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Avangate Acquires 2Checkout to Expand Payment Flexibility and Broaden Market Reach. Avangate Acquires 2Checkout to Expand Payment Flexibility and Broaden Market Reach. How to Promote my Software Business with White Papers? White papers have become a popular marketing tool especially in the field of business and politics. Corporations aim to of a essay, sell information or new products as solutions to their customers by posting a white paper online. The purpose of a white paper is to new common app essay, educate readers and help them make decisions in choosing the software that suits their needs best. Components Of A Good Essay! In this case the document in question can quickly turn into a commercial tool that advertises the coursework def company's products or services. Perry Marshall, authority in good online-marketing at Google AdWords considers white papers as the most effective marketing tools and phd thesis database europe, gives us the trivial example of the drill. When buying a drill, what do we consider first? The drill or the hole after drilling? This is the components good essay logic one we should focus on if we want to new common app essay, increase our sales.
It generates more sales, credibility and trust Your paper gets to components essay, be known by IT directors and corporate executives, so if your paper gets read, you win a lot out of it provided your paper is well-written; It makes readers curious also about what you have to offer Readers respond positively when advertising a problem-solving information Online users are searching for 2015, quality content. From the creator's point of view, it is good to components of a good essay, know that sales can be much increased provided that the paper is professionally written. Elaborating such a paper is not supposed to a case of study, be overwhelming nor cause burnout effects, and given that you keep your focus, then you'll have the best out of of a good, it. When writing a white paper you should mainly concentrate on the problems your customers may have and only later provide them with solutions. This is when your audience is likely to read the white paper.
If you give solutions first, the coursework def audience is prone to turn away from the components of a very beginning. Thus, it is phd thesis vital to emphasize on the reader's interests and desires above your own. A white paper is effective no matter what kind of business you have, i.e. business-to-business or business-to-consumer. - A White Paper offers solutions to your prospects' problems; - It doesn't try to praise your company or products; - It makes the reader curious when reading it; - It urges the reader to components of a good essay, take action and statement for residency application and guidance, search more for the problem solving product. Writing a white paper is components good not an easy task and it can definitely be a challenge. First of contoh, all you have to think about how to make it short and concise, but still convey the right ideas to the prospect. Then you need to pay attention on the language you use. Don't sound too complicated, avoid technical expressions as much as possible and try to provide real information in order to be credible. Make the headlines clear and good essay, specific.
Here are some guidelines on how to resume, organize your white paper: Introduction - gives you an insight of the paper without stating the whole conclusion. It should be not longer than one paragraph. Sometimes customers read only the introductory part and the conclusion, so better provide material that gives them a reason to keep on reading. Problem - provide readers with general information that helps them understand facts about certain issues and to identify themselves with the problem described. Solution ; propose your solution to the problems in question, explain how the software works in of a good essay general. Database Europe! Given enough details, readers can make their own decisions about the components of a usefulness of the coursework def proposed solution.
Advertisement - tell the readers about your product or services but ONLY after you have convinced them of the truths of your argument. Explain them why your solution is the best available. Components Of A Good! Talk about the benefits and provide supporting evidence. Conclusion - write a one paragraph summary of why your solution is the best. Emphasize the advantage of speech, using this product as well as the disadvantage of not using it.
Also, don't forget to mention the works cited and the hyperlink sources you used. Give the reader details about how you can be contacted. Good! Visit your site? Contact your company? Michael Stelzner presents in his book, Writing White Papers: How to Capture Readers and Keep Them Engaged some tips about how to make a white paper a successful marketing tool.
Here are some outlines on how to write your white paper: Use graphics, charts, diagrams, tables and photos. They make a white paper more appealing and convincing and they are likely to increase its credibility. Give examples and study cases, they are much sought after. Readers want to see facts, real cases, inspiring stories. Use casual, easy-understandable language. Stick to no more than 25 pages. The length of a white paper usually varies between 4 and 25 pages. Writing more than that becomes risky, as you may lose the audience. Cite third-party sources (analyst research or industry reports) whenever is possible.
Avoid direct selling. People hate the idea of knowing that they are offered something for money. Write in a positive non-salesy style. Focus on benefits more than features. This is how they'll know that you are not trying to sell them something they don't want.
They have the contoh opportunity to see what the service is for. Just as simple. Use new and practical information. It would be a pity to pass on information that is maybe out-of-date. So, a deep research on the topic is components good essay more than recommended before starting writing a white paper. Use concrete hints or How tos Avoid such as revolutionary, cutting edge etc. Phd Thesis Database! If your product is any of of a good essay, these things, buyers will definitely recognize that. But let's take a concrete example - the app essay 2015 eXtensible Metadata Platform white paper (PDF) from Adobe which is a good example of how a white paper should be like. You can see below exactly the main advantages that this white paper has: Clear headlines, chapters, layout and design; PDF format; Readable font size; not everybody has a perfect eyesight; Friendly tone, plain English; Visual auxiliary material to help readers understand the topic better and break the monotony of reading plain text; Real information provided with the description of the technology.
These are meant to convince the prospects about the features and functionality of the components of a application. Purpose of the service clearly explained and a case of study, shown: the phrase computers can read and understand the of a labels is spread over five lines and is highlighted; Footnotes for auxiliary explanations; Abbreviations given from the beginning: XMP stands for eXtensible Metadata Platform; Creative subheads that are playful (Bean Data Analogy is the the personal statement application and guidance title given to the 2nd chapter); Content divided into good essay digestible chunks with use of bullets in order to make the text readable; Benefits, application, case studies (companies wanting to label reports, documents etc.; newspaper publishers wishing to label the in pursuasive speech testing contents of each day's paper; hardware manufacturers who need a labeling system for the manual for essay, each product and so on) Not a boring content; Summary and conclusion concentrated and new common 2015, easily understandable. We also developed a white paper section on our site. Of A Essay! We use white papers in order to in pursuasive speech, catch as many email addresses as possible in order to components of a good essay, have more subscribers for our newsletter; of course we ask for their permission first :). This is a common use of the white papers: to gather leads details and generate awareness.
Here's our latest white paper: 9 Tips on How to Help your Reseller - Based Software Business Move!, you will notice the coursework def very easy sign up procedure; the interested people just write down their email address and that’s all. Writing a white paper is not all. You need to pass it over to your targeted audience. Components Of A Good! People have to read it. Here are some ideas on how to do it: Offer the paper on websites/blogs that your target audience visits; Auto responder or newsletters; Distribute printed copies on trade shows; Offer free copies through pay-per-click advertising; Buy banners or sponsored links; Create a special area on your website and promote the white paper on related pages. White papers are effective tools in selling your products without actually focusing on sales. Introduction In Pursuasive Testing! If your product or service is reliable and you know its worth, then this is the answer for you. Components Good Essay! Many companies have tried it and statistics prove its functionality. Read the new common app essay testimonials of some important business people and convince yourself!
This article may be reproduced in a website, e-zine, CD-ROM, book, magazine, etc. so long as the above information is included in full, including the link back to this website. Please e-mail at #x61;#114;#116;#x69;#99;#x6c;#101;#x73;#x40;#97;#118;#x61;#x6e;#103;#x61;#x74;#x65;#x2e;#99;#111;#109;, before using the article. Whether it's news you're looking for or an expert's advice on how to sell software, SaaS or digital goods online, you came to the right place. Find guidance in our latest eBooks, webinars, reports and components of a, conversations with industry thought leaders to further increase revenue, maximize the value of introduction, every customer, and components of a essay, expand global reach.
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nus law essay ARTICLES, TALKS, and the like. On this page you will find a variety of essays spoken and written, in whole or in of a essay excerpt or summary, devoted to the topic of women's topfreedom. TERA does not necessarily agree with everything expressed here. We will post more material as time allows.
The topfreedom dilemma (by the girl who wrote One small step for topfreedom, Adelle Shea; posted 2006 Septermber 10) Baring our breasts (by Oquawka, posted 2004 September 27) One small step for topfreedom (by a girl in Edmonton, Alberta, posted 2004 May 20) Buffaloed (by John Aaron, posted 2004 March 16) Wal-Mart is wrong (by Julia Goforth, posted 2002 December 28)
Discriminatoire! (by Isabelle, posted 2002 December 14) [in French] Key West's Fantasy Fest: (by Bruce Frendahl, posted 2002 November 03) John, John, John: a poem about the boob in the Hall of Justice (by Claire Braz Valentine, posted 2002 April 30) The Judge (by Kayla Sosnow, posted 2001 October 25) Canadian Tire attire (by Julia Goforth, 2001 July 07) Beauty and the Breast: An Art Exhibition (by Allison Roberts, 2001 June 01) The KAYLA SOSNOW interview (by Peri, 2000 March 30 and April 10) I am not a sex object. I own my own body (by Allison Ezell, 2001 April 10) You can think for yourself (by Whitney R. McCleskey, 2001 May 9) Topfree as you wanna be! (by Peri, 1999 September 7) A taste of review freedom (by Cindy Olsen, 1999 September 14) My breasts reclaimed (by a woman in Ontario, Canada, 2001 April 27) Articles by Paul Rapoport: Burn this page . . . (2005 November 28) Barebreasted women: Exposing indecency?
Outline and Summary (2001 June 1) 'Topfreedom' gaining ground (2000 March 01, a response to Topless advocates ignore differences between genders, by Lydia Lovric, 2000 February 23) Breastfeeding frenzy: Two views (1999 February 25, with update note 2001 August 27) Women's bare breasts: Equal rights or double standard? Summary (1998 March 11) Women take back their breasts: Canadian topfree struggles in components 1997 (1997 October, excerpts and web link) Are barebreasted women monsters from a case of study, space? (1997 August) THE TOPFREEDOM DILEMMA. The person who wrote the components next item has drawn a telling cartoon on the subject in three frames: She concluded with this: The only way people will get used to seeing the naked female breast is by s eeing the naked female breast. Database? Can't get any simpler, can it!
UNCOVERED: CELEBRATING WOMEN IN NEW YORK CITY. by Jordan Matter. The author is a noted New York photographer. Four of his photos are below; two more are here. Jordan Matter is looking for of a good essay women above 40 (especially 60 and over) to participate in an ongoing photography project titled Uncovered: Celebrating Women in New York City. This project has recently been featured several times in the New York Daily News, as well as WOL radio. It involves photographs of women casually going about their daily routine in coursework def public while topfree.
The project is a reaction to the public madness that followed Janet Jackson's wardrobe malfunction. Public topfreedom for women and components of a good men in New York State is coursework def completely legal. If you're interested, please contact Jordan Matter. After Janet Jackson's breast was briefly exposed during the Super Bowl halftime show in 2004, the components Federal Communications Commission launched an investigation as a reaction to phd thesis europe the public outrage. Meanwhile, advertisements showing scantily clad models hawking beer received no such attention. The message to women across America was clear: your body is something to be used but not shown. Conceal your breasts behind 150 grams of fabric and you're an attractive, desirable woman; but remove that fabric and you're at best an aggressive opportunist. This double standard leads many women towards an extremely negative self-image. They are measured by components good essay, the highest physical standards, unmatchable by even the application review and guidance standard bearers themselves. Heidi Klum doesn't even look like Heidi Klum in person.
So women rely on smoke and components essay mirrors, spending a small fortune on pushup bras, body slimmers, and stiletto heels. To reveal what's beneath the packaging renders it in effect useless. App Essay 2015? This project reveals what's beneath the packaging. Components Of A? And it does so very publicly. Men are free to rip off their shirts with absolute impunity. I am encouraging women to do the same. The purpose is to demystify the female body.
To accomplish this, I have chosen to photograph women topless in the most public venue in the world---New York City. When I photographed Alicia, she was lying down on coursework def, a curb in Soho. A van with two men was parked three metres away. They were very excited when they saw the purpose of the components photograph. First they sat in for residency review and guidance stunned silence, then they hooted and hollered.
But after five minutes they lost interest, and left before the shoot was finished. Her body was no longer mysterious. The women I have photographed all mention the liberation they feel while posing topless in public. Having covered themselves up for components good essay a lifetime, they found it exhilarating to shatter the walls that society had placed around them. The Personal Statement Review? I hope that when people view this work, they get a sense of that exhilaration---because it can be intoxicating, and inspiring. I want to have a national conversation about beauty.
I'd like to sponsor a Pants Only parade, where men and women march in topfree solidarity down Fifth Avenue. I want Americans to see so many bodies that they move beyond the mindless, petty titillation of cleavage and physical beauty and into a more meaningful conversation about humanity and individuality. LETTER TO THE GOVERNOR OF CALIFORNIA. by Julia Goforth. The following letter was written in the winter of 2004, in response to the move by California public defender Liana Johnsson to permit women more topfreedom in that state. I am having a difficult time finding out your position on the proposed bill for female breast equality. Components Of A? I would think that your background would cause you to have a more enlightened view than that of the coursework def more gymnophobic westerner. From what I've read, the arguments against the proposed bill are based in components good fear rather than fact.
Statistics related to sex crimes against women indicate that countries/cultures that allow female breast freedom have a lower incidence of a case of study such crimes. Components Good? In North America, states and provinces which do not criminalize the phd thesis database female breast have not suddenly become states of indecency. In fact, very few women choose to good essay exercise their right to be topfree, due to the shame they still carry from the ongoing sexualization of the female breast by those who can profit by such measures. Randy Thomasson, president of Campaign for Children and Families, insinuates that allowing women to choose to wear tops or not will increase sex crimes against women. This is in direct opposition to studies concerning predators, as sexual assault is not a crime of sex but one of power. When a woman has the courage to choose freedom and comfort, she projects power and is unlikely to become a victim.
Predators prey on I'm weak body language. Publicly reclaiming ownership of one's breasts is not an act of a weak woman. His claim is not based in fact and is propaganda meant to induce fear and introduction in pursuasive speech on animal testing perpetuate body shame. Components Of A? A side note: body shame is the root of the personal statement for residency application eating disorders, body-altering surgeries, and related societal diseases which are damaging our families in far greater numbers than even the current rate of sex crimes. Breast shame also prevents some women from performing breast exams and components essay getting mammograms.
It was you who proclaimed October to coursework def be Breast Cancer Awareness Month. As a victim of sexual assault, rape, and of a good sexual abuse, having the bagus opportunity to components of a good essay reclaim my breasts has helped heal my formerly devastated body image and self concept. While I do not encourage other women to in pursuasive speech on animal go without tops, I do encourage them to make a conscious choice rather than allow others to make the choice for them. Without choice, one is oppressed and enslaved. And although I have the right to choose, I rarely choose to good essay be topfree. Thomasson goes on to say, The average man views a woman's exposed breasts as fascinating and sexually stimulating. That view is a result of this culture's teaching that breasts are taboo and intended for male sexual gratification only. Only 12% of the world's cultures view the female breast as sexual. Contoh Bagus? Biologically speaking, female breast development is components essay a secondary sex trait, the same as male facial hair is. The female breast's primary function is not one of a sexual nature.
The biased laws perpetuate the for residency application myth that the female breast is components essay inherently sexual. Sexuality of the introduction on animal testing breasts ought to be at the discretion of the owners, not the lawmakers. US case law has already determined that the female breast isn't genitals, and that mere breast exposure doesn't constitute indecency or lewd and components of a good essay lascivious behaviour. Punishing women for having the misfortune of being women by denying the right to choose whether or not to in pursuasive speech on animal testing wear a top is akin to punishing African-Americans for being African-Americans by denying them the right to sit where they want on a bus, attend a school with Caucasians, and vote. The opinion of individuals doesn't supersede the components of a essay Constitution of the USA. Contoh? To deny women the choice of wearing a top or not is a violation of the 14th Amendment, as this is imposed on the basis of one's sex. Children are not harmed by essay, the sight of female breasts. They are harmed by resume, prejudices and components good essay bigotry. Coursework Def? Numerous studies indicate it is the parents' attitudes toward exposed breasts that determine how the components of a good child will be affected.
It is the gymnophobic parental response that traumatizes the phd thesis database child, not the breast itself. The occasional exposure to the bare breast (pardon the pun), if managed in a respectful manner, would provide an opportunity to educate and enlighten children (and adults) of the intended function of the female breast. Protecting the components good female breast from criminalization would help support breastfeeding mothers and help desensitize society. It would also make nursing mothers feel more at ease giving their child the best nutrition and nurturing, because they wouldn't have to coursework def be concerned about being harassed for using their breasts in a non-sexual manner. Components Good? (Breastfeeding is the best way to protect the health of the children in your state. It prevents numerous illnesses and helps relieve the burden of state-covered medical care.)
Thomasson also says, There are good reasons for modesty laws---to protect the a case of study innocence of components of a essay women and girls and to promote a decent society supportive of children and families. Modesty is contoh resume a culturally relative term. The laws he speaks of aren't modesty laws; they are shame and oppression laws. Components Of A Good Essay? They don't promote decency; they ensure the livelihood of strip clubs and other exploitive industries. They don't protect innocence; they perpetuate ignorance. They aren't supportive of children or families; they induce fear and shame. TOPFREEDOM: A RHETORICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DEBATE WITH A BUST. by Robin Jensen. This essay was written for coursework def presentation at essay, the annual conference of the application and guidance Organization for the Study of Communication, Language, and Gender on October 10, 2003 in Ft.
Mitchell, Kentucky (hosted by the University of Cincinnati). One of my biggest fantasies is just to components of a good ride down the on animal highway bare-breasted on my motorcycle. I resent the fact that men do not have to wear shirts and women do, especially in the summer when it's so hot. (Ayalah Weinstock, 1979, p. 122) It was probably a good thing for of a those children at the pool to see women's breasts as much as they wanted to and to new common prompts be done with all the mystique, this hide-and-seek with women's breasts is obviously unnatural and everybody suffers in some way, especially women. (Ayalah Weinstock, 1979, p. 128) On the good smoldering summer evening of new common June 21, 1934, everything seemed normal at Coney Island in New York City. The beach was crowded with men, women, and children dipping into components of a good, the water after a long day at work.
Somewhere in this scene, a group of men decided to remove their bathing tops and perform calisthenics on the beach. The next day, The New York Times reported the a case of study scandalous incident. This was the second day in a row that men had refused to cover their chests in public (Heat, 1934, p. 3). The men were arrested and rushed to the county courthouse. Fortunately, Magistrate William O'Dwyer saw nothing wrong with shirtless men in the public sphere and released them without penalty (p. Components Good? 3). To this day, the new common app essay prompts 2015 ease with which these men earned the right to go topless stands in stark contrast to the efforts put forth by components essay, members of the opposite database, sex. For instance, sixty years later a woman went to jail for of a essay going bare-breasted in the Osceola National Forest (Latteier, 1998, p. 161). On an equally scorching day, Kayla Sosnow, a graduate student, was hiking in the mountains with a male friend when they both decided to remove their shirts. Two forest rangers spotted the pair and demanded that Sosnow cover her chest. She refused to a case of study do so.
Later, she said, 'I knew it was ridiculous that men had the right to go without a shirt and women didn't, so I was going to do something about it, which was just take my shirt off and be comfortable' (p. 161). Components Of A Essay? Revealing her breasts in 1996 cost her four days in a Florida jail before she was allowed out on bail. Coursework Def? Then, she: was found guilty of disorderly conduct and sentenced to essay thirty days in jail to be suspended after successfully serving five months probation, fifty hours of community service, payment of $600 in fines and fees, and a promise not to appear nude or partially nude in public for the next six months. (Latteier, 1998, p. 162) [At the phd thesis database europe time of Latteier's book publication in 1998, Sosnow was still facing appeals that were expected to last three to five years (p. 162). According to www.bodyobjective.com in a story by Peri Escarda accessed on April 7, 2003, Florida's 8th Circuit Court of Appeals overturned Kayla Sosnow's disorderly conduct conviction three years and eight months after her initial arrest.] Even before Sosnow's absurd experience in of a 1996, people had been fighting to eliminate the gender discrimination involved in her case. These feminists are proponents of phd thesis europe topfreedom, which is the notion that women have the right to not wear a top in any situation that men also have that option (Topfree! 2003). Of A? The same website explains, The word 'topfree' is used because it does not have the negative connotations of 'topless' in statement for residency regard to commercial sex work. Essay? Although equality between the sexes has long been an ideal throughout most of western society, very little attention has been paid to this area of striking discrimination.
In order to a case of study delve into the gap between current topless laws and the fight against gender discrimination, it is important that the arguments on both sides of the issue are elucidated so as to components good essay encourage understanding and change. A Case Of Study? Therefore, this essay explores the components good essay main arguments for and against topfreedom circulating in the public sphere and groups them into rhetorical categories for future analysis. To begin, this essay first reviews the female breast's historical role and phd thesis database europe the emergence of the components of a good essay topfree movement. Coursework Def? Second, it identifies and analyzes arguments for and against topfreedom using Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca's (1969) work The New Rhetoric: A treatise on argumentation as a guide. Ultimately, this work creates an initial, and long overdue, theoretical basis for future research concerning this important social protest movement. The Female Breast's Historical Role. In western culture, the components of a good essay female breast is overladen with contrasting and paradoxical meanings. The breast has consistently played a central role in the perception of women as divine idols, sexual deviants, consumers, mothers, citizens, employees, and medical patients.
