blockbuster Social Sciences and the Lally School of Management and Technology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. For the benefit of essays, non-US readers, the United Way is a global network of non-profit, philanthropic organizations. In the USA, many employees (especially those working for large organizations) donate a small fraction of their salaries to United Way, which is then distributed to a specific charity (or charities) that is part of the network. The workshop was jointly sponsored by discuss your career essay the College of writing exercises, Business Administration at the University of Illinois at ieee Chicago and the International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility (ICCSR) at essays the University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom. See Kor and Mahoney (2004), Lockett and Thompson (2004), and Rugman and Verbeke (2004) for an excellent series of articles on Edith Penrose and the resource-based view of strategic management. Issue online: 10 January 2006 Version of record online: 10 January 2006.

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