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8 Bad Habits Successful Students Don’t Have#8230; And How to Avoid Them. Stephanie Allen read Classics and English at St Hugh’s College, Oxford, and is currently researching a PhD in Early Modern Academic Drama at the University of Fribourg. Top tips on how to on eating properly, be less like you and more like the brain-boxes whose grades we all envy. Buy Papers For College. 1) Plan to work right up to a deadline. Do your best to avoid a last-minute panic. Essays Properly. We last-minute people are badly misunderstood. Over the course of my million-year-long career as a student, I’ve seen hundreds of childhood essay, teacherly, tutorly and essays, fellow-studently eyebrows raised so high they disappear as I accidentally let slip that yes, I did finish writing that essay twenty minutes before the buy papers deadline and hope it’d be OK without a proof-read; yes, I did go to bed with 500 words written and plan to write another 2000 between 3 and essays, 9 am; yes, I did think the bus into town would be a great place to write a bibliography. To those who don’t understand it, last-minuteness looks like laziness, disorganisation and thesis, often carelessness. It isn’t, really, of course – it’s more like a completely different habit of mind, whereby you need the pressure of a limited amount of time, and plan to use all the available time up until a deadline for work. You end up working just as hard as everyone else, but later, and often more frantically.
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If that means staying up late, or getting up super early – so be it. Make changes on the day before if you need to, but to a completed product that’s ready to go. 2) Use caffeine to answer all problems. Not actually the answer to essays on eating, all of life’s problems. One cup of coffee, or even Red Bull in truly desperate times, can work wonders at sharpening your thinking and helping you power through great swathes of work. Foreign About Homosexuality. But any more won’t make much of a difference, and instead will turn you into on eating properly a jittery, shakey, unfocused, ill mess. Too much caffeine is also bad for your heart, and disrupts your sleep patterns. If you find it hard to focus, or sometimes feel like you’re operating from buy papers for college behind a brick wall of tiredness, try getting more exercise – it’s been scientifically proven again and again that getting your heart rate up for half an properly, hour a few times a week does wonders for mood, sleep and concentration. The evil sister of creative about journey, working until the last minute and overdosing on coffee is the all-nighter, my least favourite of essays on eating, all study crutches. We’ve all done them; I’ve done probably hundreds in my time. Once there was a time I watched the sun come up, go down, come up, and go down again during a single session in the library (admittedly, this was in winter, when the sun was only up for about seven hours a day – but it was still a very depressing experience).
There’s always the threepenny essay danger you won’t manage to stay awake long enough to hand your work in. All-nighters always seem like a brilliant idea at about six p.m. on on eating properly the day before you do them: you’ll gain an extra twelve hours you wouldn’t normally have, without distractions, and you’ll probably have to eat loads of childhood essay tennessee, junk food and essays, drink gallons of fizzy drinks to stay awake. And in foreign thesis about, fact, if you’re going to stay up all night you can probably sneak off for a bit of a break now#8230; At about 9pm, once you’ve eaten all your snacks and had a good long break, and started realise quite how much you’ve got to do, and how much you’d rather be doing almost anything else, the sense of smug resolution starts to disappear. By 12, after the third coffee, you might feel OK again – but by 2, your head positively throbs and essays, your eyes are so itchy and bloodshot they’re basically half-closed. And by 4, you’re so light-headed with tiredness and hunger that you can barely read the words you’ve already written, let alone think of new ones. When you read your work back the next day, when it’s already too late, you’re horrified at the amount of typos, spelling mistakes and 6am sentences that just don’t make sense criss-crossing your page. That’s if you can work the next day, that is – staying up all night turns me into a zombie for two days at the very least. Of course, they’re sometimes inevitable – when a piece of buy papers, work takes longer than it should, or something goes wrong at the last minute.
But unless you’re one of those mad nocturnal bat-people who sleep all day and do their best work at 3am, don’t plan or rely on all-nighters. On Eating. They’re thoroughly horrible and definitely don’t produce good work. 4) Sit on social networking sites while studying. Hey, we all do it – when we’ve got a big piece of buy papers, work to do, that we know will require more than a couple of hours’ concentration and effort, we want to make the process as fun as possible. And there are lots of different ways of doing this: whether it’s planning to meet people for essays properly coffees or lunches to break the creative journey ideas day up; sitting and reading through notes in the sunshine rather than the library; going to essays on eating, the library with a friend and stopping work every few minutes to have a chat; or sitting with Facebook or Twitter open while we work, and buy papers for college, simultaneously conducting our social and properly, academic life from the childhood essay williams same desk.
The last two ways of getting round work are, in my experience, always a mistake. To garble some pop-science, our brains function on two different levels. The first level, the way we normally think, is properly fast, instinctive and emotional – always prompting us to the adventures of huckleberry thesis, act in response to our surroundings, this is the brain that helps us get through the day without being knocked over by a car or eaten by essays a lion. But the human mind can also function in a slower, more deliberative and logical way – taking its time over decisions in of huckleberry, order to reach stronger answers and, crucially, allowing for creative thought. This is the system of thinking we should aim to employ when working, whether it’s on a piece of writing or a set of maths problems: the slow, logical, creative brain. Essays On Eating. And in order to make the switch to this system, it’s crucial to shut out the distractions, the little things that trigger our instinctive reactions. Sitting with friends or on Facebook might seem like way to make working less stressful and more fun, but it’ll make it harder to focus and really think through a problem. It will mean that those problems take longer to solve, and the solutions end up being of a worse quality.
Try working alone, without distractions, for of huckleberry three- or four-hour bursts and essays properly, you’ll be astonished how much you get done, how much better your work is and how much more time you have left for the things you really want to do. Working in thesis statements, your room is a great route to procrastination. Working in your room always seems like a great idea at first: it’s nice and essays on eating, cosy, there’s easy access to essays of christmas, tea and essays properly, snacks and you don’t even have to get dressed. Of Huckleberry Thesis Statements. But I find that it’s a recipe for distraction: whether it’s the essays on eating clarion call of the delicious treats in the fridge prompting a break every five minutes, the lure of the television or the realisation that I really do desperately need to do laundry this very instant , I always find reasons to essays of christmas, distract myself at home. And what’s more, a day cooped up in a single room without achieving much or seeing anyone can leave you feeling lonely and on eating properly, stressed and mean that it’s difficult to switch off and relax in the same room at foreign about the end of the day. No – the library is the way to essays on eating, go. When you don’t understand or you can’t get the hang of threepenny essay, something, and you haven’t got a clue even how to begin, it can feel like you’re the essays on eating only person in the world who just doesn’t get it . I used to of christmas, sit in Science and Maths lessons for weeks on end without having a clue what was going on, copying the essays occasional thing down just to look like I was listening, lost in daydreams of bashing the girl next to me (who used to put her hand up to answer every single question ) very hard over the head with my graphical calculator, and sniggering unpleasantly if she ever got a question wrong. The thing I didn’t understand in essays, those dark Sciencey days was that no matter how bright or hard-working, everyone struggles with topics or concepts from properly time to opera, time. Essays On Eating Properly. Absolutely no one understands absolutely everything the first time they hear it; what makes a really successful student is how they deal with things they find difficult. Foreign Thesis About Homosexuality. Rather than ignoring tough topics, focusing on what they like and essays, declaring sadly that they ‘just don’t have a mathsy brain’, top students identify problems and deal with them early. If they don’t get something in writing journey ideas, class, they go home that day and read through their notes, a text book or their syllabus; they ask the teacher or a friend to essays, explain it to them again so that the problem doesn’t fester, becoming bigger and more stressful, and meaning that they don’t understand more things later on.
7) Leave work behind in the classroom. This isn’t the only time you should be thinking about work. Essay. When you were younger, listening in class and doing your homework, as well as the odd bit of revision for a test here and essays, there, were probably enough to guarantee that you always did brilliantly. But as you get older and start to specialise, everything suddenly seems to become more and more complex, and of christmas, teachers and essays properly, tutors use classes to throw huge amounts of information at you, aiming to of christmas, cover everything in essays on eating properly, a short space of time and expecting that you’ll go away and work on things independently. From your final years at school onwards, it makes a huge difference to your success if you consolidate what you’re learning as you go: shifting from a paradigm of relying on your teacher and classes, to of christmas, being more independent, and putting in the hours outside of lessons to properly, make sure you understand everything. This sounds scary but actually isn’t too tough if you do it regularly. Spend an threepenny essay, hour a day or a few hours at essays properly the end of a week reading through the notes you’ve made and relevant sections in your textbooks, jotting down any questions you want to essays of christmas, ask, checking anything you don’t understand with your teacher or against on eating properly, the book, and practising anything you find tough.
This will not only stop gaps developing in your knowledge as you progress, but will mean that by creative ideas the time you come to revise, you’ll have great, full notes, and will effectively have revised everything once already! Don’t let one bad grade dishearten you. Even the best students mess up sometimes, getting things wrong, making mistakes in tests or handing in pieces of work that totally bomb. But because these students tend to do well, they’re often confident enough to accept occasional failures, taking them in their stride and realising that having written one bad essay, or even a string of them, doesn’t make them incapable of doing well the next time. If you mess up once, a few times, or even for on eating properly a whole year, the childhood tennessee worst thing you can possibly do is essays let it knock your confidence and make you stop trying. Instead, tell yourself that you’re just as capable of doing well as anyone else, and ask your teacher for feedback on what the exact problem was and work on rectifying that thing the next time.
It might be that you then mess something else up but don’t let this stress you out. Making a mistake and learning a lesson often gives you a better understanding of the adventures thesis, how to succeed than flukily hitting the on eating properly jackpot the first time round. 4 Responses to #8220;8 Bad Habits Successful Students Don’t Have#8230; And How to Avoid Them#8221; July 18, 2015 at 9:35 am, Iorkyaan patricia said: Thank you so much. October 13, 2016 at 9:18 am, Rohit Kumar Gupta said: I am Rohit Kumar Gupta.i study in 11th stander .I also avoid all bed habit during study. Threepenny Opera Essay. October 30, 2015 at properly 1:48 am, Sangam Agarwal said: Habit No .1 deadline is really good. We can complete our work before time.
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We also offer low cost medical, dental, and vision insurance! apply via email or apply in person. Licensed Practical Nurse FT PT All Shifts. The LPN is responsible for the implementation and documentation of direct therapeutic, preventative restorative nursing care provided to residents. The LPN directly supervises the on eating properly work of the for college nursing staff and is responsible for supportive assistance in the general operations on on eating properly the assigned unit and shift. The LPN shall assist in training, supervision and evaluation of those staff members on childhood essay the assigned unit and essays properly shift and will organize and essay tennessee direct the daily management of the staff members, as well as the daily management of the unit. The LPN will administer medications and perform treatments as per assignment. The LPN will attend and participate in the stand up meetings, care plan conferences, and in-services.
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Your medical, dental and vision benefits will be effective on the 1st of the month following your start date!! If you are looking to become an essays properly RN, we offer an threepenny opera essay RN scholarship program in which we cover the full cost of classes including books, uniforms, and misc. fees. Send resume via email or apply in person. Certified Nursing Assistants - FT PT All Shifts. PLEASE DO NOT APPLY IF YOU ARE NOT A STATE CERTIFIED NURSING ASSISTANT. Certification as required by federal and essays properly state law. CNA's will answer residents' call lights, serve meals, make beds, feed, dress, groom, toilet, and bathe residents. CNA's will give massages, provide skin and personal care, take temperatures, pulse, respiration, and blood pressure. CNA's will help residents get in and out of bed and walk, escort residents, keep resident' rooms neat, set up equipment, perform light cleaning tasks and observe residents' physical, mental, and emotional conditions and report any change to creative ideas, the nursing staff. CNA's may need to work beyond normal working hours in other positions when necessary.
CNA's may be required to work on weekends and holidays, and on on eating shifts other than the one hired. Intermittent standing, walking, reaching, bending, stooping, kneeling, lifting in excess of 100, (with assisting devices or help of other staff members) lifting of up to 50 pounds of force to foreign about homosexuality, lift, push, pull, or otherwise move objects including the human body, fine hand coordination. $$ NOW OFFERING A $1,500 SIGN ON BONUS $$ 2ND Shift Differential Pay of $3.00 per essays properly, hour 3rd Shift Differential Pay of $1.25 per hour. Colonial Manor offers competitive pay as well as excellent benefits such as a 401K, paid sick, paid personal days, paid vacation time (3 weeks your first year!), tuition reimbursement and a credit union. We also offer low cost medical, dental, and vision insurance! If you are looking to become an the adventures thesis LPN, we offer an LPN scholarship program in which we cover the full cost of classes including books, uniforms, and essays on eating properly misc. fees.
Email your resume or apply in person. Assistant Director of Staff Development Full time. The Assistant Director Staff Development is responsible to assist with teaching and evaluating the core orientation course for all employees as well as the program for nursing assistants. The Assistant Director is of christmas, also responsible to assist in coordinating the in-service programs for all employees, and assist in evaluating educational needs for all employees within the essays facility. Threepenny Opera! The Assistant Director of essays properly, Staff Development participates in the quality improvement process and ensures that the staff is providing quality resident care.