In A History of the Breast , Yalom (1997) traces the ambiguous nature of the female breast throughout history. On one hand, the new common app essay prompts 2015 breast has long been a symbol of spirituality and components good essay the sacred role of motherhood that is modeled after the Virgin Mary nursing the new common baby Jesus (p. 31). It has been said that as Mary provided nourishment for the divine child and components good is worthy of veneration, so are the nursing mothers who follow in her footsteps. This view is evident in the numerous paintings, sculptures, and coursework def other ancient and modern art works that feature the components of a essay sacred act of a woman nursing her baby (p. 40). On the contoh bagus other hand, the breast has also worked for ages as a symbol of the erotic. Separated from the components of a essay innocent divinity of the Virgin Mary, the app essay 2015 display of the breast is associated with sexuality and components good carnal lust (p. 49).
The erotic breast was, and continues to be, dominated by men. In this light, breasts are offered up for the pleasure of a male . . . with the intent of arousing him, not her (p. 90). Latteier (1998) tackles the coursework def breast's sacred and erotic role from a modern perspective. She identifies the ambiguity surrounding the female breast and the issue that brings this ambiguity to the forefront: breastfeeding. Latteier claims that with the modern day commercialization of the components good essay breast as a sexual object, breastfeeding has become a taboo:
First, we do not trust the female body, and we feel squeamish about coursework def, bodily secretions in general. Then, we value breasts for their erotic appeal. We believe that breasts should be attractive and that nursing wrecks them. Many people feel uncomfortable seeing a baby suckle, an act they view as sexual. (p. 89) With this outlook, the Western world has adopted numerous alternatives to breastfeeding. Before formula and bottles, many upper class women hired wet nurses to nurse their children for them. Of A? By the late 18th century, wet nurses fed 90 percent of babies born in Paris, and new common prompts 2015 other European urban areas boasted similarly high statistics (p.
106). In an effort to reverse this phenomenon, numerous governmental campaigns began equating nursing one's own child with civic responsibility. Yalom (1997) explains, The nursing mother was seen as fulfilling her duty first to components good essay her family and then to the commonwealth as she nourished its future citizens (p. 107). Today, Nadesan and Sotirin (1998) argue that the act of breastfeeding is still rich with ambiguous symbolism and that a new slant is brought to the mother/sexual-object dichotomy in the science of breast feeding (p.
227). New Common? Science and medicine collapse the act into a normalized procedure that values the chemistry of the components product, breast milk (p. 227). Modern campaigns encourage breastfeeding by using slogans such as Breast is best, which frame the female breast as an the personal statement and guidance, object of health, prosperity, and monetary profit (women who decide to breast feed are often encouraged by the medical community to purchase nursing pumps, specialized bras, and expensive nutritional supplements). In this light, the breast is not a symbol of motherhood or sexuality, but rather, simply a producer of a medically endorsed item for consumption, equivalent to components of a good essay a faucet or perhaps an assembly line part (p. 229). As both Yalom and Latteier point out, the medical establishment has also become involved with the fight against breast cancer.
Breast cancer has recently reached epic proportions with one in a case of study eight women in the United States contracting the disease in their lifetimes (American Cancer Society, 2002, p. 7). Treatment for breast cancer can include a harsh dose of chemotherapy, radiation, and of a good essay a lumpectomy or mastectomy (Accad, 2001, p. 231). These methods have proven to be extremely effective in ridding the body of cancer and extending breast cancer patients' lives. Despite this reality, some people, including Accad (2001) in The Wounded Breast , hold that the statement application review and guidance removal of the of a essay breast is often an testing, unnecessary procedure that contributes to components of a good essay the objectification and mistreatment of the female body (pp. 229-230). For this reason, increasing numbers of women with breast cancer are turning to alternative medicines in the personal statement order to components essay escape the for residency application review and guidance sometimes harsh world of medical technology (Yalom, 1997, p. 276). On the good essay other side, there are some women who seek standard medical treatment for augmentation or reduction surgery. Maine (2000) reports, Between 1997 and 1998, nearly a quarter million American women risked general anesthesia, routine surgical complications, and known long-term side effects to [alter] their bust size (p. Phd Thesis Database Europe? 132).
While those who get breast reduction surgery usually do so to take weight off of their backs and increase their mobility, women who risk the many side effects of breast implantation often have purely aesthetic aims (Yalom, 1997, p. 239). Clearly, the of a good female breast has a long and many-sided history grounded in unrealistic expectations, symbolic power, and patriarchal control. The Emergence of the Topfree Movement. The many historical and contemporary issues surrounding the female breast have framed the emergence of what Latteier (1998) labels breast activism, where individuals and groups encourage women to take the possession of their breasts away from the market economy (p. 153). Men were fighting for the right to go topfree in contoh resume the United States until at least the mid-1930s (Heat, 1934, p. 3). [According to the Topfree Equal Rights Association webpage, accessed on good, March 20, 2003, men continued to be arrested for going topless in contoh other parts of the world such as South Africa.] The day on Coney Island in 1934 with which I opened this essay was one of the last instances where men had to fight for the right to go topfree in the western world, but it was just the of a essay beginning of women's battle to coursework def earn the essay same right. For instance, La Leche League was founded in new common app essay 1956 and components of a good essay not only encouraged women to breast feed their children, an action that was frowned upon in the sexually repressed, sterile environment of the mid-20th century, but eventually defended women who nursed their babies and toddlers in public (Latteier, 1998, p. 154). To this day, La Leche League continues to play an active role in changing state obscenity laws that do not make exceptions for the exposure of nursing mothers.
While the League was one of the earliest groups to support breast exposure, they have done so exclusively for the benefit of nursing mothers. In the early 1970s, other groups began to fight against anti-topfree laws in introduction in pursuasive speech testing general. During this time, some women removed their shirts and bras as a statement against patriarchy and the objectification of the female breast (Yalom, 1997, p. 276; Latteier, 1998, p. 39). Components Essay? These women challenged anti-nudity clauses that include the female breast in coursework def the list of good essay genitalia that must be covered in public (Hyde, 1997, p. The Personal For Residency Application? 133). Components Of A Good? [Although the ordinances vary from state to state, most of in pursuasive speech testing them resemble one cited in a California case from 1975. Nudity is defined as displaying 'the genitals, vulva, pubis, pubic, symphysis, pubic hair, buttocks, natal cleft, perineum, anus, anal region, or public hair region of components good any person, or any portion of the breast at or below the upper edge of the phd thesis europe areola thereof the of a female person' (p. 133).] For the most part, such efforts were shot down in the courts. Phd Thesis? For instance, in 1975 a California judge ruled that because men and components good essay women's chests are biologically different, laws that limit only the exposure of women's breasts do not constitute sexual discrimination (p. 144).
Similarly, in 1977 a Florida judge charged women with disorderly conduct for a case of study showing their breasts in public (Latteier, 1998, p. 161). Yet, the tides began to shift in favor of the components essay topfree movement in coursework def 1992 with the case of People v. Santorelli . This case centered around seven women who had been arrested for exposing their breasts in a public park. The judge decided that there was no governmental interest at stake in requiring women to cover their breasts and that the breasts of both men and women are legally the same (Hyde, 1997, p. 144). Anti-topfree laws were thus eliminated in the state of of a essay New York, supporting the argument that power, not nature, tells us when and whether a breast is a sexual organ (p. On Animal? 148). Similar decisions have since been made in places as diverse as the components of a province of Ontario, Canada, the District of database europe Columbia, and good essay the state of europe Ohio. In addition, between 1995 and 1997, 12 states enacted laws that allow nursing mothers to feed their children in components public (Latteier, 1998, p. 155). While these recent successes in the effort to liberate the breast are encouraging, there are even more instances of governmental resistance to the topfree movement. Sosnow's experience is europe neither isolated nor exceptional. Good? For instance, Evangeline Godron. was arrested in August 1998 for swimming topfree in a city pool in Canada.
This 64-year-old woman was literally carried out of the pool and charged with two counts of coursework def assault and one of mischief. She was then jailed for two days as a 'threat to components of a good essay society.' (Woman's Choice, 2003) Similarly, in New Jersey v. Vogt (2001) Arlene Vogt was charged $500 dollars for appearing topfree in a New Jersey public beach (Topfree Equal Rights Association, 2003). In 1997, the Topfree Equal Rights Association, TERA, was created to a case of study help women who encounter legal difficulty going without tops in public places in Canada and to components of a good essay inform the public on the issue. Phd Thesis Database? It also helps women in components of a good the USA (Topfree Equal Rights Association, 2003). Other groups including Women's Choice, Topfreedom USA, Right2Bare, Topfree Equality for Women, and Topfree! have followed suit by setting up websites, organizing local and national topfree rallies to create media attention and show support for the movement, and raising money to support the cause. Yet, as of 2003, no published works have focused exclusively on the topfree movement. Thus, the new common app essay following analysis of the components good essay primary arguments for topfreedom will be based on websites, newspaper coverage, and court records in the hopes of providing a starting point for research in this area. Prompts 2015? Before moving into the analysis, the next section of this essay introduces the analytical tools that will serve as a guide for this work. The New Rhetoric. In 1969, an English translation of Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca's work The New Rhetoric: A treatise on argumentation introduced a compendium of methods of securing adherence, both argumentative schemes and stylistic resources to a rhetorical tradition consumed by Cartesian logic (Conley, 1990, p. 298).
Rather than limit their study of argumentative schemes to self-evident facts and logic, the authors developed a new rhetoric that is audience-centric, relying on logic as much as it does presumptions, values, and hierarchies (Perelman Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1969, p. 2). Their goal was to components of a essay characterize the different argumentative structures, the analysis of which must precede all experimental tests of their effectiveness (p. 9). Thus, their argumentative schema serves as a theoretical starting point in the search for the most efficacious way of affecting minds (p. On Animal? 8).
These aims are appropriate in light of their definition of argumentation as the discursive means by which an audience is components of a good essay led to adhere to phd thesis a given thesis, or by components, which its adherence is bagus reinforced (Conley, 1990, p. Components Of A? 297). Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca's (1969) work serves as an appropriate guide for the following categorization and analysis of the topfree movement for several reasons. First, the new rhetoric deals specifically with written texts rather than speeches (p. Speech On Animal? 6). Essay? Until the topfree movement gains more credibility in the western world, written texts will be the the personal for residency and guidance primary vehicle for components essay making its points. Most arguments surrounding topfreedom are currently transmitted via internet, newspaper coverage, and legal documents. Second, Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca wrote The New Rhetoric to coursework def serve as a theoretical starting point for future work in the arena of components of a good argumentation (p. 9). Similarly, groundwork needs to the personal for residency application be laid for the debate surrounding the topfree movement in the way of categorizing argumentative schemes before other work on this topic can be accomplished. Third, Perelman and components of a good essay Olbrechts-Tyteca sought to uncover the entire range of the personal application discursive means of argumentation, not just the logical forms (Conley, 1990, p. Components Of A Good? 297).
In other words, they recognized the important role that arguments from value play in a case of study many areas of debate. The arguments surrounding the issue of topfreedom are heavily value-laden, making this debate a case-in-point of what the new rhetoric aimed to include in its analysis of argumentation. Ultimately, this project does not seek to components of a force The New Rhetoric's categories onto the arguments surrounding topfreedom but, rather, aims to europe follow in Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca's footsteps by identifying key argumentative schema and pointing out where similarities exist between the components of a good essay new rhetoric's categories and the arguments at coursework def, hand. With any luck, this work will serve as a building block toward future experimental tests that will distinguish the most effective arguments for topfreedom. The Rhetoric Surrounding the Topfreedom Debat e. After analyzing topfree websites, newspaper articles covering media events surrounding topfreedom, and court documents obtained by using the search engines Lexis-Nexis and Google, I have divided the essay primary arguments for topfreedom into the following categories: rhetoric of equality, rhetoric of sexuality, rhetoric of time, rhetoric of commerce, and rhetoric of the personal statement for residency application and guidance health. Essay? I will look at each category by identifying arguments on both sides of the the personal statement for residency application review and guidance debate, giving a specific example for each side, and good examining some of the phd thesis theoretical assumptions underlying these arguments using The New Rhetoric as a guide. Rhetoric of good Equality. First, the primary arguments surrounding the database topfreedom debate deal with the rhetoric of equality.
In most western societies, anti-topfree ordinances and court decisions tend to be grounded in components good the argument that men and a case of study women are inherently different and, therefore, laws must account for components good essay these differences. For instance, a few years after a group now called The Rochester Seven began to protest for topless rights in New York, a guest columnist for phd thesis europe USA Today criticized their goals, arguing, Bare-chested and bare-breasted are not the same, and shouldn't be treated as if they are the same (Ellis, 1989, p. Components Of A Good Essay? A8). On the other side, proponents of topfreedom make use of the tenets of liberal feminism and operate under the assumption that allowing men to new common prompts go topless in components good essay the public sphere, but not women, is an example of inequality. Topfree advocates argue that the following two claims are incompatible: 1) women and phd thesis men have equal rights; 2) women are required to cover their chests in areas where men are allowed to go topfree. Components Of A Good? Specifically, the Right2bare website explains, Despite a Constitution that espouses equal right for all Americans, laws defining nudity reflect a severe breach in gender equity. A topless woman is a criminal, while a topless man in a case of study the same situation is functioning within his constitutional rights (2003).
This argument from of a good essay, incompatibility leads into the claim that anti-topfree laws are discriminatory. The Topfreedom USA website offers a case-in-point; it argues that laws against topfreedom are comparable to other practices that have been deemed discriminatory in the past: To those who disagree, or feel that topfree equal rights are unimportant, consider how you would feel if our laws made it illegal for people of your race, or religion to phd thesis remove your shirts in public, while people of good other races, and religions remained free to app essay prompts 2015 do so. Imagine the components good essay police rushing in to a crowd to stop an African American from dressing like a white person. Imagine a Jew being fined, and forced to put on his shirt for trying to sunbathe like a Gentile. Imagine a woman being arrested for swimming in shorts like her husband. (2003) Obviously, forcing a person of a certain race or religious belief to wear a shirt when other people are given the choice to do otherwise would be an act of a case of study discrimination. Of A Essay? In this light, the word discrimination is deemed an appropriate label for the application of anti-topfree ordinances that apply to only one gender. The rhetoric of equality involves arguments from definition, the a case of study rule of justice, and arguments from incompatibility. First, both sides of components of a essay this debate make use of arguments from definition, a quasi-logical argument (Perelman Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1969, p. 210).
Those arguing against topfreedom define men and women as biologically different and, therefore, conclude that the genders' equal treatment under the law will also have to be different as well. Advocates of topfreedom, on the other hand, begin their argument by defining anti-topfree laws as discriminatory. This argument from definition is based on what the new rhetoric calls the rule of justice that requires giving identical treatment to beings or situations of the same kind (Perelman Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1969, p. 218). Here, the rule of a case of study justice fits into what Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca label the rhetoric of incompatibility, another quasi-logical argument in which the theses one is disputing lead to of a good essay an incompatibility, which resembles a contradiction in that it consists of two assertions between which a choice must be made, unless one rejects one or the other (p. 196). In the case at the personal statement for residency application review, hand, one must reject either the claim that women and men should be treated equally or the claim that women should be required to cover their chests in situations where men are not similarly restricted. Rhetoric of Sexuality.
The rhetoric of sexuality is another category central to the topfreedom debate and involves two assumptions underlying anti-topfree ordinances and laws: women's breasts are inherently sexual and, therefore, allowing women to be topfree in the public sphere will lead to increased cases of sexual assault. Carol Faraone, the founder of Keep Tops On, an anti-topfreedom group, claims that topfreedom is 'walking pornography' and a practice that is 'degrading to of a good essay women and would harm children' (Gillis, 1998, p. 05). Another Canadian group, Keep It Kovered, also labels topfree women public pornography (Nolan, 1997, p. New Common Prompts? A1). On the other side, topfreedom advocates claim that women, like men, can choose when a certain body part is or is not sexual. Women's breasts are not part of the human genitalia and, thus, are sexual only in components of a the way that a woman's legs or arms are sexual.
In other words: Different body parts arouse different people. Some are aroused by a beautiful face, yet women are not required to wear masks. Some are aroused by feet, yet women can wear sandals. Some aroused by legs, yet women can wear dresses or shorts. Many women are aroused by on animal testing, men's chests, yet men can go top-free in most places. (Topfree Equality for Women, 2001)
Similarly, children, it is argued, only get upset or bothered by components of a, something if they're taught to do so, and given the fact that babies are nourished by breasts, it is ridiculous to claim that the sight of those same breasts are in any way harmful to children (Topfree Equality for the personal statement application Women, 2001). In response to the argument that allowing women to exercise topfreedom will lead to an increase in sexual assault cases, topfree advocates argue that men must take responsibility for their own actions. Ultimately, they assert, It's not a woman's task to components essay prevent a man from harassing her#130; by phd thesis, wearing clothes men deem suitable on her! Women who wish to enjoy the same topfreedom as men are therefore not 'asking for it' (Topfree Equal Rights Association, 2003). The Topfreedom USA website contributes to this argument by explaining: Statistics show that Chinese women are raped more often than American women. Components Of A Essay? It certainly isn't because they dress more provocatively than American women. It's because they aren't valued as equals by their society.
Their value is europe disregarded, and essay their rights are denied. (2003) Ultimately, topfreedom advocates claim that a woman's clothing choices do not automatically instigate men to violate them. Several categories of argumentation underlie the rhetoric of sexuality: argument from definition, pragmatic argument, and the separation of the person from the act. Like the rhetoric of equality, both sides of the topfreedom debate utilizing the app essay prompts 2015 rhetoric of essay sexuality are guided by definition. The definitions of words such as breast, genitalia, pornography, and app essay prompts indecency serve both as starting points for the rhetoric of sexuality as well as points of contention. Arguments from definition often lead into pragmatic arguments, which allow a thing to be judged in terms of components essay its present or its future consequences . . . (Perelman Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1969, p. 267). For instance, those against topfreedom first define exposed breasts as pornography, then they deem the consequences of topfreedom, exposed breasts in a case of study the public sphere, to be unacceptable. Essay? Topfreedom advocates often use a similar argumentative pattern by contoh resume bagus, first defining the female breast as a sexually neutral body part and then deeming topfreedom appropriate given the consequences of not doing so: the criminalization of a non-sexual act. By claiming that topfree women will create an increase in components of a sexual assault, those against topfreedom use an argument based on the separation of the person from the act where an act is interpreted as a function of the person, and it is contoh resume failure to respect this stability which is components good deplored when someone is reproached for incoherent or unjustified change (Perelman Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1969, p. 294). Phd Thesis? In this case, the person himself is of a essay separated from the act of sexual assault because it is, supposedly, part of his nature to commit this act at the sight of topfree women. In response, topfree advocates have chosen an existentialist argument by coursework def, putting the accent on components, the freedom of the person, which places him in new common clear opposition to things (p.
295). In other words, it is argued that men can choose to control themselves in situations where they are exposed to topfree women. Rhetoric of Time. Both sides of this debate make use of arguments dealing with elements of time. On one side, the supporters of anti-topfree laws claim that because women are showing more skin than they ever have before, modern society is on a moral decline; the standards of the past are deemed superior to the standards of the present and the future.
Howard Relin, a New York District Attorney, opposes topfreedom in an effort to maintain community standards (Nolan, 1997, p. Components Of A Essay? A1). Similarly, an new common app essay prompts 2015, Ottawa deputy mayor, Allan Higdon, contends that keeping female breasts covered is a common courtesy and to do otherwise is thoughtless of the sensibilities of others (Gillis, 1998, p. 05). Superior Court of New Jersey judge Wells in components of a New Jersey v. Wells (2001) argues for the necessity of anti-topfree laws by coursework def, noting that traditionally female breasts are unpalatable for of a essay the eyes of the general public (Topfree Equal Rights Association, 2003). Coursework Def? Contrarily, advocates of components of a good essay topfreedom claim that women are finally on the verge of a liberation that has never been available to them in the past. Resume Bagus? Over time, the covering of female body parts such as legs and components good arms has, for the most part, been deemed unnecessary and repressive. The Women's Choice website argues: Let`s go to recent history for a moment: until 70 or so years ago, women couldn't even show their ankles---for the same reason, that they are different. For centuries and centuries women had to wear skirts that were ankle length (just imagine walking in that your whole life!). Today, women in new common app essay prompts western culture can wear miniskirts showing even their knees---unimaginable for women before some 70 years ago. And, what happened?
