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book report fiction Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to transition, think and write critically about homework blog what they’ve read. Ipv6 Transition Thesis! In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to penalty, develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to Write a Book Report.
Before you write, read. There’s no substitute for reading the transition book. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the book, you are ready to start the coast travel writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. In the first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say.
An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports. Start your book report outline with the ipv6 transition following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Coast Essays! Summary of Book. 3. Book Details: Characters. Thesis! 4. Book Details: Plot.
5. Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for george orwell essays such such were, each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the transition thesis book’s title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published). The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the types writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the author. Was the ipv6 transition book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on the subject?
Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the homework blog book is about. This is your chance to show you’ve read and understood the book. Ipv6 Thesis! Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Specify who tells the story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and essay writing, identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve. Transition! You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to tell every detail of the story.
Instead, focus on the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the book’s climax and conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in class. Homework Blog! Book Reports on Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to devote the body of your book report to ipv6 transition, a description of the book’s subject and the author’s points of view. Use the chapter headings to help you present the author’s ideas and arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to essay template, you.
If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in the person’s life. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the ipv6 transition thesis book. What are the book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest?
What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by drama house, the author’s arguments? Try to be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to ipv6 transition, others. Revising, Editing, and Publishing. Essay Writing! After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to transition thesis, follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing.
Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to a friend for essay writing, feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for transition thesis, book quotes and essay template, writing the book title. Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is transition usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in drama house, other forms.
In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of ipv6 transition thesis, view when writing a book report. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the homework blog last decade. Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to transition, persuade their classmates to personality types, read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the ending!
Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Thesis! Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students’ writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and high school, and essays such were, pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction. Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in transition thesis, helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence.
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nyu ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by ipv6, Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. Drama House? [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of ipv6 transition thesis IBM-sponsored computing research and essays such were, laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the ipv6 transition thesis memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures.
Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by homework blog, Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and thesis, why did I write this? People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the penalty first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it.
So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and thesis, I was on writing template staff from ipv6 transition, 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. Essay Personality Types? After a year of ipv6 thesis OS/360 programming, I was manager of the personality PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the transition first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for personality, the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to ipv6 transition thesis this website. Statement Death Penalty? (Note: the transition thesis Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to george essays such such be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to ipv6 the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and thesis penalty, the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the thesis facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and types, it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. Thesis? This document does not aim to extol the writing virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005).
Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and ipv6, former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and essay template, former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of ipv6 transition thesis Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to thesis death penalty remain anonymous. And.
Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now  Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from thesis, 1981  (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to thesis statement death paper Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to ipv6 Herb Grosch for essay, his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to ipv6 transition Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Homework Blog? Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on ipv6 transition a daily basis since he first happened upon george orwell essays it in ipv6 transition, May 2003 until shortly before his death at drama essay dolls 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of ipv6 transition thesis IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in statement death penalty paper, their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the transition online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the essay personality computer industry got its start at Columbia University in ipv6 transition, the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to penalty paper send designs and specifications for computing machines to ipv6 transition IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market.
From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and george orwell such the joys, fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in transition thesis, a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of template a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of ipv6 invention and homework blog, innovation are past. Ipv6 Transition? Computers and essay types, networks are now well established in the daily lives of ipv6 transition vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is essay writing template, a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and transition, therefore will work as long as all the essay template files accompanying this document are kept together. Transition Thesis? There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines .
After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the such such modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census . Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 . Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about transition thesis 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies.
1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in essay, a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) . Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to ipv6 compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by essay personality, hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and ipv6 thesis, Physical Sciences, in such the joys, the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of ipv6 transition thesis Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the homework blog Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on ipv6 transition the Sundial on homework blog 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in the middle of a field in Michigan . Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is ipv6 thesis, founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others.
This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and essay template, statistical tables. Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Thesis? Jacoby) still has the five computing machines . Statement? CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University.
CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. Transition Thesis? In pursuit of dolls these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research , proposes to Thomas J. Transition Thesis? Watson Sr., president of such such were IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results ). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and transition, accessory equipment to george the joys the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to thesis calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of essay personality these machines for scientific calculation . This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from ipv6 transition thesis, astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation.
The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the travel essays College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to thesis Washington Heights between Broadway and homework blog, Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the thesis baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Thesis Statement Death Paper? Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31.
These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares . The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and transition thesis, Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton . Statement Death Penalty Paper? ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and ipv6, president of the writing Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and thesis, receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for essay, business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to thesis and from Morse code. Before the essay types war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and transition, receipt of secure messages . 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to amalfi essays IBM's Board of Directors . 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to transition IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W.
Baehne  and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator ) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and homework blog, the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the transition American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr. Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on essay types plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration . Thesis? The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically . In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on homework blog this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for research work . Ipv6 Transition Thesis? A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of personality types this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and thesis, print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables . To illustrate with a 1946 quote from amalfi coast travel essays, Kay Antonelli, University of ipv6 transition Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work , We did have desk calculators at personality types that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the thesis answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the travel next calculation.
We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and thesis, his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the homework blog efficiency of processing standardized tests . The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 . Ipv6 Transition Thesis? Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Amalfi Coast Essays? Wood Graduate Fellowships in thesis, Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the dolls Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of transition thesis IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures.
Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and homework blog, bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. CLICK HERE for transition, a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing . In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on thesis statement death paper loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory , and then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the transition thesis early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the coast travel early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions.
Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER  (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in ipv6, 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Travel Essays? Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the ipv6 thesis Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of statement death paper Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is transition, listed in thesis statement penalty paper, Brennan . Out of transition thesis 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender).
But at writing template least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from ipv6, working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by personality types, IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community , making it the world's first center for scientific computation . The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to transition make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and travel essays, verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in ipv6, progress. George Orwell Essays Were? This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the ipv6 thesis equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for dolls, the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of transition thesis stellar statistics. . Users of the Bureau were charged only for essays such such, labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in ipv6 thesis, his own lab at St. Petersburg University in essays such such were, Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and ipv6 transition thesis, Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of homework blog various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922.
In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. Transition Thesis? In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from essay, V.N. Riazankin on ipv6 transition thesis behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Writing? Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the transition opportunity to essay writing state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr.
Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of ipv6 astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and personality, had one in operation. Ipv6 Thesis? I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Homework Blog? Numerov. . Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Transition Thesis? Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Thesis Death Penalty Paper? Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. . (Note: the ipv6 transition thesis correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier , the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the amalfi travel essays proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an ipv6 thesis attempted first case of computer espionage . House? In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the thesis bulk of drama essay dolls Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of ipv6 thesis spies.
Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to homework blog Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over ipv6 production of the george orwell such were annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and ipv6 thesis, suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project . A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in homework blog, 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 . Ipv6 Transition? The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in thesis statement paper, Columbia's Pupin Hall.
Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in thesis, the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs . A number of paper other Columbia scientists worked on ipv6 the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the homework blog Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on ipv6 transition thesis moral grounds), and homework blog, George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for ipv6 thesis, in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from essay, Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003):
Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on ipv6 manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and homework blog, time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of thesis his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from homework blog, Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for ipv6 transition thesis, the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of drama dolls IBM punched-card machines. Ipv6 Thesis? He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and penalty paper, persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and ipv6 thesis, the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant.
But one was the thesis death penalty multiplier, and ipv6 transition, another was the adder, and essay template, this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only thesis, difference was that the essay personality types IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. Ipv6 Thesis? But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in orwell such were the joys, upper Manhattan) was the site of the thesis nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation , the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the george essays were the joys construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on transition thesis account of the vividly colored covers of writing its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and ipv6 transition thesis, elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the integration of the homework blog differential equations is explained in detail. Ipv6 Transition Thesis? It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2).
This control switch . Homework Blog? was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers . Some of the transition better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and essay writing template, Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book . In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for ipv6, the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia , which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by writing, Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War . Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the ipv6 transition Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of drama essay its work had migrated to Watson Lab .
IBM played a large part in transition, the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at amalfi travel essays 1% over cost, and transition, taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and writing, story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of ipv6 thesis employees in essays such were the joys, England to ipv6 Toronto  and homework blog, assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans . Ipv6 Thesis? According to allegations in 2001  (having nothing to essay personality do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag , which had been taken over by transition thesis, the Nazi government in 1940. Paper? The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of ipv6 thesis Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the george orwell such were Lazarsfeld Center for transition thesis, Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and personality types, tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget ). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957).
The BASR Report on transition thesis the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in essay writing template, University Hall, and ipv6 transition, other IBM equipment for homework blog, use by thesis, students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment . Essay Personality? Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an thesis 085 Collator, an penalty 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and transition thesis, other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at homework blog wiring up this machine. Thesis? You had to homework blog wire it for ipv6 transition, each thing you wanted to do. It printed out death penalty, cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Ipv6 Thesis? Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. As for computing, someone at template Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions.
It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at ipv6 thesis IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and homework blog, Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created . Transition? After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs. We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and george orwell essays such such the joys, the cards floating across Broadway.
In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for ipv6, interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community , and to thesis penalty paper carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to transition Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal  agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the essay personality [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in thesis, what is arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in penalty paper, 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. Thesis? The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in thesis statement death penalty, the various fields of science, whose solution depends on transition the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations . Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is personality, appointed to transition head the laboratory. Essay Writing Template? Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of ipv6 Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and george essays such such the joys, teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and ipv6, other fields.
The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. Homework Blog? The lab was named for transition, IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in amalfi travel, 1948, but he meant Milton! ). Transition Thesis? Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in essay dolls, the world, after the ipv6 transition thesis US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and orwell such such were, Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of ipv6 transition thesis Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr.
Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to amalfi IBM for thesis, help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for essay writing, another part of the Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is thesis, hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for travel, completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos  (more about ipv6 transition this HERE and thesis statement paper, much more in ipv6 thesis, Chapter 03 of Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the template President died on April 12th and thesis, Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends.
Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of statement penalty paper Chicago against the use of ipv6 transition atomic weapons and travel essays, asking President Truman not to ipv6 transition thesis use them on Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for amalfi coast, the ruthless annihilation of cities. Thesis? Once they were introduced as an types instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of putting them to ipv6 transition such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at essay writing template the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of ipv6 warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England.
Our use of atomic bombs in statement, this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the transition thesis same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the thesis statement petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the ipv6 transition thesis only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb . Essays? In any event, the transition petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on . A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th.
More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey  says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by thesis statement paper, the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to ipv6 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for essay dolls, an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the ipv6 transition thesis war in the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies  that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in homework blog, Tokyo and Moscow. Ipv6 Thesis? This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity  . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by statement death penalty paper, delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by ipv6, striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to george orwell such were intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of ipv6 thesis Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of essay template War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of ipv6 thesis cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act . . . But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the amalfi essays plan for transition thesis, using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of essay dolls house a feeling of depression and thesis, so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the essay personality Joint Chiefs of ipv6 transition Staff and of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of orwell essays the joys this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in transition thesis, our war against Japan.
The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the essays effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and transition thesis, many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in george orwell essays, the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the ipv6 transition cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to coast travel essays obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them . Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and transition, teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY  (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book.
This building is statement paper, now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Transition? Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of 116th and essays such were, Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. Transition Thesis? A few other establishments that were here in essay writing template, 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943).
Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum . It is the intention of the Laboratory to ipv6 thesis make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of homework blog scientific interest and not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of ipv6 two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of drama house scientific merit of the result rather than the ipv6 transition means. While routine computation is not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of house these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is ipv6 transition, possible to essay personality types use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is ipv6 thesis, built on thesis statement death the standard IBM key punch. . The control is transition, very convenient. a combination of control panel and master card or program card. Coast Travel Essays? Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards.
This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of cards. It is ipv6 transition thesis, a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and essay types, from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated.
A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and ipv6, run again on different data sets. Much of drama essay dolls house this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. Ipv6 Transition? But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on amalfi coast essays the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin.
These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in ipv6 transition, computing machinery and homework blog, numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university  or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year . Thesis? Eckert taught Machine Methods of orwell essays such the joys Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the transition thesis curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Personality Types? Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of ipv6 thesis Variables in personality types, Mathematical Physics, L.H.
Thomas). Ipv6 Transition? Most of statement death paper these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and ipv6 thesis, Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of homework blog Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry.
1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations . 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of ipv6 thesis high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is essay dolls, a long history of computing here too, which needs to transition be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for thesis statement death paper, Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at thesis a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall .
Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for types, Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and ipv6 transition, everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. Amalfi Coast Travel Essays? The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and ipv6 transition, antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over essay writing the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from ipv6 thesis, 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world . 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the amalfi coast travel transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to transition combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and configuration established the public image of computers for decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams).
Aside from thesis death penalty, solving important scientific problems, it was used by transition, students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an homework blog article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages . The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the ipv6 Prancing Stallion . Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 , and essay types, who went on transition to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Drama House? Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and ipv6 transition, therefore was not portable to drama essay house any other kind of machine. The idea of ipv6 transition thesis a high-level programming language was the homework blog second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the transition assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. Penalty? John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and ipv6 thesis, asked why would you want more than machine language?
One of von Neumann's students at such the joys Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for ipv6 thesis, their early machine. This student took time out to build an homework blog assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to ipv6 transition thesis use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of essay template von Neumann by John A.N. Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the ipv6 relational database model  ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to essay template 1952  and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for ipv6 transition thesis, auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal.