Must be Licensed as a Registered Nurse by the State Board of Nurse Examiners. Bachelor's degree or one year's supervisory/teaching experience required. Previous nursing experiences in a long-term care facility. Evidence of continued educational advancement and maintenance of foreign thesis about homosexuality, up-to-date knowledge of essays, current trends and new developments. Must have the knowledge and ability to apply basic principles of nursing care in accordance with state nursing acts and standards.
Required to childhood essay, have an understanding of the following: Administering personal hygienic and therapeutic measures for residents and techniques within the parameters of the nurse practice act. Proper techniques for the delivery of medications and treatments. Documentation in the medical record that reflects the resident's condition, medication and treatments. Prevention of disease and application of universal precautions. Experience in care of the elderly, chronically ill, restorative nursing, unit management and quality assurance. Must possess or have the essays potential for leadership roles in creative journey, interdisciplinary cooperation, staff development, and essays resident/family relationships. Capability for of huckleberry statements independent decision-making formulation and delegation of responsibility. $$ NOW OFFERING AN $2,500 SIGN ON BONUS $$ Colonial Manor offers competitive pay as well as excellent benefits such as a 401K, paid sick, paid personal days, paid vacation time (3 weeks your first year!), tuition reimbursement and a credit union.
We also offer low cost medical, dental, and vision insurance! email your resume or apply in person. JOB PURPOSE: Responsible for the organization, supervision, administration and overall management of the essays on eating nursing service program in a 111 bed Skilled Nursing Unit. EDUCATION AND EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS: Current state professional license (RN). Three years experience in gerontological/rehabilitative nursing preferred. One-year experience or education in nursing service administration and essays of christmas supervision.
Bachelor's degree in Nursing or related field preferred. Working knowledge of applicable federal and on eating state regulations. Ability to of christmas, instruct, direct and properly lead staff. About! Computer experience preferred. Candidates may contact Nikki Rohrbach at 610-691-4574 or apply online:
JOB PURPOSE: Responsible for the organization, supervision, administration and overall management of the nursing service program. EDUCATION AND EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS: Current state professional license (RN). Three years experience in gerontological/rehabilitative nursing preferred. One-year experience or education in nursing service administration and essays properly supervision. Bachelor's degree in Nursing or related field preferred. Working knowledge of applicable federal and opera essay state regulations. Ability to instruct, direct and lead staff. Essays On Eating! Computer experience preferred. Candidates may contact Lourdes Morales at 717-706-2389 or apply online: Call or email us with any questions you might have.
660 Lonely Cottage Drive. Upper Black Eddy, PA 18972. Jobs are posted for members for a 60 day period free of charge. Contact us for posting specifications. The following must be included: 1. Email Job Postings in WORD Format to [email protected] 4. City and State. 5. Brief Summary of Position (max 150 words) 6. Compensation (Optional - max 50 words)
1. Mailing address. 2. Email address. 3. The Adventures Statements! Website address. 660 Lonely Cottage Drive - Upper Black Eddy, PA 18972. We are dedicated to properly, service and committed to caring.
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coming of age essay THE COMING ANARCHY. by Robert D. On Eating Properly. Kaplan. How scarcity, crime, overpopulation, tribalism, and disease are rapidly destroying the social fabric of finn, our planet. The Atlantic Monthly, February 1994. The Minister's eyes were like egg yolks, an aftereffect of some of the many illnesses, malaria especially, endemic in his country. Essays. There was also an irrefutable sadness in opera his eyes. He spoke in on eating properly a slow and creaking voice, the voice of hope about to expire. For College. Flame trees, coconut palms, and a ballpoint-blue Atlantic composed the background. Essays On Eating Properly. None of it seemed beautiful, though. Tennessee. In forty-five years I have never seen things so bad.
We did not manage ourselves well after the British departed. But what we have now is something worse--the revenge of the poor, of the social failures, of the people least able to bring up children in a modern society. Then he referred to the recent coup in essays on eating properly the West African country Sierra Leone. The boys who took power in Sierra Leone come from houses like this. The Minister jabbed his finger at a corrugated metal shack teeming with children. In three months these boys confiscated all the official Mercedes, Volvos, and BMWs and willfully wrecked them on the road. The Minister mentioned one of the coup's leaders, Solomon Anthony Joseph Musa, who shot the people who had paid for his schooling, in order to childhood essay tennessee williams, erase the humiliation and mitigate the power his middle-class sponsors held over essays on eating properly him. Tyranny is nothing new in Sierra Leone or in the rest of West Africa. But it is tennessee williams now part and parcel of an increasing lawlessness that is far more significant than any coup, rebel incursion, or episodic experiment in democracy. Crime was what my friend--a top-ranking African official whose life would be threatened were I to identify him more precisely--really wanted to talk about.
Crime is what makes West Africa a natural point of departure for my report on what the political character of our planet is likely to be in the twenty-first century. The cities of West Africa at essays properly, night are some of the unsafest places in the world. Streets are unlit; the police often lack gasoline for their vehicles; armed burglars, carjackers, and muggers proliferate. The government in Sierra Leone has no writ after dark, says a foreign resident, shrugging. Essay. When I was in the capital, Freetown, last September, eight men armed with AK-47s broke into the house of an American man.
They tied him up and stole everything of value. Forget Miami: direct flights between the essays United States and the Murtala Muhammed Airport, in neighboring Nigeria's largest city, Lagos, have been suspended by order of the U.S. Secretary of Transportation because of ineffective security at the terminal and its environs. A State Department report cited the airport for for college, extortion by law-enforcement and immigration officials. On Eating. This is one of the few times that the U.S. Essays Of Christmas. government has embargoed a foreign airport for essays properly, reasons that are linked purely to crime. In Abidjan, effectively the capital of the Cote d'Ivoire, or Ivory Coast, restaurants have stick- and gun-wielding guards who walk you the fifteen feet or so between your car and the entrance, giving you an eerie taste of the adventures finn, what American cities might be like in on eating properly the future. An Italian ambassador was killed by gunfire when robbers invaded an Abidjan restaurant. The family of the Nigerian ambassador was tied up and robbed at gunpoint in the ambassador's residence. After university students in the Ivory Coast caught bandits who had been plaguing their dorms, they executed them by the adventures of huckleberry thesis, hanging tires around their necks and setting the tires on fire. Essays On Eating. In one instance Ivorian policemen stood by and watched the necklacings, afraid to intervene. Each time I went to the Abidjan bus terminal, groups of for college, young men with restless, scanning eyes surrounded my taxi, putting their hands all over the windows, demanding tips for carrying my luggage even though I had only a rucksack.
In cities in six West African countries I saw similar young men everywhere--hordes of them. They were like loose molecules in a very unstable social fluid, a fluid that was clearly on essays on eating, the verge of igniting. You see, my friend the finn statements Minister told me, in the villages of Africa it is perfectly natural to essays on eating, feed at creative about journey, any table and lodge in any hut. But in the cities this communal existence no longer holds. Essays. You must pay for lodging and be invited for essay, food.
When young men find out that their relations cannot put them up, they become lost. They join other migrants and slip gradually into the criminal process. In the poor quarters of Arab North Africa, he continued, there is much less crime, because Islam provides a social anchor: of education and indoctrination. Here in West Africa we have a lot of superficial Islam and superficial Christianity. Western religion is undermined by essays on eating, animist beliefs not suitable to a moral society, because they are based on irrational spirit power. Here spirits are used to wreak vengeance by one person against another, or one group against another. Many of the atrocities in the Liberian civil war have been tied to belief in juju spirits, and the BBC has reported, in its magazine Focus on Africa, that in the civil fighting in adjacent Sierra Leone, rebels were said to have a young woman with them who would go to the front naked, always walking backwards and looking in threepenny opera a mirror to see where she was going.
This made her invisible, so that she could cross to the army's positions and on eating properly there bury charms . . . to improve the rebels' chances of success. Finally my friend the Minister mentioned polygamy. Designed for a pastoral way of life, polygamy continues to thrive in sub-Saharan Africa even though it is increasingly uncommon in Arab North Africa. Most youths I met on the road in West Africa told me that they were from threepenny extended families, with a mother in one place and a father in another. Translated to properly, an urban environment, loose family structures are largely responsible for foreign, the world's highest birth rates and the explosion of the HIV virus on the continent. Like the communalism and animism, they provide a weak shield against the corrosive social effects of life in cities.
In those cities African culture is being redefined while desertification and deforestation--also tied to overpopulation--drive more and properly more African peasants out of the countryside. West Africa is becoming the symbol of worldwide demographic, environmental, and societal stress, in which criminal anarchy emerges as the real strategic danger. Disease, overpopulation, unprovoked crime, scarcity of resources, refugee migrations, the increasing erosion of nation-states and international borders, and essay the empowerment of private armies, security firms, and international drug cartels are now most tellingly demonstrated through a West African prism. West Africa provides an appropriate introduction to the issues, often extremely unpleasant to discuss, that will soon confront our civilization. To remap the political earth the properly way it will be a few decades hence--as I intend to do in this article--I find I must begin with West Africa. There is no other place on the planet where political maps are so deceptive--where, in threepenny essay fact, they tell such lies--as in West Africa. Start with Sierra Leone. According to the map, it is a nation-state of defined borders, with a government in control of its territory. In truth the Sierra Leonian government, run by a twenty-seven-year-old army captain, Valentine Strasser, controls Freetown by day and by day also controls part of the rural interior.
In the essays on eating properly government's territory the national army is an unruly rabble threatening drivers and threepenny opera passengers at most checkpoints. Essays On Eating. In the other part of the country units of two separate armies from the essays war in Liberia have taken up residence, as has an army of Sierra Leonian rebels. The government force fighting the rebels is full of renegade commanders who have aligned themselves with disaffected village chiefs. A pre-modern formlessness governs the essays on eating properly battlefield, evoking the wars in medieval Europe prior to the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, which ushered in the era of organized nation-states. As a consequence, roughly 400,000 Sierra Leonians are internally displaced, 280,000 more have fled to neighboring Guinea, and another 100,000 have fled to Liberia, even as 400,000 Liberians have fled to Sierra Leone. The third largest city in Sierra Leone, Gondama, is a displaced-persons camp. With an additional 600,000 Liberians in Guinea and 250,000 in the Ivory Coast, the borders dividing these four countries have become largely meaningless. Even in quiet zones none of the governments except the Ivory Coast's maintains the schools, bridges, roads, and police forces in a manner necessary for functional sovereignty. The Koranko ethnic group in northeastern Sierra Leone does all its trading in thesis Guinea. Sierra Leonian diamonds are more likely to be sold in Liberia than in Freetown. In the eastern provinces of Sierra Leone you can buy Liberian beer but not the local brand.
In Sierra Leone, as in Guinea, as in essays on eating properly the Ivory Coast, as in thesis about homosexuality Ghana, most of the primary rain forest and on eating properly the secondary bush is being destroyed at an alarming rate. I saw convoys of trucks bearing majestic hardwood trunks to williams, coastal ports. When Sierra Leone achieved its independence, in 1961, as much as 60 percent of the country was primary rain forest. Now six percent is. In the Ivory Coast the proportion has fallen from 38 percent to eight percent. Essays On Eating Properly. The deforestation has led to soil erosion, which has led to more flooding and more mosquitoes. Virtually everyone in the West African interior has some form of buy papers, malaria. Sierra Leone is a microcosm of what is occurring, albeit in on eating properly a more tempered and gradual manner, throughout West Africa and much of the underdeveloped world: the withering away of central governments, the rise of tribal and regional domains, the unchecked spread of disease, and creative writing about journey ideas the growing pervasiveness of war. West Africa is reverting to the Africa of the Victorian atlas. It consists now of a series of coastal trading posts, such as Freetown and Conakry, and an interior that, owing to properly, violence, volatility, and disease, is childhood essay tennessee again becoming, as Graham Greene once observed, blank and unexplored. Essays. However, whereas Greene's vision implies a certain romance, as in the somnolent and charmingly seedy Freetown of his celebrated novel The Heart of the Matter, it is essay Thomas Malthus, the philosopher of essays, demographic doomsday, who is now the prophet of West Africa's future.
And West Africa's future, eventually, will also be that of most of the rest of the world. Consider Chicago. I refer not to Chicago, Illinois, but to of christmas, a slum district of Abidjan, which the young toughs in the area have named after the American city. (Washington is another poor section of Abidjan.) Although Sierra Leone is widely regarded as beyond salvage, the Ivory Coast has been considered an African success story, and Abidjan has been called the Paris of West Africa. Success, however, was built on two artificial factors: the high price of cocoa, of which the Ivory Coast is the properly world's leading producer, and the talents of essay tennessee, a French expatriate community, whose members have helped run the government and the private sector. The expanding cocoa economy made the Ivory Coast a magnet for migrant workers from all over on eating West Africa: between a third and a half of the country's population is now non-Ivorian, and journey ideas the figure could be as high as 75 percent in Abidjan. During the 1980s cocoa prices fell and the French began to leave. The skyscrapers of the essays on eating Paris of West Africa are a facade. Perhaps 15 percent of Abidjan's population of three million people live in shantytowns like Chicago and Washington, and creative the vast majority live in places that are not much better. Not all of these places appear on any of the essays readily available maps.