NOTHING. (2003, emphasis in original) This website also claims that if our decisions were always based on what has been the norm in the past, nothing would ever change. Slavery and other discriminatory activities would still be legal. Clearly, the rhetoric of topfreedom is appealing to the future, while the rhetoric of anti-topfreedom is appealing to the past. Good? The latter is making use of what Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca (1969) label the loci of order, which affirms the superiority of that which is earlier over that which is later (p. 93).
This argument can also be understood in light of the device of stages, commonly referred to as the slippery slope argument, where the reasoning is phd thesis europe described as follows: if you give in this time, you will have to give in a little more next time, and heaven knows where you will stop (p. 282). In other words, as society has accepted women wearing less clothing over time, debauchery triumphs over components good essay morality. Topfreedom is yet another step in europe the wrong direction. Topfree proponents see things the other way around and appeal to arguments with unlimited development that: insist on the possibility of always going further in a certain direction without being able to foresee a limit to this direction, and this progress is components accompanied by a continuous increase of statement for residency application review value (p. 287). In this light, the more freedom that women have when it comes to their bodies, the better. Topfreedom is another sign of progress. Rhetoric of Commerce and Health. These two categories are discussed together because, as this essay will discuss shortly, their argumentative structures are very similar. First, the marketplace is good another point of speech on animal contention in components good the topfreedom debate creating a rhetoric of commerce.
Generally, the conventions of business and coursework def capitalism require that exposed female breasts be strictly regulated and restricted to certain areas. A guest columnist for USA Today makes this claim by explaining, In all of components essay life, rules and discipline are necessary (Ellis, 1989, p. Contoh Resume Bagus? A8). However, topfreedom proponents argue that current nudity laws go too far when prohibiting the exposure of female breasts. Breasts are treated like a commodity, they say, and, as a result, women do not have control over their own breasts (Topfree Equal Rights Association, 2003). In the spirit of of a good essay Marxist feminism, or what Donovan (1992) labels socialist feminism and describes as the phd thesis europe belief that women are oppressed by the combination of modern economic concerns and patriarchy, they identify a hypocrisy in the regulation of female breasts when topless bars, the pornography industry, and the world of advertising profit from the components breast's exploitation. The Right2bare website claims that topfreedom is about women owning their own bodies rather than having them rented out by contoh, corporations as highly valuable marketing tools (2003). The Right2bare website also reports: They tell us to flaunt all the essay skin we possibly can---but not too much. What would happen to the pornography industry---magazines, clubs, internet---if women were free to on animal testing walk around topless in a park or down the essay street?
Our breasts would lose their magical marketability. They would run the risk of becoming just another mundane anatomical structure. Corporations would lose our bodies as tools to sell us everything from new common app essay prompts, cars to cigarettes. (2003) Second, in light of the essay rhetoric of health, while those who support anti-topfree laws generally do not recognize a correlation between women's health and the regulation of their breasts, topfreedom supporters draw several conclusions about how these rules are detrimental to a case of study women's wellbeing. Of A Essay? Some argue that requiring women to a case of study cover their breasts in situations where men are not required to do so teaches women that their bodies are unacceptable and objects of which they should be ashamed. This effect is only exacerbated when the essay breasts that are highlighted in the media belong primarily to young, extremely toned models. Women's feelings of embarrassment concerning their breasts can result in low self-esteem, leading to eating disorders, depression, and other harmful conditions. Coursework Def? For instance, the Topfree Equality for good essay Women website explains:
A grandmother of the author of this page had such a poor self-image and was afraid to have someone look at her body that she delayed going to a case of study a doctor until the cancer that she was suffering from good, had gone too far to be treated, and she died as a result. Speech Testing? (2001) Correspondingly, it is argued that when women are ashamed of their breasts, they are less likely to breastfeed their children, possibly compromising the health of their offspring as well as their own health. In these final two categories, both the good rhetoric of commerce and the rhetoric of health, Perelman and statement for residency application review and guidance Olbrechts-Tyteca's (1969) concept of presence is components of a essay especially pronounced. Presence relies on the fact that all argumentation is selective (p. 119). Thus, by the very fact of selecting certain elements and presenting them to a case of study the audience, their importance and pertinency to the discussion is implied (p. 116). The concept of components of a good essay presence is contoh easy to spot in these two categories of argumentation because they discuss elements of the topfreedom debate that might not be immediately apparent to an uninitiated individual: the commercialization of the breast and the health consequences of anti-topfree laws. These arguments illustrate a specific structure of reality highlighting aspects of components of a good essay that reality that the a case of study authors wish to promote (p. Components Of A? 261). In the case of the rhetoric of bagus commerce and the rhetoric of health, topfreedom advocates are drawing causal links (i.e., that anti-topfreedom laws result in women's commercial exploitation and poor health) that their opponents deny.
They know that the same event will be interpreted, and components differently evaluated, according to the idea formed of the nature---intended or involuntary---of its consequences (p. 270-271). Therefore, they have put forth arguments that feature consequences the public might not explore by itself. Although topfreedom has a fairly long history in new common prompts 2015 the western world, it continues to be an issue that receives little thoughtful consideration or attention from the general public. In fact, while discussing the project at hand with others, I found that upon hearing a brief synopsis of the topfreedom movement's goals, most people dismiss the idea that women should be allowed to go topfree whenever men are given the choice to do so as ludicrous. At this point in time, even people that consider themselves to be feminists often have a difficult time understanding the important issues that underlie the topfreedom debate. In this light, it is apparent that arguments for good essay topfreedom must be thoughtful, purposive, and audience-centered in review order to gain the consideration of an uninitiated public. While it might be easy to essay create a media event featuring bare breasted ladies, the title itself reminiscent of a circus act, it is not so easy to get the public to take those same ladies' concerns seriously. This essay seeks to begin the process of crafting argumentation that will bring the new common topfreedom movement forward by of a good, providing a theoretical starting point for new common prompts 2015 the discovery of, as Perelman and components of a Olbrechts-Tyteca (1969) put it, the most efficacious way of new common app essay affecting minds to the issues surrounding topfreedom (p. 8). Yet there are several limitations in of a good this study that must be acknowledged.
First, I have identified the database europe five primary categories of argumentation surrounding topfreedom as the rhetoric of equality, rhetoric of components good essay sexuality, rhetoric of time, rhetoric of commerce, and rhetoric of health. However, there are also many secondary arguments surrounding the topfreedom debate that have yet to be addressed but are beyond the scope of contoh this essay. Similarly, there are many complementary issues such as naturism and exhibitionism that need to be analyzed in light of the fight for topfreedom but are, again, beyond the scope of this work. Second, more emphasis has been placed on the arguments for topfreedom than the arguments against topfreedom in this essay. However, this is less of a biased oversight than a response to the number of anti-topfreedom arguments circulating in the public sphere. Currently, because the status quo has not been in danger, arguments supporting these laws are few and far between. However, as more people join the topfree movement, anti-topfree arguments will, in response, become more prominent.
Clearly, the topfreedom movement is components good essay ripe with research opportunities. Beyond the ideas mentioned above, future research must also continue to organize these arguments as the conditions surrounding this issue change. The Personal For Residency Application Review? Perhaps most importantly, scholars will need to build from these theoretical categories to decide which arguments best interact with and inform audiences in various situations. Essay? Equal attention must be paid to the arguments that uphold anti-topfree laws and ordinances so that we can both understand them and respond to them. Ultimately, topfreedom as an idea is making its way into the agenda of public discourse and must continue on that path in order to phd thesis database europe achieve the important goals that it upholds. Accad, E. Components Essay? (2001). The wounded breast . Chicago: University of Illinois. American Cancer Society. Breast cancer: facts figures 2001-2002 . Contoh Resume? (2002).
Atlanta, Georgia: ACS. Ayalah, D., Weinstock, I.J. (1979). Breasts: Women speak about their breasts and their lives . New York: Summit Books. Conley, T. Of A Essay? (1990). Rhetoric in a case of study the European tradition . Chicago: University of Chicago. Donovan, J. (1992). Feminist theory: the intellectual traditions of components good American feminism , 2nd ed. Database Europe? New York: Continuum. Ellis, T. (1989, July 6).
Face-off: Going bare-chested; Good taste is not discrimination. Components Essay? USA Today , p. A8. Gillis, M. (1998, July 5). Tempest in a d-cup: Topless debate chills as novelty of baring it all wears thin. The Ottawa Sun , p. 05. Heat of 89.3 Degrees Ushers in Summer (1934, June 22). The New York Times , p. 3. Hyde, A. (1997). Bodies of law. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Latteier, C. (1998). Breasts: The woman's perspective on an American obsession . Coursework Def? New York: Harrington Park Press. Maine, M. Of A Essay? (2000). Body wars: making peace with women's bodies . Carlsbad, CA: Gurze Books. Nolan, M.K. Phd Thesis? (1997, August 11). Topless women?
Not in conservative Hamilton. Hamilton Spectator , p. A1. Perelman, C., Olbrechts-Tyteca, L. (1969). The New Rhetoric: A treatise on argumentation (J. Wilkinson P. Weaver, Trans.). Components Of A Essay? Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame. (Original work published 1958) Topfree Equal Rights Association. (2003). Retrieved April 1, 2003, from http://www.tera.ca/index.html . Topfree Equality for statement review Women. (2001). Retrieved March 22, 2003, from http://www.ohnuderec.org/Topfree/tf.html . Yalom, M. (1997). Of A Good Essay? The history of the breast . New York: Knopf. Copyright 2003 by a case of study, Robin E. Jensen.
BARING OUR BREASTS. by Oquawka (Janie Rezner) This article was written in September 2004. The author lives in California. I recently stood with a small group of barebreasted women holding aloft signs that read, Letting Children Starve is Indecent and other like messages, on a Sunday afternoon in downtown Mendocino. I was responding to the outrageous reaction to the bare breast by the high and mighty of this country: John Ashcroft ordering the components of a essay covering of contoh resume bagus a statue of a bare-breasted woman, the good big to-do because someone's breast was seen for a moment on TV. I was responding to the efforts of the patriarchal powers to diminish and vilify this very wonderful attribute of women which allows them to feed their children from new common app essay, their own body. The folks in power strive to wipe out any honouring of the maternal, and have been doing so for almost 5000 years.
Nothing new there, of course. Ammachi, the Indian saint, speaks at length about this loss. The maternal breast is very political. It's about components good, women taking back their own bodies---making birthing and 2015 nursing and feeding the norm, rather than war and death, whose images are an everyday occurrence for our growing children. Rather than honouring scenes of violence and the taking of life, how about of a, honouring the scenes of the giving of life? Nurturing rather than warring! I sent some of my photos and recent writings to a case of study Christopher Titmuss, international Buddhist meditation teacher in England, who leads meditation retreats around the components good world. He is also an activist. His response was: I loved the article and the photos. To wake up consciousness, we have to be bold.
We live in a society which has an obsessive fetish about women's breasts---particularly around size, shape, and age. Introduction Speech On Animal Testing? A huge money-making industry feeds the fetish from porn to the operating table. It's big business. All credit to you and your women friends for baring the truth. Love and longing for the breast are quite a natural instinct, since our first and primary life experience is being nursed at our mother's breast. Of A Essay? Profound comfort, stimulation, satisfaction, a sense of security like none other while being held in our mother's arms---and most of all nourishment, without which we would have died.
These deep, primal feelings all spring from the baby's connection to the breast. We can see how this natural expression of seeking comfort that lives on in a man's intimate relationship with a woman has been perverted, like most primal feelings in for residency application review and guidance this current patriarchal world. Riane Eisler says, We have to change the conversation. I'm hoping this issue and the deeper truth and of a reality that surround it will be brought more into coursework def, the public eye. That's what we are all about, as conscious human beings on earth, aren't we?
Not only doing our best to change the bigger conversation to the real concerns that are facing us, but for some of good us, bringing awareness of what our history as humans has been, and how we must come back into in pursuasive testing, balance, if we are to survive. As we now live, with one half of humanity controlling and of a good having ultimate power over the other half, with the Sacred Feminine dominated, her voice silenced, her wisdom scoffed at, a huge gap exists in our inner and outer life. The anxiety and violence increase, life moving faster and faster, stimulation coming in at us from on animal, all directions. All to dull the components of a good pain of a world gone awry, a world without love and compassion. ONE SMALL STEP FOR TOPFREEDOM. by a girl in Edmonton, Alberta.
This article was written in contoh May 2004. In the summer of 2003, at the age of 14, I struck my first blow for topfreedom by wearing only components of a good, a bikini bottom at a beach at phd thesis database, Gull Lake, Alberta. Though small in components essay scope, it was a large personal move because I had dared to contoh bagus exercise my right and go barebreasted in public. I say dared because, though legal, this is not yet socially acceptable, and I could have caused a disturbance and components of a good essay been subjected to europe ridicule and harassment, as so many women have in other places. I dropped my top on our beach blanket next to my father and ran for the water with my girlfriend (her top still on) beside me for components of a moral support. Phd Thesis Database? What would happen now? Was I ready for this? Regardless of age, other girls seemed to components of a express shock or envy; the boys expressed surprise and interest. No one said anything to me, and no one called the police. One couple nearby smiled and gave me a thumbs up.
There was only new common app essay prompts 2015, one dissenting voice, a friend of of a good my mother#130; who thought I was breaking the law. It was my father who told her that it was legal in Canada for a woman to go topfree anywhere a man could, and offered to show her the app essay 2015 proof when we got home. She didn't seem impressed; but I remained topfree for the rest of our stay. So I got away with it and am still getting away with it on a regular basis. Perhaps Albertans are not the rednecks we are portrayed as in the media; perhaps we are more open and progressive than people give us credit for.
Of course, these are the same media that pilloried Janet Jackson when she flashed her semi-nude breast for a split second during a show that also presented with impunity scantily clad and suggestive dancers, half-dressed gladiatrixes, and erotic or demeaning song lyrics. Women's breasts are sexual and men's are not because men say so, hetero men anyways. But anyone familiar with the gay community will know that men's breasts may be just as sexual as women's. So why the components good essay controversy? I think women have not achieved topfreedom, some 75 years after men have done so, because their breasts and bodies have been a moneymaking commodity for the personal so long. Components Good? If you don't believe this, take a closer look the next time you pass a magazine stand. Women's sexualization is used to sell everything from contoh, cars to candy bars. Components Good? A financial resource of this magnitude must be protected. Perhaps Janet should have surrounded herself with topfree male dancers and suddenly exposed both breasts---and then have the FCC explain the double standard. That would have been one giant leap! Note: the legality as mentioned above is statement and guidance probably correct for all of Canada but has not been specifically established in some provinces, including Alberta.
Note: Topfreedom has been legal for women throughout New York State since July 7, 1992. I have included a photo of my significant other (Linda Marszalkowski) at Lawson Park, Cheektowaga, New York, enjoying the components essay warm and speech on animal testing sunny weather last summer. The newspaper never did a story on of a good essay, Linda because the police department finally found that she was acting within her legal rights removing her shirt in the town park. But they weren't happy about app essay, telling me this. I talked to the police department after we got home.
Apparently, they told complainers that Linda wasn't doing anything wrong. But it didn't begin so easily. That day we took a short walk through the park and stopped for a picnic. Two park maintenance guys approached and told us that Linda had to put her shirt back on or she was going to be arrested. I explained that she wasn't doing anything wrong and showed them the documentation to support that.
They said they were going to call the cops. I decided because the newspaper wasn't going to do the story that I was going to find out myself how many police departments in of a good essay the towns around the area knew the law. Buffalo said that if she was spotted, she would be arrested. Tonawanda said that they knew it was legal---but gave me an attitude. Lancaster said that even if it wasn't legal, they wouldn't mind. West Seneca said that they knew that it was legal but they thought that there was some restriction about for residency application and guidance, school yards. Kenmore gave me a hard time and finally said that if I knew the answer ahead of time then why did I call, and why would I want my girlfriend running around without a top on anyways. Orchard Park said that they didn't know but took the name of the components of a good police chief in Cheektowaga to verify what I was telling them. Amherst said that they didn't know but also took the coursework def police chief's name to verify.
They thanked me for informing them. Other towns around Buffalo either said that they were going to check or never got back to me. It really disturbs me that the Buffalo police department, the largest in the area, initially didn't know the law and, even after hearing what I had to say, said that Linda would be arrested anyways. WAL-MART IS WRONG. by Julia Goforth. This letter was sent to Wal-Mart's American head office in December 2002. I have decided that I will no longer be shopping at any Wal-Mart or Sam's Club store.
I am greatly disturbed by the positions that Wal-Mart has taken recently. I am appalled that Tamie Dragone of components of a essay Lincoln, Kansas had to face horror and humiliation because of photos of a case of study her child that she entrusted to Wal-Mart. There is case law that outlines what is considered child pornography---it must meet four qualifications. Across the good US and Canada, woman are fighting for and winning the europe right to be topfree in public as men are because the female breast is not a sexual organ and is not indecent or sexual by nature. Many states recognize that to deprive a woman the right to components of a essay be topfree in public while men are allowed to speech testing be is of a good essay discrimination based on sex, and have laws protecting women's rights, including the coursework def right to be topfree. States that haven't moved into that still don't require a girl younger than the age of 10 to wear a top in public, e. g. at a public swimming pool. The corporation's support of good its over-zealous employees is absurd. I question the mindset of this employee if he/she found the photos of a three-year-old old to introduction in pursuasive speech be erotic. Of A Good Essay? (Incidentally, some counties in Arkansas refuse to app essay respond to a call about a woman being merely topfree in public.) To assume that nudity is automatically sexual ought to good be an insult to us all.
We are all nude. Most of us have been indoctrinated into believing our bodies are shameful and dirty and need to a case of study be covered, and that uncovering them is of a sexual, regardless of one's age. But now, pulling pregnant Midge off the shelves because some customers feel it is sending the wrong message to children---this is utter nonsense. It's Barbie herself that sends the wrong message to children. If Barbie were real, due to her proportions she would not be able to walk upright. She would be skeletally malformed and obviously nutritionally deprived. However, her friend Midge, waiting until marriage to phd thesis become pregnant and still having her husband and son, is being pulled from the components of a good shelves. As a mother of six, I agree that this doll would be an new common, asset to components of a essay my children. Coursework Def? In child play-therapy, it could help a child work through issues regarding the pending arrival of components of a a new sibling or the abuse witnessed of its pregnant mother. There are so many benefits to having this doll that I can't believe that it is being pulled from the shelves. The irony to me is that the toy, magazine, and electronics sections of Wal-Mart and Sam's Club are filled with things that promote violence, including destruction and murder, and titillate by showing the peek-a-boo cleavage of women in order to sell a product.
And I won't even begin to discuss the bathing suit section. Coursework Def? Please. Wal-Mart purports to of a be family-centered and of high morals, which is the supposed reason behind the photo policy, but this is just a marketing ploy. I would rather drive farther and pay higher prices to resume bagus a corporation that carries whatever in of a good essay order to contoh bagus blatantly make a profit but doesn't lie to me by components, pretending to be moral and to have integrity. I remember how Sam would do spot checks in the stores to make sure customers were receiving good service. It was about the customers, balanced with the the personal statement for residency review profit motive. I doubt Sam would have handled either of these incidents the way they were handled. Wal-Mart will no longer be getting any of my money.
And as an good, advocate for women and children recovering from abuse, I will advise my colleagues of my decision and the reasons behind it, and encourage them to follow suit. As a leader in female equality, I will advise my associates similarly. In Pursuasive On Animal? As an activist against child pornography, I will also advise all those I come into contact with in this realm. I am committed to my decision, as it directly and indirectly affects my children as well as the components of a good society in which they grow up in. Cette lettre était écrite par Isabelle, étudiante québécoise de 22 ans qui terminait sa deuxième année de baccalauréat. La cause des femmes que vous défendez m'intéresse beaucoup car, été après été, j'en souffre énormément. J'ai crié ma colère et ma révolte publiquement au sein des différents organismes, mais ils n'ont pas voulu m'écouter. À présent, je dois dire que je n'attends plus rien de cette société qui est, de toute évidence, très réfractaire aux changements. Phd Thesis Database Europe? Mon but, pour l'instant, est de terminer mes études et m'en aller vers des lieux plus cléments et compréhensifs, où j'aurai enfin droit d'exprimer mes goûts et mes désirs librement, sans contrainte m'interdisant d'être ce que je suis, en me culpabilisant et me traitant comme une criminelle si je fais ce que les hommes ont toujours fait, tout ceci simplement parce que je suis une femme. Je dois toujours être sur mes gardes, ne jamais provoquer les pauvres hommes qui ne pensent qu'à saliver sur notre corps (si on se comporte de la même façon qu'eux); et agir de façon toujours conforme, sans jamais réprimander. Autrement on se fait pointer du doigt mais sans, pour autant, se faire entendre . . . L'an dernier , mon conjoint et moi avons écrit un texte qui, à notre avis, était complet et expliquait bien le droit que devraient avoir les femmes de se promener torse nu et ceci, aux mêmes endroits autorisés pour les hommes. Nous avons posté notre lettre aux ministères de la justice (Québec et Canada), à la charte des droits et libertés de la personne ainsi qu'à la condition féminine Canada.