When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the thesis death first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. Transition Thesis? There is drama essay, a long tradition of transition thesis computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See  for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an essay types IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the transition first book about computers for essay personality types, a general audience  in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and thesis, Andrew Vall, build Simon , a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Essay Writing? Of Simon, Berkeley said:
It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and ipv6 transition, 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to personality types it. It is ipv6 transition, a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in orwell were the joys, one hand (and the ipv6 transition thesis power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the essay 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls : . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at ipv6 Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and personality, open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Most of ipv6 our offerings were unusual. Essay Template? [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority.
I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of ipv6 transition my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. Template? . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and thesis, Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in house, the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of transition differential equations. Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. Personality Types? But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and transition, [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on into the homework blog Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the ipv6 transition Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2.
When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and homework blog, renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to ipv6 thesis it. Essay? The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on ipv6 thesis the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in dolls, the first Watson Lab); the transition IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about house 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the ipv6 atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and homework blog, was the transition favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students . Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of writing template Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for ipv6 transition thesis, semi-professional performers. It operated from george the joys, 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos.
The North-facing building was gutted by transition thesis, IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory. According to homework blog a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the thesis neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in essay, operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. Ipv6? I brought them inside for amalfi travel essays, a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the ipv6 transition thesis Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal . It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about drama 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University.
1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and transition, tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for coast essays, a patent on this concept; the thesis patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and amalfi coast travel essays, display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in transition, existence at essay dolls house the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in thesis, Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. Orwell Such Were? NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of ipv6 transition main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's?
Home of the homework blog Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and thesis, eventual startup and operation. Statement Paper? John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. Thesis? NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of template two IBM 650 computers is installed in transition thesis, the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on writing template 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign  stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects .
A 17 Nov 1955 memo from ipv6, Dr. Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the thesis 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with  as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 . Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at ipv6 Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation , it was not open to the Columbia community for essay, general use . Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out  that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of thesis problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over orwell essays such such were the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design.
However, the ipv6 transition thesis 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and death paper, card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and transition thesis, ERL. Orwell Essays The Joys? As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students , including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and ipv6 transition, Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at essay personality types 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time . Thesis? Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in coast essays, the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab .
1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics. This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at ipv6 transition thesis length in paper,  and . Transition? (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the homework blog CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Ipv6 Transition Thesis? Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for such the joys, Lee and transition thesis, Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to george essays such such were the joys semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on transition thesis microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation .
1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in george orwell essays such, Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab ). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by thesis, the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused  and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at homework blog its own expense. Transition? Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at essay template IBM headquarters . Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to ipv6 transition thesis Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the links for some of these items are to drama essay dolls later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Transition? Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the essay nature of administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and ipv6, tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 , the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and amalfi coast essays, universities. large and small, public and ipv6, private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool.
I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on amalfi coast many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and ipv6 transition, the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in writing template, from 1959 to 1961 (with an thesis IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at drama dolls house Berkeley, which set the ipv6 stage for amalfi coast essays, campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the operation of the transition thesis machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon essay the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus and transition, you've got to make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the george orwell such were the joys Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at transition the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the essay personality 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student.
Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by transition, Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the homework blog first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and transition, has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on thesis penalty West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of transition Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is template, listed  as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute.
Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. Transition? computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and essay, perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and transition thesis, operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in thesis death, user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. Ipv6 Thesis? After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck.
Then you fed the dolls house FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into ipv6 transition thesis, the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the types result deck into ipv6, another machine, such as an amalfi travel essays IBM 407, to thesis have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. Essay? The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the transition source code to catch and thesis penalty paper, correct any mistakes, signed off on ipv6 transition thesis the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer. Homework Blog? Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in ipv6 transition thesis, the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by writing, Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is ipv6 transition thesis, published by McGraw-Hill. From the george orwell essays such such the joys Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University.
Prof. Thesis? W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at amalfi essays Columbia University, initiated the ipv6 writing of the coast essays book and suggested the ipv6 thesis scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to orwell the joys supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in 1957 to ipv6 transition thesis produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to george orwell essays such were the joys pay for, the transition study concluded that a new computer center building was needed . The central administration concurs and essay template, begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge.
Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and ipv6 transition thesis, others. This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and drama essay dolls, Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and ipv6 transition thesis, Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the essay personality following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of thesis High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Thesis Penalty? Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Thesis? Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the orwell essays such such the joys Electrical Engineering Department offers:
EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and ipv6 thesis, Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory. Homework Blog? GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and thesis, III: System Analysis and Synthesis. Thesis Death Penalty Paper? EE 277-278-279: Pulse and ipv6 transition, Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of george orwell such such a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years . Transition Thesis? IBM pledges $125,000 for amalfi essays, fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor  (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee).
Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to ipv6 transition thesis devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on homework blog IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by ipv6 thesis, the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at death penalty paper Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at thesis the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about homework blog 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry.
A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of ipv6 thesis administration as an educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian . The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is essay writing, sponsored and transition thesis, those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University . Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and NSF . 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000  (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr.
Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Thomas  and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility , was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and personality types, Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment :
IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned , but the 7090 appeared just in transition thesis, time). It is in the direct line of amalfi coast essays descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words.
Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. Transition? 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only.
Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. There were no user terminals and homework blog, there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the transition first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of drama house our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for ipv6 transition, the remainder of the period. About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. Essay Personality Types?  Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by ipv6 thesis, an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in george orwell such the joys, science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room.
In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the ipv6 thesis director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an thesis death penalty IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in ipv6, the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and essay, responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the transition equations that describe and homework blog, predict its motion -- to ipv6 transition unheard-of accuracy, improving upon travel essays the calculations performed by ipv6 transition, Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC  by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for dolls house, solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in transition, astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the homework blog culmination of Eckert's life's work. Transition Thesis? Smith is template, now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established.
The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and thesis, very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER . (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery. Dorothy Marshall, VP for thesis penalty, ADP, upon ipv6 thesis her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter , where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to house use a punch-card system.
The first large system ADP acquired is ipv6, still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the types accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article  announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of ipv6 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. Homework Blog? He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the thesis mainstay of Columbia computing for drama essay house, the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand.
IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21. This was to be the transition thesis basis for IBM's mainframe line into essay house, the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the transition Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in thesis penalty paper, various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95).
To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. Transition? The 360/9x series is writing, optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to ipv6 transition over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system.  Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the drama essay dolls US northeast, and large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at ipv6 transition Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals.
The then director of the amalfi coast travel TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on ipv6 thesis the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of these terminals. Coast Travel? When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and ipv6 transition, half of the 60 students who tried to essay writing template enroll had to ipv6 be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology . 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. This system is used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the drama house computer seen and programmed by the user operating from transition thesis, a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on template Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at ipv6 thesis the Yorktown facility) . APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon amalfi travel request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown .
Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. Transition? It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from essay dolls, Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese  and the IBM teaching facility . Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into ipv6 thesis, neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and writing, joined Watson Lab the same year, is ipv6, appointed its Director . Essay Dolls? By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities . 1967: Library automation begins about ipv6 transition thesis here.
I remember some form of george essays such the joys automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to ipv6 transition thesis schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in essay dolls house, Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at ipv6 transition thesis the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions ; perhaps this was the origin of template RLIN. Ipv6? CLICK HERE for more about statement paper library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in ipv6 transition thesis, a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. Amalfi Travel? In the ipv6 transition first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to house allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to ipv6 transition thesis begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and dolls house, linked to the 360/50.
In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and thesis, some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of drama dolls house old ones like WATFOR (the University of ipv6 transition thesis Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to thesis paper modify the ipv6 transition operating system for writing, purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals . Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. Ipv6 Transition? The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of essay dolls computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof.
Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for transition, Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the homework blog Department of Electrical Engineering and ipv6 thesis, Computer Science. This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and research until the such establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in thesis, the machine room.
CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the coast travel early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed . Ipv6 Transition? CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced . Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the essay worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the transition building and beating up everyone in sight. Before the george such such were police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to ipv6 transition thesis do if that ever happened. In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of homework blog major events.
One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. Thesis? jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. House? As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it . Transition? However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in coast travel essays, front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the ipv6 transition thesis Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from essay writing template, IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 .
Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on transition subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by coast travel, running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and ipv6 thesis, techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is essay template, established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in ipv6 transition, the public areas. George Essays Were The Joys? Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. For more about the ipv6 transition thesis origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to drama dolls house the Controller's Office .
IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of transition thesis : Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Essay Personality? Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an ipv6 transition thesis early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the essay dolls link lasts) is ipv6 thesis, his film “69”, and drama essay dolls house, here is ipv6 thesis, a list of essay other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 . Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in transition, the Computer Center machine room. Drama House? extensive renovations had to ipv6 made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions  (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and essay dolls, most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). Transition Thesis? An additional drum.
All of the essay types peripherals and transition, equipment listed above for the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for drama essay house, the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from transition, IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars , to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in amalfi coast, there too, plus a vast tape library and transition thesis, specialized test equipment such as the thesis penalty BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in ipv6 thesis, big glass bottles in wooden crates.
There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into thesis statement death penalty paper, the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in ipv6 transition, which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). Writing Template? The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at ipv6 transition thesis all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to essay allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and ipv6 transition thesis, which provided much of the funding for essay house, it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of ipv6 transition thesis instruction and drama, administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Ipv6 Transition? Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the george essays such were the joys operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by transition, a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper.
Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and death penalty paper, I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and ipv6 thesis, conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. George? The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by transition, January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for orwell such were the joys, remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service. This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an ipv6 transition RJE station in the same way prior to statement 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.)
1970: Read an excellent summary of the transition state of dolls house data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. Thesis? The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in essay writing template, 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at ipv6 transition thesis three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to coast essays the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. Thesis? The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for death penalty, some time afterward mainly in ipv6, the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals . Dorothy Marshall  writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Thesis Death? Nola Johnson writes in ipv6, the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica.
There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from amalfi coast essays, Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and thesis, rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the essay template Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the ipv6 thesis batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon essay types which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and transition thesis, 1620 computers, and essay, still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the ipv6 transition thesis Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of homework blog collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and transition, the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and writing, each project contributed a writeup.
The projects themselves are fascinating, about ipv6 transition thesis 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in essays such such, Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and ipv6 thesis, Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur  is installed on george such such the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is transition, described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. Homework Blog? . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at ipv6 transition thesis 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and homework blog, moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems.
Later he would become president of EDUCOM and ipv6 transition thesis, Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Essay Writing Template? Dr. Warren F. Ipv6 Transition Thesis? Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff  had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the amalfi coast travel early 70s were devoted mainly to transition JCL hints and homework blog, tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of transition thesis OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to statement paper 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g.
Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and transition thesis, Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in statement death penalty paper, 208 Computer Center. The use of transition self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for amalfi coast travel essays, their decks at both the submission and ipv6 transition thesis, the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in writing template, the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. Ipv6 Transition? In addition to this increased security, the essay 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for ipv6 thesis, printing card decks onto drama essay dolls, fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and ipv6 transition thesis, so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for homework blog, some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the ipv6 transition Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to thesis statement penalty paper be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one.
Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Transition? Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to essay run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for thesis, the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Essay? Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month).
Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on transition the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an essay house interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and ipv6 thesis, one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and death penalty, a resident Insultant whom I remember well from thesis, my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the george orwell essays job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of transition this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to essay the printer when your job output started.
Every night from 7 to ipv6 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the essay house 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. Transition? The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in drama dolls, the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of transition Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of essay dolls house Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and ipv6 transition, other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54).
Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the thesis penalty paper Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). Ipv6 Transition Thesis? He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and house, Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at transition thesis the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the statement death Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of transition thesis Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the coast essays $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to transition thesis take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses.
The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Template? Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams. Ipv6 Transition? People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to statement death penalty a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and ipv6 transition thesis, that always conked out on rainy days. There was no e-mail.
The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the statement death penalty paper elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by ipv6, Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by writing, Lloyd, the thesis messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the homework blog Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. Thesis? The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think , speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the coast Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan  was librarian from 1966 to transition thesis 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts .
New acquisitions continued until at essay house least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for ipv6 thesis, example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on essay types an AI medical diagnosis assistant in ipv6 thesis, SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. Amalfi Travel? An annual catalog, the thesis Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities  was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects.
CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in drama essay dolls house, Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on ipv6 Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and such such were the joys, JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and ipv6 thesis, so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to template TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on transition our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to travel essays licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in ipv6 transition thesis, assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes).
In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and personality types, debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in ipv6 thesis, Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users.
There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the drama house batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Ipv6? Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of personality billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is ipv6, too high, talented people can not be retained.  1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).
1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of template terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and transition, APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and personality types, attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak . (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of thesis IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract.
I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for amalfi essays, swapping (RS04?). Ipv6? I took care of it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and essay writing, I sat in transition thesis, the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and essay, sounded like a bandsaw).
But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Thesis? Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of orwell were the joys 1700. It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 . Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for thesis, campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to amalfi coast interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments.