This is creative ideas another indication of properly, how political maps are the products of tired conventional wisdom and, in the Ivory Coast's case, of an elite that will ultimately be forced to childhood williams, relinquish power. Chicago, like more and more of Abidjan, is a slum in the bush: a checkerwork of corrugated zinc roofs and essays on eating properly walls made of cardboard and black plastic wrap. It is located in a gully teeming with coconut palms and oil palms, and is ravaged by flooding. Few residents have easy access to electricity, a sewage system, or a clean water supply. The crumbly red laterite earth crawls with foot-long lizards both inside and outside the shacks. Children defecate in a stream filled with garbage and pigs, droning with malarial mosquitoes. In this stream women do the washing.
Young unemployed men spend their time drinking beer, palm wine, and gin while gambling on pinball games constructed out of rotting wood and rusty nails. These are the same youths who rob houses in more prosperous Ivorian neighborhoods at night. One man I met, Damba Tesele, came to Chicago from the adventures of huckleberry Burkina Faso in on eating 1963. A cook by profession, he has four wives and thirty-two children, not one of whom has made it to high school. He has seen his shanty community destroyed by municipal authorities seven times since coming to foreign about homosexuality, the area. Each time he and on eating properly his neighbors rebuild.
Chicago is the latest incarnation. Fifty-five percent of the Ivory Coast's population is urban, and the proportion is essays of christmas expected to reach 62 percent by 2000. On Eating. The yearly net population growth is 3.6 percent. This means that the Ivory Coast's 13.5 million people will become 39 million by 2025, when much of the the adventures statements population will consist of urbanized peasants like those of Chicago. But don't count on on eating, the Ivory Coast's still existing then. Chicago, which is more indicative of Africa's and the Third World's demographic present--and even more of the future--than any idyllic junglescape of women balancing earthen jugs on the adventures thesis statements, their heads, illustrates why the Ivory Coast, once a model of Third World success, is becoming a case study in essays on eating properly Third World catastrophe. President Felix Houphouet-Boigny, who died last December at the age of about ninety, left behind a weak cluster of political parties and writing about a leaden bureaucracy that discourages foreign investment. On Eating Properly. Because the military is creative journey ideas small and the non-Ivorian population large, there is neither an obvious force to maintain order nor a sense of nationhood that would lessen the need for such enforcement. The economy has been shrinking since the mid-1980s. Though the French are working assiduously to preserve stability, the Ivory Coast faces a possibility worse than a coup: an anarchic implosion of essays on eating, criminal violence--an urbanized version of what has already happened in Somalia.
Or it may become an African Yugoslavia, but one without mini-states to replace the whole. Because the demographic reality of West Africa is a countryside draining into dense slums by the coast, ultimately the region's rulers will come to reflect the values of foreign thesis, these shanty-towns. There are signs of essays on eating, this already in Sierra Leone--and in buy papers Togo, where the essays on eating properly dictator Etienne Eyadema, in power since 1967, was nearly toppled in of huckleberry finn statements 1991, not by democrats but by thousands of youths whom the London-based magazine West Africa described as Soweto-like stone-throwing adolescents. Their behavior may herald a regime more brutal than Eyadema's repressive one. The fragility of essays, these West African countries impressed itself on me when I took a series of bush taxis along the Gulf of Guinea, from the Togolese capital of Lome, across Ghana, to Abidjan. The 400-mile journey required two full days of driving, because of stops at threepenny opera, two border crossings and an additional eleven customs stations, at each of which my fellow passengers had their bags searched.
I had to essays properly, change money twice and repeatedly fill in currency-declaration forms. I had to of huckleberry, bribe a Togolese immigration official with the equivalent of eighteen dollars before he would agree to put an exit stamp on my passport. Nevertheless, smuggling across these borders is rampant. The London Observer has reported that in 1992 the equivalent of $856 million left West Africa for Europe in the form of hot cash assumed to be laundered drug money. International cartels have discovered the utility of weak, financially strapped West African regimes. The more fictitious the actual sovereignty, the more severe border authorities seem to be in on eating properly trying to prove otherwise. Getting visas for these states can be as hard as crossing their borders. The Washington embassies of Sierra Leone and Guinea--the two poorest nations on about journey ideas, earth, according to a 1993 United Nations report on human development--asked for letters from my bank (in lieu of prepaid round-trip tickets) and also personal references, in order to prove that I had sufficient means to sustain myself during my visits. On Eating. I was reminded of my visa and currency hassles while traveling to childhood tennessee, the communist states of Eastern Europe, particularly East Germany and Czechoslovakia, before those states collapsed.
Ali A. Mazrui, the director of the on eating Institute of Global Cultural Studies at the State University of New York at Binghamton, predicts that West Africa--indeed, the whole continent--is on the verge of large-scale border upheaval. Mazrui writes, In the 21st century France will be withdrawing from West Africa as she gets increasingly involved in the affairs [of Europe]. France's West African sphere of influence will be filled by Nigeria--a more natural hegemonic power. . . . It will be under those circumstances that Nigeria's own boundaries are likely to threepenny essay, expand to essays on eating properly, incorporate the Republic of Niger (the Hausa link), the Republic of Benin (the Yoruba link) and conceivably Cameroon. The future could be more tumultuous, and bloodier, than Mazrui dares to say. France will withdraw from former colonies like Benin, Togo, Niger, and the Ivory Coast, where it has been propping up local currencies. It will do so not only because its attention will be diverted to new challenges in Europe and Russia but also because younger French officials lack the older generation's emotional ties to tennessee williams, the ex-colonies. Essays On Eating. However, even as Nigeria attempts to expand, it, too, is likely to split into homosexuality several pieces. The State Department's Bureau of on eating, Intelligence and threepenny essay Research recently made the following points in an analysis of Nigeria: Prospects for a transition to civilian rule and democratization are slim. . . Essays Properly. . The repressive apparatus of the state security service . . . will be difficult for the adventures finn statements, any future civilian government to control. . . . The country is becoming increasingly ungovernable. Properly. . . . Ethnic and regional splits are deepening, a situation made worse by an increase in essay williams the number of states from 19 to 30 and a doubling in essays properly the number of local governing authorities; religious cleavages are more serious; Muslim fundamentalism and evangelical Christian militancy are on the adventures of huckleberry finn thesis, the rise; and northern Muslim anxiety over southern [Christian] control of the economy is intense . . . the on eating properly will to keep Nigeria together is threepenny opera essay now very weak. Given that oil-rich Nigeria is a bellwether for the region--its population of roughly 90 million equals the on eating properly populations of all the other West African states combined--it is apparent that Africa faces cataclysms that could make the Ethiopian and Somalian famines pale in comparison. This is buy papers especially so because Nigeria's population, including that of its largest city, Lagos, whose crime, pollution, and overcrowding make it the cliche par excellence of Third World urban dysfunction, is set to double during the next twenty-five years, while the country continues to on eating properly, deplete its natural resources.
Part of West Africa's quandary is that although its population belts are horizontal, with habitation densities increasing as one travels south away from the creative writing about Sahara and toward the tropical abundance of the Atlantic littoral, the borders erected by European colonialists are vertical, and therefore at cross-purposes with demography and topography. Satellite photos depict the on eating same reality I experienced in the bush taxi: the Lome-Abidjan coastal corridor--indeed, the entire stretch of coast from Abidjan eastward to Lagos--is one burgeoning megalopolis that by any rational economic and geographical standard should constitute a single sovereignty, rather than the five (the Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, and threepenny opera Nigeria) into which it is currently divided. As many internal African borders begin to crumble, a more impenetrable boundary is being erected that threatens to isolate the continent as a whole: the wall of disease. Essays. Merely to visit West Africa in some degree of essays, safety, I spent about $500 for a hepatitis B vaccination series and other disease prophylaxis. Africa may today be more dangerous in this regard than it was in 1862, before antibiotics, when the explorer Sir Richard Francis Burton described the health situation on the continent as deadly, a Golgotha, a Jehannum. Of the approximately 12 million people worldwide whose blood is HIV-positive, 8 million are in Africa. In the capital of the Ivory Coast, whose modern road system only helps to spread the disease, 10 percent of the population is HIV-positive. On Eating. And war and refugee movements help the virus break through to more-remote areas of Africa. Alan Greenberg, M.D., a representative of the Centers for Disease Control in Abidjan, explains that in Africa the childhood williams HIV virus and tuberculosis are now fast-forwarding each other.
Of the approximately 4,000 newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients in Abidjan, 45 percent were also found to be HIV-positive. As African birth rates soar and essays properly slums proliferate, some experts worry that viral mutations and hybridizations might, just conceivably, result in a form of the AIDS virus that is threepenny easier to catch than the present strain. It is malaria that is most responsible for the disease wall that threatens to separate Africa and other parts of the Third World from properly more-developed regions of the planet in the twenty-first century. Carried by mosquitoes, malaria, unlike AIDS, is easy to catch. Most people in sub-Saharan Africa have recurring bouts of the disease throughout their entire lives, and it is mutating into increasingly deadly forms. The great gift of Malaria is utter apathy, wrote Sir Richard Burton, accurately portraying the situation in much of the Third World today. Visitors to malaria-afflicted parts of the for college planet are protected by a new drug, mefloquine, a side effect of which is vivid, even violent, dreams. But a strain of on eating properly, cerebral malaria resistant to mefloquine is creative writing journey now on the offensive. Consequently, defending oneself against malaria in Africa is becoming more and more like defending oneself against violent crime. You engage in behavior modification: not going out at dusk, wearing mosquito repellent all the time.
And the properly cities keep growing. I got a general sense of the future while driving from the airport to opera essay, downtown Conakry, the capital of Guinea. The forty-five-minute journey in heavy traffic was through one never-ending shantytown: a nightmarish Dickensian spectacle to essays on eating, which Dickens himself would never have given credence. The corrugated metal shacks and buy papers scabrous walls were coated with black slime. Stores were built out of rusted shipping containers, junked cars, and jumbles of essays on eating properly, wire mesh. The streets were one long puddle of opera essay, floating garbage. Mosquitoes and essays properly flies were everywhere. Children, many of whom had protruding bellies, seemed as numerous as ants. When the tide went out, dead rats and the skeletons of cars were exposed on buy papers for college, the mucky beach. In twenty-eight years Guinea's population will double if growth goes on at current rates. On Eating. Hardwood logging continues at a madcap speed, and people flee the childhood Guinean countryside for Conakry.
It seemed to me that here, as elsewhere in Africa and the Third World, man is challenging nature far beyond its limits, and essays nature is now beginning to take its revenge. Africa may be as relevant to the future character of about ideas, world politics as the essays on eating Balkans were a hundred years ago, prior to the two Balkan wars and the First World War. Then the threat was the collapse of of christmas, empires and the birth of nations based solely on tribe. Now the threat is essays more elemental: nature unchecked. Africa's immediate future could be very bad. The coming upheaval, in which foreign embassies are shut down, states collapse, and contact with the outside world takes place through dangerous, disease-ridden coastal trading posts, will loom large in the century we are entering. Threepenny. (Nine of twenty-one U.S. foreign-aid missions to be closed over the next three years are in Africa--a prologue to a consolidation of U.S. embassies themselves.) Precisely because much of essays on eating, Africa is set to go over childhood essay the edge at a time when the Cold War has ended, when environmental and demographic stress in essays on eating other parts of the tennessee williams globe is becoming critical, and when the post-First World War system of essays on eating properly, nation-states--not just in the Balkans but perhaps also in the Middle East--is about to be toppled, Africa suggests what war, borders, and ethnic politics will be like a few decades hence.
To understand the events of the writing about next fifty years, then, one must understand environmental scarcity, cultural and racial clash, geographic destiny, and the transformation of war. The order in which I have named these is not accidental. Properly. Each concept except the opera essay first relies partly on the one or ones before it, meaning that the last two--new approaches to mapmaking and to warfare--are the most important. They are also the properly least understood. I will now look at each idea, drawing upon about, the work of specialists and also my own travel experiences in various parts of the essays globe besides Africa, in order to fill in the blanks of a new political atlas. The Environment as a Hostile Power. For a while the media will continue to ascribe riots and other violent upheavals abroad mainly to ethnic and religious conflict. But as these conflicts multiply, it will become apparent that something else is afoot, making more and more places like Nigeria, India, and Brazil ungovernable. Mention the environment or diminishing natural resources in foreign thesis foreign-policy circles and you meet a brick wall of skepticism or boredom.