Mon conjoint a également fait de nombreux téléphones pour savoir où en était rendu le dossier mais malheureusement, personne ne le savait et rien n'a avancé. Voilà la lettre écrite par Isabelle et son conjoint: Nous vous écrivons pour vous dire à quel point nous trouvons injuste de voir qu'encore aujourd'hui, au Québec, dans notre société, les femmes n'ont pas le droit de se promener le torse nu, aux mêmes endroits que les hommes. Après tout, l'été, lorsqu'il fait chaud, n'est-ce pas la même chaleur pour les femmes alors pourquoi ces dernières se voient refuser le droit de sentir l'air frais sur leur peau et de se faire bronzer uniformément, au même titre que les hommes? Vous ne pensez pas que si une femme est mieux dans sa peau le torse nu et qu'elle se sent plus confortable, elle devrait obtenir ce droit fondamental qu'ont toujours eu les hommes, c'est-à-dire le droit d'être enfin libre elle aussi? Ce n'est pas évident de toujours sentir un haut de bikini qui nous serre constamment la poitrine et vous ne pouvez pas vous imaginer jusqu'à quel point une femme peut être déprimée lorsqu'elle voit des hommes faire ce dont elle a toujours rêvé et que elle, vu qu'elle est née femme, elle se voit refuser ce droit.
Pourquoi est-ce légal pour un et illégal pour l'autre? Pourquoi est-ce naturel pour un et indécent pour l'autre? Bref, pourquoi considérons-nous une femme qui est bien dans sa peau avec le corps qu'elle a comme une criminelle, ni plus, ni moins? Tout ça est complètement illogique et représente une énorme injustice sociale car n'oublions pas que 100% des humains ont des seins, les femmes les ayant toutefois quelque peu plus développés. Quoi de plus normal qu'une femme qui allaite son enfant? Le sein est une source de vie et non un objet sexuel dédié à faire seulement plaisir aux hommes. Quand est-ce que les femmes pourront enfin cesser d'être dominées par les hommes et avoir une fois pour toute leur place dans cette société malade et discriminatoire à l'extrême? Nous ne voyons pas pourquoi cette situation est permis aux hommes et interdit aux femmes étant donné qu'en Europe, en République Dominicaine, dans les Antilles Françaises et beaucoup d'autres endroits, les femmes qui veulent se promener le torse nu peuvent le faire sans avoir de compte à rendre à personne ni obtenir de billet d'infraction. Nous pensons que c'est de la discrimination pure et simple vis-à-vis le droit des femmes. On brime leur liberté en ne les mettant pas égales aux hommes.
Il faudrait que la justice se fasse aussi au Québec puisqu'il y a un jugement basé sur la charte des droits et libertés de la personne qui interdit de faire une telle discrimination par rapport au sexe et que si une femme ne fait qu'avoir le torse nu comme un homme, aux mêmes endroits que celui-ci, en n'incitant pas les autres à avoir des contacts physiques ou sexuels avec elle, elle devrait avoir les mêmes droits que cet homme. La charte des droits et liberté est valide dans tout le Canada et mentionne clairement qu'en autorisant de faire une chose à quelqu'un qu'on interdit à une autre et ceci, à cause de son sexe, il s'agit là d'une situation très discriminatoire! Pour beaucoup de personnes, c'est totalement inacceptable de permettre quelque chose à un sexe et de l'interdire à l'autre. Pensez à nouveau aux endroits où toutes les femmes ont le droit de se promener les seins nus. Ces femmes sont bien dans leur peau et les hommes s'y sont habitués et ne les remarquent même plus.
N'oublions pas que ce qui est érotique est ce qui est caché et que si toutes les femmes avaient le droit de se promener le torse nu, les seins ne seraient pas plus érotiques que le torse des hommes et, de ce fait, il y aurait sans doute beaucoup moins d'agressions sexuelles car les seins cesseraient enfin d'être considérés comme des objets sexuels, n'ayant toujours servis qu'à amuser les hommes. Au début, les gens regarderaient mais ça ne prendrait pas beaucoup de temps et les gens s'y habitueraient. Components Of A Good? Les hommes ne demandent pas aux femmes si leur torse nu les dérange alors pourquoi les femmes devraient-elles demander la permission aux hommes pour le faire? Ce n'est pas logique tout ça et pour ce qui est des enfants, n'oublions pas que ceux-ci adoptent le système de valeurs propre aux adultes, à la société, et que si les adultes informeraient et éduqueraient sainement leurs enfants par rapport à l'anatomie féminine et masculine au lieu de faire une aliénante phobie collective du torse nu des femmes, les enfants grandiraient dans tout cela et ne seraient pas plus dérangés de voir une femme torse nu qu'un homme actuellement. C'est sûr que tout changement comporte son lot de dérangements. à la première femme qui a porté un pantalon. Elle faisait scandale à cette époque et maintenant, toutes les femmes en portent. Dans un même ordre d'idées, la première femme qui a porté un bikini a fait tourner bien des têtes elle aussi et aujourd'hui, quoi de plus normal pour une femme qui a chaud que d'en porter un? Nous pensons que tout est une question de mentalité et de société et que cette vieille mentalité désuète doit changer au plus vite. Ce n'est vraiment pas juste pour les femmes que de voir pleins d'hommes le torse nu sans avoir droit à ce privilège. Comme mentionné plus haut, il y aurait sûrement moins de viols si les femmes se promenaient les seins nus sans être gênées car les seins deviendraient vite fait une partie du corps comme une autre, au même titre que le torse masculin et donc, beaucoup moins excitante pour les hommes qu'à l'heure actuelle. For Residency Application And Guidance? Alors, il va de soit qu'en 2002, il est grand temps que ces lois et règlements changent et permettent enfin aux femmes de se promener torse nu comme bon leur semble, du moins, aux même endroits autorisés pour les hommes.
Si les hommes ont le droit d'avoir le torse nu dans un endroit public, les femmes devraient avoir ce droit aussi ou si ce n'est pas le cas, les responsables de cet endroit devraient interdire le torse nu à tout le monde, ceci pour ne pas traiter les femmes de façon inférieure et discriminatoire. Sur ce, nous aimerions grandement avoir de vos nouvelles pour savoir ce que vous en pensez et ce que vous comptez faire afin de remédier à cette situation tout à fait pathétique. KEY WEST'S FANTASY FEST. by Bruce Frendahl. Bruce Frendahl is a member of the Board of Governors of the B.E.A.C.H.E.S. Essay? Foundation, located in Miami Shores, Florida. The Personal For Residency? He and his wife Judy visited the October 2002 Fantasy Fest, known for some years for its topfree women, or at least for women attempting to be topfree, in essay a variety of situations. I felt that a barrier had come down. A Case Of Study? Not that a woman could now feel free to be topfree on Duval Street at high noon on an average day, but at of a good, least the enforcement of discriminatory laws against females typical of the phd thesis state of Florida would magically be suspended for good essay one brief if wild and crazy evening in the streets of Key West.
Whether the reason be Key West's finest finally giving in to the commercial demands of the residential artist community---or the contoh bagus lack of sufficient vocal protest from the local religious extremists---or the townwide revelation that women should be treated equally to components good essay men, especially if it could somehow be rationalized that there was an artsy side to introduction speech on animal testing the end result---or a realization that most of the arrests or citations or police enforcement encounters were a result of forcing reluctant women to keep a fabric covering across their chests (both on floats and in of a the massive costumed crowd, admittedly inebriated to varying degrees)---or a combination of the personal statement application all these factors, and others of which we know not . . . it happened. It will likely continue to happen, as long as women express their collective preference to good essay do so, artists continue to make money from it, and law enforcement personnel realize that an arbitrary dress code (at least this aspect of it, on this particular night) is archaic and silly. A Case Of Study? Such a code is better left to peer pressure and natural community standards. Key West has a wild and woolly history of pirates, bootleggers, drug smugglers, societal outcasts, eccentric artists and writers, ne'er-do-wells, and components of a essay others outside the mainstream. Considering the town's seedy history, to deny this simple and innocuous pleasure on the craziest night of the year in Key West would be foolhardy to most independent observers. Not that the act of a woman being artfully topfree falls anywhere near those other activities. But it is consistent with the traditionally independent attitude of the Conch Republic. For women, it represents a little progress in gaining more control over their own bodies. And that's a good thing for everyone. by Claire Braz Valentine. This piece of new common prompts 2015 work began circulating on the Internet in components of a good the spring of phd thesis database europe 2002 after US Attorney General John Ashcroft spent more than US$8000 to hide a breast on a statue in the Hall of Justice in Washington, DC.
Hear the author read this work (recording from Santa Cruz, California, March 2002) by going here. John, John, John, you've got your priorities all wrong. While men fly airplanes into skyscrapers, dive bomb the pentagon, while they stick explosives into their shoes, and then book a seat right next to us, while they hide knives in their luggage, steal kids on school buses, take little girls from their beds at of a good, night, drive trucks into our state capital buildings, while our president calls dangerous men all over the world evildoers and devils, while we live in coursework def the threat of biological warfare, nuclear destruction, annihilation, you are out components essay, buying yardage to contoh save Americans from the appalling, alarming, abominable aluminum alloy of evil, that terrible ten foot tin tittie. You might not be able to find Bin Laden, but you sure as heck found the hooter in the hall of justice. It's not that we aren't grateful, But while we were begging the women of Afghanistan To not cover up their faces, You are begging your staff members to Just cover up that nipple, to save the of a American people from phd thesis database europe, that monstrous metal mammary. How can we ever thank you? So, in components good essay your office every morning in your secret prayer meeting, while an a case of study, American woman is sexually assaulted every six seconds, while anthrax floats around the post office and settles in the chest of senior citizens, you've got another chest on your mind. While American sons arrive home in body bags, and heat seeking missiles fly around a foreign country looking for any warm body, you think of another body.
And you pray for the biggest bra in the world, John, because you see that breast on the Spirit of Justice in the spirit of your own inhibited sexuality. And when we women see our grandmothers, our mothers, our daughters, our granddaughters, our sisters, ourselves, when we women see that statue, the Spirit of Justice, we see the spirit of strength, the spirit of survival. Good Essay? While every day we view innocent bodies dragged out of rubble, and women and children laid out like thin limp dolls and baptized into introduction testing, death as collateral damage, and the hollow eyed Afghani mother's milk has dried up underneath her burqa in famine, in shame, and her children are dead at her breast. While you look at that breast, John, that jug on the Spirit of Justice, and deal with your thoughts of lust and sex and components of a good essay nakedness, we see it as a testimony to motherhood. A Case Of Study? And you see it as a tit.
It's not the money it cost. It's the message you send. We've got the right to of a essay live in freedom. We've got the right to cheat Americans out of millions of dollars and then just not want to tell congress about it. We've got the right to drop bombs night and day on a small country that has no army, no navy, no military at all, because we've got the right to bear arms, but we just better not even think about the right to bare breasts.
So now, John, you can be photographed while you stand there and talk about bombs and guns and poisons without the breast appearing over your right shoulder, without that bodacious bosom bothering you. And we just wanted to tell you in the Spirit of Justice, in the Spirit of Truth: John, there is still one very big boob left standing there in that picture. YORK, MAINE: CAN WE SAY AVOIDANCE? by Julia Goforth. Julia Goforth is a former Vice-President of the Topfree Equal Rights Association. She wrote this article in early September 2001. In late July 2001, I visited York, Maine.
It is a busy, tourist-filled town, quaint and new common app essay friendly, with miles of beach on the Atlantic Ocean. What a beautiful place to be! I sought to find out what to expect from law enforcement officials in the area should I decide to enjoy the components good beach in my usual manner. While walking across a parking lot near Short Sands Beach, I saw a man officer and a woman lifeguard speaking with each other. I approached them and explained that I was visiting from Ontario and planned to spend time on the beach in in pursuasive my monokini bathing suit (bottom only). I asked if I would encounter any problems from the police department.
Seeming to be surprised by my question, they both answered Yes. The police officer stated that not wearing a top could get me charged with disorderly conduct. Components? The lifeguard said there was no dressing or undressing allowed on the beach, and that the city had an ordinance against being without a top on the beach, with a fine of $50. I asked where I could get the new common 2015 exact wording of components of a good essay these statutes and ordinances. Again, they seemed surprised at my question, but directed me to the police station just down the road. So I paid a visit to the Town of York police department. Officer Scott Cogger offered to the personal for residency application and guidance assist me. When I stated what I was looking for, he said that he was terribly busy and suggested I come back the next day. I smiled and said I didn't mind waiting for him to components good essay finish what he was doing. After a few minutes, a dispatcher offered to help me. I made my request known to him.
Then he politely declined to testing help. About 15 minutes later, Cogger returned with some photocopied papers for of a essay me, representing things that I could be charged with. He requested that if I planned to be on the beach without a top, I do so on a weekend so that the coursework def officers on duty on weekdays would not have to components good handle the call. He also suggested that I go to a case of study Kittery Point Beach because it would look better on the front page of the paper than York Beach. Back at my campsite, located directly behind the police department, I read the applicable laws.
Here are the essay relevant parts: Maine Law Section 17A. 854. Indecent conduct. 1. Coursework Def? A person is guilty of indent conduct if: A. In a public place, 1. Components Of A Essay? The actor engages in a sexual act, as defined in section 251; or. 2. The actor knowingly exposes the actor's genitals under circumstances that, in fact, are likely to a case of study cause affront or alarm. 501.
Disorderly conduct. A person is guilty of disorderly conduct if: 1. In a public place, he intentionally or recklessly causes annoyance to others by components good, intentionally [sic]: A. Making loud and unreasonable noises; B. Introduction Speech On Animal Testing? Activating a device, or exposing a substance, which releases noxious and offensive odors. C. Engaging in fighting . . Of A Good Essay? . 2. In a public or private place, he knowingly accosts, insults, taunts, or challenges any person with offensive, derisive or annoying words, or by gestures or other physical conduct . . . The city ordinance spoken of introduction speech on animal is the ordinance prohibiting obscenity for commercial gain. Article 1 of the ordinance states its purpose as to prohibit any commercial enterprise from presenting or engaging in any obscene exhibitions for profit.
It is of a essay not intended to suppress or inhibit the free exchange of ideas of in pursuasive on animal testing artistic expression. The Town of York has enacted this ordinance for components good essay the purpose of database europe promoting and protecting the general welfare, public safety, public order, and components of a essay morals. Article 2, Section 5 of new common 2015 this ordinance defines obscene as any conduct of a sexual nature and continues to outline what would be considered of a sexual nature: anything. A. which, to of a the average individual applying contemporary community standards, considered as a whole appeals to the prurient interest; B. which presents in a patently offensive manner actual or simulated ultimate sexual acts, sodomy, beastiality, excretory functions, masturbation, direct physical stimulation of the unclothed genitals, flagellation or torture in context of ultimate sexual acts, lewd exhibition of the a case of study human male or female genitals, pubic area, buttocks, or the female breast below the top of the good essay nipple; and. C. A Case Of Study? which considered as a whole lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.
Article 3 outlines what is prohibited: any commercial enterprise is components of a good prohibited to present or engage in an obscene exhibition for profit; or to a case of study solicit, permit, promote, or assist any commercial enterprise or person to present or engage in any obscene exhibition within the Town of components of a good York. Violating this order, incidentally, carries a fine of a case of study $500 for each offense. The lifeguard was off a bit in her figures. Come to components good think of introduction in pursuasive speech testing it, she was off a bit in essay a lot of this ordinance. In my interpretation, if I'm sunbathing or frolicking with my children in the surf, none of the contoh bagus above material applies. Even if I'm selling promotional materials for TERA on the beach, Article 2, Section 5, part C seems to address, and of a protect, my activity. Unfortunately, I left York at sunrise the following day and was unable to test my theory. But there is always next summer.
Stay tuned! by Kayla Sosnow, posted 2001 October 25. Kayla Sosnow wrote this about europe, Judge Joe Williams while she spent 20 days in jail for not wearing a shirt in a forest in Florida. For a photo of her singing/chanting this poem, go here. With a country twang. Chorus: (But) (still) Well I'm just sittin' here in jail Wondrin' how did I fail Why am I held without bail All I did was be female and wondrin' Why is it that the judge Is refusing to of a good essay budge If I could just give him a nudge: See, it's only about pudge! But in court you can't speak free You got to pay a lawyer's fee For the priv'lege of giving up your voice There really ain't much choice So I made me a plan To get access to this man He'll let me out of the database joint Once he understands my point And in this fantasy I invite him for good essay herb tea And far from the phd thesis database europe halls of justice I ask what all the fuss is components of a Well, thoughtfully he sat Then said . . . The Personal Application Review? Mine are flat, yours fat . . . And I think it's really shitty That you showed the world your titties. But then I explained to him our quest To gain freedom of the breast You see judge they aren't dirty You'll get used to that they're purty And who was it to decide That by law females must abide Our bodies in components of a essay shame we must hide That seems most undignified! But if you are a man You're exempt from this ban And in freedom you can Enjoy a tan and land and phd thesis sand. Then I asked what next will be If they find our face sexy And he finally came to see With new eyes he looked at me and said, I must loosen up these ties That kept me hypnotized by lies I admit I've been unwise Now my consciousness must rise.
With that he handed me the of a good essay key And said, You're out of jail free! A week later he wrote And from his note I quote You have changed how I feel This prejudice must heal Good luck on your appeal I support your cause with zeal! Copyright 2001 by Kayla Sosnow. WHAT'S WRONG WITH MY BREASTS? by Ann-Marie, 2001 August 07. Ann-Marie lives in Texas. The following is application review and guidance taken from a longer essay.
I see breasts every day. Mine. Of A Good? So does my husband. Every woman has them. So why is introduction in pursuasive speech on animal it such a horrible thing when they are seen on components of a essay, television? We see men and boys taking off their shirts every day, in coursework def the movies and on television, but as soon as a woman takes off hers, parts of the picture become mosaic, or she pulls a bed sheet over her chest. Why? The funniest part is the controversial nipple. That's pretty much what's being hidden here. In Pennsylvania, at a strip bar, the components good dancers have to wear pasties over coursework def their nipples.
Doesn't matter how large her breasts are, as long as the nipples are covered. Now, I don't know about you, but I think it's the good essay curve and fullness of the prompts breast that is so pleasing to the eye. Nipples be damned! To cover nipples with pasties, especially glittery pasties, simply draws more attention to the whole breast. Obviously, this does nothing for the equality of components good essay men and women. Bagus? Quite frankly, to components be told that I have to cover my nipples simply because I do not have a penis is insulting. Yeah, we're different . Prompts? . . but we're equal.
If a man can take off his shirt and not have his nipples blurred out on television, a woman should be able to do the essay same. A Case Of Study? So ours look a little different . Components Of A? . . they're a little bigger . . . SO WHAT?! All women have them. All husbands and boyfriends see them. All children still nursing see them. All other women see them in new common app essay changing and locker rooms. Do you honestly think that we all try to cover up in of a essay the locker room? And don't get me started on the whole breastfeeding in review and guidance public issue. Anyone with a problem with that should try eating his or her dinner in the toilet and good essay see how they like it. A woman has two reasons to the personal for residency and guidance bare her breasts: the same reason any man would and to feed her child!
Through this censorship, we are sending very mixed signals to our women and girls: that they should be ashamed of and hide their breasts at the same time they are taught by fashion magazines that they should enlarge and display them. What hypocrisy! We're also sending a signal to men and essay boys that they cannot control themselves at the sight of a breast. Bagus? Do men commit assault as a result of components of a good essay seeing bare female breasts on PBS or in a movie? Yeesh! I'm not saying that I want to walk around everywhere topfree. It's someone telling me that I cannot do something because I am a female that I question it at all---especially when female breasts serve a distinct purpose that requires occasional exposure.
Restrictions like this are ridiculous, illogical, and statement for residency application unfair. They need to components of a good be tested, pushed, and broken. If you are going to new common app essay blur a woman's breasts on components good essay, television, you might as well come into my home and digitize my breasts while I shower and change my clothes. CANADIAN TIRE ATTIRE. How I used a non-policy to a case of study begin educating the police and others. by Julia Goforth, 2001 July 07. This is a report of an incident on June 30, 2001 at about 11:00 in a small city north of Toronto, Ontario. The dry approach reflects the author's calm, cool control. I went into a Canadian Tire store on Yonge Street in Newmarket with one female and two male friends. One of the men and I were topfree, while the other two chose to wear shirts. After a half hour of browsing and purchasing, Mr.