In the thesis late 1960s and statement, early 1970s, I worked in ipv6 transition, Applied Physics and used the amalfi essays departmental computers for ipv6 transition thesis, both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. Dolls? However, its hard disk was not generally used for ipv6 thesis, storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and homework blog, then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to activate the ipv6 transition thesis card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the homework blog paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is ipv6 transition thesis, also the machine for essays, which the ipv6 transition UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on coast travel the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by transition thesis, tunnel to homework blog the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin  also lists:
A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). Ipv6 Transition Thesis? A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). Thesis Statement Death Penalty Paper? A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in ipv6 thesis, Chemistry (Havemeyer). Homework Blog? A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for ipv6 transition, Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on amalfi coast travel campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Ipv6? Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at coast travel essays least APL and ipv6 thesis, PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and types, fame with C++. His dad is Dr.
Seymour H. Ipv6? Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the statement paper first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by transition, e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an essay house ever-increasing role in instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by ipv6 transition thesis, e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the writing template mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in ipv6 thesis, its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of coast money, I want to transition place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at statement death paper implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about ipv6 all of these. In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in template, an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of ipv6 terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on writing the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the transition thesis demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the essay dolls house costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas.
1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the transition IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to homework blog scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for ipv6, administrative work, an types IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and ipv6 transition thesis, running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc).
A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in thesis statement death, house, and ipv6 transition thesis, administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to orwell such were the joys interactive online systems . The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an ipv6 thesis effort to convert administrative applications from batch to coast essays online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to ipv6 thesis administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is essay types, removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14).
Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for ipv6 transition thesis, the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. We were also in paper, the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by ipv6 transition, a gang of drama essay dolls house prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. Ipv6? This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by statement death paper, a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and ipv6 thesis, so on.
Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on coast essays a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at Berkeley  (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for ipv6 transition thesis, large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and homework blog, available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). Ipv6 Thesis? It cost 800,000 dollars  and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of drama essay dolls house double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of thesis lights and george orwell essays such were the joys, switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for ipv6 transition, backup listings), and essay, an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB.
Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in which the ipv6 thesis computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of such such devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and thesis, they were blue rather than orange. Essay Personality Types? DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and ipv6 transition thesis, until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and amalfi coast, most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to thesis allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for types, details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and ipv6 transition, the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. Thesis Death? But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock).
Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an transition thesis additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and thesis penalty paper, eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. Ipv6 Transition Thesis? But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in homework blog, fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in ipv6 thesis, my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to essays shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel).
For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Ipv6 Transition? Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on essay writing template the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). Thesis? In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on amalfi travel essays campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored.
CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by ipv6 transition, Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. Amalfi Coast? I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of transition thesis EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at death penalty Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the transition thesis first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. Essay? (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of ipv6 thesis Buildings and homework blog, Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on transition thesis the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. Essay? ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to ipv6 transition our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer.
Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and penalty paper, papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at ipv6 thesis 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to death penalty paper use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Transition? Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . Essays Such The Joys? . . REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the ipv6 transition thesis original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for types, many months. Transition Thesis? Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for writing, APL users. To further encourage IBM to ipv6 transition DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule.
As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over statement death 300 in ipv6 transition, 2010. Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on types their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the transition thesis UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to essay template all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91.
Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and transition, what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. Essay? ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and ipv6, Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . Homework Blog? ) and ipv6 transition, CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. House? After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the ipv6 only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to thesis statement death penalty paper over 25 people, in ipv6 thesis, late 1994. Drama? (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by transition thesis, CUCCA in dolls house, public (referring to ipv6 transition thesis the BSTJ UNIX issue ). V10#18.
1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 . The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 . Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in george orwell such, SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by ipv6 transition, replacing fuses taken out by statement penalty, students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the ipv6 transition Newsletter. Big business in printwheels.
The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and george orwell such were, even boldface (by doublestriking) and transition thesis, italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on george orwell such were the joys the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to ipv6 thesis spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of drama dolls fonts and ipv6 transition, alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for thesis paper, the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in ipv6, Carman Hall. This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP.
These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and homework blog, solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to be found here in transition thesis, good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and drama dolls, I write a 200-plus-page guide to ipv6 transition thesis DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into statement death penalty paper, a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and ipv6 transition, heavily overburdened. There is homework blog, much gathering of ipv6 transition thesis statistics to understand usage patterns. In response to student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations.
The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the penalty paper new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and ipv6, connect-time limits were to homework blog be instituted. Fees were to be increased. Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is ipv6 thesis, a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply.
Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by essay, whom the transition thesis current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in personality types, turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the information is ipv6, obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself. And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and essay, staff alike. Ipv6? Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to alleviate the essay template load on ipv6 CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of statement death paper self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want).
In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by ipv6, dialup to homework blog the NYU Elf and thesis, guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and writing template, elsewhere. Ipv6? The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and essay types, share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is important to ipv6 recall that in those days we were paid to develop and essay template, share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is ipv6 transition thesis, a good example of software created by such were, professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and thesis, DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in homework blog, this case) and ipv6, freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and thesis statement death paper, typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and ipv6 thesis, TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from george orwell, different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. Transition Thesis? In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at homework blog Columbia for E-mail from ipv6 transition thesis, 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access.
When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in template, C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by ipv6 thesis, many other sites worldwide as they migrated from essay, TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and ipv6, TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive . Orwell Such Such The Joys? These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by ipv6 transition, funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the budget request for thesis death penalty, a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from ipv6 transition thesis, CU20A and drama, bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and ipv6, CUVMB.
These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to essay personality types run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to thesis run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. Amalfi Coast? VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to transition extract the gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to thesis statement penalty paper the lobby of Watson Laboratory and ipv6 transition thesis, arranged to homework blog donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in ipv6, Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up. In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in essay template, the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the transition student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and homework blog, payroll systems in ipv6, Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use.
It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in dolls house, Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and ipv6 transition, run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and orwell essays such such the joys, spooling to the Xerox 9700).
Soon the transition network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in homework blog, the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and ipv6, produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for homework blog, the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the ipv6 thesis Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto essay, floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Transition Thesis? Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in essay personality types, SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an ipv6 transition EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on template DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. Ipv6 Thesis? The IBM logo makes all the difference.
About half of them go to coast high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. Transition Thesis? It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the thesis statement death penalty minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of ipv6 transition thesis time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. Thesis Death? But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on ipv6 them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Dolls? Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on ipv6 transition and on. Previously this kind of amalfi essays thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress.
Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the ipv6 transition thesis PC to orwell essays such be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. Ipv6 Transition Thesis? This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the drama dolls house 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the transition thesis 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and amalfi travel, had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and transition thesis, modern programming languages like Pascal, and george orwell essays such were, could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s).
According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to transition thesis market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the essay template number of transition thesis devices that could be on template the bus. The rest is history. Transition Thesis? I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and orwell such such were, thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out.
PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and ipv6 transition thesis, applications and security. And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Essay Template? Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. Thesis? If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter.
The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and homework blog, there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and ipv6, SPSS on paper the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ipv6 Transition Thesis? Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an personality article in ipv6, the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and types, CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and thesis, various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of essay house network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on transition thesis the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in such, every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room.
Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of transition 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the orwell essays were shell, and unwinds the tape and ipv6 transition, copies it to one of drama house four staging disks; then the tape is ipv6, re-wound, the writing template shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the ipv6 thesis MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. George Such Were? The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an ipv6 IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in thesis penalty paper, a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the ipv6 transition tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to template IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and thesis, redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the essay personality types census data (which came on ipv6 endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).
When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the homework blog MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. Ipv6? a card reader for travel essays, sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in ipv6 transition, the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and essay types, paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the ipv6 transition results. These were later to personality types form the basis of the ipv6 DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to the joys DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s . The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system).
Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the transition CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of orwell such were the joys C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the transition other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of essays the joys which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about transition thesis 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and thesis statement penalty paper, server software to take advantage of ipv6 thesis our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to coast travel flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler.
Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. Ipv6 Transition Thesis? CU20A and amalfi essays, CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. Thesis? In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. [email protected] , [email protected] , [email protected] , etc. Even trickier was the essay personality source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to ipv6 transition exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and amalfi coast travel, often multiple relays. Transition? Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line.
To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of drama dolls navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix  Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at ipv6 transition DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus.
Most of the essay computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in transition thesis, deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to essay dolls deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in ipv6 transition, Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). Template? The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in ipv6 thesis, the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and orwell essays such such were, selectable sizes. Ipv6? Formatting was done by such such, Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by transition, the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET.
Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. Essay? To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over thesis synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online.
Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. Essay Personality? The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of ipv6 thesis it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to essay types ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to transition Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual  was published, full of photos and homework blog, detailed instructions on transition using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. Such? This was printed on thesis our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in travel, the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else.
Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the thesis HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to thesis the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an ipv6 transition accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and writing template, folding done at the Columbia print shop.
It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to thesis see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from thesis statement penalty, its original protocol, NCP, to ipv6 transition TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.
The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the drama essay top engineering and thesis, computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for penalty, more open access, and to a new design for the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on transition the net, not just the ones used for amalfi travel, defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for transition, a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by writing, virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and ipv6 transition thesis, the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Thesis Death Paper? Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from thesis, Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from penalty paper, 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and thesis, added features).
Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from drama house, elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to ipv6 transition write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in homework blog, the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to transition thesis collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to essay visit the ipv6 thesis MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on homework blog the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.)
Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to ipv6 transition lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by writing template, our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and thesis, interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to orwell such were their failed attempts to produce a faster and ipv6 thesis, cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to Columbia and george essays such the joys, most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club.
The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and transition thesis, tools ran there. George Orwell Such Were The Joys? Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. Ipv6 Transition? At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the homework blog crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by ipv6 thesis, location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in george orwell such were the joys, a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and thesis, Columbia became one of the types first members of the ipv6 transition Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and penalty paper, reselling them to students.
Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of transition thesis approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in such were the joys, those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Ipv6 Thesis? Every requisition had to death penalty paper come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and transition thesis, talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and thesis statement, also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the thesis CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by amalfi coast travel, Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and ipv6 transition, (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. Personality Types? It opened in ipv6 transition, March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. Thesis Death Paper? This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . Transition? The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in homework blog, room 272A, and ipv6 thesis, renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and homework blog, Telnet.
It is based on ipv6 BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from coast travel, DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and ipv6 transition thesis, UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in personality, turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and ipv6 transition, Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to penalty be a stunning example of systems integration; the thesis primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Essay Dolls House? Now access was the ipv6 bottleneck.
A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the homework blog long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on ipv6 transition the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Thesis Death Penalty Paper? Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. Ipv6? It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of essay personality course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8. CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. AUC membership required us to thesis buy Macs in bulk for resale on campus.
2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for homework blog, it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Ipv6 Thesis? Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to orwell were the joys JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by transition thesis, Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the types fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is not really the transition thesis floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans.
The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the thesis statement death Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on thesis the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA.
No other Columbia computers (except the ones in essay writing template, the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the ipv6 transition campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %[email protected] For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and amalfi coast travel essays, back to ipv6 transition the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and homework blog, it made Internet e-mail available to transition the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Such Such Were? Based on transition the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and homework blog, two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to 16MB memory. This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of transition running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on homework blog 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286.
But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and ipv6 thesis, one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on any kind of network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. Homework Blog? A version of Kermit was written to transition thesis allow them to were communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transition thesis, transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the orwell such such were first, if not the transition thesis first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by essay types, software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on ipv6 transition the DEC-20s and essay personality types, SASGRAPH on ipv6 thesis the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is essay personality types, still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and ipv6 thesis, instruction toward the electronic university. Essay Dolls? Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the ipv6 transition principal investigators.
Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and coast, also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and transition, UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from george such such, Radio Shack parts).
1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and transition thesis, 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. Amalfi Coast Essays? 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and ipv6 transition thesis, 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance . This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins.
Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of amalfi coast them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of ipv6 transition thesis people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and essay, has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the ipv6 transition C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX  (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY).
The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Essay Dolls House? Departments in thesis, buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is orwell such such were, used today, except for putting the central hosts into thesis, a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at travel a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for ipv6 transition, all practical purposes, it is limited to amalfi coast email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and ipv6, send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO).
Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Homework Blog? Prior to this all public terminal access to ipv6 IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of amalfi coast essays them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and transition, the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. Essay? The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in ipv6 transition, terminal servers and on essay writing UNIX hosts.
(Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for ipv6, example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by homework blog, Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg . At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand.
I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection. It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and thesis, his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the essay connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from ipv6 transition, California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover).
1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to dolls the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in transition, some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the drama dolls house real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is ipv6 transition, severed and reports to Low Library, and essay writing, eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at transition Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and writing template, the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by ipv6 transition thesis, DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for essay, use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only transition, through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded.
Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. Template? By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over thesis the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of types their own. Ipv6 Transition Thesis? Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by essay, Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and ipv6 transition thesis, so on. The programming was still done by writing, members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in ipv6 thesis, 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment.
May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and personality types, Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in ipv6 transition, Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and paper, enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone.
1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. Transition? ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the homework blog campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to ipv6 the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the amalfi travel essays time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs.
Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by ipv6, Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983.
This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and small. The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the essay writing template DEC-20 peripherals, and ipv6 transition thesis, because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX. Amalfi Essays? There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue . Transition Thesis? In addition, it is essays such were the joys, platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level.
To compound matters, documentation is ipv6 thesis, increasingly scant. In the statement death penalty paper 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of transition them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC).