To conservatives especially, the very terms seem flaky. Public-policy foundations have contributed to essays on eating, the lack of interest, by funding narrowly focused environmental studies replete with technical jargon which foreign-affairs experts just let pile up on their desks. It is time to understand the environment for what it is: the national-security issue of the buy papers for college early twenty-first century. Essays Properly. The political and strategic impact of surging populations, spreading disease, deforestation and soil erosion, water depletion, air pollution, and, possibly, rising sea levels in critical, overcrowded regions like the Nile Delta and Bangladesh--developments that will prompt mass migrations and, in turn, incite group conflicts--will be the core foreign-policy challenge from which most others will ultimately emanate, arousing the public and uniting assorted interests left over from the foreign about homosexuality Cold War. In the twenty-first century water will be in dangerously short supply in such diverse locales as Saudi Arabia, Central Asia, and the southwestern United States. A war could erupt between Egypt and Ethiopia over Nile River water. Even in properly Europe tensions have arisen between Hungary and Slovakia over the damming of the Danube, a classic case of how environmental disputes fuse with ethnic and historical ones. The political scientist and erstwhile Clinton adviser Michael Mandelbaum has said, We have a foreign policy today in the shape of a doughnut--lots of peripheral interests but nothing at the center. For College. The environment, I will argue, is part of a terrifying array of problems that will define a new threat to on eating, our security, filling the hole in Mandelbaum's doughnut and allowing a post- Cold War foreign policy to emerge inexorably by need rather than by design. Our Cold War foreign policy truly began with George F. Kennan's famous article, signed X, published in Foreign Affairs in July of 1947, in which Kennan argued for a firm and for college vigilant containment of a Soviet Union that was imperially, rather than ideologically, motivated.
It may be that our post-Cold War foreign policy will one day be seen to have had its beginnings in an even bolder and more detailed piece of written analysis: one that appeared in the journal International Security. The article, published in essays the fall of 1991 by Thomas Fraser Homer-Dixon, who is the head of the Peace and Conflict Studies Program at buy papers for college, the University of Toronto, was titled On the Threshold: Environmental Changes as Causes of Acute Conflict. Essays. Homer-Dixon has, more successfully than other analysts, integrated two hitherto separate fields--military-conflict studies and the study of the physical environment. In Homer-Dixon's view, future wars and civil violence will often arise from scarcities of resources such as water, cropland, forests, and threepenny fish. Just as there will be environmentally driven wars and on eating refugee flows, there will be environmentally induced praetorian regimes--or, as he puts it, hard regimes. Countries with the childhood essay tennessee williams highest probability of acquiring hard regimes, according to on eating, Homer-Dixon, are those that are threatened by creative writing about journey, a declining resource base yet also have a history of state [read 'military'] strength.
Candidates include Indonesia, Brazil, and, of course, Nigeria. Though each of these nations has exhibited democratizing tendencies of late, Homer-Dixon argues that such tendencies are likely to be superficial epiphenomena having nothing to do with long-term processes that include soaring populations and shrinking raw materials. Democracy is problematic; scarcity is more certain. Indeed, the Saddam Husseins of the future will have more, not fewer, opportunities. In addition to engendering tribal strife, scarcer resources will place a great strain on many peoples who never had much of a democratic or institutional tradition to begin with. Over the next fifty years the earth's population will soar from essays 5.5 billion to more than nine billion. Though optimists have hopes for childhood, new resource technologies and free-market development in on eating the global village, they fail to note that, as the National Academy of Sciences has pointed out, 95 percent of the population increase will be in the poorest regions of the world, where governments now--just look at Africa--show little ability to function, let alone to finn thesis, implement even marginal improvements. Essays. Homer-Dixon writes, ominously, Neo-Malthusians may underestimate human adaptability in today's environmental-social system, but as time passes their analysis may become ever more compelling. While a minority of the human population will be, as Francis Fukuyama would put it, sufficiently sheltered so as to enter a post-historical realm, living in cities and suburbs in which the environment has been mastered and ethnic animosities have been quelled by bourgeois prosperity, an increasingly large number of people will be stuck in history, living in shantytowns where attempts to rise above poverty, cultural dysfunction, and ethnic strife will be doomed by a lack of water to drink, soil to for college, till, and on eating space to survive in. In the developing world environmental stress will present people with a choice that is essays increasingly among totalitarianism (as in Iraq), fascist-tending mini-states (as in essays Serb-held Bosnia), and road-warrior cultures (as in Somalia). Opera Essay. Homer-Dixon concludes that as environmental degradation proceeds, the size of the potential social disruption will increase.
Tad Homer-Dixon is an unlikely Jeremiah. Today a boyish thirty-seven, he grew up amid the sylvan majesty of Vancouver Island, attending private day schools. His speech is calm, perfectly even, and crisply enunciated. There is nothing in his background or manner that would indicate a bent toward pessimism. A Canadian Anglican who spends his summers canoeing on essays on eating properly, the lakes of buy papers for college, northern Ontario, and who talks about the essays on eating properly benign mountains, black bears, and Douglas firs of his youth, he is the opposite of the creative journey intellectually severe neoconservative, the kind at home with conflict scenarios. Nor is he an environmentalist who opposes development. My father was a logger who thought about essays on eating ecologically safe forestry before others, he says. He logged, planted, logged, and planted. He got out creative writing ideas, of the on eating properly business just as the creative writing about issue was being polarized by environmentalists.
They hate changed ecosystems. But human beings, just by carrying seeds around, change the natural world. As an only child whose playground was a virtually untouched wilderness and seacoast, Homer-Dixon has a familiarity with the natural world that permits him to see a reality that most policy analysts--children of on eating properly, suburbia and city streets--are blind to. We need to bring nature back in, he argues. We have to stop separating politics from the physical world--the climate, public health, and the environment. Quoting Daniel Deudney, another pioneering expert on the security aspects of the environment, Homer-Dixon says that for too long we've been prisoners of 'social-social' theory, which assumes there are only social causes for social and foreign thesis about homosexuality political changes, rather than natural causes, too. This social-social mentality emerged with the Industrial Revolution, which separated us from nature. But nature is on eating coming back with a vengeance, tied to tennessee williams, population growth.
It will have incredible security implications. Think of a stretch limo in on eating properly the potholed streets of thesis, New York City, where homeless beggars live. Inside the limo are the air-conditioned post-industrial regions of North America, Europe, the emerging Pacific Rim, and a few other isolated places, with their trade summitry and on eating computer-information highways. Outside is the rest of mankind, going in a completely different direction. We are entering a bifurcated world. Part of the globe is inhabited by Hegel's and Fukuyama's Last Man, healthy, well fed, and pampered by technology. The other, larger, part is inhabited by essays, Hobbes's First Man, condemned to a life that is poor, nasty, brutish, and short. Although both parts will be threatened by environmental stress, the Last Man will be able to master it; the First Man will not. The Last Man will adjust to the loss of underground water tables in the western United States. He will build dikes to save Cape Hatteras and on eating the Chesapeake beaches from rising sea levels, even as the of huckleberry finn statements Maldive Islands, off the coast of essays, India, sink into oblivion, and the shorelines of Egypt, Bangladesh, and Southeast Asia recede, driving tens of millions of writing about journey, people inland where there is properly no room for them, and thus sharpening ethnic divisions.
Homer-Dixon points to buy papers for college, a world map of soil degradation in his Toronto office. The darker the map color, the worse the degradation, he explains. The West African coast, the essays on eating properly Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, China, and Central America have the darkest shades, signifying all manner of degradation, related to winds, chemicals, and water problems. The worst degradation is generally where the opera population is highest. The population is generally highest where the soil is the best. So we're degrading earth's best soil. China, in Homer-Dixon's view, is the essays on eating quintessential example of environmental degradation.
Its current economic success masks deeper problems. Buy Papers For College. China's fourteen percent growth rate does not mean it's going to be a world power. It means that coastal China, where the economic growth is taking place, is on eating properly joining the rest of the essays Pacific Rim. The disparity with inland China is intensifying. Referring to the environmental research of essays properly, his colleague, the Czech-born ecologist Vaclav Smil, Homer-Dixon explains how the per capita availability of arable land in interior China has rapidly declined at foreign thesis about, the same time that the quality of that land has been destroyed by deforestation, loss of topsoil, and salinization.
He mentions the loss and essays on eating properly contamination of water supplies, the exhaustion of wells, the plugging of about, irrigation systems and reservoirs with eroded silt, and a population of 1.54 billion by the year 2025: it is on eating a misconception that China has gotten its population under control. Large-scale population movements are under way, from foreign thesis inland China to coastal China and from villages to cities, leading to a crime surge like the one in Africa and to growing regional disparities and conflicts in a land with a strong tradition of warlordism and a weak tradition of central government--again as in Africa. We will probably see the center challenged and fractured, and China will not remain the same on the map, Homer-Dixon says. Environmental scarcity will inflame existing hatreds and affect power relationships, at which we now look. In the summer, 1993, issue of Foreign Affairs, Samuel P. Huntington, of Harvard's Olin Institute for Strategic Studies, published a thought-provoking article called The Clash of Civilizations? The world, he argues, has been moving during the course of this century from nation-state conflict to ideological conflict to, finally, cultural conflict. I would add that as refugee flows increase and essays as peasants continue migrating to cities around the world--turning them into sprawling villages--national borders will mean less, even as more power will fall into the hands of less educated, less sophisticated groups. In the eyes of these uneducated but newly empowered millions, the real borders are the most tangible and intractable ones: those of culture and tribe. Writing Journey Ideas. Huntington writes, First, differences among civilizations are not only real; they are basic, involving, among other things, history, language, and essays on eating properly religion. Second . Threepenny Opera Essay. . . interactions between peoples of different civilizations are increasing; these increasing interactions intensify civilization consciousness.
Economic modernization is not necessarily a panacea, since it fuels individual and group ambitions while weakening traditional loyalties to the state. On Eating. It is worth noting, for example, that it is about ideas precisely the properly wealthiest and threepenny fastest-developing city in India, Bombay, that has seen the worst intercommunal violence between Hindus and Muslims. Consider that Indian cities, like African and Chinese ones, are ecological time bombs--Delhi and Calcutta, and also Beijing, suffer the worst air quality of any cities in the world--and it is apparent how surging populations, environmental degradation, and ethnic conflict are deeply related. Huntington points to interlocking conflicts among Hindu, Muslim, Slavic Orthodox, Western, Japanese, Confucian, Latin American, and possibly African civilizations: for instance, Hindus clashing with Muslims in India, Turkic Muslims clashing with Slavic Orthodox Russians in Central Asian cities, the West clashing with Asia. (Even in the United States, African-Americans find themselves besieged by essays, an influx of competing Latinos.) Whatever the laws, refugees find a way to crash official borders, bringing their passions with them, meaning that Europe and threepenny essay the United States will be weakened by cultural disputes. Because Huntington's brush is broad, his specifics are vulnerable to attack. In a rebuttal of on eating properly, Huntington's argument the the adventures of huckleberry finn thesis statements Johns Hopkins professor Fouad Ajami, a Lebanese-born Shi'ite who certainly knows the world beyond suburbia, writes in the September-October, 1993, issue of Foreign Affairs, The world of Islam divides and subdivides. The battle lines in the Caucasus . . On Eating Properly. . are not coextensive with civilizational fault lines. The lines follow the thesis statements interests of states.
Where Huntington sees a civilizational duel between Armenia and Azerbaijan, the Iranian state has cast religious zeal . . Essays Properly. . to the wind . . . in that battle the Iranians have tilted toward Christian Armenia. True, Huntington's hypothesized war between Islam and Orthodox Christianity is not borne out by the alliance network in the Caucasus. But that is only because he has misidentified which cultural war is foreign thesis about homosexuality occurring there. A recent visit to Azerbaijan made clear to me that Azeri Turks, the world's most secular Shi'ite Muslims, see their cultural identity in terms not of religion but of their Turkic race. On Eating Properly. The Armenians, likewise, fight the Azeris not because the latter are Muslims but because they are Turks, related to the same Turks who massacred Armenians in 1915. Turkic culture (secular and based on languages employing a Latin script) is battling Iranian culture (religiously militant as defined by Tehran, and wedded to childhood essay tennessee, an Arabic script) across the whole swath of Central Asia and the Caucasus. The Armenians are, therefore, natural allies of their fellow Indo-Europeans the Iranians. Huntington is correct that the Caucasus is a flashpoint of cultural and racial war. But, as Ajami observes, Huntington's plate tectonics are too simple. Two months of recent travel throughout Turkey revealed to me that although the Turks are developing a deep distrust, bordering on hatred, of fellow-Muslim Iran, they are also, especially in the shantytowns that are coming to essays properly, dominate Turkish public opinion, revising their group identity, increasingly seeing themselves as Muslims being deserted by a West that does little to help besieged Muslims in Bosnia and that attacks Turkish Muslims in the streets of Germany. In other words, the childhood essay tennessee Balkans, a powder keg for nation-state war at the beginning of the twentieth century, could be a powder keg for cultural war at the turn of the twenty-first: between Orthodox Christianity (represented by the Serbs and a classic Byzantine configuration of Greeks, Russians, and properly Romanians) and the House of Islam.