Allen Dodds, Retail Manager, approached me with Ms. Components Of A Essay? Tanis Pottage, Manager, and database another store employee. Mr. Good Essay? Dodds told me I was going to have to put my shirt on. I informed him that there was no sign indicating that I had to wear a shirt while in the store. He stated that Canadian Tire is a case of study private property and I had to put a shirt on or leave the store. I asked if this was a store policy. He said it was. Components Good Essay? I requested to introduction on animal see the policy in writing.
He said that it was not written anywhere. As I put on my shirt, I said I found it curious that the store would have unwritten policies. I asked him to components of a essay please put this one in writing for the personal application and guidance me, and of a that a hand-written copy would be acceptable. He then accused me of creating a disturbance with his customers. I pointed out that I was merely shopping and was not creating a disturbance of any kind. He said that other customers were bothered by europe, my being without a shirt. I told him that I was not responsible for other peoples' behaviour, only my own. Components? He excused himself and went outside to database europe talk to the police. When he returned, he informed me that the police said that he didn't have to good give me anything in new common prompts 2015 writing.
I understood that he didn't have to, but I was requesting that he do so as a courtesy. He refused. The topfree man with me was never told to put his shirt on by any of the Canadian Tire employees. Taking note of components good essay this, I asked Mr. Dodds, Is this a gender issue?
He said, Yes. For confirmation, I asked, So, because I am a woman, I have to wear a shirt in your store? He paused a moment, then said, I don't want to get into this. Statement For Residency Application Review And Guidance? I don't want to essay argue about it. I stated that I didn't want to argue either, but that I wanted clarification. Then he informed me that there was a police officer outside and in pursuasive on animal that he would come in and charge me.
I asked what I would be charged with, since I wasn't doing anything illegal. He said he didn't know---whatever the officer wanted to charge me with. I replied that I would be charged if he pressed charges, so I would like to components good essay know what he was planning to have me charged with. He threatened once again to bring in the police. I encouraged him to include the officer in our discussion.
Stunned, he excused himself to contoh resume speak with the officer. Upon his return, he informed me that the officer would be in to talk with me shortly. Then Mr. Dodds left, not to be seen again during the rest of the incident. After about 15 minutes, York Regional Officer Goddard, badge #1030, appeared. The officer, the other woman and the topfree man in my party, and I all joined Ms. Pottage in components good essay the office in the customer service area. Officer Goddard clarified, The manager told you to put your shirt on. I said, Yes.
After a pause, he asked, So what is the problem? I said there was no problem, merely that I had put on my shirt when I was told to, but that I was asking for their store policy in writing regarding the contoh bagus wearing of shirts, since it was not posted. I suggested that to require me to wear a shirt while allowing men to be without one was illegal. Officer Goddard informed me that my being without a shirt was drawing attention from the other customers; that was the reason I was confronted. Of A? I pointed out new common app essay 2015, that if my son had a gross deformity that drew attention, I would not be asked to cover him or leave the of a essay store. The officer agreed. I then pointed out that this was basically the same kind of resume bagus thing. Components Good? He said he understood, but that this was a cultural thing. I compared it to the cultural act of discrimination based on race or religion. He offered, Well, it's going to speech take some time for society to change.
I explained that that's exactly why I exercise my right to be topfree, that I want to reclaim our breasts and have them viewed as something other than mere sexual playthings. I am helping not just women but men as well, by changing how they view women in components essay general. Officer Goddard said that the store did not understand the laws about the personal and guidance, women being able to go without a shirt, and that because the law was so new, even the police were unsure how to components good handle this type of situation. [Ed. note: the law was only 4.5 years old at this point!] I recalled that I had once encountered an coursework def, officer who was so unsure what to of a do that he begged me to put my shirt on long enough for him to get into a case of study, his cruiser and of a good leave. That sort of action weakened the police's position and effectiveness in the public eye. I informed Officer Goddard that as Vice-President of the Topfree Equal Rights Association, I would like the opportunity to help the police deal with the the personal review and guidance public when they receive a call regarding a topfree woman. I asked whom he would recommend that I get in touch with to arrange an components of a, informative presentation.
I didn't want to contoh resume bagus tell anyone how to do their job, just offer more viable options on of a, ways to deal with the issue that keep everyone happy without violating anyone's rights. He suggested that I speak with the on animal Chief at York Regional Headquarters. As the discussion came to an end, Ms. Pottage stated that they would contact Canadian Tire's corporate office and institute a shirts required policy in all Canadian Tire stores. I thanked Officer Goddard and Ms. Pottage for their professional attitudes, then asked the officer for essay directions to new common app essay 2015 another store. He gave me the directions and then asked, Am I going to good be getting a call from that store in a little bit? BEAUTY AND THE BREAST: AN ART EXHIBITION.
by Allison Roberts. Allison Roberts, a student at Bellevue Community College, Washington, coordinated its art show Beauty and the Breast on June 1, 2001. For more on contoh, that day's presentations, go here . Although I do not consider myself an components of a, activist, I felt compelled to work on contoh resume bagus, this project from the of a essay moment I heard about it. Maybe my perspective will inspire people a little, or at least inspire some thought about introduction on animal testing, topfreedom, sexualization, and components of a good essay body image. In the US today, the average 7-year-old girl has been on introduction speech testing, at least two diets. Of A Good Essay? Younger and a case of study younger girls are influenced by our culture's constant pressure to conform to essay an unrealistic body expectation.
I have heard teenagers talking about TV movies that chronicle women's battles with eating disorders; and instead of being sickened, saddened, or moved by new common prompts 2015, these stories, they look to them for more tips on how to starve themselves. A recent documentary on bulimia stated that the of a essay no. 1 inspiration for girls with eating disorders is the movies and introduction in pursuasive speech testing books intended to good essay stop them. They think they're glamorous. Virtually every woman I know has resorted to phd thesis europe drastic measures to obtain what our culture teaches is the of a essay ideal body. What we consider that body to be is probably a very sick one. Eating disorders and serious negative body image are destroying tomorrow's women. Now, how does this tie into topfreedom? Even at the age of 27, I have probably seen only 10 or 15 pairs of real breasts. Most of my knowledge about breasts comes from movies and a case of study magazines.
But actresses use body doubles to give the illusion of components essay a more perfect body, and photographs of contoh resume bagus models have been airbrushed to remove any unsightly bumps or discoloration. These women, whom we consider ideal, represent a mere 1% of society. When girls as young as 12 talk about getting breast implants based on this standard, I say we have a serious problem. Three 14-year-old girls have told me separately that they need breast enlargement surgery, with nothing to base their body hatred on but a stolen copy of Playboy. How can a girl who has little to of a no idea what real breasts look like be expected to accept her own body as normal and natural? How can we teach our children that our bodies belong to us and contoh resume bagus are perfect as they are, if we are also teaching them that their breasts are merely dangerous sexual objects to be hidden? How can we say that to view a woman's breasts will damage children, when it is components of a essay so clear what not seeing them is doing? Allison Roberts and her painting American Woman. We pulled this show together in just under two weeks. I was overwhelmed by the response from the artists I contacted---by their support, enthusiasm, creativity, and inspiration. It was both a gift and a pleasure to work on coursework def, the show, to spend even two weeks on something I believe in passionately.
THE KAYLA SOSNOW INTERVIEW. by Peri, 2000 March 30. In 1996, Kayla Sosnow was taking part in components essay a Rainbow Gathering at Osceola National Forest in phd thesis database europe Florida. Of A Good Essay? There were many topfree women at this gathering, and Kayla felt perfectly comfortable in her surroundings. But when she and a male friend left the festivities to fill up their water jugs, she was jolted back into the reality of resume bagus life here in The United States---where every person is components good supposedly created equal. Even though there were several topfree men in the area (including her male companion), a passing forest ranger singled her out for harassment. He told her that her bare chest was illegal, and that she would have to put on a top. Really? Kayla responded. Do you have a local law about this?
Her question flustered the ranger, and he went back to his radio. Soon after, three Sheriff cars pulled up. A Case Of Study? The Sheriffs were not interested in of a discussing the in pursuasive speech on animal situation. Kayla was told that she must cover up or go to jail. At this point, her male companion suggested that maybe she had just better put on her top. Now, let's all pause for a moment and components of a good put ourselves in this situation. Statement Application And Guidance? You are enjoying time with friends in a beautiful national forest.
Suddenly, you find yourself facing jail time. There is essay only one way to escape the situation: you must agree to application abide by a law that is obviously discriminating against you simply because of components your sex. On Animal? What would you do? What's wrong with this photo? Kayla Sosnow chose to go to jail. Good Essay? She was handcuffed and database driven to a county jail. She was to spend four days there, and because she refused to plead guilty, she ended up serving another sixteen days after conviction. When speaking about components of a essay, Topfreedom, people often shrug and say that it isn't really a big issue; there are, after all, more important issues to worry about. But if topfreedom is such a small, unimportant issue, why in the world are we sending topfree women like Kayla Sosnow to jail?
Taking away a person's freedom by incarceration is never a small issue. Inequality between the two halves of humanity (the male and the female) is introduction testing never a small issue. State-sanctioned sexual discrimination and police-enforced sexual harassment is never a small issue. Kayla's actions were not premeditated: she simply found herself in an intolerable situation and felt compelled to stand up for what she believed in. Kayla was not raised in of a good an atmosphere that specifically encouraged topfreedom, but she was raised in surroundings that respected social activism. Social activism is actually prescribed in Judaism, says Kayla, who has been involved with many different civil rights movements, because our people were once slaves in Egypt. Criminalized for being a woman! Kayla Sosnow in handcuffs. Kayla also considers the topfreedom movement to be a women's health movement. Coursework Def? Women are not getting screened for of a good breast cancer because of the personal statement for residency and guidance our attitudes about breasts.
Women are not doing their breast self exams because of our negative attitudes about breasts. Of A Good Essay? And women are dying because of this. App Essay? Also, women are not breastfeeding their babies---I can't believe that our society is still making women feel uncomfortable about good, such a natural process! I asked Kayla how she responds when people tell her that men will not be able to control themselves if women walk around topfree. It always surprises me when I talk about this issue, she answered, that the discussion always turns to men, how men will feel, what men will do. That is not the issue here. This is about women choosing for in pursuasive on animal themselves.
Kayla believes that the general public could handle the situation just fine if the government would get out of the way. She has tested this theory by being topfree around her house. She has answered the components of a essay door topfree to coursework def letter carriers, courier drivers, and even a clergyman. Components Of A Good? All of these men were able to contoh resume bagus control themselves just fine. In fact, she said with calm assurance, people are a lot more ready for this than we give them credit for.
Kayla came to this conclusion in components of a the years after her arrest, when she received widespread support for phd thesis database her appeal. She actually won this appeal last year , and is now involved in a suit against the state of Florida. The American Civil Liberties Union of Florida has filed this lawsuit on behalf of good Kayla and nine other females---including a nine-year-old girl. It is coursework def very encouraging to see that a reputable organization like the ACLU is offering support on this issue! Because of her leadership in the topfreedom movement, Kayla has a unique perspective on components of a, the progress that has been made in recent years.
The more I talk about this issue, the more I hear about statement for residency review, women who have been arrested for being topfree. Good Essay? This has not been organized: it is a grassroots movement! Many, many different women are starting to get fed up and are saying that they don't want to new common app essay take it any more. Components Of A Good? I want women to know that they can choose to challenge these laws. We don't have to phd thesis database europe take it anymore! Throughout my interview with Kayla, I was struck by her calm but fearless attitude about topfreedom. Obviously, they picked the wrong woman to harass at that Rainbow Gathering.
Or perhaps this was the right woman! Although we are sorry that Kayla had to go through her horrendous legal battle, we are eternally grateful that she chose to stand up and good essay fight for all women's equal rights under the law. She will continue to inspire other women to question the coursework def unfair laws that keep women from components essay, reclaiming ownership of phd thesis their own breasts. Read on for more topfree inspiration! Q: How do you respond when people say that topfreedom is not safe for women? A: The evidence does not bear this out. When was the components essay last time you heard of a topfree woman being attacked on a nude beach, topfree beach, or nudist park?
Concert or festival, even? Any topfree woman anywhere? Never! I have never heard of one! And I've heard of lots of topfree women! Not only phd thesis europe, does the evidence not bear this out, but neither does my personal experience. I have gone topfree plenty, and have never been attacked. Essay? There is an element of strength to going topfree, while at the personal application, the same time exposing the world to of a good the soft and a case of study nourishing parts of women that for components of a too long have been devalued in contoh bagus favour of the tough competitive ideal of our society.
There is also an element of openness to going topfree which seems to inspire people to treat me with the utmost respect and dignity, even admiration. Components Of A? People have thanked me for acting on the personal statement for residency application, behalf of of a essay equal rights. Speaking of equal rights, statements about men misbehaving show a profound lack of bagus respect for them. Believe it or not, men really can control themselves in the presence of of a good essay a topfree woman! Q: How do you respond when people say that topfreedom is inappropriate for coursework def children to witness?
A: Silly rabbit, breasts are for kids! It is so unfortunate that in our society the media have fetishized breasts so much that they have been co-opted away from their owners and away from children. Good? Do you realize how many children miss out on new common app essay prompts 2015, the nourishing benefits of components of a breastfeeding? All because of the coursework def view that this statement represents, that breasts are sex objects, meaning that they are for men, not women and good essay children. Q: Do you have any advice for women who might want to try being topfree in public but haven't quite got up the courage? A: Pick a place you think is mellow and a case of study free of essay legal hassles---a natural spot, maybe---and use your judgement. Then, you know how you take off your shirt at night to go to coursework def bed? It's just like that. Really. Just like you've been doing since you were a kid.
You just take it off. Good Essay? Once it's off, it's off. People can handle it, and noticing that, you'll be able to handle it too. I'll bet there'll be a surprising lack of fanfare. Once you've tried it, and felt the sun and wind on your body, you'll never want to be encased in a hot, sweaty garment again. Why do you think men go topfree? It feels better. Let's not be denied! I AM NOT A SEX OBJECT.
I OWN MY OWN BODY. by Allison Ezell, 2001 April 10. In April 2001, Allison Ezell began a project to decriminalize women's exposed breasts in phd thesis Indiana. Her website operated for a couple of years. I can't tell you how great it feels to be doing what I am doing. It is almost cathartic, like I am purging myself of components good years and years of coursework def bullshit and body propaganda that I internalized. And I am trying to help other women.
I have been involved in several activist endeavors. Components Essay? There are an infinite number of worthy causes to promote in this world. But I have found one that gives me peace. This issue is introduction speech on animal so personal to me. I don't have to adjust or apologize or explain or be ashamed. I am not a sex object. I own my body. It is not government property.
The fact that I have to wear a shirt to cover my breasts because they are obscene or because they might entice men to violence is beyond me (even though the overwhelming evidence does not support this notion). It is they who have the problem but I am the components of a one whom they legislate. Women will never be able to accept their bodies as long as we are expected to keep covering up and concealing and hiding from the world with makeup and bras and and control top pantyhose and $60-a-jar wrinkle cream. If we all walked around naked and contoh resume bagus unadorned for a little while and turned off our TVs, would we still believe that everyone has to look like a Barbie (or a Ken for that matter)? Would women still force themselves to of a puke? Would we still spend over $80 million a year on diet bullshit? How in the world will women be able to love and a case of study accept their very bodies if every other part is good either flawed or criminal? YOU CAN THINK FOR YOURSELF. In April 2001, Whitney McCleskey began a project to decriminalize women's exposed breasts in app essay prompts Alabama.
Her website is under construction. On January 24, 2002, she gave birth to Victoria Eve, whose photo from Winter 2002 this is: Out of my own curiosity, I've been investigating the social problems surrounding topfreedom for almost two years now. I have learned that it is components essay difficult for most people to improve their perspectives on new common app essay prompts 2015, something which their culture has taught them to view with contempt. But it can be done. Most of us grow up in societies which place restrictions on essay, women's breasts, saying that the mere exposure of one is morally threatening to the welfare of the public. We adapt to review and guidance this belief without question. Our media reinforce it through ads, movies, and TV programs. Basically, people believe women's breasts are indecent, obscene, and immoral, because that's what their culture's mainstream has trained them to believe.
In all of my questioning, I've found no one who has ever been able to tell me what it is good about the the personal statement for residency application review and guidance human female breast that is so immoral, obscene, or indecent. Nor has anyone ever been able to produce anatomical facts supporting the general concept that women's breasts are primarily for sex. I've concluded that the good female breast is the most misunderstood part of the human anatomy. The sight of one (that's not being used for sexual or commercial purposes) is only detrimental if you want it to resume be. Immorality, indecency, and obscenity, like beauty, are all in the eye of the good essay beholder. Basically, you can think for yourself. A Case Of Study? You can purge yourself of the misleading impression promulgated by of a essay, the state and phd thesis europe mainstream media.
Personal opinion is one thing the state can't outlaw, the media can't censor. Instead they induce the of a essay general population into seeing women's breasts perniciously. Women's topfreedom is in introduction on animal itself harmless. Our freedom to components choose our standpoint is precious. For many people topfreedom is also precious, a freedom that men have but women do not.
Ask yourself (not your government or the coursework def media), Are women's breasts really nocuous to society? TOPFREE AS YOU WANNA BE! by Peri, 1999 September 7. When I was 16, I spent a summer in of a good Mexico. One of the girls I met there had just returned from Spain. The Personal Statement? A hundred percent of the women who had frequented the beach outside her hotel were topfree.
My friend felt very conspicuous with her top on because people were constantly staring at her. Still, she was uncomfortable taking off her top because she came from a different culture. But after a few days, she became weary of being the object of so much attention. So she took off her top. She noticed the difference immediately; there were no more stares directed her way. This story demonstrates that people stare at what they consider to be different or odd. Components Of A Good Essay? In a culture where topfreedom is accepted and even expected, people will stare at the unusual sight of a woman wearing a top. In a culture (such as ours) where topfreedom is neither accepted nor expected, people will stare at a woman who is europe not wearing a top. The deciding factor is not the woman's breasts, but the context in which they are seen. Unfortunately, our society does more than simply stare: we also harass, ticket, and even arrest women who are simply trying to components essay exercise the same topfreedom that men enjoy.
This can be seen in the case of The Moscow Three, a trio of women who dared remove their shirts last year during the app essay prompts 2015 32° degree heat of a summer day in Moscow, Idaho. For this crime, the three women (Lori Graves, Natalie Shapiro, and Stacy Temple) were hauled off to the local jail in handcuffs--while their topfree, male companions stood by, barechested and unharassed. If this is not a blatant example of discrimination, I don't know what is! The prejudice against topfree women is due in part to components of a good essay the sexualization of the bagus female breasts. Since women are not allowed to of a essay bare their breasts in nonsexual situations, our society immediately associates bare breasts with sexuality. Now, I am not saying that men would cease to be aroused by breasts if we all walked around topfree. In Pursuasive On Animal? Of course some would! Just as some men are aroused by components essay, long hair, or bare legs, or blue eyes. Should we respond to coursework def this potential arousal by shrouding ourselves in shoulder to floor garments? Should we cover our hair and faces, leaving only a small opening to see the world?
This has been the good solution in some cultures, but it's not a solution I much like! Instead, we can demand that our society grow up and learn to new common app essay deal with the existence of our physical bodies. We must teach society that bare breasts are not an invitation to of a good be touched, just as we teach that short skirts are not an invitation to be raped. When we look at the larger picture, we see that sexual violence against women is perpetuated by our present system: a system that legally sanctions women to be topfree only when they are performing striptease acts or serving men drinks in a topless bar. In my town, a woman cannot walk down the street topfree, but she can take off her shirt in a bar for paying customers. This hypocrisy encourages men to think of breasts as sexual objects: mere sexual commodities to be bought and sold! Modern society often has a short memory, so people do not remember that men gained their topfree rights fairly recently.
If you look at those old black and white photos of turn-of-the-century bathing suits, you will notice that the men's nipples were also covered. It wasn't until Clark Gable bared his chest in a film in the thirties that men began to go topfree in great numbers. Coursework Def? A few old timers probably fainted, but I'm sure they eventually revived and got on with life. Now male topfreedom is so commonplace that few men would consider putting on of a essay, a top to the personal statement for residency and guidance go swimming. Of A? If we want women to enjoy the same rights, some of us are going to have to be brave and coursework def just do it! This is easier said than done. Components Of A? Each woman needs to coursework def choose the time and place that feels safe and appropriate. Believe it or not, I do not enjoy making myself a public spectacle! Neither do I like making other people feel uncomfortable when they are trying to enjoy the outdoors with their families. But the solution is not to segregate topfree women onto certain beaches or sections of components of a town.
We have to remember that some people are uncomfortable sharing space with African Americans or Mexicans or Jews. Coursework Def? The old adage Separate but Equal did not fly with the ethnic minorities in this country, and it doesn't apply any better to topfree women! In fact, segregation encouraged bigotry because it kept people ignorant of their common humanity. The same applies to components of a topfreedom. Until people experience topfree women around them, they will continue to believe that topfree women are dangerous sluts--out to steal husbands and corrupt children!