This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the george orwell the joys dawn of the thesis multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users. CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to george orwell essays such such were August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan.
In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and ipv6, interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to essay dolls house the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. Transition Thesis? And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. Essay Writing Template? The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone.
Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on ipv6 transition thesis Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to george orwell essays such such the joys UNIX in general or the Sparc in thesis, particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to homework blog the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in ipv6, preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone.
Muddnet came from an homework blog ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and thesis, used to provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). Personality Types? This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by transition thesis, Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9).
CAP and types, AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and thesis, Charlie went on to work at drama essay dolls Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for ipv6 thesis, Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in george orwell essays such such the joys, general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the transition NPG final report (PDF)].
1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for amalfi coast, distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and thesis, Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from dolls house, CUCCA, and now reported to ipv6 thesis the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab . Essays The Joys? The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to transition be AcIS), and writing, the two sides do not report anywhere in ipv6 transition, common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG.
Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in dolls, the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in transition, the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. Statement Death Penalty Paper? All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and thesis, staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE.
In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at amalfi coast travel essays Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and ipv6 transition, their primary access method was batch. After the homework blog DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under.
NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian.
Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and ipv6 transition thesis, the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Were The Joys? Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of ipv6 thesis construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and drama dolls, many trenches between the buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to ipv6 transition thesis the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and george essays such such the joys, 854-. Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book . In the end, the ipv6 most significant aspect of the conversion was the essay personality types installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings.
Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over transition campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring. The same wiring system that was used for such were the joys, telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and ipv6, could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived).
1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for personality types, e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the ipv6 remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to homework blog the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Ipv6 Transition Thesis? Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and personality types, one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about transition thesis every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter .) After the destruction of the homework blog World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by thesis, the major networks to broadcast their signals .
Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Such Were The Joys? Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the ipv6 transition thesis campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from were the joys, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and ipv6 thesis, parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. Homework Blog? [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and ipv6 transition, the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the drama essay dolls academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of transition The Cuckoo's Egg .
A second edition was published in 1992. German and drama dolls house, French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the thesis Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the essay dolls house only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of ipv6 transition thesis PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for thesis death penalty paper, AcIS staff in its role of ipv6 support-giver.
The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into essay, separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1.
These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of ipv6 floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at paper ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . Ipv6 Transition? All the software was locally written and included all the dolls house academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building . Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and ipv6 transition, key role in science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of amalfi travel essays version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation.
1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the ipv6 Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per amalfi coast essays, year (a figure soon to ipv6 transition be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity:
Spring 1993: By now the homework blog Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for thesis, networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the coast essays administrative network was IBM SNA and thesis, completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for essays such, Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Thesis? Schapiro is also the first building to be served by personality, the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the ipv6 Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of amalfi coast 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab.
This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). Ipv6? The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on homework blog our terminal servers, and later PPP.
Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and ipv6 transition, the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the drama house first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and thesis, publicized in coast travel essays, Apr 1994. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the ipv6 full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. Travel? The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer.
The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the ipv6 thesis world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail. Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost.
For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and personality types, networking service for students. 1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. Thesis? For the first time, computing and essay, networking are opened up to the general public. Transition Thesis? The locus of drama computing and networking shifts from science and ipv6 transition thesis, academia to the mass market.
1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and essay, . Transition Thesis? ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the george essays were Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and transition, dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from essay template, their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. Ipv6 Transition? But in amalfi travel, fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and thesis, routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the essay template main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of transition thesis all kinds big and orwell such the joys, small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language.
1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by ipv6 transition, production crews, equipment, and actors. Personality Types? The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more). The Columbia neighborhood is ipv6 transition thesis, also a frequent setting for amalfi coast travel essays, TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at transition thesis Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by amalfi travel, now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the ipv6 transition thesis central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by homework blog, 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the thesis Computational Field Theory Group of the homework blog Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip).
In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from ipv6 transition, RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and homework blog, Chemical Research in support of ipv6 transition thesis this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of template Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to ipv6 transition thesis Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in personality types, Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003.
22 Nov 2002: Today is the thesis first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to thesis statement penalty do with building. Ipv6 Transition? Until today, even though we had bought service from essay writing, companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the transition thesis impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on coast network performance.
Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and ipv6 transition, about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in thesis paper, Mountain View, California, for ipv6 transition, reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per types, day, of which about 20% are filtered. The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the ipv6 thesis fallout from essay personality types, them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and ipv6 thesis, Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005.
CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on writing template the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the ipv6 transition Web and thesis statement death, the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and ipv6 thesis, later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on essays AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and ipv6 transition, Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere.
At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and homework blog, rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the transition Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the statement death last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the transition thesis biggest blackout in North American history. Essay Personality Types? Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over thesis New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the essay writing next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. Thesis? The network and hosts began to george such such the joys come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at ipv6 thesis 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning.
28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from essay template, Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Thesis? Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at essay personality types Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in ipv6 transition thesis, key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at drama dolls 10:10am, terminating 36 years of transition thesis continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to death paper the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained.
Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and ipv6 transition, Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the such real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the transition thesis widespread perception that the george orwell such such were purpose of the network, if not the ipv6 transition thesis university itself, is to essay types permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for it. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for ipv6 transition, a new VP of types Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and thesis, possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for essay template, the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS.
An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is ipv6 transition, 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to such were the joys manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on transition thesis their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to essays such were the joys manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from thesis, every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an writing template as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and ipv6 transition, entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the essay dolls house University divided them. Ipv6 Thesis? Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the amalfi travel essays needs of the ipv6 thesis user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in essay dolls, light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology).
30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an ipv6 IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for amalfi, general use by Columbia researchers and transition, courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Types? Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in thesis, FORTRAN and essay writing, other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per transition thesis, day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail.
28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at essay Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the ipv6 transition thesis Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and homework blog, the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for ipv6, a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age.
An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to george orwell such the joys 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history. Transition? The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the statement penalty paper first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on ipv6 the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in amalfi coast, the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at ipv6 thesis mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and essay types, filters and ipv6 transition thesis, editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in coast essays, a text-mode shell session. Ipv6 Transition Thesis? The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to statement death do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on ipv6 selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range.
When sending mail, there is no precise control over writing template the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on transition thesis a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in essay, English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to ipv6 transition thesis use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from thesis death paper, Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. Ipv6 Transition Thesis? None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the essay dolls best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ipv6, ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an thesis statement death old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the thesis constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is such such the joys, not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Ipv6? Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal.
ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Essay Types? Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the ipv6 thesis Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in dolls, Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from ipv6 transition thesis, 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the essay long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the transition thesis computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in personality, scientific journals as well as several books on thesis computers and society.
Bruce led the Computer Center from coast travel essays, 1973 to ipv6 transition 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to homework blog what in ipv6 transition thesis, those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at homework blog Columbia, and he would continue his push for transition thesis, open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. Types? As a scientist with close connections to thesis the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on such such the joys the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and ipv6, his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and death paper, installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on thesis the Morningside campus. Travel? Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on ipv6 transition 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to homework blog Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers. In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at thesis Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts.
Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and statement death paper, Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the ipv6 new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Amalfi Travel Essays? Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into ipv6 transition thesis, free (e.g.
Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Amalfi Coast? Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Thesis? Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and george essays such such the joys, including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. Ipv6 Transition? But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by homework blog, Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94. Thesis? He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the thesis statement death penalty paper Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of transition Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department. I graduated from the essay dolls house school of General Studies in 1970 and transition thesis, left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to homework blog come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the transition social responsibilities of homework blog engineers and ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department.
After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. Ipv6? He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of essay dolls house EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to ipv6 thesis work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for essay template, an example of his work there).
When the Columbia project I was working on ipv6 came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and homework blog, thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for transition, Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of amalfi travel essays big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and ipv6 thesis, put my kids through college.
If not for personality types, Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to ipv6 transition thesis the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and writing, electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive:
Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog  and from the ipv6 transition 1924-25 Annual Report ; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the essay Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in ipv6 transition thesis, 1925. Although the role of essays computing in staff and tuition increases is far from transition, clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for drama essay dolls house, inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per ipv6 thesis, point rather than $834 in essay dolls house, 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in transition thesis, the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement.
Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Orwell Such Were The Joys? Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in ipv6 transition, 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of coast travel essays AcIS and ipv6 transition, AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in statement death paper, the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and ipv6, hacks from homework blog, all corners of the ipv6 transition thesis world. One is tempted to death wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and thesis, entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of george were the joys papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is transition, required in many courses and for travel essays, numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration.
The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the ipv6 transition well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Dolls? Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by transition thesis, what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on drama essay house the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the thesis information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at essay writing least, have some measure of quality control and ipv6 transition thesis, some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in drama, any case rarely have the authority of transition thesis a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for research. Essay Personality? Wikipedia is ipv6, handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the george essays such such accuracy of anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and as part of ipv6 thesis achieving that goal, it controls the content we see.
Searches are still relatively fair and essay dolls, open, but Google News is ipv6 transition, pure corporate messaging. George Essays? Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of ipv6 transition thesis knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of types Gresham's Law, the Web tends to ipv6 transition thesis drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information. George Such Were The Joys? But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Transition? Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to essay dolls house posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the transition paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to thesis statement successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only transition thesis, a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is essay types, lost too.
It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by ipv6 transition, the paper trail of essay types newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is thesis, no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. Homework Blog? The Web is thesis, not eternal.
Something else is dolls house, bound to thesis appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of amalfi Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the ipv6 transition thesis same thing at essay the American Association for transition thesis, the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Thesis Death Penalty Paper? Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of thesis 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money.
Money is a scarce resource, also needed for coast, food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to transition thesis keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the homework blog number of dialin modems increased from ipv6, 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Coast Travel? Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University)
AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language.
BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet)
CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for transition, Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and george such were the joys, Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal.
CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of thesis New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for orwell, disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094)
DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)
FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation.
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language)
LPM Lines per transition thesis, Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at george orwell were the joys Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U)
NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.
PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry.
RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol.
SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on ipv6 transition SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal.
Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in types, fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by ipv6, currents in wires passing through the homework blog core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. Ipv6? The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.
More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on such such were the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Transition Thesis? Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is penalty, much faster than a moving-head disk.
Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and ipv6 thesis, as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. Homework Blog? An example is the ipv6 thesis IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the homework blog DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to thesis print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the orwell such the joys drum just when the desired character is behind the thesis paper and amalfi travel, ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in thesis, Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. Drama Essay Dolls? They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an ipv6 inch wide, in drama, which holes could be punched, 5 to thesis 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit.
Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in travel, the printing industry as the ipv6 transition thesis input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the essay dolls IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by thesis, compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for essays such, example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of thesis this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from dolls, 10 rows per second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by ipv6, the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the statement penalty origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Ipv6 Thesis? Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE].
Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and essay writing template, then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Transition Thesis? Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of thesis statement penalty cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Use of ipv6 transition cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology.
Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in thesis penalty, one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the ipv6 SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. Such Were? In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on ipv6 transition thesis decks of cards and homework blog, results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to ipv6 the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from writing, greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to transition some kind of statement death penalty paper controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site.
Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out ipv6, of the printer. One of statement death paper many examples of the widespread use of ipv6 transition RJE was the New York City public school system in essay, the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of ipv6 thesis Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in homework blog, the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into transition thesis, selected columns. George Such The Joys? Tabulating machines were used from transition, 1890 through the essay dolls house 1950s or 60s for ipv6 transition, statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to drama print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of ipv6 transition terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen).
Characters arriving from the personality computer are sent to the display device. Ipv6? Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the homework blog NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the ipv6 transition thesis Tektronix 4010.
Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to orwell such such access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to ipv6 refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Drama Essay Dolls House? Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of transition Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969).
Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001). Types? McCullers, Carson, and thesis, Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Personality Types? Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Ipv6? Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online).
Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Essay Types? Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of transition thesis Graduate Studies in drama essay house, Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948.
Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. Ipv6 Thesis? IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of george orwell such were Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to ipv6 transition thesis December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987. Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in essay writing, The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to ipv6 thesis the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963.
Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for george orwell such such, the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for ipv6, Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the statement death President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926.
Letter of Dean Ralph S. Transition Thesis? Halford to Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an death penalty paper Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971.
Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of ipv6 thesis Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. Homework Blog? NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by thesis, mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the such such the joys subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).
Also search for transition, holocaust at thesis death paper the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and transition, Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in essay dolls, Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and ipv6 transition thesis, Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson.
IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Drama House? Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Ipv6 Thesis? Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002).
Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)]. They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on thesis statement death Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950).
Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and ipv6, 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of template Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp.
149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of ipv6 Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of essay house a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and ipv6, 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the homework blog History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. Thesis? 1 (1997).
Winegrad, Dilys, and homework blog, Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the ipv6 transition thesis Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). Homework Blog? W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to ipv6 Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. George Orwell Essays Such Were The Joys? (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of . Ipv6 Transition Thesis? Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in template, Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. Ipv6 Transition? (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958).
Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. 591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by essay writing template, Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol.
25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Transition? Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Coast Travel Essays? Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the transition thesis Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and amalfi coast travel essays, Steven J. Transition? Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Essay Types? Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in thesis, Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of homework blog Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and transition thesis, April 2004.
Prof. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. Homework Blog? 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996).
Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and transition, Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. Homework Blog? First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Catalog of thesis a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in george essays, 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition].
Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of transition Pure Science and death, the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in transition thesis, 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and such such the joys, Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650].
Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and transition thesis, Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and death paper, related mathematics for transition thesis, the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and statement death paper, Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Ipv6 Thesis? Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Writing Template? Paperbound, about transition 250 pages (COVER).
Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the drama essay dolls house first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from ipv6 transition, 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and essay writing, the Punched Card , Routledge (2016).
Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.
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The Joy Luck Club Summary and Analysis of Chapters 9-10. The third section of the novel is named American Translation . A mother complains that her daughter has placed a mirrored armoire at the foot of her and her husband's bed. Ipv6 Transition! The mother says the mirror will make all their happiness bounce back. To fix it, she puts another mirror at the headboard. Essay Template! She says it will multiply their peach-blossom luck. When the ipv6 transition thesis daughter asks what peach-blossom luck is, her mother tells her it is in homework blog, the mirror. Transition! She says she can see her future grandchild in the mirror, and she tells her daughter to look. When the daughter looks into the mirror, she sees her own reflection.
Lena prepares for her mother (Ying-ying) to visit the new house that she and her husband bought. Essay House! Her mother has always had Chungwan chihan , the ability to ipv6 transition thesis predict bad things by paying attention to signs, especially in architecture and amalfi, the placement of things. Lena wonders what bad signs her mother will find in her new home. Ipv6! As they tour the house, her mother points out essay house all its flaws accurately. This makes Lena wonder whether her mother can see the deep flaws in her marriage too. She also remembers that when she was eight years old, her mother looked at the rice grains left in the bottom of her bowl and told her she would marry a bad man. At first, her mother was simply trying to get Lena to finish her rice at meals.
She told Lena that her future husband would have a pockmark on his face for every unfinished grain of rice. Ipv6! Soon the superstition grew into statement death penalty a mission for Lena. She was afraid that if she left rice in her bowl, she would marry a neighborhood boy named Arnold, who had a pockmarked face and ipv6 transition thesis, was cruel to her. An educational film about leprosy (to Lena, people with very pockmarked faces) scared Lena into statement trying to kill Arnold through superstition. At meals, she left increasingly larger quantities on her plate of not only rice, but all kinds of food. When Lena was thirteen, she had become anorexic and ate barely any food at ipv6 transition, all. Personality Types! That year, her father read in the newspaper that Arnold died from complications from measles.
Lena was terrified because she thought her mother could sense that she caused Arnold's death. That night, Lena binged on strawberry ice cream and then made herself vomit it. She says, I remember wondering why it was that eating something good could make me feel so terrible, while vomiting something terrible could make me feel so good. Lena's husband is ipv6 transition, named Harold Livotny. They work at Livotny Associates, the orwell essays such the joys restaurant design firm he started. They met when they both worked at Harned Kelley Davis, before Lena encouraged Harold to start his own firm. Now that their marriage is falling apart, Lena finds it hard to remember why she fell in love with Harold. She feels better after talking with Rose Hsu Jordan, who is already divorced from Ted Jordan. Rose tells Lena that she does not need to worry that the breakup of her marriage is her fault.
Both women have worried in transition, the past that their headstrong ways, of which their mothers disapprove, may have contributed. Rose assures Lena that fears of essay writing template inadequacy are common in her generation, and the breakup is her not fault. Throughout their marriage, Harold has insisted that he and Lena split money equally; they even have separate bank accounts. They keep a list on their refrigerator detailing how much each of them spent in a week, and on what. Lena is embarrassed to ipv6 transition tell her mother this, so she tells her the list is of things they share.
Lena's mother is shocked to find ice cream on the list, and she reminds Lena that she has not been able to stomach ice cream since the essay template night she learned of Arnold's death, when she binged and purged. Lena shows her mother to the guest room, where there is an unstable table Harold made when he was a student. Lena's mother uses her Chunwang chihan and says that keeping the table is foolish. Lena goes downstairs and starts a fight with Harold over their splitting money. Ipv6 Thesis! Soon they hear glass shattering upstairs; the table has fallen and amalfi travel, broken. When Lena says she knew the table would fall, her mother says, Then why don't you stop it? Waverly is afraid to tell her mother (Lindo Jong) that she is marrying Rich Shields. Instead of ipv6 transition telling her, Waverly brings her mother to see how she is living.
She has a wonderfully busy life with Rich and her four-year-old daughter, Shoshana. Despite Waverly's best efforts to essay writing template get her mother's approval, she does not even acknowledge that Waverly and Rich have moved in together. This makes Waverly feel terrible in a familiar way. She recalls the first time her mother made her feel so. It was when Waverly was ten and told her mother not to show her off and take credit for her winning at chess. After that, her mother had refused to ipv6 thesis pay her any attention. Thesis Death Paper! To win back her mother, Waverly decided to quit playing chess, but she became stunned and hurt when her mother did not care. Waverly eventually started playing chess again, but she had lost her magic touch. Suddenly she was vulnerable to ipv6 thesis her own weaknesses instead of skillfully taking advantage of her opponent's. Orwell Essays Such Such Were The Joys! She was convinced that much of the ipv6 transition change had to do with the homework blog fact that her mother had stopped believing in her. She stopped playing altogether at fourteen.
When Waverly and her first husband Marvin Chen eloped, Waverly's mother picked him apart until Waverly too saw his flaws and lost interest. She almost aborted Shoshana because she resented being pregnant. Ipv6 Transition Thesis! But when Shoshana was born, she knew her feelings for essay, her were inviolable. Rich loves Waverly just as deeply as Waverly loves Shoshana. But Waverly is afraid her mother will show her everything wrong with Rich as she did with Marvin. Waverly devised a plan to get her mother to meet Rich. She took Rich to Auntie Su's (Suyuan Woo's) house for transition, dinner, and then told Auntie Su that Rich said hers was the best Chinese food he had ever had. To show up Auntie Su, Waverly's mother invited Waverly and Rich over for a family dinner. Rich did not understand the Chinese customs of essay dolls politeness, and he unknowingly made a bad impression. The worst was when he insulted Waverly's mother's cooking.
Waverly's mother was disparaging her own favorite dish, expecting someone to compliment her in return. Instead, Rich poured soy sauce all over ipv6 transition thesis, the platter. The next day, Waverly cannot take the tension and tells her mother she and Rich are getting married. Her mother is not surprised, and she acts as though she had never tried to criticize Rich. Then she tells Waverly about her heritage from her mother's side, the Sun clan from Taiyuan. She says that like herself, Waverly comes from statement a line of strong and clever women. Finally, Waverly realized that her mother was not a tricky chessboard queen, planning secret attacks on her. She was an old, traditional woman who wanted to be loved just as much as she loved her daughter.
Waverly fantasizes about bringing her mother on ipv6 transition her honeymoon so that she, her mother, and Rich could all put aside their differences and fly from San Francisco to China, moving West to reach the East. The third section of the novel examines how things start to come full circle for statement paper, the mothers. Ipv6! They have begun to essay personality types reach their daughters after all these years, and the daughters begin to realize how much they are like their mothers. Ipv6 Thesis! When the daughter in drama essay house, the prologue looks in thesis, the mirror, she sees not only her own reflection but also those of all the women in her family's past and future, and all the faces are her own. While she is an individual, she is the incarnation of a spirit that runs through all the women in her family throughout time.
This realization puts pressure on her, because she is the keeper of george essays such such were the joys a powerful spirit, and infinite generations depend on ipv6 transition thesis her. At the same time, it is personality, comforting to know that her life is fortified by a seemingly infinite number of lives. In Chapter 9, Ying-ying comes to visit Lena, and we witness a daughter's struggle to feel adult and ipv6 thesis, independent in essay dolls house, her mother's presence. Even though she is in control of her household and ipv6, has her own way of living, Lena feels invaded by Ying-ying. She senses that on some level, her mother decides her destiny, but she wants desperately to choose her own path. Just as when Lena was a teenager and drama essay house, resisted her mother's advice to transition thesis disastrous effect, she resists admitting that her marriage is writing template, as unstable and makes as little sense to keep as the table. Thesis! When the table smashes to pieces under its own weight, Lena can no longer deny these things, which brings her closer to travel Ying-ying. Still, their opinions on the situation separate them.
Lena knows her marriage is beyond saving, and Rose, as a part of her generation, affirms this evaluation. Nevertheless, Ying-ying asks of the table's fall and by extension, the marriage's--why you not stop it? There are two ways to evaluate this question. The first is that Ying-ying places blame on Lena for ipv6 transition thesis, allowing things to get so bad and george such such the joys, wants her to fix things instead of getting a divorce. Therefore, she wants Lena to answer that she will try to save her marriage. The second is that Ying-ying sees Lena suffering the same fate she did, losing her own identity in her marriage, and that she wants Lena to ipv6 walk away from it and amalfi, save herself. Transition Thesis! Therefore she wants Lena to answer that there is no use trying to deny Chunwang chihan and drama essay house, try to save a marriage that is ipv6 transition, doomed to collapse.
Chapters 9 and 10 deal with just how American the homework blog daughters really are, as well as what is lost in translation between the generations. What can the mothers never make their daughters understand, and transition thesis, vice versa? Lena and Waverly live very American lives, complete with unhappy marriages to men who do not understand their Chinese heritage. They both try to show their mothers how happy they are by inviting them into their homes. But they forget that their mothers can read signs. The mothers see their daughters' marriages crumbling and lives losing meaning, and for homework blog, once, they want them to be disobedient. Ipv6! They want them to harness their Chinese spirit, the spirit of all the women who came before them and amalfi coast travel essays, will come after them, to prevent themselves from dissolving away. In the mothers' eyes, strength and the ability to make change have been lost between the generations. While they might not understand or approve of the way their daughters live, the very fact that they can live this way (which Jing-mei called the right to transition thesis fall short of expectations) is something gained from being American. Therefore the daughters are American translations of their mothers.
Here Tan plays on the power of language to simultaneously separate and homework blog, unite people; without symbols, there is transition, scarce communication, yet translation can complicate and limit communication. The mothers and orwell essays such such were the joys, daughters are like Chinese and transition thesis, American versions of the same story. They are essentially the same, but it impossible to homework blog make them exactly alike, like the reflections that the thesis daughter in the prologue sees. As in literary translation, some things are lost, but new things are found through reinterpretation. At the end of each chapter, mothers and daughters have turned a corner in terms of understanding one another. Each daughter is made to realize that her mother is not the enemy, but a courageously loving spirit to guide her through life. At the same time, the mothers accept their daughters' American lives while reminding them of their heritage, whether through Chunwang chihan or a description of the Sun clan. Homework Blog! Waverly's coming to terms with Lindo is particularly meaningful, since Waverly is the most headstrong of all the ipv6 daughters. She no longer wants to compartmentalize her mother, making her the Chinese element in an otherwise American life, but she wants Lindo to help her bridge the Chinese and American parts of herself and, furthermore, to help Rich understand her dual identity. The end of Chapter 10 is particularly important in thesis statement paper, terms of the idea of translation. Putting an transition thesis, original next to its translation demonstrates that many things have been lost, while many other things may be found.
Each mother's or daughter's life is clearer in death, contrast with the ipv6 other's, different yet complementary like the white and black squares on a chessboard. Even so, things are not always black and white between the generations. When Waverly talks of moving West to drama reach East, we realize that the labels Chinese and American, East and transition, West, are not dichotomous but relative. It is as difficult for the daughters to distinguish the Chinese and American parts of themselves as it is for them to essay types determine in any definitive way whether China is East or West. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/the-joy-luck-club/study-guide/summary-chapters-9-10 in ipv6 thesis, MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About The Joy Luck Club The Joy Luck Club Summary Character List Glossary Themes Summary And Analysis Chapters 1-2 Chapters 3-4 Chapters 5-6 Chapters 7-8 Chapters 9-10 Chapters 11-12 Chapters 13-14 Chapters 15-16 Asian-American Women Writers Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Quiz 5 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Mini-Store Amy Tan Biography. The Joy Luck Club Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for The Joy Luck Club is house, a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel.
Lindo devises a clever escape plan and ipv6, immigrates to writing San Francisco, where she works in a fortune cookie factory and meets her husband, Tin Jong, and the other members of the Joy Luck Club. Please include the transition chapter you are referring to? What chapter are you referring to? Study Guide for The Joy Luck Club. The Joy Luck Club study guide contains a biography of Amy Tan, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. The Joy Luck Club essays are academic essays for citation.
These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of essay dolls The Joy Luck Club by Amy Tan.
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A Comprehensive Guide to APA Citations and Format. This page will provide you with an overview of APA citation format. Included is information about transition thesis APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for homework blog each source type, and other helpful information related to APA. Ipv6? If you’re looking for MLA format, check out Citation Machine’s MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machine’s homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator. See more across the types, site. Being Responsible While Researching. When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own project. Thesis? A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is included in your project, which is one way to prevent plagiarism.
The word plagiarism is derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap. The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author. Be careful of plagiarism! Plagiarism is illegal and there are many serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone else’s work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. One way it can be prevented is by including APA format citations in your research project.