Yet in the Caucasus that House of foreign about, Islam is falling into a clash between Turkic and Iranian civilizations. Ajami asserts that this very subdivision, not to mention all the essays divisions within the opera essay Arab world, indicates that the West, including the essays on eating United States, is not threatened by Huntington's scenario. As the Gulf War demonstrated, the West has proved capable of playing one part of the House of essays, Islam against another. True. However, whether he is aware of it or not, Ajami is describing a world even more dangerous than the one Huntington envisions, especially when one takes into account Homer-Dixon's research on environmental scarcity. On Eating. Outside the essay tennessee stretch limo would be a rundown, crowded planet of skinhead Cossacks and juju warriors, influenced by essays, the worst refuse of Western pop culture and childhood essay tennessee ancient tribal hatreds, and essays on eating properly battling over scraps of overused earth in thesis about homosexuality guerrilla conflicts that ripple across continents and intersect in no discernible pattern--meaning there's no easy-to-define threat. Kennan's world of one adversary seems as distant as the world of Herodotus. Most people believe that the political earth since 1989 has undergone immense change. But it is minor compared with what is yet to come. The breaking apart and remaking of the atlas is only now beginning.
The crack-up of the Soviet empire and the coming end of Arab-Israeli military confrontation are merely prologues to the really big changes that lie ahead. Michael Vlahos, a long-range thinker for the U.S. Navy, warns, We are not in charge of the environment and the world is not following us. It is essays on eating properly going in many directions. Buy Papers. Do not assume that democratic capitalism is the last word in human social evolution. Before addressing the questions of maps and of warfare, I want to take a closer look at the interaction of on eating, religion, culture, demographic shifts, and threepenny opera essay the distribution of on eating, natural resources in a specific area of the world: the Middle East. Built on steep, muddy hills, the shantytowns of thesis, Ankara, the Turkish capital, exude visual drama. Altindag, or Golden Mountain, is essays properly a pyramid of dreams, fashioned from cinder blocks and corrugated iron, rising as though each shack were built on top of another, all reaching awkwardly and painfully toward heaven--the heaven of wealthier Turks who live elsewhere in the city.
Nowhere else on about ideas, the planet have I found such a poignant architectural symbol of man's striving, with gaps in house walls plugged with rusted cans, and leeks and onions growing on verandas assembled from planks of rotting wood. For reasons that I will explain, the Turkish shacktown is a psychological universe away from the essays properly African one. To see the twenty-first century truly, one's eyes must learn a different set of aesthetics. Essay Tennessee. One must reject the overly stylized images of travel magazines, with their inviting photographs of exotic villages and glamorous downtowns. There are far too many millions whose dreams are more vulgar, more real--whose raw energies and desires will overwhelm the visions of the elites, remaking the future into properly something frighteningly new. But in Turkey I learned that shantytowns are not all bad. Slum quarters in Abidjan terrify and repel the outsider. Essays Of Christmas. In Turkey it is the opposite.
The closer I got to Golden Mountain the better it looked, and the safer I felt. I had $1,500 worth of Turkish lira in one pocket and $1,000 in traveler's checks in essays properly the other, yet I felt no fear. Golden Mountain was a real neighborhood. The inside of threepenny opera, one house told the story: The architectural bedlam of cinder block and essays on eating sheet metal and cardboard walls was deceiving. Essays Of Christmas. Inside was a home--order, that is, bespeaking dignity. I saw a working refrigerator, a television, a wall cabinet with a few books and on eating properly lots of foreign about, family pictures, a few plants by a window, and essays a stove. Though the streets become rivers of mud when it rains, the about floors inside this house were spotless. Other houses were like this too. Schoolchildren ran along with briefcases strapped to their backs, trucks delivered cooking gas, a few men sat inside a cafe sipping tea. One man sipped beer. Alcohol is essays properly easy to obtain in Turkey, a secular state where 99 percent of the population is the adventures thesis Muslim.
Yet there is properly little problem of alcoholism. Crime against persons is infinitesimal. Writing About Journey. Poverty and essays illiteracy are watered-down versions of of christmas, what obtains in Algeria and Egypt (to say nothing of West Africa), making it that much harder for essays on eating properly, religious extremists to gain a foothold. My point in bringing up a rather wholesome, crime-free slum is this: its existence demonstrates how formidable is the fabric of which Turkish Muslim culture is essays made. A culture this strong has the potential to dominate the Middle East once again.
Slums are litmus tests for innate cultural strengths and weaknesses. Essays Properly. Those peoples whose cultures can harbor extensive slum life without decomposing will be, relatively speaking, the future's winners. Those whose cultures cannot will be the future's victims. Slums--in the sociological sense--do not exist in Turkish cities. The mortar between people and family groups is stronger here than in Africa. Resurgent Islam and Turkic cultural identity have produced a civilization with natural muscle tone. Turks, history's perennial nomads, take disruption in stride. The future of the Middle East is quietly being written inside the heads of Golden Mountain's inhabitants. Think of an Ottoman military encampment on the eve of the destruction of Greek Constantinople in 1453.
That is Golden Mountain. We brought the village here. But in childhood williams the village we worked harder--in the field, all day. So we couldn't fast during [the holy month of] Ramadan. Here we fast. Here we are more religious.
Aishe Tanrikulu, along with half a dozen other women, was stuffing rice into vine leaves from a crude plastic bowl. She asked me to join her under the shade of a piece of sheet metal. Each of essays, these women had her hair covered by a kerchief. In the city they were encountering television for the first time. We are traditional, religious people. The programs offend us, Aishe said. Another woman complained about the schools. Though her children had educational options unavailable in the village, they had to compete with wealthier, secular Turks. The kids from opera essay rich families with connections--they get all the places. More opportunities, more tensions, in other words.
My guidebook to on eating properly, Golden Mountain was an threepenny, untypical one: Tales From the Garbage Hills, a brutally realistic novel by a Turkish writer, Latife Tekin, about life in properly the shantytowns, which in Turkey are called gecekondus (built in a night). Buy Papers For College. He listened to the earth and wept unceasingly for water, for work and for the cure of the illnesses spread by the garbage and on eating the factory waste, Tekin writes. In the creative about journey most revealing passage of Tales From the Garbage Hills the squatters are told about a certain 'Ottoman Empire' . On Eating Properly. . . that where they now lived there had once been an empire of essays of christmas, this name. On Eating. This history confounded the squatters. The Adventures Thesis Statements. It was the essays properly first they had heard of it. Of Christmas. Though one of them knew that his grandfather and his dog died fighting the Greeks, nationalism and an encompassing sense of Turkish history are the province of the Turkish middle and upper classes, and of foreigners like me who feel required to have a notion of Turkey. But what did the Golden Mountain squatters know about the armies of Turkish migrants that had come before their own--namely, Seljuks and Ottomans? For these recently urbanized peasants, and their counterparts in Africa, the Arab world, India, and so many other places, the world is new, to adapt V. S. Naipaul's phrase.
As Naipaul wrote of urban refugees in India: A Wounded Civilization, They saw themselves at the beginning of things: unaccommodated men making a claim on their land for the first time, and out of chaos evolving their own philosophy of essays properly, community and self-help. For them the past was dead; they had left it behind in the villages. Everywhere in the developing world at the turn of the twenty-first century these new men and women, rushing into the cities, are remaking civilizations and redefining their identities in terms of religion and tribal ethnicity which do not coincide with the borders of existing states. In Turkey several things are happening at once. In 1980, 44 percent of Turks lived in cities; in 1990 it was 61 percent. By the year 2000 the figure is opera essay expected to be 67 percent.
Villages are emptying out essays properly, as concentric rings of gecekondu developments grow around Turkish cities. This is the foreign homosexuality real political and demographic revolution in Turkey and elsewhere, and foreign correspondents usually don't write about it. Whereas rural poverty is age-old and almost a normal part of the social fabric, urban poverty is socially destabilizing. Essays. As Iran has shown, Islamic extremism is the psychological defense mechanism of many urbanized peasants threatened with the loss of traditions in pseudo-modern cities where their values are under attack, where basic services like water and childhood essay tennessee williams electricity are unavailable, and where they are assaulted by a physically unhealthy environment. The American ethnologist and orientalist Carleton Stevens Coon wrote in 1951 that Islam has made possible the optimum survival and happiness of essays, millions of human beings in an increasingly impoverished environment over a fourteen-hundred-year period. Beyond its stark, clearly articulated message, Islam's very militancy makes it attractive to the downtrodden. It is the one religion that is prepared to fight. A political era driven by environmental stress, increased cultural sensitivity, unregulated urbanization, and the adventures refugee migrations is an essays on eating, era divinely created for the spread and intensification of Islam, already the world's fastest-growing religion. (Though Islam is spreading in of christmas West Africa, it is being hobbled by syncretization with animism: this makes new converts less apt to become anti-Western extremists, but it also makes for a weakened version of the faith, which is less effective as an antidote to crime.) In Turkey, however, Islam is painfully and awkwardly forging a consensus with modernization, a trend that is less apparent in the Arab and Persian worlds (and virtually invisible in Africa). In Iran the oil boom--because it put development and urbanization on a fast track, making the culture shock more intense--fueled the 1978 Islamic Revolution. But Turkey, unlike Iran and the Arab world, has little oil.
Therefore its development and urbanization have been more gradual. Islamists have been integrated into the parliamentary system for decades. The tensions I noticed in Golden Mountain are natural, creative ones: the kind immigrants face the world over. While the world has focused on religious perversity in Algeria, a nation rich in natural gas, and in Egypt, parts of whose capital city, Cairo, evince worse crowding than I have seen even in Calcutta, Turkey has been living through the Muslim equivalent of the Protestant Reformation. Resource distribution is strengthening Turks in another way vis-a-vis Arabs and Persians. Turks may have little oil, but their Anatolian heartland has lots of water--the most important fluid of the twenty-first century. Turkey's Southeast Anatolia Project, involving twenty-two major dams and essays irrigation systems, is impounding the waters of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
Much of the water that Arabs and perhaps Israelis will need to drink in the future is about journey ideas controlled by Turks. On Eating Properly. The project's centerpiece is the mile-wide, sixteen-story Ataturk Dam, upon which are emblazoned the words of modern Turkey's founder: Ne Mutlu Turkum Diyene (Lucky is the one who is a Turk). Unlike Egypt's Aswan High Dam, on the Nile, and Syria's Revolution Dam, on the Euphrates, both of which were built largely by Russians, the Ataturk Dam is a predominantly Turkish affair, with Turkish engineers and companies in charge. On a recent visit my eyes took in the immaculate offices and the adventures finn their gardens, the high-voltage electric grids and phone switching stations, the essays dizzying sweep of threepenny essay, giant humming transformers, the poured-concrete spillways, and the prim unfolding suburbia, complete with schools, for essays on eating properly, dam employees. Opera Essay. The emerging power of the Turks was palpable. Erduhan Bayindir, the site manager at the dam, told me that while oil can be shipped abroad to enrich only elites, water has to essays on eating properly, be spread more evenly within the society. . . . It is true, we can stop the flow of water into Syria and Iraq for about, up to eight months without the same water overflowing our dams, in order to essays on eating properly, regulate their political behavior. Power is essays of christmas certainly moving north in the Middle East, from the oil fields of Dhahran, on on eating properly, the Persian Gulf, to the water plain of Harran, in southern Anatolia--near the site of the foreign thesis Ataturk Dam. Essays. But will the nation-state of Turkey, as presently constituted, be the inheritor of this wealth? I very much doubt it. Whereas West Africa represents the of christmas least stable part of political reality outside Homer-Dixon's stretch limo, Turkey, an organic outgrowth of two Turkish empires that ruled Anatolia for 850 years, has been among the most stable.
Turkey's borders were established not by colonial powers but in a war of essays on eating properly, independence, in the early 1920s. Kemal Ataturk provided Turkey with a secular nation-building myth that most Arab and African states, burdened by artificially drawn borders, lack. That lack will leave many Arab states defenseless against a wave of Islam that will eat away at their legitimacy and frontiers in coming years. Yet even as regards Turkey, maps deceive. It is not only African shantytowns that don't appear on urban maps. Many shantytowns in Turkey and elsewhere are also missing--as are the considerable territories controlled by childhood tennessee williams, guerrilla armies and urban mafias.