It's important to provide the information that will help end this ignorance: to know cases where women have challenged unfair laws in court, to discuss how topfreedom affects breastfeeding, motherhood, and body esteem. Whenever there's temperate weather, pluck up that courage and get yourself as topfree as you wanna be! A TASTE OF FREEDOM. by Cindy Olsen, 1999 September 14. I remember the day the photos below were taken. It was a very gray, January day . . . long before I really got involved in topfreedom. My husband, our children, and another family member had gone out to the beach for photos of the children and for the opportunity of fresh air during the long, cold winter. The wind was fierce. Europe? Stronger than I could ever remember.
I was in components of a good essay a different place then. It was not the normal thing for the personal me to shed my top on a public beach, but somehow the essay wind beckoned me. New Common 2015? First, I stripped down to my bra. But when I felt the cool sting of the wind whipping my skin, I had to components of a good be completely free. Free I was. Without any real thought, I slid my bra off and held up my shirt like it was a cape for a superhero. It was, without a doubt, one of the most liberating feelings I have ever had in my life. The coolness of the air. The wind whisking away my breath. My breasts standing in the wind and shouting, I am free!
I am beautiful! I am decent! I haven't looked over contoh bagus these photos in quite some time. Looking at them today, I realize that this was my first real taste of of a essay (top)freedom! MY BREASTS RECLAIMED. by a woman in introduction in pursuasive testing Ontario, Canada, 2001 April 27. This story makes the connection between women's topfreedom and breastfeeding, in of a good the context of life-giving well-being . I'm certain that any small-breasted woman (as I am considered) remembers the agony of the first comparisons to other girls. Europe? In high school, changing for gym class made me self-conscious. I was the only girl in Grade 9 not wearing a bra. After school, I asked my (similarly small-breasted) mother if I could pleeeease have a bra. A training bra? she asked.
Any bra, I answered, wondering what a training bra was---and more importantly, if it could train my breasts to grow bigger! Some time around puberty, my next older brother had mock-inducted me into of a good essay, the itty bitty titty club. Database? His teasing was the beginning of nearly 20 years of shame, embarrassment, and feelings of inadequacy regarding my breasts. Did I ever toy with the idea of breast surgery to incease my cup size? You bet. After the birth of my first daughter, I was committed to breastfeeding her for as long as possible. With the books The Womanly Art of Breastfeeding and components good BestFeeding as my guides, I suffered through six weeks of painful cracking, bleeding, and screaming nipples---but finally drifted into six additional months of coursework def comfortable breastfeeding. Components Of A Good? Ah, relief. And confidence. WOW, the confidence!
I finally realized that I measured perfectly. When did this new woman emerge? Exactly the moment that everyone's focus (most importantly one's own) shifted from the size of the breasts to their true purpose. Introduction On Animal? It was exhilarating. I read an article in a breastfeeding newsletter about the essay bond between mother and nursing child entitled My Breasts Adored. I beamed with recognition. A Case Of Study? After the powerful experience of successful breastfeeding, I decided that the only changes to my breasts that I was willing to undergo were natural ones, associated with nourishing my children. Shortly thereafter, the topfree equal rights issue came to the fore in our local paper. Components Good? I felt a spark, a confirmation. How dare anyone limit the the personal statement for residency application review purpose or visibility of my breasts?
How dare anyone put labels of indecency on them, my new-found, perfectly functioning and perfectly proportioned, life-nourishing breasts? I was not in high school any more and refused to be patronized and pigeon-holed yet again. When my breast size diminished after my daughter was weaned, my confidence remained. Now, after the birth of my second daughter (only three weeks of screaming nipples this time), I'm at it again. We're into our 13th month, and nursing anywhere and everywhere. People hardly notice my exposed areolas and nipples. When I'm feeding my child, I don't care what they see. by Paul Rapoport. Hamilton [Ontario, Canada] Spectator , November 28, 2005. Components Of A Good? This article relates topfreedom, nudity, and sexuality to increase understanding in a few areas. . . . there's innocence at risk.
But are we really kidding ourselves about children, nudity and sexuality? Are we sending them a harmful message in the process? Actress Kim Cattrall posed in the altogether for a case of study the cover of her newest book, Sexual Intelligence. Components Of A Essay? What does it---or people's reaction to it---say about society's attitudes towards nudity and sexuality? From Sexual Intelligence, Published by coursework def, Greystone Books. [the photo was printed 23 cm high in the newspaper article] A few weeks ago, on of a, a Go section cover, The Spectator printed a large photo of actor Kim Cattrall in connection with a new book of hers.
Some readers complained about the bagus photo because Cattrall was naked. The main argument against the photo was that it does not belong in a family newspaper. Family means a few things, chiefly the presence of children, also a certain parental attitude: young minds should not be polluted by nudity in components of a essay a newspaper that arrives for phd thesis database breakfast. Behind this lie two major assumptions: that children are innocent and their innocence needs protection. Although in some ways children are innocent, many parents narrow that to mean ignorant and try to keep them so, especially in sexual matters. Protection via ignorance then easily backfires as a method of upbringing.
It also loads burdens onto minors of all ages that adults fail socially to deal with. Bodies are one of components those failures, in their unclothed state and sexual potential. We act in imaginative ways to keep even the topics of a case of study nudity and sexuality from minors. It doesn't matter that young children in all cultures prefer to be naked, that at very early ages they masturbate, if non-erotically, and that in adolescence they know well what erotic experience is. North Americans may be very unsettled at children's developing sexuality. Components Essay? Our culture deals with this inevitability, writes the a case of study social critic James Kincaid, by of a good essay, issuing orders to deny it. Ideological and commercial interests help to maintain that unsettled denial. Prompts? Ideologically, we falsely believe that teens learning sexual facts will use them indiscriminately. Commercially, advertising blasts us with sexual messages that we try to prevent many of of a their intended targets from heeding. Many deny reality constantly to maintain the myth that we can enforce minors' distancing from sex. The United States, for phd thesis database example, officially promotes and exorbitantly funds abstinence-only sex education.
Five of the components of a best American professional organizations have shown scientifically that it doesn't work, that vows of abstinence break far more easily than a good condom. The result: the a case of study U.S. government says that's not science. That kind of reaction reached its nadir a few years ago. In 1998, a scientific analysis by good, Rind, Tromovitch, and coursework def Bauserman claimed that not all sexual experiences of minors presumed harmful are actually so. Components Good Essay? What did the U.S.
Congress do? It didn't say, We'd better study this or We think your stats are wrong. As soon as it could, in a fit of political hysteria, it denounced the analysis in unanimous votes in both House and Senate. It lynched the new common app essay messenger because it didn't want to understand the message. Promoting baseless fear reaps far more political benefits. Don't sneer at good essay, our southern neighbours, however. Canada, while better, is a case of study hardly free from criticism. Its government has tried hard to components of a make some thoughts about sex a crime. Its pornography laws are based on discredited theories.
Its police often wrongly claim that child sexual abuse is an epidemic. Ontario's Children's Aid societies threaten nudist families, who refuse to buy into body shame and a case of study phobia. Components Essay? And its sex-ed curriculum for elementary schools is warped by omission of important concepts. Obsession with sexuality may become absurd. Often, it results in a case of study those most afraid of it inducing plenty of harm where none existed. Of A Good Essay? In Florida in 2004, a 22-year-old female babysitter undressed in front of her four-year-old male charge because he asked her to persistently, in his innocent way. The boy was declared psychologically damaged and sent to counselling. The babysitter faced 30 years in prison, much more than for murder.
That unhappy tale reminds me of an old joke about app essay 2015, a four-year-old boy who spotted a totally naked woman standing up in a convertible. Mommy, he blurted out, clearly disturbed, that woman's not wearing a seat-belt! The crusade for of a essay children's innocence takes other forms. Just this month, two women protested in California bare-breasted -- by no means a new tactic. Sacramento police arrested them for in pursuasive on animal indecency and components good essay disorder, claiming their act could corrupt children . and resume cause sex offenders to good essay run amok. There is a case of study no evidence whatever to support such claims. Nonetheless, the women face permanent listing as sex offenders, right next to real child abusers.
That sort of thing happens in Canada, too. In the past 10 years, arrests of bare-breasted women in components of a several provinces have been major news. In 2001, when the magnificent Breast of Canada calendar from Guelph showed women's complete breasts, it was labelled pornographic. Even our original problem, Kim Cattrall's photo, hides what are often called naughty bits. Coursework Def? What message does that send to children? So we, too, can pin major harm on essay, a tiny part of women's bodies.
This nipplemania is the ultimate fetish. It blames women's nipples for disorder subsequently caused by police and calls them indecent to support false claims of protecting misconstrued innocence. We do not help children by teaching them intolerance, disgust, and unjust discrimination towards women's bodies or by hiding from resume bagus, them as much information as possible about bodies and sexuality. Cattrall's new book is called Sexual Intelligence. In North America, we could use some of that to move towards a sex positive culture. Currently we convey mostly body negativity, in sexual politics of fear and hypocrisy.
As protective measures for children, nothing could be worse. 'TOPFREEDOM' GAINING GROUND. Society is components of a coming to accept that bare breasts are not threatening. by Paul Rapoport. [Dr. Rapoport's article is below. Contoh Resume? It is from The Hamilton Spectator, Hamilton Ontario Canada, March 1, 2000. It was written in response to the article at the right by Lydia Lovric, which appeared in the same newspaper on components, February 23, 2000.
Her article is in pursuasive testing posted with her kind permission. At the time, as the article says at its end, she was an undergraduate student at components essay, McMaster University in Hamilton, the a case of study same place where Dr. Rapoport is a professor. The two authors met for the first time on July 25, 2001, and found each other excellent company.] Last week Lydia Lovric wrote a Forum article criticizing topless women [above and to the right]. I prefer the term topfree. It's closer to what these women feel when they throw off their tops on a hot day as men do.
Topless also suggests strippers, but there's no connection here. Components Of A Good? Indeed, it's insulting to topfree women to tell them to head to the nearest strip joint. Many make that suggestion in exasperation. Coursework Def? It reveals confusion between bare breasts and sexual activity. So does the notion that any topfree woman is parading about. Such words also imply puzzlement at why women would expose their breasts. Many women have explained topfreedom.
To them it's about being comfortable, gaining confidence, expressing body acceptance, aiding breastfeeding, or protesting men's authority over their bodies. Lovric claimed that society won't accept topfree women. Let's see what's happened recently to essay some of introduction them in North America. Gwen Jacob in Ontario: acquitted of good indecency. Database? Linda Meyer in of a essay BC: public nudity charge dropped.
Kathleen Rice and Evangeline Godron in Saskatchewan: acquitted of indecent exhibition. Three women in Idaho: acquitted of indecent exposure. In Pursuasive On Animal? Kayla Sosnow in good essay Florida: acquitted of contoh resume disorderly conduct. Despite a few cases pending or on appeal, the trend is clear. Laws used to good essay convict topfree women are failing. Most often, topfree women are not arrested and not news. What about prompts, those great markers of popular culture---television and film? These days, many mainstream films have scenes with bare female breasts.
TV programs too. Importantly, such scenes may be in nonsexual contexts. On February 8th, CBS showed a lot of topfree women on of a essay, a beach in prime time, with hardly a bleep from viewers. Europe? On the of a good essay 21st, CBC news showed a tape of Linda Meyer topfree without censoring her nipples. The sun still rises daily, and the personal application and guidance the moral collapse of North America will have to be blamed on components of a, something else.
North America does have an obsession with women's breasts. It's closely connected to women's lack of the personal statement for residency application and guidance self-esteem, often manifested in debilitating eating disorders and dangerous surgeries. Breast banning also restricts breast feeding and makes women less likely to examine their breasts for disease. Men's obsessive fantasies of women's breasts demand those breasts be hidden except when men permit them to be uncovered. Those demands control, exploit, and degrade women. They are the real perversion, said anthropologist Ashley Montagu--not some women wishing to go without tops. Discomfort or embarrassment may accompany the sight of women's or men's bare breasts, understandably. But that alone is not a sound basis for criminal law.
It's also easier to relieve than most people think. Components Good Essay? Fear, panic, and disgust really can be avoided too. Regardless, like men, women don't go barebreasted everywhere. Coursework Def? Ms. Good? Lovric and I may agree on statement for residency review and guidance, that. Nor do women walk fully clothed alone on certain streets after dark. Should we criminalize them if they do and blame them for men's assaults? May every hot and bothered male harass a woman because of what she's wearing---or not wearing? Lovric concluded that requiring breasts to be covered is a reasonable limit on of a essay, women's freedom. Twenty years ago, lawyer Carol Agate explained how the imposition on women is great, the inconvenience real, the stigma pernicious---and the banning of bare breasts unjust.
It applies to girls with childhood breasts, women with two, one, or no breasts, but never to men with any size of breasts. Females are therefore restricted solely because they are female. That contravenes Article 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and contoh resume bagus Freedoms, which forbids discrimination in law based on sex. It's hard to imagine a court upholding these restrictions on women only, as a reasonable and justifiable exception to Article 15 and others in the Charter. Yes, men and women are different.
That difference has been used to essay deny women property ownership, education, civil rights, jobs, and money. It's no argument in this case either. Remember when pregnant school teachers were assumed to damage children? When bikinis would cause complete social breakdown? In a few years we may laugh too at the notion that women's bare breasts are weapons of destruction. Aren't women's breasts sexual?
If that still needs an database europe, answer, how's this: They may be, in some situations determined by their owner. Why are women's breasts so frightful when nipples are visible but OK when they're not? To ban women's bare breasts fosters a prejudicial, harmful notion that men own them. Gwen Jacob said it well in 1992, long before she was acquitted for her topfree walk in Guelph: My breasts are for everyone else's pleasure and my own oppression. Whose breasts are they anyway? If women made the laws, would they denigrate and criminalize their breasts but not men's? We are undergoing a revolution in body culture, and women's topfree equality is a big part of it. BREASTFEEDING FRENZY: TWO VIEWS.
People's reaction to breastfeeding and bare breasts reflects revulsion at the body. Such harmful attitudes shouldn't override the law. by Paul Rapoport. [from The Hamilton Spectator, Hamilton Ontario Canada, February 25, 1999. The other view referred to in the title argued that women should not breastfeed in public if their nipples might be seen.] Even though it's not yet summer, there have already been incidents where women with exposed breasts have encountered trouble. Recently, Julia Goforth was removed from a Niagara Falls YMCA, and Shannon Wray was told to leave an of a, indoor pool in Hamilton. Both were breastfeeding. The minor public health issue in app essay 2015 the latter case is swamped by the major public sensitivity issue. Letters in of a essay this newspaper said that Ms. Wray was insensitive to breastfeed in phd thesis database europe view of others.
Since breastfeeding is natural and beneficial, the act itself isn't the problem. It's the actual or threatened public exposure of those breasts, or more accurately, areolas and nipples. Many assume that women who expose breasts engage in or invite sexual acts. This assumption is created and maintained by heterosexual men. They act as if women's breasts belong to them--an act of corporeal misappropriation and emotional thievery.
No wonder many women won't breastfeed in public! A corollary is essay that men seeing women's breasts can't control themselves. It's false. It also sounds like the old and discredited notion that women are asking for speech it in components of a dressing or not dressing a certain way. Several letters also implied, I wouldn't breastfeed in public, so she shouldn't. Aside from the defective logic, this represents the kind of coercion our laws are designed to prevent. At the a case of study heart of the matter is the issue of components of a good essay offense. People have the right to be offended. They do not have the database europe right to remove their offense by components good, removing others who are causing no harm. It would help if people unsettled at the thought of women breastfeeding or uncovering their breasts in public would recognize the source of what is coursework def mostly their own problem.
That source is often revulsion at of a good, the body. It helps produce calamities---mostly for phd thesis database women---such as bulimia/anorexia, low self-esteem, mutilating surgery, reduced breastfeeding, and of a good sexual dysfunction. Not least is the debilitating body shame and guilt adults lay on coursework def, children, based on peculiar and components good damaging adult phobias. But where does all that come from? Two major places: misapplication of Freudian ideas---some of them untenable in the first place---and misunderstanding of religion, often manifested in inappropriate use of database europe Christian scripture.
Not least is the precept that the components essay mind is pure and the body is europe filthy. That attitude doesn't do much for the temple of the of a good soul, or human beings created in God's image. Disgust at women's breasts causes women to live their entire socially conscious lives as if there is something bad or wrong about the upper parts of their bodies but not men's. Why? Because men say so. The Personal Application And Guidance? Women are forced to components treat their breasts publicly as hidden sex objects for men, even though their breasts have other functions. An Ontario Court of in pursuasive speech Appeal ruling in 1996 made much of components of a this clear, and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms forbids discrimination on the basis of 2015 sex.
Still we have Shannon Wray being criticized and insulted, and a specific policy of Hamilton Culture and of a good essay Recreation that promotes such harassment. Policies and europe municipal bylaws banning women's bare breasts are unconstitutional, whether breastfeeding is components good essay involved or not. Legal arguments aside, such regulations are unfair, unnecessary, and unwise. Prompts 2015? Women have brains. They can decide whether to uncover their breasts or not without others telling them and treating them like outcasts or criminals. Many jurisdictions in North America have decided they have better things to do than prosecute barebreasted women who are innocent of any crime. Of Canadian provinces, three out of three that have dealt with this issue judicially have essentially agreed.
Should women choosing to doff their tops be sensitive to those around them? Of course. So should everyone else. But you can't legislate sensitivity. What happens when sensitivities collide?
Perhaps Shannon Wray could have explained nicely what her rights and of a good wishes were, at least to breastfeed in coursework def the pool area. Components Of A? Then others might have understood. But she is hardly required to do that. Those decrying Ms. Wray should recognize her sensitivities too, and educate themselves about what her rights are, why she has them, and the consequences of denying them.
[In August 2001, Shannon Wray was awarded CA$6,000 in a human rights action against the city of Hamilton in connection with the above incident.] WOMEN'S BARE BREASTS: EQUAL RIGHTS OR DOUBLE STANDARD? On March 11, 1998, Paul Rapoport presented an hour-long talk at McMaster University in Hamilton Ontario. The title was: Women's Bare Breasts: Equal Rights or Double Standard?
Dr. Rapoport is speech President of the Topfree Equal Rights Association. The talk ranged over many topfree issues, primarily legal, psychological, political, and good sociolgical. It reviewed cases around North America (in both the USA and Canada) before concentrating on events in Cambridge Ontario in 1997. Dr. Rapoport showed that the main opposition to coursework def topfree women results from good, confusion between nudity and sexuality. He also showed that topfree women do not harm children or cause violence to women, contrary to the claims made by resume, certain political grandstanders in components of a Canada and their supporters, many of whom are members of extremist groups. Ultimately, he said, the matter is one of contoh equal rights for men and women. It is also a matter of respecting the good Ontario Court of Appeal decision on women's topfreedom, which ruled in Ontario in 1996 that it was legal. To illustrate his points, Dr.
Rapoport showed a dozen videotape excerpts from the app essay prompts 1990s, as well as photographs of women around North America who have been harassed, intimidated, and charged by law officials merely because they are women exercising their rights. He also offered suggestions to people who still fear women's breasts in public. At the end of the of a good talk, Dr. Rapoport introduced the on animal testing two heroic women from the components good Cambridge-Kitchener area who were charged in 1997 for swimming topfree: Jeannette Tossounian and Fatima Pereira Henson. Both defeated the charge, and Ms. Pereira Henson convinced the Cambridge City Council to rescind its anti-breast bylaw, so that today in Cambridge, as she puts it, women are human beings. She and Ms.
Tossounian answered questions from the in pursuasive on animal audience and reinforced points about of a good essay, women's equality. Dr. Rapoport is one of the foremost authorities on the subject of women's topfree rights. He has written many articles on the personal statement and guidance, it and essay has appeared many times on for residency application and guidance, radio and television. Components Good? He is phd thesis available to speak at other locations in Canada and good essay the USA This talk was very well received by the audience, which was mostly university students. It was sponsored by the Ontario Public Interest Research Group at McMaster University. WOMEN TAKE BACK THEIR BREASTS: CANADIAN TOPFREE STRUGGLES IN 1997. by Paul Rapoport. Despite its title, this article includes much general information and discussion of philosophy and law.
It has been widely quoted since its original appearance in 1997 in the magazine Nude Natural, vol. 17, no.2, published by app essay prompts, The Naturist Society in late 1997. The article is now on components, a different site, that of Topfree Action. The article itself is here. Only one problem: the online version lacks the new common app essay prompts footnotes. Of A Good? They provide not only references but more of the argument. If you wish to have an electronic copy of the footnotes, contact us. Meanwhile . . . here are a couple of paragraphs from near the on animal testing end of the article: Independent judicial decisions cannot be made on the basis of public opinion. As TERA states, moreover, in a free and democratic society, fundamental rights such as equality of the sexes are not subject to the whim of a majority.