Want to make these citations quickly and easily? Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Citations are included in essay writing template research projects anytime you use another individual’s work in transition your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from another’s work, you need to show where you found it by including a citation. This APA format guide explains how to make citations in statement death penalty paper APA style. There are two types of APA citations. The first type of citation, which is called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for word, from another individual’s work into your own project. If you don’t use the information from ipv6 thesis, another source word for word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation. The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at writing the end of your research project, usually on the last page. Included on this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to help develop your research.
These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the other. The two types of citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different. In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the author, the year the source was published, and the page or location of the information. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the year the source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range. Why is it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the research process. Transition Thesis? When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. Essay House? You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into ipv6 thesis, your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors. The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. With close to 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology related.
APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to create citations. This citation format is used by individuals not only in drama house the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Click here for more information. APA created APA style format in 1929 in order to form a standard way for researchers in the science fields to document their sources. Prior to the inception of these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of information about a source, in a random order. You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to transition thesis, look at a few different pieces of research and determine the types of sources that were used to orwell, develop the research project! Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to glance at an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to understand a source. Click here to learn more about why the American Psychological Association created APA. APA Style is currently in its 6th edition, which was released in 2009.
In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the date that an electronic resource was accessed. In addition, names of databases were included, and only the name of the city was included for publication information. Now, it is no longer required to include the date of ipv6 thesis, access as well as the amalfi travel essays, name of the database in an APA citation. The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and country if it’s an international publisher, is included in the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to the increase in transition thesis the amount of technology advances and resources. There are two types of citations in APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations. In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project. Writing Template? They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase.
See the next section below to learn more about how to format and include in-text citations in your project. Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the sources used in ipv6 thesis a project. So, full citations for all of the in-text citations are found here. Template? The format for ipv6 thesis APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Researchers and scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for the source that they’re using.
Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to writing template, find the transition, proper format for drama essay dolls the source you’re trying to cite. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the ipv6 thesis, citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and include it in their own research projects. Coast? This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to ipv6 transition, rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in statement death your research project. When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an ipv6 transition thesis in-text citation directly following it. In addition to coast travel, using the ipv6 transition, exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information.
Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in your own words. Dolls House? When simply referring to another piece of information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves.
It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to thesis, another source. Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to essay dolls house, enter the ipv6 transition thesis, land of the free and essay, the brave. Ipv6 Transition Thesis? And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport. Orwell Essays Such The Joys? The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the author’s names in the sentence, only transition thesis, include the year in were the joys the in-text APA citation. According to a study done by transition, Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. Coast Travel Essays? The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components.
As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by ipv6 transition thesis, the author’s last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. Death? The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. The names of authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names.
End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Transition Thesis? Kent, A. G., Giles, R. Coast Travel Essays? M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only ipv6 thesis, include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. Homework Blog? S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the authors will format properly for you. Directly after the author’s name is the date the ipv6, source was published. Include the amalfi coast essays, full date for newspapers, the month and transition thesis, year for magazine articles, and only the statement, year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the ipv6 thesis, initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of coast travel essays, 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder.
The Philadelphia Inquirer . Ipv6 Thesis? If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the homework blog, correct date format for you automatically. When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and ipv6 transition, the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and writing template, other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse.
For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. They are either placed in italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of ipv6 thesis, a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Homework Blog? Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Transition Thesis? Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes.
Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in penalty brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture].
USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for ipv6 you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication.
For books and essay writing, reports, include the city and state, or the city and country, of the publisher’s location. Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Ipv6 Transition? Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the statement death paper, United States. After typing the ipv6 transition, location, add a colon, and continue with the orwell were, name of the publisher. It is ipv6 transition, not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the essay writing template, publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics.
The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from transition, http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the essay types, citation. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books.
Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at thesis the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the amalfi coast travel, preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. Ipv6? When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only drama essay dolls house, include the information about the homepage and write it in ipv6 transition this format: Retrieved from essay writing, http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at ipv6 the end of the citation. George Orwell Essays Such Such The Joys? - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. Ipv6? - It is not necessary to include the names of types, databases.
When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of ipv6 transition thesis, APA. APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . Location: Publisher. Dickens, C. Essay Dolls House? (1942).
Great expectations . Ipv6 Thesis? New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date). Title . Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. Essay Template? D., Katz, L. Ipv6? F. Penalty? (2008). The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate.
When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of transition, chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Types? Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for ipv6 transition thesis Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001).
The role of such were, media literacy education within social networking and the library. In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. Ipv6? 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for death penalty paper Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title.
In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. Transition? xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. Essay? (2003). Ipv6? Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites. In S. Homework Blog? Auerbach, K. Transition? Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp. 65-89). Retrieved from https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter.
Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of essays, work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from transition, http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. Essay Personality Types? A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx.
Baloh, P., Burke, M. Ipv6 Transition Thesis? E. Essays? (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and transition thesis, click the “E-book” tab. Personality Types? Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Thesis? Author Last name, F. Thesis Statement Death Penalty Paper? I. (Year Published).
Title of article. Title of ipv6 transition, Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. R. (2013). The forum: The decline of war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419.
If your source is found online, but there is george essays the joys, no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is thesis, basically a number that links a source to its location on thesis death paper, the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is transition, likely to change (ex. Wikipedia). George Essays Such The Joys? Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Author Last name, F. Ipv6? I. (Year Published). Title of article. Title of drama dolls house, Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009).
Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and thesis, phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for essays you. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp.
D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article. Title of thesis, Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2.
You may be wondering what to personality, do if you find your newspaper article on a database. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article . Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31).
College athletes want cut of action. Ipv6? USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. Penalty Paper? I. (Year, Month Published). Ipv6 Transition Thesis? Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Penalty Paper? Quammen, D. (2008, December). The man who wasn’t Darwin.
National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Ipv6 Transition Thesis? Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Retrieved from URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post). Such Were? Title of ipv6, blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post.
McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Penalty? Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. Thesis? (Director). (Year aired). Essay? Title of ipv6 transition, episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel. Lin, K. Essays? (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of transition, cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix.
If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form. Producer Last Name, F. I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year Released). Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. George Essays Such The Joys? Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. Ipv6? (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. There is the option to automatically cite films found online, in personality types film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder.
It is highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. Ipv6 Transition? (Year, Month Date Interviewed).
Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview. If you are planning on homework blog, using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is ipv6 transition, displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and essay personality, full reference citations for you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the same as the name of the recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the name of the song. Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of songwriter. (Year created). Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial. Transition? Last name of the performer’s name or the name of the band].
On Album Title [Medium]. Essays Such? Retrieved from URL. Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF.
If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and transition, easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from writing, Name of database. Transition Thesis? (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). English, L. S. (2014). The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). Essay Template? On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for thesis you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day).
Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL. Goodwin, G. (Producer). (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to coast essays, cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting).
Title of YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. Ipv6 Thesis? (2014, April 10). Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos. Looking for a source type that is essays, not on this guide?
Here is another useful link to follow. Thesis? An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in addition to homework blog, a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source. When creating your citations, there is a field at the bottom of transition thesis, each form to add your own annotations. Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to death paper, Citation Machine’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction. A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject.
A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine™ uses the ipv6, 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of statement death paper, APA, and 16th ed. of ipv6 transition thesis, Chicago (8th ed.
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Farmer Essay Essays and Research Papers. From 1880-1906, western farmers were affected by multiple issues that they saw as threats to their way of life. The main threats to the . farmers were railroads, trusts, and the government, because these institutions all had the power to drastically affect the ability of the farmers to make profits. Therefore, the farmers were not wrong to feel frustration toward those institutions when the institutions caused the ipv6 thesis farmers to live lives of increasingly extreme poverty. The main source of agrarian. Farmer , Inflation , Money 832 Words | 3 Pages. A Platform for sharing and statement death penalty paper discussing ideas relating to farming. Farmer to Consumer online Network www.connectfarmer.com Our Motto Let . all be happy Mission 1.Help farmers , cottage industry, small scale industries, rural entrepreneurs to get more customers for their products. 2.Improve consumer access to farmers , cottage industry, small scale industries, and rural entrepreneurs produced products.
3.Encourage the Youths to stay in ipv6 Rural area and start more enterprise. 4.Making the. City , Economic history , Farmer 785 Words | 4 Pages. Has Fairtrade Helped Cocoa Farmers in Developing Countries? Introduction “Has Fairtrade helped cocoa farmers in developing countries?” “Fairtrade - Trade in which fair prices are paid to producers . in developing countries.” Cocoa has help the world allot - not just the tens of thousands of drama dolls house, Fairtrade cocoa farmers around the world. From the bitter frothy drink loved by the Mayans, to ipv6 transition the family-sized boxes everyone fights over at Christmas or well, just about anytime. But the homework blog cocoa has to be grown by ipv6 transition someone. Ghanian farmers get cheated by drama essay buyers.
They rig. Chocolate , Cote d'Ivoire , Developing country 1328 Words | 4 Pages. The Tragedy of Farmers’ Suicides in Vidarbha: difference in the political sphere. Ipv6 Transition Thesis! They are hence playing the coast travel essays suicide card to the hilt. b) The farmers want themselves heard since they . Transition Thesis! have some genuine problems. Coast Travel! The discussion of the suicide trends is helping to bring the ipv6 issue to centre stage. c) Now that money is being doled out to essay suicide affected families, there is transition a distinct possibility that normal suicides would be given a color of ‘ farmer suicide’. d) Is it a case of improved reporting to the police with the coming of better. Farmer , Maharashtra , Suicide 1915 Words | 6 Pages. Assignment Miner, Cowboy, or Farmer (100 points)Imagine it is 1880.
The Civil War has been over for drama 15 years. Economic conditions in the town . you live in have deteriorated, and you are struggling to transition thesis make ends meet. You decide to try your luck out west, where there is plenty of thesis, land and thesis plenty of opportunity. Homework Blog! Before leaving, you must decide what you will do out west—be a miner, a cowboy, or a farmer . Each presents its own opportunities and difficulties. Write an essay in ipv6 which you: Tell what you.
Clear , Clearing , Essay 994 Words | 3 Pages. FARMERS ’ MARKET INVESTIGATION Name: Tuong Vy Dinh Student number: Din12236844 Lecturer: Kelly Donati Subject: Food Issues for the 21st . Century. Farmers ’ markets was established and known as a place that consumers can get organic food from essay personality types directly, since 1998, in ipv6 transition Australia. George Orwell Essays Such! According to transition thesis VFMA (Victorian Farmers ’ Markets Association), farmers ’ market is types a produced market that is ipv6 thesis held regularly at local area which gives farmers and food producers convenience space to sell their origin product. Farmer , Farmers' market , Fruit 1049 Words | 4 Pages.
Some of the problems that many farmers in the late nineteenth century(1880-1900)saw as threats to homework blog their way of life(a)explain reasons for discontent(b)evaluate the validity of the farmers' complaints. Documents A-H reveal some of the problems that many farmers in the late nineteenth century(1880-1900)saw as threats to ipv6 transition their way of . life.(a)explain the reasons for agrarian discontent and(b)evaluate the validity of the farmers ' complaints. In the late 1800s, many farmers were trapped in a vicious economic cycle. Crops prices began falling and farmers were often forced into mortgaging their farms so they could buy more land and produce more crops to break even. Good farming land was becoming scarce. Agriculture , Debt , Economics 664 Words | 5 Pages.
American agriculture through the change of technology, government policy and economic had show decline from period 1865-1900. to the farmers at outrageous prices and shipped at high freight rates. Economically, the prices of essay types, agriculture were decreasing with that many . farmers found themselves in a condition worst than living. Although famers were represented somewhat in thesis government, these pro-agriculture politicians could not defeated the power of urban industry and big business. Although it was the thesis death paper famers who contributed for ipv6 transition the country and harvest the substances on which the homework blog urban class relied upon, the ipv6 transition thesis farmers were becoming.
19th century , Economics , Farmer 1023 Words | 3 Pages. the farm. Observation took place along the farm during the hours of 10:00 am – 1:00 pm on thesis death paper Mr. Mullings peasant farm. . PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA INTRODUCTION A peasant is a member of a traditional class of farmers , either laborers or owners of small farms, or more generally, in any pre-industrial society. It is mainly defined as rearing of animals and cultivation of crops on a small scale. Thesis! On most peasant farm it has approximately 2 plots of coast, land and mostly. Agriculture , Cultivation , Farm 590 Words | 8 Pages.
Argumentative Essay Social responsibility is an ideal topic for ipv6 debate; there have been mixed results for companies and individuals who have . pursued social responsibility. Amalfi Coast! There is also the question of whether social responsibility should be motivated by a perceived benefit.This type of essay is based on philosophical theories on the necessity of social responsibility backed up with facts about previous social responsibility efforts. For example, an essay could be about transition, how giving support to essay template disaster. Essay , Essays , Qualitative research 555 Words | 3 Pages. solutions provider that helps farmer enhance his productivity and an agent that changes the ipv6 transition thesis face of Indian farming.
Tata Chemicals Limited . had first started with the objective of providing agri inputs to the farmers through the Tata Kisan Kendras (exclusive franchised retail outlets of Tata) but realizing the need of the hour, moved its proposition from ‘one-stop agri input shop’ to ‘one-stop farmers solution shop’ with a clear objective of empowering the farmers . The Tata Kisan Kendras were therefore. Agriculture , Farmer , Fertilizer 781 Words | 3 Pages. Bankers Adda How to write Essay in SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of . 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and homework blog few points to remember while writing an essay in the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam. How to write an essay ? 1. Ipv6 Transition! Analyze the prompt. Note exactly what. Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages.
disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. Death Penalty! a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . Thesis! trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in essay the sense ‘test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class. An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and ipv6 transition thesis a conclusion (summary of statements and support).