Traveling with Eritrean guerrillas in what, according to the map, was northern Ethiopia, traveling in northern Iraq with Kurdish guerrillas, and on eating properly staying in a hotel in of huckleberry finn statements the Caucasus controlled by a local mafia--to say nothing of my experiences in West Africa--led me to develop a healthy skepticism toward maps, which, I began to realize, create a conceptual barrier that prevents us from comprehending the political crack-up just beginning to occur worldwide. Consider the map of the world, with its 190 or so countries, each signified by a bold and uniform color: this map, with which all of us have grown up, is on eating properly generally an invention of modernism, specifically of European colonialism. Modernism, in the sense of which I speak, began with the rise of creative journey, nation-states in essays properly Europe and was confirmed by of christmas, the death of feudalism at the end of the Thirty Years' War--an event that was interposed between the Renaissance and the Enlightenment, which together gave birth to essays, modern science. People were suddenly flush with an enthusiasm to categorize, to define. The map, based on scientific techniques of measurement, offered a way to classify new national organisms, making a jigsaw puzzle of neat pieces without transition zones between them. Frontier is itself a modern concept that didn't exist in the feudal mind. And as European nations carved out far-flung domains at opera, the same time that print technology was making the reproduction of maps cheaper, cartography came into its own as a way of creating facts by ordering the way we look at the world. In his book Imagined Communities: Reflections on essays, the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, Benedict Anderson, of Cornell University, demonstrates that the map enabled colonialists to writing about journey ideas, think about their holdings in terms of properly, a totalizing classificatory grid. . Journey Ideas. . . It was bounded, determinate, and therefore--in principle--countable.
To the colonialist, country maps were the equivalent of an accountant's ledger books. Maps, Anderson explains, shaped the grammar that would make possible such questionable concepts as Iraq, Indonesia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria. The state, recall, is a purely Western notion, one that until the essays on eating properly twentieth century applied to essays, countries covering only three percent of the earth's land area. Nor is the essays on eating properly evidence compelling that the state, as a governing ideal, can be successfully transported to areas outside the industrialized world. Of Christmas. Even the United States of America, in the words of one of our best living poets, Gary Snyder, consists of arbitrary and inaccurate impositions on what is essays really here.
Yet this inflexible, artificial reality staggers on, not only in the United Nations but in various geographic and creative journey ideas travel publications (themselves by-products of an age of elite touring which colonialism made possible) that still report on and photograph the essays world according to country. Newspapers, this magazine, and this writer are not innocent of the tendency. According to of huckleberry, the map, the great hydropower complex emblemized by the Ataturk Dam is situated in Turkey. Forget the map. Essays On Eating Properly. This southeastern region of Turkey is populated almost completely by Kurds. About half of the world's 20 million Kurds live in Turkey. The Kurds are predominant in an ellipse of buy papers, territory that overlaps not only with Turkey but also with Iraq, Iran, Syria, and the former Soviet Union. The Western-enforced Kurdish enclave in northern Iraq, a consequence of the 1991 Gulf War, has already exposed the fictitious nature of that supposed nation-state. On a recent visit to the Turkish-Iranian border, it occurred to essays, me what a risky idea the nation-state is. Here I was on the legal fault line between two clashing civilizations, Turkic and Iranian. Yet the reality was more subtle: as in essays of christmas West Africa, the border was porous and smuggling abounded, but here the people doing the smuggling, on both sides of the border, were Kurds.
In such a moonscape, over which peoples have migrated and settled in patterns that obliterate borders, the essays on eating properly end of the the adventures Cold War will bring on a cruel process of natural selection among existing states. No longer will these states be so firmly propped up by on eating, the West or the Soviet Union. Because the Kurds overlap with nearly everybody in the Middle East, on account of their being cheated out of a state in the post-First World War peace treaties, they are emerging, in effect, as the thesis natural selector--the ultimate reality check. They have destabilized Iraq and essays properly may continue to disrupt states that do not offer them adequate breathing space, while strengthening states that do. Because the Turks, owing to their water resources, their growing economy, and the social cohesion evinced by the most crime-free slums I have encountered, are on the verge of big-power status, and because the 10 million Kurds within Turkey threaten that status, the outcome of the tennessee williams Turkish-Kurdish dispute will be more critical to the future of the Middle East than the eventual outcome of the on eating recent Israeli-Palestinian agreement. America's fascination with the Israeli-Palestinian issue, coupled with its lack of interest in the Turkish-Kurdish one, is a function of its own domestic and ethnic obsessions, not of the cartographic reality that is about to transform the Middle East. The diplomatic process involving Israelis and Palestinians will, I believe, have little effect on the early- and mid-twenty-first-century map of the buy papers region. Israel, with a 6.6 percent economic growth rate based increasingly on high-tech exports, is about to enter Homer-Dixon's stretch limo, fortified by a well-defined political community that is an organic outgrowth of history and ethnicity. Like prosperous and peaceful Japan on the one hand, and war-torn and poverty-wracked Armenia on the other, Israel is a classic national-ethnic organism. Much of the Arab world, however, will undergo alteration, as Islam spreads across artificial frontiers, fueled by mass migrations into the cities and a soaring birth rate of more than 3.2 percent. Seventy percent of the Arab population has been born since 1970--youths with little historical memory of anticolonial independence struggles, postcolonial attempts at on eating, nation-building, or any of the Arab-Israeli wars.
The most distant recollection of these youths will be the West's humiliation of colonially invented Iraq in thesis about homosexuality 1991. Today seventeen out of twenty-two Arab states have a declining gross national product; in essays on eating the next twenty years, at current growth rates, the population of many Arab countries will double. These states, like most African ones, will be ungovernable through conventional secular ideologies. The Middle East analyst Christine M. Helms explains, Declaring Arab nationalism bankrupt, the political disinherited are not rationalizing the failure of Arabism . Of Christmas. . . Essays. or reformulating it. Alternative solutions are not contemplated. They have simply opted for creative journey, the political paradigm at the other end of the political spectrum with which they are familiar--Islam. Like the essays properly borders of of christmas, West Africa, the colonial borders of Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Algeria, and other Arab states are often contrary to cultural and political reality. As state control mechanisms wither in on eating the face of environmental and creative writing about journey demographic stress, hard Islamic city-states or shantytown-states are likely to emerge. The fiction that the impoverished city of essays on eating properly, Algiers, on the Mediterranean, controls Tamanrasset, deep in the Algerian Sahara, cannot obtain forever. Whatever the outcome of the peace process, Israel is destined to be a Jewish ethnic fortress amid a vast and for college volatile realm of on eating, Islam. In that realm, the violent youth culture of the Gaza shantytowns may be indicative of the writing coming era.
The destiny of Turks and Kurds is on eating properly far less certain, but far more relevant to the kind of map that will explain our future world. The Kurds suggest a geographic reality that cannot be shown in two-dimensional space. Threepenny. The issue in Turkey is not simply a matter of giving autonomy or even independence to Kurds in the southeast. This isn't the Balkans or the Caucasus, where regions are merely subdividing into smaller units, Abkhazia breaking off from properly Georgia, and so on. Federalism is not the answer. Kurds are found everywhere in the adventures statements Turkey, including the essays properly shanty districts of Istanbul and essays Ankara. On Eating. Turkey's problem is that its Anatolian land mass is the home of two cultures and languages, Turkish and Kurdish.
Identity in Turkey, as in India, Africa, and elsewhere, is more complex and subtle than conventional cartography can display. To appreciate fully the political and cartographic implications of postmodernism--an epoch of themeless juxtapositions, in essay tennessee williams which the classificatory grid of nation-states is going to on eating, be replaced by a jagged-glass pattern of city-states, shanty-states, nebulous and anarchic regionalisms--it is necessary to consider, finally, the whole question of war. Oh, what a relief to fight, to fight enemies who defend themselves, enemies who are awake! Andre Malraux wrote in Man's Fate. I cannot think of a more suitable battle cry for many combatants in threepenny opera essay the early decades of the twenty-first century. Essays Properly. The intense savagery of the fighting in such diverse cultural settings as Liberia, Bosnia, the threepenny opera essay Caucasus, and Sri Lanka--to say nothing of what obtains in American inner cities--indicates something very troubling that those of us inside the properly stretch limo, concerned with issues like middle-class entitlements and the future of interactive cable television, lack the thesis about homosexuality stomach to contemplate.
It is this: a large number of people on this planet, to whom the comfort and stability of a middle-class life is utterly unknown, find war and a barracks existence a step up rather than a step down. Just as it makes no sense to ask 'why people eat' or 'what they sleep for,' writes Martin van Creveld, a military historian at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, in The Transformation of War, so fighting in many ways is not a means but an end. Throughout history, for essays on eating, every person who has expressed his horror of war there is another who found in it the most marvelous of all the experiences that are vouchsafed to man, even to the point that he later spent a lifetime boring his descendants by recounting his exploits. When I asked Pentagon officials about the nature of war in the twenty-first century, the answer I frequently got was Read Van Creveld. The top brass are enamored of this historian not because his writings justify their existence but, rather, the opposite: Van Creveld warns them that huge state military machines like the Pentagon's are dinosaurs about to go extinct, and of huckleberry statements that something far more terrible awaits us. The degree to which Van Creveld's Transformation of War complements Homer-Dixon's work on the environment, Huntington's thoughts on cultural clash, my own realizations in traveling by foot, bus, and bush taxi in more than sixty countries, and America's sobering comeuppances in intractable-culture zones like Haiti and Somalia is startling.
The book begins by demolishing the notion that men don't like to fight. By compelling the essays on eating senses to focus themselves on the here and now, Van Creveld writes, war can cause a man to take his leave of them. As anybody who has had experience with Chetniks in essay Serbia, technicals in Somalia, Tontons Macoutes in Haiti, or soldiers in Sierra Leone can tell you, in places where the Western Enlightenment has not penetrated and where there has always been mass poverty, people find liberation in violence. In Afghanistan and elsewhere, I vicariously experienced this phenomenon: worrying about mines and ambushes frees you from worrying about mundane details of daily existence. If my own experience is too subjective, there is properly a wealth of data showing the sheer frequency of war, especially in the developing world since the opera essay Second World War.
Physical aggression is a part of essays, being human. Only when people attain a certain economic, educational, and cultural standard is this trait tranquilized. In light of the fact that 95 percent of the earth's population growth will be in the poorest areas of the globe, the question is not whether there will be war (there will be a lot of it) but what kind of war. And who will fight whom? Debunking the great military strategist Carl von Clausewitz, Van Creveld, who may be the most original thinker on war since that early-nineteenth-century Prussian, writes, Clausewitz's ideas . Threepenny. . . were wholly rooted in the fact that, ever since 1648, war had been waged overwhelmingly by states. Properly. But, as Van Creveld explains, the period of nation-states and, therefore, of state conflict is now ending, and with it the clear threefold division into government, army, and people which state-directed wars enforce. Thus, to see the future, the first step is to look back to the past immediately prior to the birth of modernism--the wars in medieval Europe which began during the Reformation and reached their culmination in the Thirty Years' War. Van Creveld writes, In all these struggles political, social, economic, and religious motives were hopelessly entangled.
Since this was an age when armies consisted of mercenaries, all were also attended by swarms of military entrepreneurs. Childhood Tennessee Williams. . . . Many of them paid little but lip service to the organizations for on eating properly, whom they had contracted to fight. Instead, they robbed the countryside on their own behalf. . . . Given such conditions, any fine distinctions . . . between armies on the one hand and peoples on the other were bound to break down. Tennessee Williams. Engulfed by war, civilians suffered terrible atrocities. Back then, in other words, there was no politics as we have come to understand the term, just as there is less and less politics today in on eating Liberia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sri Lanka, the Balkans, and the Caucasus, among other places. Because, as Van Creveld notes, the radius of trust within tribal societies is narrowed to one's immediate family and guerrilla comrades, truces arranged with one Bosnian commander, say, may be broken immediately by another Bosnian commander. Essays Of Christmas. The plethora of short-lived ceasefires in the Balkans and essays the Caucasus constitute proof that we are no longer in a world where the old rules of state warfare apply. Buy Papers. More evidence is provided by the destruction of medieval monuments in the Croatian port of essays, Dubrovnik: when cultures, rather than states, fight, then cultural and religious monuments are weapons of war, making them fair game.
Also, war-making entities will no longer be restricted to essays of christmas, a specific territory. Loose and shadowy organisms such as Islamic terrorist organizations suggest why borders will mean increasingly little and sedimentary layers of tribalistic identity and control will mean more. From the vantage point of the present, there appears every prospect that religious . Essays. . . fanaticisms will play a larger role in the motivation of armed conflict in the West than at any time for the last 300 years, Van Creveld writes. Threepenny Opera. This is why analysts like Michael Vlahos are closely monitoring religious cults. Vlahos says, An ideology that challenges us may not take familiar form, like the old Nazis or Commies. Essays. It may not even engage us initially in ways that fit old threat markings. Van Creveld concludes, Armed conflict will be waged by men on earth, not robots in space. It will have more in common with the struggles of primitive tribes than with large-scale conventional war.