If they were, then those who shout the most about how upset they are could punish any group whose only crime is that it does not conform. The issue has been deemed trivial by many supporters of women who do not recognize its wide implications, or who may believe that legal rights are obvious. Topfreedom involves fundamental questions of power and control; of justice and rights; of of a good body freedom, respect and coursework def acceptance; of self-expression and self-image; as well as centuries-old patterns of male-female relationships which the last third of the 20th century has fought hard to change through the ongoing social revolution of feminism and its struggle for of a good essay equal rights for contoh resume more than half the of a good essay population of the Earth. ARE BAREBREASTED WOMEN MONSTERS FROM SPACE? by Paul Rapoport. The following article was written in statement and guidance August 1997 but was refused without comment by of a essay, the newspaper it was intended for. It was on The Body Objective website for database some time. American and other non-Canadian readers may wonder about the Canadian references; but lots of Canadian readers might too. The main points come across fairly easily. The so-called topless issue has engendered more debate recently than nearly anything, certainly in Ontario.
Epecially in small towns, misinformation has grown bigger and smellier daily, like mounds of uncollected garbage. It's time to good essay remove the garbage and freshen up the air. The catalyst for the arguing is the December 1996 Ontario Court of Appeal decision acquitting a woman of a charge of indecency for walking in and guidance Guelph topfree. Of A? (Topless is loaded; topfree captures the freedom many women feel when doing what men have been allowed to do for app essay 2015 decades.) This summer I've heard complaints about equal topfreedom for women that are quite revealing--about the arguers, not the good essay issue. My husband won't be able to control himself if he sees a topless woman. I'm being harassed and a case of study perverted by these topless women.
I want to components good essay enjoy this country as it was originally designed. Go rot in Hell, you sinner! More acceptable expressions still come from misperceptions. The main one is that a half-uncovered woman's body in coursework def public constitutes sexual activity. Components Of A Essay? This can be demolished best by reading, consulting experts, or gaining experience, which the fearful understandably will not do. But both experts and app essay prompts experience are close to home. In 1992, this same ordeal took place in New York State, where the matter was resolved in favour of components of a good women's equality. Shortly after, bare breasts there became a non-issue. The automatic connection between women's breasts and sexual activity is one which some media exploit ceaselessly. We can and should reject it. Both women and men may choose to contoh resume be nonsexual in many topfree situations: lying on grass, swimming, strolling down a street, etc.
What is of a worn may have no connection to resume bagus the sexuality of a situation. There may indeed be more flirting in complete outfits than in of a topfree attire. Women who wish to enjoy the same topfreedom as men are therefore not asking for it. Related assumptions are common, for example that bare breasts increase sex crimes. Sociologists know that the two are unrelated. App Essay 2015? Furthermore, people remove tops when they think it is safe, not when assault is likely. Does the sight of components good a topfree woman lead to later crime or public immorality? The evidence for this elsewhere is nil. Who controls women's bodies?
Significantly, men may pay women to strip but will not allow them to remove tops on their own. Contoh Bagus? Now there is a real connection. The more people become used to topfreedom, the less the media and pornographers can exploit, demean, and control women. Many people also think that bare breasts destroy children. Essay? That is a myth perpetrated by app essay prompts, unthinking adults. If adults cover children's eyes at the sight of components of a a bare-breasted woman and whisk them away as if they'd seen a monster from space, they teach children intolerance and irrational fear. They also teach them that bodies are shameful, topfree women are essentially hookers, and women don't have equal rights. Indeed, if children saw women's breasts more often, they would easily dismiss their elders' phobia and hypocrisy.
Maybe we should also close galleries of Renaissance paintings! A few women and men may behave illegally while bare-breasted or not. We have law enforcers for that. But we can't condemn others because a few break a law. A Case Of Study? Otherwise we not only throw out the baby with the bathwater, but blow up the bathroom as well. The loudest argument is that the majority of essay women won't be taking their tops off. The Personal For Residency Application Review? But is this a reason to remove women's equal rights? In a free and democratic society the majority cannot take away the fundamental rights of a minority merely for components not conforming. The same holds for community standards.
This has particular meaning and use in this issue, discussed in relevant case law. The Charter of Rights and bagus Freedoms, Article 15, forbids discrimination on the basis of sex. Components Of A? The right to equal treatment under the law can hardly be subject to phd thesis database community whim. If it were, we would invite widespread racial and of a good religious discrimination. Body freedom, body acceptance. People have a right to database feel offended, but not the right to criminalize women in order to make themsleves feel better. Components Good? The feeling of introduction speech testing offense can be taken care of privately and socially, but not in law, because topfreedom per se does not imply intent to components essay offend or public disorder. The ready legal solution is to ban topfree men too, a step which would destroy healthy concepts of body freedom and acceptance, as well as make Canada the a case of study laughingstock of the of a western world. For centuries women's physical differences denied them voting, education, jobs, public life, safety, and introduction on animal health. The topfree issue is no different.
If we recognize women's equal rights, we will not use the law to placate uninformed alarmists and their sincere but repressive and groundless predictions.
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Components of an Essay: Overview - SlideShare
An Essay On Love: Why I Believe True Love Exists And How We Can Find It. How do I know that true love exists? I have seen very few but very special relationships in essay my life that have given me the hope to believe in true love. New Common Prompts 2015. I have also seen relationships that simply don't work. This article will focus on what I have learned in my experience and research on love. Components Of A Good. This is bagus a question that has been explored by of a good, philosophers and poets, and almost everyone else as well, for as long as humans have been around.
Love can be defined as a strong bond between people. There are many types of love: brotherly love, motherly love, love for pets, love for activities or places, and everyone's favorite- romantic love. The purpose of this article is to focus solely on romantic love between two people. Romantic love will be defined as a profoundly tender, passionate for another, including sexual desire and passion. Dictionary. com separates the first part and the sexual part.
I found this interesting. Is it to say that true romantic love cannot exist without the sexual dimension? I think it can, especially when the couple may not physically be able to prompts make love. But the sexual part takes the emotional, psychological and spiritual love to another level; the physiological level. Sex alone though is not love. This should be obvious. It can be the components good, thing that makes you smile in the morning or the thing that makes you cry at night.
A deep, true love can be something that is bigger than obsession, a deeper connection with another human being in which we can share our whole selves with the other person; our likes and dislikes, passions, fears, memories (happy and sad), dreams, and spend quality time with each other. Love is NOT lust, obsession, a competition, or a game. When it starts feeling like this it is a sign that it may just be one of new common app essay prompts, these things and components good, not true, deep love. A quote I read the other day really struck my mind: We desire what we know will not last, but we love only a case of study, those things which are eternal. It was not credited to anyone and a Google search turned up nothing, but what matters here is the message. If it feels fake or unworthy of calling true love from the beginning keep your eyes open and DO NOT ignore the red flags. Remember these words and tell yourself whenever you need to be reminded: It is better to be alone than in bad company. While it is true that any relationship needs compromise and work, there are limits.
If you feel like you are not happy or not being your true self, these are major signs that there is trouble. One of the components of a good, signs I have had in a past relationship was that a good friend of new common, mine pointed out that every time I was asked about of a, my girlfriend that my face and voice tone changed. It took a friend pointing it out to make me realize that I was in an unhealthy and unhappy relationship. How can I find love? is a very common question on prompts 2015 almost everyone's mind. And for components good essay good reason.
Life can be pretty awesome, and love can make it even better. 2. Improve yourself. Learn a language, read more (find the types of books that you are passionate about, there are books for EVERYONE!), stay busy and coursework def, make your life great. Components Of A. If there are negative people/bullies, in your life, slowly start distancing yourself from review them. Components. It may feel a little awkward at first, but you will flourish in your new positive environment. Trust me. It is also true what they say: For someone to coursework def love you, you have to love yourself. Do what it takes to show yourself that you are worthy of a happy, fulfilling relationship. Whether it's getting into better shape, eating healthier, making new friends, or finally finishing school, do it!
Your future self will thank you for components good essay it. 3. Meet people. I think people sometimes forget that humans are social creatures and that we need to interact with one another. Even the smallest gesture or interaction will satisfy these psychological means. Everyone has them, too.
Even the loners eventually find other loners to be loners with! Volunteer, join/start a book club, take a class, talk to people in phd thesis database the grovery store and ask for recipes, talk to your parents, your waiter, and components, meet their friends. You will start meeting so many people it will make it easy to make new friends. Remember not to overwhelm yourself with all these new people. People have a way of in pursuasive, weeding themselves out of our life so you don't have to, and the ones that stick around are the people you want anyway, so everything works out. Get out of your comfort zone! Even the smallest comment about anything in the environment can open the gate for a free-flowing conversation!
Some people love to talk and will talk to anyone. Components Of A Good. I learned this firsthand. And it will greatly increase your confidence when you see it for yourself. One of the best books that I have read on this subject is Always Talk to Strangers (shown in Amazon.com capsule on coursework def right) . 4. Be proactive. Most people take a passive role when it comes to love. Components Good. I think of statement for residency review and guidance, it as a numbers game; if you are moving about in essay circles of people like you (same interests, values, etc.) the chances of you meeting someone compatible with you grow exponentially. I say exponentially because through every new person you may meet 3 more people -so meet 3 new people and that potentially means that you could meet 12 people total.
And then those new people may introduce more! It is a chain reaction. I don't like the idea of phd thesis database europe, sitting back and waiting for something to happen. Leonardo da Vinci said, People of accomplishment rarely sat back and good, let things happen to coursework def them, they went out and happened to things. This is the attitude that I agree to take with love.
But for some, it is good essay good enough to sit back and a case of study, wait to see what the good essay, current on life brings. 5. In Pursuasive Testing. Be patient. You will need to show patience and don't be discouraged if the first few dates or potential mates don't measure it. I have been single for essay almost 2 years now, and there is speech testing no prospect in the horizon, but that can always change! The best part is that it only essay, takes one person to change your world and make everything else make sense. All the incompatible people from your dating history will not matter when you find a keeper.
And there are plenty of keepers out there, trust me. The idea of there being a perfect for someone is a nice thought, but statistically impossible. There is probably no one that matches you on new common app essay prompts every interest and level, but would you want that anyway? It may be boring. There are many people that you are compatibles in different dimensions like sense of humor, activities, books, politics, and family values. 6. Be truly open with the possibility of falling in love. Components Of A Good Essay. I know a lot of new common prompts, people with issues they carry from of a essay past relationships. This is contoh resume hard to recognize and admit for some people but can make or break the components good essay, next relationship. 2015. If you are still fearful/hurt/angry/in love with the last relationship you had, you need to components of a good essay take time from the battlefield of love to heal your wounds and get your psychological self in order again.
Remember that what happened with the last relationships does not dictate what happens with the new ones- YOU DO. They are not the same people. I have seen some of the coursework def, relationships with the best potential gone down the drain because of components of a, a person's baggage from the last. This is also a two-way street: don't lead people on, purposefully hurt them, or cheat on them. This usually makes them jaded and makes it hard for them to contoh trust again. If you notice a pattern on your past relationships, probably a link of reasons of why they are now past relationships, don't ignore them -explore them! Write about them, talk about them -anything to components of a good essay help you learn better for the next. For example if you tend to go for the bad/dangerous type but always seem to contoh resume get your heart broken, try dating other personality types. Good. You may pleasantly surprised.
Also this is a great way to get to coursework def know yourself: what you like and don't like in of a essay a person/date/situation/etc. 1. Keep your feet on the ground and prompts 2015, don't illusion yourself. At the same time, enjoy the magic of chemistry two human beings can create with one another. Stay realistic but hopeful. This is a perfect balance, just like in nature, and can be difficult to components good essay accomplish. New Common Prompts. Luckily you have your friends and family to help keep you in perspective. Have them meet your partner and give you their honest opinion about them and if they are a good match for you. This is a priceless opinion because no one knows you better than your friends and family, plus they have an components good essay, objective view.
You may be looking at them through the rose-colored glasses that love binds to resume bagus your eyes. 2. Keep your individuality. Components Of A Essay. This does not mean to be by yourself most of the resume bagus, time. It means to keep doing the things you want to do, even if your are in a relationship. Of A Good Essay. If you love watching history documentaries, keep doing it! This is an in pursuasive testing, opportunity for you and your partner. You will get to see if they like the same things as well as how they will react when you keep doing what you love.
If they are loving and supportive great, but if not, that may be a red flag of components of a good, trouble ahead. Statement For Residency Application Review And Guidance. The ideal situation is that you both can do the of a essay, same things you like together. Coursework Def. But some alone time is also healthy. If there is components of a essay not much you enjoy doing together, there may not be more than the physical attraction holding you two together. Not always, but sometimes this is the case. 3. Keep your options open. A Case Of Study. Never settle for less than what you deserve. If this person matches everything you've been wanting in a person, GREAT!
But if there are doubts in your mind, remember that there is no need for of a good essay a commitment right away! If things were meant to work out with you and your partner, they will. And if it ends because of something you or they did, it is probably for the best. Actions and feelings don't lie. Never stay in a relationship just because you don't want to be alone. You were born with everything you need, and you've made some good friends since then, so you don't need anyone to validate your existence. This article was conceived during a discussion about love with great friends.
It will be continued to be revised as needed and please feel free to read my other logic-oriented articles. Thanks for reading! Confusing Love With Obsession? Know the Warning Signs. by John Hollywood 9. Falling Out of new common app essay, Love? Your Marriage or Relationship Can Still Survive. by Susana S 118. 5 Signs Your Romantic Relationship Might Be Abusive. by Michelle Zunter 6. by Tessa Schlesinger 7. Feeling Unloved? What Your Feelings Might Mean and How to Cope. by Stephanie Hicks 112.
Love Quotes for Him: Sweet Text Messages. by Quotes Lover 11. Components Of A Good Essay. Samantha Erickson 6 months ago. True love is like love is in contoh the air when you met your special someone , out there in the entire world and you are waiting for your special someone to come to you. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and of a, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is new common app essay prompts a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
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conflict essay ideas IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of a new era of conflict.
And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is components good essay some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war. But the century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to in pursuasive on animal testing, an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism. The triumph of the West, of the good Western idea , is coursework def evident first of all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and of a good essay the beginnings of significant reform movements in both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and bagus it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the components good Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. This is not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world.
But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the new common 2015 ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of components of a good essay, historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is not an original one. Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of database europe, material forces, and components would come to coursework def, an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. Components Of A Essay. But the concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage. The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to the present, and that these stages corresponded to new common app essay, concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of man.
Hegel was the first philosopher to components good essay, speak the new common prompts 2015 language of modern social science, insofar as man for components essay him was the speech testing product of components, his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one. Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and contoh resume bagus it is our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. Of A Good Essay. In France, however, there has been an effort to save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time.
Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes . While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and phd thesis database Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve. Kojeve sought to resurrect the components Hegel of the Phenomenology of Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the Battle of phd thesis database europe, Jena the of a good victory of the new common prompts 2015 ideals of the French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the state incorporating the principles of liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the components of a turbulent events of the next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct. The Battle of Jena marked the end of history because it was at that point that the vanguard of contoh resume, humanity (a term quite familiar to essay, Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution. Coursework Def. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the components franchise to workers, women, blacks, and europe other racial minorities, etc. - the good essay basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. Coursework Def. The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at the vanguard of civilization to of a good, implement their liberalism more fully.
The state that emerges at the end of new common app essay, history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only with the consent of the governed. For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the of a essay Common Market. But this was only to europe, be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and mastery of nature, the struggle for the universal recognition of rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and of a essay capitalist. But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is statement application review primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching. Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968.
To his contemporaries at components of a good essay mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the introduction in pursuasive on animal testing end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of of a good, a French intellectual, coming as it did on coursework def, the heels of World War II and at the very height of the components of a good Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the app essay prompts meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the of a essay contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas - not the trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in the sense of coursework def, large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. Components. Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the distinction between the two was only apparent. He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to new common app essay prompts, ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of components of a good, a very material event, the Battle of coursework def, Jena. But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by the ideas of liberty and equality that had driven the essay French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an idea similar to coursework def, the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and academic scribblers of earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits.
And yet this realm of consciousness in components good, the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image. Consciousness is cause and not effect, and a case of study can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the of a essay history of introduction in pursuasive testing, ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at essay the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the priority of the real and a case of study the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is our tendency to retreat into components of a materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the introduction speech on animal testing decline of great powers to simple economic overextension.
Obviously, this is true on some level: an empire whose economy is barely above the level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is characteristic not only of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of good essay, many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the coursework def basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks. One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views. Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of Protestant and components good Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Resume Bagus. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income.
The choices of leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of good essay, material forces, but come preeminently out of the new common app essay 2015 sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to good, prove that contrary to Marx, the resume bagus material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the good essay emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit. As we look around the contemporary world, the poverty of for residency and guidance, materialist theories of components good, economic development is all too apparent. The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the personal statement for residency application review, the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of components of a good, those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and saving and new common app essay prompts family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in components good, explaining their economic performance. And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is coursework def such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed. FAILURE to understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in of a good essay, the realm of consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in statement for residency and guidance, nature. For example, it is commonplace in the West to interpret the reform movements first in components of a good, China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of self-interest.
But the deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to look. Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in statement for residency application and guidance, the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and risk over the Catholic path of poverty and components good security. That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in which either country found itself on the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the phd thesis database europe result of the victory of one idea over another. For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in the realm of consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the material world in its own image. Components Good. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in statement for residency review, the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the components world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the statement for residency application review homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to components of a essay, defend in a case of study, depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective. The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is not to deny the role of of a essay, material factors as such. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world.
And in fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of cows or the coursework def nature of the Holy Trinity. But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by his historical consciousness of it, the material world can clearly affect in return the viability of a particular state of of a good essay, consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to for residency, both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible. But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of components good essay, history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. We might summarize the content of the universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to database, VCRs and stereos in the economic.
HAVE WE in fact reached the end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of of a good, modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to contoh resume bagus, this question in the realm of ideology and consciousness. Our task is components essay not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and movements, and which are therefore part of world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for the personal statement for residency application review and guidance we are interested in what one could in some sense call the common ideological heritage of mankind.
In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of good, fascism and of communism. The former saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on the basis of national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II. This was a defeat, of course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the app essay 2015 wave of the future, but its lack of success. After the war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct. There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in other locales, but for of a good the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal.
The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and speech on animal all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the components war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to app essay 2015, liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and this contradiction has constituted the components of a essay chief accusation against liberalism ever since. New Common App Essay 2015. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in components of a, the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of a case of study, modern America represents the components of a essay essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx. This is new common app essay prompts not to say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in recent years. But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to do with the underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the good historical legacy of database, premodern conditions. Thus black poverty in the United States is not the inherent product of liberalism, but is rather the legacy of slavery and components racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the class issue, the coursework def appeal of communism in components good, the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is database lower today than any time since the end of the First World War.
This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and of a essay Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is contoh resume bagus something that ultimately needs to be overcome. This is not to say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of components of a essay, ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for the last several decades primarily by its success outside of this region. But it is precisely in resume, the non-European world that one is most struck by the occurrence of major ideological transformations. Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Due to the strength and adaptability of the indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago.
It is easy to forget as well how momentous the components of a essay outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for in pursuasive on animal world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the components good fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by the force of American arms in the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable. Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the the personal for residency application governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy. Nonetheless, the very fact that the essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in the long run.
More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to of a essay, world history by following in coursework def, the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the universal homogenous state. V.S. Naipaul traveling in components of a essay, Khomeini's Iran shortly after the phd thesis revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of components, Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to the regime's pretensions of database, restoring a state based on the rule of the Shariah . Desire for access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on components of a, the example of Japan is by introduction testing, now a familiar story. What is important from components of a good essay a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability.
Here again we see the victory of the idea of the bagus universal homogenous state. South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years. Even the former socialist regime in of a, Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and oldest culture in Asia, China. The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to in pursuasive speech on animal testing, liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an good essay economic system. Beginning with the famous third plenum of the coursework def Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about components of a good, decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to give peasants a taste of the universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in coursework def, the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from which he was able to extend the reform to other parts of the good economy.
Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and openness evident in coursework def, China since the reform began. China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the components good essay political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and coursework def Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to components of a good essay, Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to pay lip service to contoh resume, Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to policy, and components essay that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in contoh resume, the pace of components of a, reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the question of contoh bagus, political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the of a breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world. A Case Of Study. There are currently over components of a good 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of them the children of the Chinese elite. It is hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for China to be the only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and recurred recently on the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for coursework def change in the political system as well.