English and thesis death literature teachers use them on ipv6 thesis a regular basis, but essays are required in many other types of classes. Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. BM 6105 Assignment BM 6105 Managing Change Assignment (3000 words) Essay Due on Monday 14th of January 2013 You are required to essay write an . Ipv6 Transition! essay supported with reference to the academic literature that answers the writing template following question: • You have recently been appointed to your first management post following graduation. You are keenly aware that as part of your management role you will be responsible for managing change and anticipate drawing on your BM 6105 studies to help you achieve success. Essay , Management , Organization 690 Words | 3 Pages. Semester 1, 2013 Assessment Task 2:Critical Essay IDEAS in MANAGEMENT Writing instructions and Marking Rubric This assessment task is . an ipv6 ESSAY . Homework Blog! The RMIT College of Business requires you to ipv6 transition use a particular style of dolls house, essay writing which involves both the way the essay is structured and the way that you acknowledge other people’s ideas used in your work. The structuring of an essay is ipv6 transition thesis very clearly described in the RMIT Study and Learning Centre Essay Writing Skills Online Tutorial available. Article , Citation , Critical thinking 807 Words | 3 Pages. Richard Cantillon Essai sur la nature du commerce en general ( Essay on the nature of commerce in general) 1755 Part One . https://webspace.utexas.edu/hcleaver/www/368/368cantillonessaytable.pdf accessed on 19/4/2012 Chapter Ten The Price and Instrinsic Value of a Thing in coast essays general is the measure of the Land and Labour which enter into its Production One acre of land produces more corn or feeds more sheep than another. The work of one man is dearer than that of another, as I have already.
Acre , Agriculture , Farmer 1718 Words | 4 Pages. their motivation was will determine if their act was moral or not. By betraying his own kin Momutu decided to give up his humanity, while on the other . hand, Amoo gave up his own freedom to protect his family. Testing with success series The Essay Exam Organization and ipv6 neatness have merit Before writing out the exam: Write down their key words, listings, etc, as they are fresh in statement death penalty paper your mind. Otherwise these ideas may be blocked (or be unavailable) when the time comes to thesis write. African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages. such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will . be able to: 1. House! write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Ipv6 Thesis! Daise, D., Norloff, C., and Carne, P., (2011). Thesis Statement! Q: Skills for Success 4 : Reading and Writing Oxford University.
Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages. agricultural science research (CAPE) What are the ipv6 thesis effects of low production on essay house farmers in the community of top hill St. Thomas? Objectives: To discover what are the factors . Ipv6 Transition Thesis! that contribute to poor production. To discover effects of poor production on farmers in the community of homework blog, top hill St.Thomas. To discover the solutions farmers use for poor production. Abstract To attain the information necessary for this research, some observation, and a personal interview was done with some farmers . Ipv6! In which they answered a series of questions. Agriculture , Crops , Effect 1274 Words | 13 Pages. enormous eye opener.
After learning about this I started thinking about amalfi coast travel essays, local producers and ipv6 the benefits of overall eating locally. I came to essay house realize that . eating locally is not only extremely healthy and better for you, but also is a great help to local farmers and ipv6 thesis the community. This is my explanation as to why fast food is statement no longer something I will eat, and transition how local food is overall a better option. In the movie Food Inc. there was lots of information given on how fast food corporations such as, McDonalds. Chicken , Farmer , Fast food 847 Words | 2 Pages. Centre for Language Study Pre-Sessional Course A 2013 WRITING TASK 4: Assessed Essay WRITING TASK 4 is your assessed essay . and you will need to write an essay of essay, 1200-1400 words. This is the same length as the essay in WRITING TASK 3. WRITING TASK 4 will form 80% of your mark for writing on the Pre-Sessional course. Please select a title from the list here: 1. Thesis! Discuss the impact a particular theory has had on your area of study in terms of homework blog, application, use and thesis limitations. 2. Explain the problems. Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages. food movement appears to hold some merit, but upon further research we find some major discrepancies with their claims.
Numerous scholarly articles . Essay House! contribute to my position that, locavorism is not a solution; in fact it is ipv6 quite the opposite. Essay! This essay will acknowledge and discuss the ineffectiveness of locavorism, along with the delusion that buying food locally can solve the world’s problems. Thesis! The local food movement has become popular over the last two decades with upper middle class Americans. Carbon footprint , Economics , Farmer 1103 Words | 3 Pages. genetically Modified seeds for farmers . Monsanto has been allowed to patent it genetically modified seeds making it possible to use lawsuits . to protect those patents. Monsanto representatives have been seeking out farmers for years with threats to sue them for patent infringement. Monsanto creates seeds which are resistant to its own creation Roundup, so a farmer who purchases Monsanto seeds can safely use Roundup for weed control without harming his crop. Traditionally farmers would collect seeds from. Agriculture , Business ethics , Ethics 890 Words | 3 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . George Essays Such Such The Joys! Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the word ‘hate’ in the Heian era.
Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on honesty and transparency of ipv6 thesis, a situation? “Hateful Things” is an opinionated extract from the travel essays book “Pillow Talk” written by Sei Shonagon. Transition Thesis! Pillow Talk is a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by Shonagon. Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. trying to types know everyone in transition the class. After that here comes the types big turn, homework and writing essays . Transition Thesis! I have never written an . Thesis Statement Death Paper! essay in my life while I was living in ipv6 transition India.
It was really hard for me to write down our thought on the given assignment. My English is not good and grammar is worse. I was really afraid of writing, I didn’t want to tell anyone. Homework Blog! I missed my first essay due date and even second essay due date. After some days Mrs. Danielo called me in ipv6 thesis her office during office hours.
She told. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages. would work the farms and produce supplies to feed their families and community. Enclosures were the greatest and most controversial change in agriculture. . Enclosures meant putting a boundary around animals or crops which were more efficient for dolls house the farmers but disrupted the local people often resulting in them being evicted. There were different types of enclosures but most caused dispute and was problematic for ipv6 the government. The different types of enclosures and how they caused problems can be seen. Agriculture , Change , Enclosure 792 Words | 3 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by someone who is culturally literate. Essay Dolls House! Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. Thesis! For . example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate. For your first essay , try to focus on a moment or a period in your life when you realized the significance of being literate in this fashion.
Did you have trouble using a computer to death penalty paper register for transition classes? Did you fit into a subculture because you learned to speak its. Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is often judged within the first few sentences. Writing Template! Just as . the news tries to stimulate our fears by announcing a “danger in ipv6 our water supply,” a writer must try to bring the reader from his or her world into the world of the essay . This is done with a few choice words at the beginning of the essay : the infamous hook. It is not easy to essay house think of how to make someone want to read an transition thesis essay about statement death, a novel.
It’s not even easy to. Essay , Good and evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. Farming Farming Name: Date: Subject: School: Name: Date: Subject: School: Jahvor Mitchell What are the problems affecting peasant . farmers in ipv6 transition thesis Whithorn, Westmoreland Jamaica and what is amalfi travel being done to resolve these problems. Jahvor Mitchell What are the problems affecting peasant farmers in transition thesis Whithorn, Westmoreland Jamaica and dolls what is being done to ipv6 transition thesis resolve these problems. INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION This SBA was researched to provide Information to the readers about peasant. Agriculture , Deforestation , Farm 967 Words | 4 Pages. and its scalabilty, ITC launched e-Choupal - a knowledge portal providing farmers with a range of information and amalfi services. Designed to enable . them to transition thesis bargain collectively and enhance their transactive power, e-Choupal became the essay writing template much needed and easily adoptable tool farmers had been waiting for. Today e-Choupal is a vibrant and rapidly growing zone of ipv6 transition, business and interaction for over 4 million farmers . Today 4 million farmers use e-Choupal to advantage - bargaining as virtual buyers' co-operatives. Farmer , India , Productivity 1070 Words | 4 Pages.
their economy. Patchouli oil from Aceh is the best one in Indonesia, but the growers don't get a great income because the drama dolls brokers buy it from them with a . low price. in transition thesis November 2010, the price is achieved more than Rp.1.000.000 per liter, but the farmers just get Rp. 250.000 per liter from the brokers. If we can promote this patchouli oil to international market and built up the network to other countries, then we can export it without selling it first to the brokers, so the price can be more reasonable. Aceh , Calang , Farmer 808 Words | 3 Pages. across the United States are enjoying healthier food grown by local farmers ; and drama essay dolls house farmers are reaping better returns and helping . to ipv6 thesis revitalize rural and urban communities by selling close to homework blog home instead of through distant markets. Transition Thesis! Local marketing has expanded beyond farmers ’ markets and farmlands, although these are still popular and the number of US farmers ’ markets is growing rapidly. New regional supply networks are linking farmers with their customers in innovative ways and taking advantage of opportunities. Agriculture , Department store , Farmer 625 Words | 3 Pages. Sector 1. Mr.
Pesales (Father of farmer who was killed) Farmers or Rural poor sector Death of his son, lack of justice . Investigate the thesis paper death of his son, Human rights violation Low influence, has potential power if he unites and works with farmers ’ group 2. Col. Tabora Philippine government; Philippine military Men accused of violating human rights Farmers accusations are false; all propaganda Influential in community; has force of arms 1. Erning de Castro Farmer tenants; Sharecroppers; Peasants. Farmer , Human rights , Justice 681 Words | 1 Pages. of atmosphere, which is clogged with pollutants and other substances from transition forest fires. Thesis! The haze is direct effect of forest fire in Kalimantan due to ipv6 transition thesis slash . and burn method of essay personality, farming. The Indonesian authorities appear to have no power to control farmers from transition practicing by most Malaysian. Open-field burning of rice straw by the rice planters and open burning of dried leaves and coast essays garbage done by the public are a few examples that done by Malaysian. Many are ignorant of the transition thesis health effects of open burning. Air pollution , Bibliography , Citation 537 Words | 3 Pages.
very little input into writing template how it is dispersed thorough out the world. The reality was that farmers who grew the crop to ipv6 feed others were . basically on the verge of economic collapse. The small farmers were fighting with the homework blog large corporations, who were driving up the cost of the commodities needed by ipv6 the small farmers to grow and produce crops and george such such the joys livestock. One farmer shared how he was a fourth generation farmer and how the farm had been with his family all this time, and not only was he challenged. Economics , Farmer , Globalization 864 Words | 3 Pages. THE IMPACT OF GLOBILIZATION ON THE MANUFACTURING OF SUGAR CANE RUM INDUSTRY IN DOMINICA. noted in component #1 of the respective assignment. Questionnaire: Fifteen five (15) surveys were conducted, with respondents selected from the larges. . Ipv6! The selected parishes mentioned have the greatest proportion of farm land and active working farmers , which will thus give a more accurate measure of the farming population. Ten (10) men and five (5) women, totaled that questionnaire respondents. Writing Template! Interview: Five (5) informal interviews via telephone were conducted due to ipv6 transition the respective individual’s.
Agricultural economics , Agriculture , Cost-benefit analysis 1306 Words | 3 Pages. Agricultural Mechanization: a Sustainability Tool for National Food Security. security. This paper discus the essay personality problem facing developing country food security with regards to agricultural production in relationship with peasant . farmers that produces 90% of food. Ipv6! Application of Agricultural mechanization is examined as a means of sustaining developing nations as regards to food security problems. Key words-Poverty, Peasant farmer , food security and Infrastructural amenities. INTRODUCTION Poverty is very severe in some of the developing country, most especially in. Agricultural machinery , Agriculture , Farmer 1742 Words | 7 Pages. ?KUSOM Report on Small Farmer Summit 2014 Prashant Shrestha (14134) MBA Fall 2014 1. Main Objective : Small Farmer . Summit 2014 held on 2nd and 3rd of November, 2014 was conducted to convene the essay parties who are involved and transition thesis concerned to develop Nepal’s rural communities financially and socially. It gave a common platform to all the homework blog general Nepali agencies and ipv6 thesis representatives of different rural areas to participate and contribute in the common goal of building strong grassroots level institution. Agriculture , Economic development , Farmer 1233 Words | 5 Pages.
Marketing plays a very important role for farmers in the federation of St. Kitts and Nevis. Marketing provides ways for farmers . to get their products sold regularly. To what extent marketing affect the farmers of Old Road community? (1) Abstract The researcher plans to question local farmers in the Old Road community by the uses of questionnaires. The researcher’s goal is to highlight how the absent of a good marketing facility is a huge problems to the farmers in Old Road. Having a marketing facility. Community , Customer relationship management , Farmer 1700 Words | 7 Pages. benefits.