While another military historian, John Keegan, in his new book A History of Warfare, draws a more benign portrait of primitive man, it is foreign thesis about homosexuality important to point out that what Van Creveld really means is re-primitivized man: warrior societies operating at a time of unprecedented resource scarcity and essays on eating planetary overcrowding. Van Creveld's pre-Westphalian vision of worldwide low-intensity conflict is not a superficial back to the future scenario. First of all, technology will be used toward primitive ends. Threepenny Opera. In Liberia the guerrilla leader Prince Johnson didn't just cut off the ears of President Samuel Doe before Doe was tortured to death in 1990--Johnson made a video of it, which has circulated throughout West Africa. In December of 1992, when plotters of a failed coup against the Strasser regime in Sierra Leone had their ears cut off at Freetown's Hamilton Beach prior to being killed, it was seen by many to be a copycat execution. Considering, as I've explained earlier, that the properly Strasser regime is not really a government and that Sierra Leone is not really a nation-state, listen closely to childhood essay tennessee, Van Creveld: Once the legal monopoly of properly, armed force, long claimed by the state, is wrested out of its hands, existing distinctions between war and crime will break down much as is already the case today in of huckleberry finn . . . Essays On Eating Properly. Lebanon, Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Peru, or Colombia. If crime and war become indistinguishable, then national defense may in the future be viewed as a local concept. As crime continues to grow in our cities and the ability of state governments and criminal-justice systems to protect their citizens diminishes, urban crime may, according to Van Creveld, develop into low-intensity conflict by coalescing along racial, religious, social, and political lines. As small-scale violence multiplies at home and abroad, state armies will continue to shrink, being gradually replaced by a booming private security business, as in finn statements West Africa, and by urban mafias, especially in on eating properly the former communist world, who may be better equipped than municipal police forces to grant physical protection to buy papers, local inhabitants. Future wars will be those of communal survival, aggravated or, in many cases, caused by environmental scarcity.
These wars will be subnational, meaning that it will be hard for states and local governments to protect their own citizens physically. This is how many states will ultimately die. As state power fades--and with it the state's ability to essays on eating properly, help weaker groups within society, not to mention other states--peoples and cultures around the world will be thrown back upon their own strengths and weaknesses, with fewer equalizing mechanisms to protect them. Whereas the distant future will probably see the emergence of a racially hybrid, globalized man, the coming decades will see us more aware of our differences than of our similarities. To the average person, political values will mean less, personal security more.
The belief that we are all equal is liable to be replaced by the overriding obsession of the ancient Greek travelers: Why the foreign thesis about homosexuality differences between peoples? In Geography and the Human Spirit, Anne Buttimer, a professor at University College, Dublin, recalls the work of an on eating, early-nineteenth-century German geographer, Carl Ritter, whose work implied a divine plan for humanity based on regionalism and a constant, living flow of forms. The map of the buy papers future, to the extent that a map is even possible, will represent a perverse twisting of Ritter's vision. Essays On Eating. Imagine cartography in three dimensions, as if in a hologram. In this hologram would be the threepenny overlapping sediments of group and essays on eating properly other identities atop the merely two-dimensional color markings of city-states and the remaining nations, themselves confused in places by buy papers for college, shadowy tentacles, hovering overhead, indicating the power of essays, drug cartels, mafias, and about private security agencies. Instead of borders, there would be moving centers of power, as in the Middle Ages. Many of these layers would be in motion.
Replacing fixed and abrupt lines on a flat space would be a shifting pattern of buffer entities, like the Kurdish and Azeri buffer entities between Turkey and on eating properly Iran, the opera essay Turkic Uighur buffer entity between Central Asia and Inner China (itself distinct from coastal China), and the Latino buffer entity replacing a precise U.S.-Mexican border. To this protean cartographic hologram one must add other factors, such as migrations of essays on eating, populations, explosions of birth rates, vectors of essay, disease. Henceforward the map of the world will never be static. On Eating. This future map--in a sense, the Last Map--will be an for college, ever-mutating representation of chaos. The Indian subcontinent offers examples of what is happening. For different reasons, both India and essays properly Pakistan are increasingly dysfunctional. The argument over of christmas democracy in these places is less and less relevant to the larger issue of governability. In India's case the question arises, Is one unwieldy bureaucracy in New Delhi the on eating properly best available mechanism for promoting the lives of 866 million people of diverse languages, religions, and ethnic groups? In 1950, when the Indian population was much less than half as large and for college nation-building idealism was still strong, the argument for essays, democracy was more impressive than it is now. Given that in 2025 India's population could be close to 1.5 billion, that much of its economy rests on a shrinking natural-resource base, including dramatically declining water levels, and that communal violence and urbanization are spiraling upward, it is difficult to imagine that the creative writing journey Indian state will survive the next century. India's oft-trumpeted Green Revolution has been achieved by overworking its croplands and depleting its watershed.
Norman Myers, a British development consultant, worries that Indians have been feeding themselves today by borrowing against their children's food sources. Pakistan's problem is more basic still: like much of Africa, the country makes no geographic or demographic sense. It was founded as a homeland for the Muslims of the subcontinent, yet there are more subcontinental Muslims outside Pakistan than within it. Like Yugoslavia, Pakistan is a patchwork of ethnic groups, increasingly in violent conflict with one another. While the Western media gushes over the fact that the essays on eating country has a woman Prime Minister, Benazir Bhutto, Karachi is becoming a subcontinental version of Lagos. In eight visits to Pakistan, I have never gotten a sense of a cohesive national identity. For College. With as much as 65 percent of its land dependent on intensive irrigation, with wide-scale deforestation, and with a yearly population growth of 2.7 percent (which ensures that the amount of cultivated land per rural inhabitant will plummet), Pakistan is becoming a more and more desperate place.
As irrigation in the Indus River basin intensifies to serve two growing populations, Muslim-Hindu strife over falling water tables may be unavoidable. India and Pakistan will probably fall apart, Homer-Dixon predicts. Their secular governments have less and essays on eating properly less legitimacy as well as less management ability over people and resources. Rather than one bold line dividing the threepenny essay subcontinent into properly two parts, the future will likely see a lot of thinner lines and smaller parts, with the ethnic entities of Pakhtunistan and Punjab gradually replacing Pakistan in the space between the childhood williams Central Asian plateau and the heart of the subcontinent. None of this even takes into account climatic change, which, if it occurs in the next century, will further erode the capacity of existing states to cope. India, for instance, receives 70 percent of its precipitation from the monsoon cycle, which planetary warming could disrupt. Not only will the three-dimensional aspects of the Last Map be in constant motion, but its two-dimensional base may change too. The National Academy of Sciences reports that as many as one billion people, or 20 per cent of the world's population, live on lands likely to be inundated or dramatically changed by rising waters. . Essays Properly. . . Low-lying countries in essay tennessee the developing world such as Egypt and Bangladesh, where rivers are large and the deltas extensive and densely populated, will be hardest hit. . . . Where the rivers are dammed, as in the case of the Nile, the on eating properly effects . Creative Writing Journey Ideas. . . will be especially severe. Egypt could be where climatic upheaval--to say nothing of the more immediate threat of increasing population--will incite religious upheaval in truly biblical fashion. Natural catastrophes, such as the October, 1992, Cairo earthquake, in which the government failed to deliver relief aid and slum residents were in many instances helped by their local mosques, can only strengthen the position of Islamic factions.
In a statement about greenhouse warming which could refer to any of a variety of natural catastrophes, the environmental expert Jessica Tuchman Matthews warns that many of us underestimate the essays on eating extent to which political systems, in affluent societies as well as in places like Egypt, depend on the underpinning of natural systems. She adds, The fact that one can move with ease from Vermont to Miami has nothing to say about the consequences of Vermont acquiring Miami's climate. Indeed, it is not clear that the United States will survive the next century in exactly its present form. Because America is opera a multi-ethnic society, the nation-state has always been more fragile here than it is in more homogeneous societies like Germany and Japan. James Kurth, in an article published in The National Interest in 1992, explains that whereas nation-state societies tend to essays on eating, be built around a mass-conscription army and a standardized public school system, multicultural regimes feature a high-tech, all-volunteer army (and, I would add, private schools that teach competing values), operating in a culture in which the buy papers for college international media and entertainment industry has more influence than the national political class. Essays. In other words, a nation-state is the adventures of huckleberry thesis a place where everyone has been educated along similar lines, where people take their cue from national leaders, and where everyone (every male, at essays on eating properly, least) has gone through the crucible of military service, making patriotism a simpler issue. Writing about his immigrant family in for college turn-of-the-century Chicago, Saul Bellow states, The country took us over.
It was a country then, not a collection of 'cultures.' During the Second World War and the decade following it, the United States reached its apogee as a classic nation-state. On Eating Properly. During the 1960s, as is now clear, America began a slow but unmistakable process of transformation. The signs hardly need belaboring: racial polarity, educational dysfunction, social fragmentation of buy papers, many and on eating properly various kinds. William Irwin Thompson, in Passages About Earth: An Exploration of the New Planetary Culture, writes, The educational system that had worked on the Jews or the Irish could no longer work on the blacks; and when Jewish teachers in New York tried to take black children away from their parents exactly in the way they had been taken from theirs, they were shocked to encounter a violent affirmation of negritude. Issues like West Africa could yet emerge as a new kind of foreign-policy issue, further eroding America's domestic peace. The spectacle of several West African nations collapsing at once could reinforce the worst racial stereotypes here at home. That is another reason why Africa matters. We must not kid ourselves: the sensitivity factor is higher than ever. The Washington, D.C., public school system is foreign about homosexuality already experimenting with an Afrocentric curriculum. Summits between African leaders and prominent African-Americans are becoming frequent, as are Pollyanna-ish prognostications about multiparty elections in Africa that do not factor in crime, surging birth rates, and resource depletion.
The Congressional Black Caucus was among those urging U.S. involvement in Somalia and in Haiti. At the Los Angeles Times minority staffers have protested against, among other things, what they allege to essays, be the racist tone of the essay tennessee williams newspaper's Africa coverage, allegations that the editor of the on eating properly World Report section, Dan Fisher, denies, saying essentially that Africa should be viewed through the same rigorous analytical lens as other parts of the world. Africa may be marginal in creative writing journey ideas terms of conventional late-twentieth-century conceptions of strategy, but in an age of cultural and essays on eating properly racial clash, when national defense is increasingly local, Africa's distress will exert a destabilizing influence on essay, the United States. This and many other factors will make the United States less of a nation than it is today, even as it gains territory following the essays properly peaceful dissolution of essays of christmas, Canada. On Eating Properly. Quebec, based on the bedrock of Roman Catholicism and Francophone ethnicity, could yet turn out to be North America's most cohesive and crime-free nation-state. (It may be a smaller Quebec, though, since aboriginal peoples may lop off northern parts of the province.) Patriotism will become increasingly regional as people in of christmas Alberta and Montana discover that they have far more in common with each other than they do with Ottawa or Washington, and Spanish-speakers in the Southwest discover a greater commonality with Mexico City. (The Nine Nations of North America, by Joel Garreau, a book about the continent's regionalization, is more relevant now than when it was published, in 1981.) As Washington's influence wanes, and with it the properly traditional symbols of American patriotism, North Americans will take psychological refuge in childhood essay their insulated communities and cultures. Returning from West Africa last fall was an essays on eating, illuminating ordeal. After leaving Abidjan, my Air Afrique flight landed in Dakar, Senegal, where all passengers had to disembark in order to foreign thesis about homosexuality, go through another security check, this one demanded by U.S. Properly. authorities before they would permit the flight to set out for New York. Once we were in New York, despite the midnight hour, immigration officials at Kennedy Airport held up disembarkation by opera essay, conducting quick interrogations of the aircraft's passengers--this was in addition to all the normal immigration and customs procedures. It was apparent that drug smuggling, disease, and other factors had contributed to the toughest security procedures I have ever encountered when returning from overseas.
Then, for the first time in over a month, I spotted businesspeople with attache cases and laptop computers. When I had left New York for Abidjan, all the businesspeople were boarding planes for Seoul and Tokyo, which departed from essays properly gates near Air Afrique's. The only non-Africans off to West Africa had been relief workers in T-shirts and williams khakis. On Eating. Although the borders within West Africa are increasingly unreal, those separating West Africa from the outside world are in about homosexuality various ways becoming more impenetrable. But Afrocentrists are right in one respect: we ignore this dying region at our own risk.
When the Berlin Wall was falling, in November of 1989, I happened to be in Kosovo, covering a riot between Serbs and Albanians. The future was in Kosovo, I told myself that night, not in Berlin. The same day that Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat clasped hands on the White House lawn, my Air Afrique plane was approaching Bamako, Mali, revealing corrugated-zinc shacks at the edge of an expanding desert. The real news wasn't at the White House, I realized. It was right below.
Copyright copy; 1994 by Robert Kaplan. All rights reserved. The Atlantic Monthly; February 1994; The Coming Anarchy; Volume 273, No. 2; pages 44-76. Also see: Thomas Homer-Dixon, Jeffrey Boutwell, and George Rathjens, Environmental Scarcity and Violent Conflict, Scientific American, February 1993; and from Homer-Dixon, Environmental Scarcity and Global Security Headline Series (New York: Foreign Policy Association, 1993).
The Project on on eating, Environment, Population and Security: Conflict, Sustainable Development Center for Security Studies and Conflict Research The American Association for the Advancement of Science's gopher.
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No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the essays on eating properly, narrative of why you’re ideal for threepenny the job. No matter how long you’ve been in essays properly, a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to buy papers for college, get through them. Check out essays on eating these tips for thesis statements writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in properly, tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person.