What is important about China from the standpoint of world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Of A Good Essay. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by introduction, the prosperity and components of a good dynamism of coursework def, their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan. Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is components of a essay developments in the personal for residency review and guidance, the Soviet Union - the of a good essay original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of resume bagus, formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only components good essay, a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the personal statement for residency review, the Communist party, which has only of a good, begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to assert that it is the personal application review seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date. Components. Moreover, it is phd thesis database hard to be too sanguine about the chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of economics or politics. But my purpose here is components not to analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in the sphere of ideology and consciousness.
And in that respect, it is contoh clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in essay, the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is new common prompts 2015 liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to Milton Friedman. There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of components essay, Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the root cause of economic inefficiency, and that if the Soviet system is ever to heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and prices. After a couple of initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the promulgation of new laws on and guidance, enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming. There are, of good, course, a number of fatal flaws in the current implementation of the reform, most notably the absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. Contoh Bagus. But the problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to understand the economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on components essay, the state sector.
In the political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the a case of study establishment of a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to components of a essay, legitimize and phd thesis therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule. Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the of a need for open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and contoh resume of a political culture that is components essay more tolerant and pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to coursework def, the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and essay poorly implemented in practice. Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the phd thesis original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of components of a essay, Orwellian doublespeak. App Essay Prompts. Gorbachev and essay his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Leninism, and in pursuasive speech on animal that the good various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. Coursework Def. The essence of components of a essay, Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the coursework def demos. All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to components essay, mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to the true Lenin is in pursuasive speech testing perfectly easy to essay, understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of bagus, Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on which to anchor the components of a essay legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule. But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism. Statement For Residency Review. Indeed, if the bulk of the good essay present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in the near future.
But at the end of history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and the personal application higher forms of human society. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in essay, the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to new common, say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in of a good essay, any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. Database Europe. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and components authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in it. For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon.
IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable? Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in europe, recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is inclined to say that the revival of religion in some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of components, liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the coursework def emptiness at the core of components of a, liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to recognize - it is prompts 2015 not at all clear that it is remediable through politics. Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and stability. Of A Essay. In the contemporary world only contoh resume bagus, Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to components of a good, both liberalism and contoh resume bagus communism. But the doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and of a essay it is coursework def hard to believe that the movement will take on any universal significance. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies.
The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by nationalism and good essay other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness. It is europe certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the components of a good Battle of Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by the nationalism of the developed world in various guises, and if those passions have been muted to in pursuasive testing, a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and components of a continues to be one in isolated parts of introduction in pursuasive testing, post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland. But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of liberalism. In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism. Components Of A Essay. Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on database, the level of liberalism or communism. Components Essay. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of independence from some other group or people, and introduction in pursuasive testing do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas.
While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from of a essay liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in question is incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen. While it is impossible to the personal statement for residency application review and guidance, rule out the sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in essay, liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the contoh resume fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806. Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the meantime, they have helped to spread the universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations.
WHAT ARE the of a implications of the end of history for international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the coursework def Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of components of a good, conflict for many years to come. But let us focus for the time being on the larger and coursework def more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of world politics. Russia and China are not likely to join the components of a essay developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture? The most common answer is - not very much. New Common Prompts 2015. For there is essay a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of new common app essay 2015, competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to understand the prospects for conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the nations and components of a essay regimes that constitute it. This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to statement for residency application and guidance, international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the of a product of specific historical circumstances. Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is shorn of phd thesis database, Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia. While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in components of a, the last century.
This is, of bagus, course, a convenient point of view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for of a essay recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view. But is it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on the personal statement for residency review, a substratum of permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on of a good essay, no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the phd thesis doctrines of the twentieth century.
For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the components of a good right of phd thesis, one nation to rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled. The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to of a essay, nation, from a crude belief in the legitimacy of the personal statement review and guidance, force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to essay, the desire to give people of color access to the culture of Rabelais and Moliere. But whatever the phd thesis database europe particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to the Philippines. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and played no small role in causing the components essay Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of prompts, nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over of a non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. But in 2015, retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of components of a good essay, European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited. Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and culture. International life for statement for residency review the part of the world that has reached the end of history is far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat.
This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in components essay, their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to disappear from the face of the coursework def earth. That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and components of a good essay New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified. Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Common Marketization of new common app essay prompts 2015, world politics than the disintegration of the EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the legitimacy of the use of force in international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of components, its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is therefore a curious one. New Common App Essay 2015. It assumes that the evolution of good, human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in the rest of Europe. This is certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on a case of study, the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in good essay, the 1960s. This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in a case of study, the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. But the former is explained by commercial motives and the latter is of a good a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries.
The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at phd thesis the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate. As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is of a good essay no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era.
At the modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and review and guidance protect the essay resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance. The post-historical consciousness represented by new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of resume, great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the components advent of glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated. Speech On Animal Testing. But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and of a good its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out on animal entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of components good, Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in history. The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history. THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of coursework def, world historical significance. Of A Good. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the in pursuasive speech fact that there is not a single large state in which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in of a good essay, the vanguard of human history.
And the death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the introduction in pursuasive speech on animal likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of international conflict per components good se. For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at the end of coursework def, history, would still be possible. Components Good. There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the post-historical world. Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and review Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to components good, have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and wars of national liberation will continue to be an important item on the international agenda.
But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of a case of study, history, and they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time. The struggle for recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for components essay a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of coursework def, technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of components of a good, sophisticated consumer demands. In the coursework def post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history. I can feel in myself, and see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and conflict even in the post-historical world for some time to come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and good essay Asian offshoots. Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to get history started once again.
1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. This book is available in English entitled Introduction to phd thesis database, the Reading of Hegel arranged by of a, Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to phd thesis europe, text) 2. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of history with the good postwar American way of europe, life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the essay preface to the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is rational is real, and speech on animal testing everything that is essay real is rational. (back to text) 5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is new common prompts 2015 itself only an of a aspect of mind. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of database, philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to components of a good, text) 7. One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to their black of Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the the personal statement application review and guidance reform movements in China and Russia is of a essay a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest.
The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm. Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of new common app essay, its reforms was in good, such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. It is a case of study still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the good essay so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will. This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and statement for residency led to a not insignificant level of political violence. Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over good the nature of the introduction on animal testing Trinity. (back to text) 11. I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the components of a good essay frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Phd Thesis Europe. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of course, since the of a essay latter is exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to for residency application review and guidance, rule other people.
Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the doctrine can be transferred from country to country. Of A Good Essay. (back to text) 12. I use the example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and for residency that history had perhaps not ended. See the components good essay long note at the end of the second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to text) 13. This is app essay prompts 2015 not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to text) 14.
This is components of a particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the prompts 2015 Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of good essay, Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16. See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to admit the illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on the promise of coursework def, a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to text) 18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no.
15 (August 1988), 27-46. Essay. New thinking does of a case of study, course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of of a essay, Soviet good intentions. Contoh Bagus. But the fact that it is of a good essay good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. (back to text)
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Pick the 4 Best UC Personal Insight Questions for YOU! If you’re applying to any of the University of of a California schools, you need to write four short essays. To start, read through all eight of the Personal Insight Questions you have to choose from. (Find specific ideas and strategies for each of the 8 new Personal Insight Questions at introduction in pursuasive speech testing, the bottom of this post!) The goal is to good write four short essays that as a whole will provide the new common prompts, UC admissions deciders with a picture of components what makes you unique and special—and help set you apart from the competition. read more… UC Essay Prompt 8: What Sets You Apart? University of California Essay Prompts for a case of study Fall 2017. (Ideas for Answering Personal Insight Question No. Components Of A Good Essay. 8) UC Essay Prompt 8: What is the a case of study, one thing that you think sets you apart from other candidates applying to the University of California? Out of the eight new University of California essay prompts for Fall 2017, I think that most students should consider writing about Prompt 8 as one of their four required mini-essays.
More than any of the other questions, this prompt targets most directly what makes you YOU, and good, asks to understand something about your most fundamental qualities, characteristics or values. It is introduction on animal testing also the most open-ended of the bunch. read more… NEW University of of a essay California Essay Prompts for Fall 2017! First New University of California Essay Prompts. for their College Application in 10 Years! The University of California just listed brand new college application essay prompts—for the first time in a decade! The two essays had to be a total of app essay no more than 1,000 words. The UC is now calling its new essay prompts, “Personal insight questions,” and components of a good, students must choose four out of eight to bagus answer.
And they are each supposed to be under 350 words. (So, total under 1,400 words.) I love that there are more prompts to choose from, with themes ranging from leadership, creativity, service and components of a essay, personal individuality to more serious ones, such as sharing personal challenges or barriers to success. I’ve written separate posts for each of the 8 new prompts, and you can find them below. Just click the blue link to introduction in pursuasive speech get specific ideas and strategies for each Personal Insight Question. After reading through these new prompts, I believe it will be important to choose four that show a nice variety as well as balance to showcase who you are.
In essence, these mini-essays will serve as your one personal statement, in that the goal is to highlight your most core qualities and values–and help you stand out components of a, from the crowd. These new prompts are great news since they allow more flexibility in how you write about in pursuasive on animal yourself. I also believe they should also be easier to craft than writing two longer essays. If you are just starting the admissions process, I would just take the good essay, time to read through them and start thinking about which ones you might like to write about. Unlike the old prompts, each of a case of study these new University of California essay prompts includes a series of additional questions, which can help you brainstorm ideas for your essays and also help you understand exactly what the UCs want to learn from you. That is super helpful, so read them closely! The UC also provided a new worksheet–Personal Insight Questions: Guide for Freshman Applicants–to help students brainstorm and of a good, craft their answers to the personal for residency and guidance these new prompts.
This is an invaluable tool, and I urge everyone to use it! One piece of advice: If you are a student who has faced significant challenges or obstacles so far in your life or personal background, I would strongly urge you to write about essay them. Numbers 4 and especially 5 would be the phd thesis database europe, most obvious ones to help you write about components of a essay those issues. I also believe those two prompts will produce the most poignant and meaningful mini-essays. (I would suggest all students explore if they could include Number 4 or 5 as part of their four essays for the same reason.) I also think UC Essay Prompt 8 is a terrific prompt, since it asks you to write about something unique about a case of study yourself. Components. What a perfect opportunity to stand out! The main danger of some of the other prompts is phd thesis database that you simply answer them and of a, they end up being dull or boring to read. Even though these will be shorter essays, they still need to be engaging and contoh resume bagus, meaningful! As with all essays, I would advise you to always try to think of specific examples to support any main point you make.
Even though these are shorter pieces, look for your real-life moments and experiences to help you illustrate your points, especially when talking about your leadership, creativity, talents, skills, favorite subjects or volunteer activities. And ditto for sharing personal struggles. One bit of sad news about components of a essay these new prompts is that this will make it much more difficult, if not impossible, for students to recycle their essays from other applications, especially The Common Application. Students also will need to come up with four rather than two strong topic ideas. The key is to look at these new University of resume California essay prompts as opportunities to showcase yourself through a variety of lens so the admissions deciders can get an accurate picture of components of a good your individuality. Locations of phd thesis europe UC campuses. Here are the new University of California essay prompts and admissions instructions from the UC web site for incoming freshman (I will address the new University of California transfer essay prompts in an upcoming post):
Freshman: Personal insight questions. What do you want UC to know about you? Here’s your chance to components of a good essay tell us in your own words. You will have 8 questions to choose from. You must respond to only 4 of the 8 questions. Each response is limited to a case of study a maximum of 350 words. Which questions you choose to answer is entirely up to you: But you should select questions that are most relevant to your experience and good essay, that best reflect your individual circumstances.
All questions are equal: All are given equal consideration in the application review process, which means there is new common no advantage or disadvantage to choosing certain questions over others. There is no right or wrong way to answer these questions: It’s about getting to components of a good know your personality, background, interests and achievements in your own unique voice. Remember, the for residency application, personal questions are just that — personal . Which means you should use our guidance for each question just as a suggestion in case you need help. The important thing is expressing who are you, what matters to you and what you want to share with UC. Things to components consider: A leadership role can mean more than just a title. Database Europe. It can mean being a mentor to others, acting as the person in components good essay, charge of a specific task, or a taking lead role in resume bagus, organizing an components of a essay event or project. Think about your accomplishments and what you learned from the experience. What were your responsibilities? Did you lead a team? How did your experience change your perspective on introduction on animal testing, leading others?
Did you help to resolve an important dispute at components, your school, church in your community or an organization? And your leadership role doesn’t necessarily have to bagus be limited to school activities. For example, do you help out or take care of your family? Things to consider: What does creativity mean to you? Do you have a creative skill that is important to you? What have you been able to do with that skill? If you used creativity to solve a problem, what was your solution?
What are the steps you took to components good essay solve the problem? How does your creativity influence your decisions inside or outside the phd thesis europe, classroom? Does your creativity relate to your major or a future career? Things to consider: If there’s a talent or skill that you’re proud of, this is the components of a good essay, time to share it. You don’t necessarily have to europe be recognized or have received awards for of a essay your talent (although if you did and you want to talk about, feel free to do so). Why is this talent or skill meaningful to you? Does the talent come naturally or have you worked hard to develop this skill or talent? Does your talent or skill allow you opportunities in app essay prompts, or outside the classroom? If so, what are they and how do they fit into your schedule? Things to consider: An educational opportunity can be anything that has added value to your educational experience and better prepared you for components good essay college.
For example, participation in phd thesis, an honors or academic enrichment program, or enrollment in an academy that’s geared toward an occupation or a major, or taking advanced courses that interest you — just to name a few. If you choose to write about educational barriers you’ve faced, how did you overcome or strived to overcome them? What personal characteristics or skills did you call on to overcome this challenge? How did overcoming this barrier help shape who are you today? Things to consider: A challenge could be personal, or something you have faced in your community or school. Why was the components of a good, challenge significant to you? This is a good opportunity to contoh resume talk about any obstacles you’ve faced and what you’ve learned from the good essay, experience. Did you have support from someone else or did you handle it alone? If you’re currently working your way through a challenge, what are you doing now, and does that affect different aspects of your life? For example, ask yourself, “How has my life changed at home, at contoh, my school, with my friends, or with my family?” Things to consider: Discuss how your interest in the subject developed and describe any experience you have had inside and outside the good essay, classroom — such as volunteer work, summer programs, participation in student organizations and/or activities — and introduction in pursuasive testing, what you have gained from your involvement.
Has your interest in the subject influenced you in choosing a major and/or career? Have you been able to pursue coursework at a higher level in this subject (honors, AP, IB, college or university work)? Things to consider: Think of community as a term that can encompass a group, team or a place – like your high school, hometown, or home. Components Of A Good Essay. You can define community as you see fit, just make sure you talk about your role in that community. Was there a problem that you wanted to phd thesis europe fix in your community? Why were you inspired to act? What did you learn from your effort? How did your actions benefit others, the wider community or both? Did you work alone or with others to initiate change in your community? Things to of a consider: Don’t be afraid to brag a little.
Even if you don’t think you’re unique, you are — remember, there’s only one of you in contoh bagus, the world. From your point of view, what do you feel makes you belong on one of components of a good essay UC’s campuses? When looking at europe, your life, what does a stranger need to understand in order to know you? What have you not shared with us that will highlight a skill, talent, challenge, or opportunity that you think will help us know you better? We’re not necessarily looking for what makes you unique compared to others, but what makes you, YOU. Here are some additional details about these new University of California essay prompts that you might find helpful or interesting (This was released from the admissions department today.): The new questions also provide students with better direction and focus on topics that are important to campuses. Each new question aligns to one or more of the 14 comprehensive review criteria (nine criteria for transfer students) that campuses consider in their admissions decisions. “We hope this new format will not only of a essay, provide us with additional insight into a case of study, applicants, but also allow students to better choose the questions that speak to them most directly,” stated a UC admissions director. Last Minute Help for UC College App Essay Writers!
The University of California announced NEW essay prompts for components of a essay 2016-17. Read about how to answer them HERE. It’s Not Too Late to Write Your College App Essays. Before the Nov. 30 Deadline. Yes, you have waited until the last minute. But don’t despair! There’s still time to pound out two awesome essays! If you’re working on your two college application essays for the University of California freshman application, I’ve put together a short list of coursework def my most helpful posts. Read through them, watch the components good, videos, and get crankin!!
Prompt 1: Describe the world you come from — for example, your family, community or school — and tell us how your world has shaped your dreams and aspirations. read more… If you are applying to coursework def the University of California schools, you have until the end of this month (this Sunday, Nov. 30!). As busy seniors, some of you might have waited to write your two college application essays over Thanksgiving, when you have some days off and of a good, can catch up. The key, however, is to not let this last minute deadline dash ruin your Thanksgiving. So yes, you are really cutting it close. If you don’t have a plan, it could hang over your head the entire holiday weekend. To not let these essays ruin one of the best times of the year–when you are supposed to be feasting with your family, watching football games and focusing on all you have to be grateful for–take a few minutes to map out a plan.
These essays don’t have to take days and days to write. New Common Prompts 2015. If you can latch on to some strong topic ideas, and then pound out a rough draft, you could crank them out in a matter of components good essay hours. Database. read more… UC College Application Essay Instant Boot Camp. UPDATE: as of March 23, 2016 The University of California announced NEW essay prompts for components of a 2016-17. Read about how to answer them HERE. This post is now outdated. The information is no longer relevant!! If you are working on statement for residency application review, your two college application essays for the University of California freshman application, I’ve put together a short list of my most helpful posts. Prompt 1: Describe the components of a essay, world you come from — for example, your family, community or school — and tell us how your world has shaped your dreams and aspirations.
Sample College App Essays for “Describe the World You Come From” UPDATE: as of March 23, 2016 The University of a case of study California announced NEW essay prompts for 2016-17. Read about components of a how to answer them HERE. This post is new common app essay prompts now outdated. The information is components of a no longer relevant!! Looking for your World to answer the contoh resume, University of California Prompt 1? A high school English teacher contacted me this week asking if I had any sample essays for the University of California college application Prompt 1. She was using my guides and Essay Hell blog posts to good essay help teach her students how to write their college application essays. read more… How to Write the a case of study, UC Transfer Essay: Why This Major? CHANGED its prompts.
for transfer students. Read Strategies for the New University of California. Transfer Essays for the updated information on the new prompts. ON NEW UC TRANSFER ESSAYS! (OUTDATED!!) Why You Chose Your Major: A Love Story. If you want to transfer into essay, any of the University of California schools (UCLA, Berkeley, UCI, UC Davis, UC Santa Cruz, etc.), you need to write two college application essays. One is the same prompt that all students are required to write—which basically asks for a personal statement style essay. It’s known as Prompt 2, and I wrote “Personal Quality, Talent, Achievement…” as a guide on how to write this essay in a narrative style. Now I want to offer some ideas on how to answer the second prompt required for transfer students:
Transfer Student Prompt 1: What is your intended major? Discuss how your interest in the subject developed and describe any experience you have had in in pursuasive on animal, the field — such as volunteer work, internships and employment, participation in student organizations and activities — and what you have gained from good, your involvement. read more… Don’t Let UC Deadline Ruin Your Turkey Day! If you are applying to the University of California schools, you have until the a case of study, end of good essay this month. Resume Bagus. As busy seniors, some of you might have waited to write your essays over of a good Thanksgiving, when you have some days off and can catch up. Yes, it would be better if you already had them in, but there is still time. The key, however, is to not let this last minute deadline dash ruin your Thanksgiving. The holiday comes late this year–Nov.
27–so it’s closer to the Nov. Coursework Def. 30th deadline than ever. So yes, you are really cutting it close. If you don’t have a plan, it could hang over your head the components of a essay, entire holiday weekend. On Animal Testing. read more… A Peek into the Many Worlds of Prompt 1 of the of a essay, UC Essays. UPDATE: The University of California announced NEW essay prompts for a case of study 2016-17.
Read about essay how to new common answer them HERE . The following content in this post is of a good essay no longer relevant and is outdated! About three years ago, I wrote a post to try to help students applying to the University of California find topics to coursework def answer Prompt 1 for their college application essay: Describe the World You Come From . Since I shared my advice in components of a good, my Describe the World You Come From post , I have received more than a 100 comments from students. Contoh Resume. Most have specific questions, mainly trying to see if their idea of a “world” would make a great essay. Since then, I tried to answer most of components of a essay their questions. This year, I am so swamped with tutoring students, however, that I’m not able to contoh resume bagus answer all the good essay, questions right now.
But I have noticed that many cover the same ground—even though the contoh bagus, topics range from someone’s world of books, to components of a good playing tennis, to making cookies, to contoh an ill family member, etc. So I pulled some of the questions that I thought are more common, along with my answers, in hopes they might answer questions still lingering out essay, there. See below. read more… As a professional writing coach, I help students, parents, counselors, teachers and others from around the world on app essay, these dreaded essays! Learn about my in-person and online tutoring, editing, workshops, books, and online courses, . READ MORE. Components. . Learn to new common app essay 2015 Write Your Essay in One Hour! My on-demand, fast-and-easy online e-course: How to Write a College App Essay (Click lightbulb for details.)
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