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If you’re not sure how to essays, explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on the adventures of huckleberry finn thesis, a resume often starts to sound like a list of on eating, meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to writing ideas, get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the on eating properly, same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work.
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Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the essays, most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is essays on eating properly more specific to the job, list that first to grab the about ideas, reviewer’s attention.
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Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out creative about journey ideas one of essays properly, those sections and listing it on foreign thesis about homosexuality, its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and essays properly, detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial.
Maybe you help raise money for threepenny your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Essays! Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to creative writing journey, include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the on eating properly, company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker?
Zhang shares the of huckleberry thesis statements, proper ways to on eating, include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. Of Christmas! If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. Properly! According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about of christmas your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and essays, make it less of an issue.
Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at creative about journey, the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for properly killing it on thesis homosexuality, your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on on eating properly, your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it).
While parenting is as demanding and buy papers for college, intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. Essays On Eating Properly! 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in thesis about, you, he or she will ask you for on eating properly references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to foreign homosexuality, address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an essays on eating properly editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer.
To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and for college, Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Essays Properly! Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in.
When your resume is foreign thesis homosexuality updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the essays on eating properly, company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for buy papers for college help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in essays properly, touch at threepenny, eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.
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companionship essay All online transactions are done using all major Credit Cards or Electronic Check through either PayPal™ or Moneybookers™. These are safe, secure, and efficient ways to essays on eating properly make payment online. In the course of human existence, leisure has been perceived as an essential aspect of life. Harris (2005) defines leisure as the activities that a person undertakes during free time away from productivity and the experience associated with these activities. Foreign Thesis. Leisure plays an integral role in the development and fulfillment of the lives of essays on eating individuals (Harris 2005, 25). Empirical research suggests that leisure activities have more impact on a person’s quality of life than any other aspect of experience and behavior; however, the traditional work ethic places emphasis on productivity, which implies that people inclined to the traditional work ethic are likely to shun away leisure activities. Taking into threepenny essay, consideration all the evidence pointing out the on eating properly, benefits of leisure and for college, recreation, Cross (2004) argues that there is the need to balance the traditional work ethic with leisure.
In fact, many countries are implementing official government policies to promote participation in leisure activities. There is scientific documentation outlining the essays on eating properly, benefits of leisure activities such as mental and physical health, family bonding, environmental benefits and economic development (Jenkins Pigram 2003). Creative Writing Journey Ideas. Further, many people can readily outline the benefits of properly leisure and recreation such as physical and health fitness, stress, testing skills, coping, learning, and the adventures finn statements, family bonding. This evidence illustrates that benefits gained from essays on eating properly leisure activities are probably equal and may surpass the benefits attained from other public utilities like fire protection, sanitation, transportation, educational, and housing services. It is evident that these services have well established, and clearly articulated funding policies and programs whereas there are few government units that give the same resources and attention towards the provision of public services (Rojek, Shaw Veal 2006). Perhaps, contributing factors to for college this state of affairs is the “Puritan Ethic” that opposes social productivity, which is a misconception because an individual can play and work hard, but recreation is required for efficient work performance (Cross 2004). Essays Properly. Most benefits of leisure are accrued at the individual level for threepenny, recreationists using the essays on eating, leisure opportunities; however, these individual benefits result in other benefits having collective or social merit. This paper makes a case that there is the buy papers for college, need to substantially and widely appreciate the social good of leisure.
The paper outlines five key benefits of leisure, which include economic, physiological, environmental, psychological and social benefits. The paper also evaluates whether the benefits of leisure are feasible to achieve in a modern society. Empirical evidence has documented the economic benefits associated with leisure expenditures and investments, which includes the amounts that people are willing to pay to use leisure services and the economic impacts associated with these expenditures (Harris 2005). Numerous studies affirm that recreationists show signs of great enthusiasm to spend for available leisure opportunities. Further, recreationists usually spend in excess in terms of essays on eating use fees and entrance costs, which points out the high levels of supposed advantage gained by these consumers (Cross 2004). In fact, economic data show that the leisure industry is extremely immense, and threepenny opera, one of the largest industries in the globe measured in essays terms of income generation, cash flows, and generation of opportunities for employment (Jenkins Pigram 2003). According to Sharp et al. (2006), travel and tourism is the globe’s leading generator of cash flows among countries, which is larger than global transactions for automobiles and agricultural products that produce “big ticket” items in the global market.
In addition, tourism is ranked top three in all industry sectors in at least 40 states in the US in terms of employment and income generation. Essays Of Christmas. Business statistics about spending customers point out the enormous size of the leisure industry (Harris 2005). For instance, the Disney World in California has attracted more than 300,000,000 visitors since its opening in 1955, the properly, Alamo in Texas hosts more 2.2 million visitors yearly, and the Colorado Ski Country USA reported that its best season was 10.4 million skier visits (Cross 2004). Further, there is a popular belief that the creative nature of leisure increases the quality and quantity of employee productivity. It is evident that the identified economic benefits of leisure activities result in collective good for the people rather than for creative writing about ideas, individuals (Goodin et al. 2005). Properly. Exploiting the essay williams, economic potential of the leisure industry requires the formulation of a national leisure and tourism policy. There is the need to redirect public attention towards leisure because it is one of the leading foreign exchange, income and employment generators (Jewell 1997). Scientific evidence has documented the physiological benefits associated with regular physical exercises. Persistent aerobic exercises results in cardiovascular benefits through reducing the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, which in turn increase the essays on eating properly, density of lipids in the blood and prevents hypertension (McLean, Hurd Brattain 2007).
The fundamental inference from this observation is that outdoor recreational activities improve physical wellness. Studies affirm that people who engage in park activities regularly have less doctor visits, low blood pressure and of christmas, body mass indexes than people who do not participate in park activities. In addition, outdoor recreational activities offer an ideal opportunity to participate in physical exercise (Leitner Leitner 2004). A study reports that the accessibility of recreational facilities in an area has a profound effect on the levels of physical activities undertaken by residents. Essays Properly. Regular exercise helps in reducing spinal problems, improving neuropsychological functioning, and enhances bone mass and strength. Further, exercising helps in increasing muscle strength and about homosexuality, lung capacity, which reduces the risk of diseases and increases the physical wellness of an essays on eating properly, individual (Jeannae et al.
2003). Whereas all these benefits of regular exercise cannot be attributed utterly to leisure, many people embark on exercising during leisure time. In addition, physical activities are a prerequisite of most recreational activities that are undertaken with personal goals in mind rather than achieving physical fitness. Most of the for college, aforementioned physiological benefits are derived from stress management activities undertaken purposefully during leisure times (Goodin et al. 2005). Essays. These behaviors also play a vital role in promoting psycho physiological advantages such as reducing anxiety and tension, enhancing physical and mental relaxation, reducing stress hormones and positive alterations of mood; these benefits result in an enhanced individual outlook towards life. The fundamental inference is that enhanced relaxed states lead to other benefits like improved work and social productivity and create an overall sense of individual wellbeing. Although the psychological benefits benefit individuals, they mount to broader implications that result in social good of the public because the society profits from healthy and productive individuals (Dru 2009).
Besides economic and physiological benefits, there is empirical evidence pointing out the psychological benefits of creative writing journey ideas participating in leisure activities. Cross (2005) considers mental wellness as an essential component of overall health that influences physical wellness. Taking part in leisure activities helps in improving stress management and reducing depression. Goodin et al. Properly. (2005) points out that leisure provides an individual with the of christmas, opportunity to achieve balance in life. The California State Parks report of 2005 reveals that participation in leisure activities helps in reducing depression (Kraus 2006). Further, the report maintained that the essays on eating, thought of past outdoor recreational experiences helps in foreign thesis homosexuality improving moods. The list of psychological benefits associated with leisure activities is essays on eating, lengthy, which includes perceived sense of foreign thesis individual independence, self worth, autonomy and freedom; improved self reliance, competence and confidence; enhanced leadership skills; and improved interpersonal relationship skills such as high levels of tolerance and understanding (Leitner Leitner 2004). Other reported psychological benefits of leisure activities include improved creativity, cognitive efficiency and problem solving skills. All these psychological benefits serve to enhance the quality of life because physical recreation improves self esteem, which results in properly considerable impacts on mental and physical health. In the American Recreation Coalition study undertaken in tennessee 2000, 90% of participants reported high levels of satisfaction in terms of their mental and health fitness (Stebbins 2007).
On the contrary, about 60% of people who did not engage in physical activity reported dissatisfaction with their physical fitness and mental health (Sharp et al. 2006). According to Goodin et al. (2006), the psychological benefits of properly leisure play a significant role in maintaining and promoting characteristics that improve a person’s ability to of huckleberry finn statements contribute to, and function in the society. This implies that these psychological benefits are of significant advantage to people and contribute towards the social good of the community because the welfare of a society is evident through the welfare of the people (Torkildsen 2005). Leisure also results in social and cultural benefits (Cross 2004). Conceivably, social benefits are the most documented contributions of leisure, which include taking pride in on eating properly one’s community and the resulting community satisfaction. For instance, communities take pride in their local magnificent amenity resources, sports teams, and monuments, which help people to buy papers for college understand their culture better (Jewell 1997). Leisure opportunities and resources play an essential role in maintaining identity and central values of the essays, community.
Without doubt, spending on leisure by tourists is significant in essays guaranteeing stability and encouraging economic development of on eating properly various communities, states and the nation. Of Huckleberry Thesis. As aforementioned, it is apparent that both onsite and offsite utilization of recreation facilities helps in promoting historic and cultural awareness and improving the on eating, understanding of the natural environment (Jeannae et al. 2003). Further, leisure activities and resources play a pivotal role in of huckleberry finn statements maintaining and enhancing ethnic identities and meeting the on eating, distinctive requirements of certain segments in foreign about society that cannot be realized otherwise. At some stage in leisure time, there is the strengthening of family bonds and essays properly, other forms of tennessee social integration and cohesion, which helps in adding meaning to life.
For instance, leisure does not only encourage the on eating, formation of a healthier societal discourse but also strengthens family relations. Creating time recreation makes a person to spend time with special individuals in the family and buy papers, friends such as elderly, children and persons with disabilities, which helps in essays on eating properly strengthening relationships and ultimately strengthens society at large resulting in social integration and cohesion that attaches meaning to life. Sharp et al. (2006) affirms that companionship and social support systems results in longer, disease-free and high quality life. It is apparent that these systems emphasize on the utilization of leisure opportunities. Goodin et al. Of Christmas. (2005) believes that leisure is a prerequisite for child development, reducing social alienation and facilitating recovery and treatment of on eating properly institutionalized populations.
In addition, leisure serves to writing ideas ease the on eating, burden of confinement for certain populations such as jailed individuals. According to essay williams Rojek, Shaw, Veal (2005), appropriate administration and structuring of leisure opportunities can lead to significant eradication of essays on eating properly criminal behavior, drug abuse and other deviant behavior in society. Jenkins Pigram (2008) cite significant contributions of of christmas leisure towards environmental protection. Although environmental benefits are not well documented as the aforementioned benefits, they are readily observable. Properly. The need to establish recreational opportunities and places implies that people have an tennessee williams, obligation to on eating maintain and protect the environment from potential harm. The use leisure opportunities such as forest resorts and local parks contribute significantly towards the creation of a greener environment (Dru 2009). As a result, leisure is not only vital for physical and health fitness, and strong relationships, but also contributes towards a greener environment. The 1964 Wilderness Act for recreation had the primary objective of preserving the leisure opportunities for the primitive forms of recreation. This implies that preservation and creation of recreation opportunities is one of the numerous driving forces used to protect the natural environment, heritage sites and cultural histories. Cross (2004) assumes that on-site recreational utilization and appreciation of leisure areas helps in promoting environmental learning and journey ideas, nurturing environmentally sound behaviors, which are vital towards the attainment of sustainability.
In conclusion, it is evident that there are numerous benefits of essays properly leisure that led to the social good of the community. The paper has identified five core benefits of leisure including economic, physiological, environmental, psychological and social benefits. It is evident that these benefits are observed at both the individual and societal level. In addition, it is evident that these benefits are feasible in the modern society. The paper also affirmed that the tennessee, benefits gained from leisure activities are probably equal and may surpass the essays on eating properly, benefits attained from other public utilities like fire protection, sanitation, transportation, educational, and buy papers, housing services. However, this social good has been appreciated and essays properly, promoted by essays only a few government units. Government programs usually allocate more resources on essays other public services, yet fail to essays of christmas recognize the contributions of leisure to the larger society. In order to reap the benefits of leisure, there is the essays, need to writing journey the government, at all levels, to identify and acknowledge the value of leisure and allocate appropriate resources towards promoting leisure opportunities in the community. In addition, there is the properly, need to sensitize the public on the benefits of the adventures of huckleberry finn thesis participating in leisure activities. The government must award leisure the same parity it gives other public services; achieving this requires the need to integrate the benefits of essays on eating leisure in the principles of foreign about public management and finance. Cross, GS 2004, Encyclopedia of recreation and leisure in America.
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