V. Areas of essay, Consideration | ANALYSIS | IMPLICATIONS | Strengths | 1. Trade directly with democratically organized small . farmer cooperatives 2. Money from Fair Trade help build schools, day care centers and carpentry workshops 3. Provides high-quality food products | 1. With this, businesses owned and governed by thesis the farmers themselves. Decisions are made within the co-op, on homework blog their terms. 2. Equal Exchange never fails to ipv6 thesis make a difference to every individual around. Business cycle , Coffee , Fair trade 801 Words | 4 Pages. agricultural sector in the 1990s can be characterized as fragmented with a fragile infrastructure. The mode of operation especially, soybean farming, has . remained unchanged since their early ancestors. Along with unchanged practice, most of India’s farmers are illiterate and dolls live in ipv6 thesis remote villages.
The ITC’s e-Choupal tackles the challenges posed by Indian agriculture to homework blog identify how to improve the inefficient supply chain of agricultural goods. Ipv6 Transition! ITC is a multi divisional company and essay writing it had identified. Agriculture , Echoupal , Farmer 1781 Words | 5 Pages. strategy sheet • Note book/ pad • Clipboard • Measuring tape • Camera • Clinometer or protractor • Meter ruler Students will . form groups of four and conduct data collection. This will be achieved through interviewing the farmers , noting observations, conducting field measurements, drawing sketches and taking photographs. The Peasant Farm ? Farm location, size and setting 1. Describe the relief of the area – hilly, flat, gently sloping 2. Estimate the size of. Agriculture , Crop , Crops 544 Words | 5 Pages.
Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an ipv6 transition author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of george orwell essays such were the joys, elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of ipv6, daily life, recollections, and reflections of the amalfi travel essays author. Almost all modern essays are written in transition thesis prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. REPORT ON EFFECTS OF DROUGHT ON FARMERS IN KUNENE REGION 1. INTRODUCTION This report has been written because of drought in Kunene region. . This report was requested by Mrs. Liyamine (EAP lecturer) on 25 March 2013. The aim of essay, this report is to find out the effects of drought on farmers in transition thesis the region mention above. This report examines effects of drama, drought on farmer’s livestock, foods and crop production, economy or income, children and education in ipv6 transition Kunene region. Kunene region has a total population. Agriculture , Farmer , Government 997 Words | 4 Pages.
crops and rearing of essay, animals on transition a small scale. Peasant farmers are found in markets selling produce and are also found in rural areas. George Essays Such Were The Joys! They . Ipv6 Thesis! have small farming equipment mostly manual tools. Peasant Farmers face more problems with crop infestations, pests and diseases and massive loss of crops and animals. They use simple agricultural products to aid in essay template the plant’s growth. Most of today's farmers are peasant farmers . The peasant farmer practiced mixed farming.
This is growing of two or more. Acre , Agriculture , Farmer 1014 Words | 7 Pages. with rural farmers for procurement of agricultural / aquaculture produce like soybeans, wheat, coffee, and prawns. e Choupal was conceived to . tackle the challenges posed by transition thesis the unique features of Indian agriculture, characterized by fragmented farms, weak infrastructure and the involvement of numerous intermediaries. A powerful illustration of essay template, corporate strategy linking business purpose to larger societal purpose, e-Choupal leverages the Internet to empower small and marginal farmers – who constitute. Echoupal , Farmer , ITC Limited 1129 Words | 4 Pages. may do some of the primary processing, or they may collect together sufficient quantities of coffee from many individual farmers to ipv6 transition transport . or sell to a processor, another intermediary, or to writing template a dealer. There may be as many as five intermediary links in the chain • processors - individual farmers who have the equipment to process coffee, or a separate processor, or a farmers , co-operative that pools resources to buy the equipment • government agencies - in ipv6 transition some countries the government controls. Caffeine , Coffea , Coffee 1690 Words | 7 Pages.
of Starbucks employees in coffee. He gained responsibility in 2005 by becoming responsible for all of their global coffee procurement. He travels to . different regions which grow coffee all over the world, building relationships with generations of farmers (Promoting Sustainability in thesis statement paper the Coffee Industry, 2012). Management is defined as the pursuit of transition thesis, organizational goals efficiently and effectively (Kinicki amp; Williams, 2009). How does Dub Hay show this? He thinks before he acts, gathers information. Coffee , Entrepreneurship , Farmer 1239 Words | 4 Pages. With the Burgeoning pressure to feed more mouths; how sound is the health of the Ugandan farmer ? A friend of mine, a rural . Types! farmer from ipv6 transition thesis eastern Uganda once told me “for the essay last one year I have been begging my wife to give me at least another child but she has refused.” This farmer already has eight children and he was so quick to quote the bible, saying that God tells us to produce and fill the world. Such cultural practices and more, explain the apparent 3.4 % annual population growth rate and.
Agriculture , Farmer , Government 925 Words | 3 Pages. proletariat as the ipv6 thesis majority of the Russian population was peasants. So under the advice of Stolypin the tsar made more timely concession, the first of these . was that he de-revolutionised the drama essay house peasantry by thesis cancelling the mortgages payments which meant farmers would begin to farm more efficiently meaning more food would be brought into the cities so it would therefore help solve starvation in Russia. This meant the peasants had more loyalty towards the tsar because they didn’t have mortgage repayments to. Coup of June 1907 , Farmer , Nicholas II of Russia 874 Words | 3 Pages. other countries, or even outsource their work to other countries. Unfortunately, because of this, our own small farmers are suffering, which . means more jobs are lost. On top of that, when you buy from a chain supermarket, an average of eighty-two cents per dollar goes to middlemen, while only eighteen cents per dollar goes to the actual grower of the homework blog crop.
Let's help our local farmers and cut out the ipv6 thesis middleman! You may have heard the homework blog expression “But local and support yourself.” This means you are. Cattle , Chain store , Farmer 1178 Words | 3 Pages. considered the thesis most water efficient in the world. Cox Inall Communications produced the Good Neighbours Campaign in 1999 for the Australian Cotton Industry . in order to implement the amalfi coast travel Best Management Practices (BMP) for cotton growers. It has educated farmers and changed practices and perceptions towards cotton production for the benefit of the transition environment and the cotton industry. In the late 1990s, Australian cotton growers were subject to george orwell such were continuing criticism due to the impacts cotton production has.
Australia , Best management practice for ipv6 transition thesis water pollution , Best practice 1931 Words | 6 Pages. especially when the drama essay dolls house plants he cultivated was in transition its peak season and ready for harvest from several weeks of untiring efforts. The heat of the sun is not the . Homework Blog! reason to stop working. Using a cap to shield him from it as he continued his life being a farmer and ipv6 transition thesis the hope of his family that the crop they planted can give them good fortune. The vegetables he raised in statement penalty paper portion of his land gave them enough food to last for many months without depending on buying some vegetables and fruits in the market.
All. Agriculture , Crop , English-language films 910 Words | 3 Pages. revolution began in the 1970's in Malaysia. It was brought about by an advance in technology, a new form of high yielding seeds. These new seeds led to the . ability to double crop, or have more than one crop yield per ipv6 transition, season.
Also, many of the orwell essays such were the joys large farmers opted to bring in combine harvesters to ipv6 thesis increase the speed at which they could harvest, making it easier for them to double crop. These new technologies may seem economically beneficial to all if viewed by the untrained observer. However, those. Agricultural machinery , Agriculture , Combine harvester 1453 Words | 4 Pages. peasant farmers in Somerset, St.Thomas. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This SBA has served as a great learning experience and as such, . Drama Essay! gratitude is expressed to those who helped me tremendously in completing it. Deep gratitude is also expressed to my mother, who provided all the necessary supplies needed to complete this project. Ipv6 Transition! PRESENTATION OF DATA Peasant farming is the cultivation of land on a small scale .Most Caribbean peasant farmers work hard.
Agriculture , Farm , Farmer 716 Words | 10 Pages. REQUIREMENT AND DISCRIPTION The Sole Proprietor Project is composed of one owner that will run the activities of the amalfi coast essays Sweet Corn Farming proposed in . Zamboanga City. The Sole Proprietor Project is composed of the following Owner as a Manager, Tenant, Farmers and Driver. Table 16 shows the qualifications of different jobs, duties and responsibilities and salary per month. Table POSITION REQUIREMENTS MININUN QUALIFICATION DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES MONTHLY SALARY Agricultural Tenancy 1. NBI Clearance. Driver , Farmer , Human resource management 940 Words | 7 Pages.
agriculture made an essential contribution to Stalin’s transformation of the Russian economy? Collectivisation was a policy first introduced in ipv6 transition thesis 1929 with the drama dolls house . Thesis! aim of merging many small privately owned farm lands into one large collective farm where all the farmers would work together to produce a greater yield. Stalin hoped for essay dolls house three main economic benefits from the policy; urbanisation, an increase in grain exports and ipv6 more efficient farming accompanied with mechanisation. Essay Template! Although these three goals were eventually. Collective farming , Economy , Farmer 998 Words | 2 Pages. Egypt : The People Approximately 32,500,000 people live in thesis Egypt. Peasant farmers called fellahin make up over 60 percent of the . population. Drama Essay! But less than 4 percent of Egypt's land is suitable for farming. Before the leaders of the 1952 revolution introduced land reform, less than 2 percent of the landowners owned half of the land available for farming.
Most of the fellahin were tenants or owned very tiny farms. A man who owned 3 to 5 acres was considered well-off. Now no one is. Egypt , Egyptians , Farmers 1044 Words | 3 Pages. at Cram.com Upgrade | Hi Iamsiddha.
Get Access to StudyMode.com - Complete Your Registration Now. StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays , . Term Papers Book Notes Essays Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Essay On Eye Donation Wikipedia Essays and Term Papers Search Advanced Search Documents 1 - 20 of transition thesis, 47 Laser Eye Surgery Research essay Laser eye surgery Laser eye surgery The eye is the organ of sight. Homework Blog! It is used in transition almost everything we do, from playing sport to reading. Critical theory , Essay , Essays 1151 Words | 6 Pages.
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How This Simple Resume Model and Career Portfolio Example Landed a Dream Job. Need a resume makeover? See the before and after of a resume transformation. Use this powerfully simple resume model and ipv6 thesis career portfolio as your guide. The days of slapping together a resume and essay writing template getting results long gone. The days of transition thesis, just having a resume are pretty much over thesis statement paper, as well. Meet Ken Cordova. As he finished his master’s degree, he wanted to put himself out there to explore new career opportunities. His problem? His resume. Here’s his resume before:
Here’s his powerfully simple resume after: Ken went through a resume transformation. He developed a simple resume and career portfolio to land his dream job. I’ll walk you though how you can do the transition, same. Ken supplemented his resume with a great career portfolio. It took some time and effort, but it quickly paid off as he soon landed a dream job. In fact, he turned down interviews at one point. I’ll walk you through what Ken did to build this simple resume model and career portfolio example. Essay Writing? As I always say, simple is hard.
I’ll keep it as easy as possible for you and show you how to replicate these as well as the transition, tools he used. Even if you aren’t in the job market, I still recommend you keep your resume updated and build a career portfolio. At some point, you’ll likely need both. Don’t wait until that time to start frantically building them. Components of a Powerfully Simple Resume Model. Recruiters and hiring managers are scan readers. They need to check a ton of essay types, resumes in a short time so they skim most of them. Ipv6 Thesis? If something catches their attention, they’ll actually read the resume, which drastically increases your chances of a first interview. The resume content and amalfi travel keywords are important but scannability is critical. If you can’t get a hiring manager’s attention, great content gets you nowhere.
The importance of content comes to play after you’ve caught their attention. So what do you do? Rethink your resume design by understanding how people initially scan a web page. Without knowing the science of how people read web content, which version of Ken’s resume would you be more likely to transition, read? Remember, you have hundreds of resumes to go through in drama essay dolls, a short period. What makes a simple resume powerful? How easy it is to visually scan. Not only is the new, simple resume more visually appealing, it’s also easier to scan. Ipv6? Here’s the science behind it.
Content is organized in personality types, an ‘F’ formation. Although it might sound odd to design a simple resume as a web page, hiring managers use the same approach as people use to scan a website. According to a Nielson Group study, people quickly scan web content in an F-shape pattern. Transition Thesis? After the scan, they decide if they commit to homework blog, reading the content in more detail. Now doesn’t this sound like the typical hiring manager approach I just described? Hiring managers scan content like users scan content on a web page before deciding to commit. Ken’s more simple resume makes it easy to scan the content.
The GIF image below simulates for transition you a hiring manager quickly flipping through resumes. Click on it to activate it. Click on the image to george such such, activate an animation that simulates a hiring manager quickly flipping through resumes. Which one would make you stop? Visually, which one is ipv6 most appealing and stands out most? Ken’s simple resume is easy to scan.
As you design your resume, make it easy to scan. Ken’s resume is easy to scan and digest the content. Given the ‘F’ pattern, here is how a typical person scan’s his resume: This resume model is easy to scan which makes a commitment to penalty, reading more likely. The first scan is likely to go from left-to-right. His picture is at ipv6 thesis the end, which catches attention and travel continues the scan.
You might try putting a headline with this first scan as well. Ipv6 Transition? Keep this section as simple as possible as to not overwhelm the reader. Scan 2 and 3 can go either way. Homework Blog? Likely, there is ipv6 a slight scan down to the left and then off to the right. That second scan catches keywords such as: If you were hiring someone for a leadership position, wouldn’t you want to keep reading after quickly scanning those words?
He made great use of not only the keywords but the personality, placement of them based on ipv6 transition how people scan a resume. Depending on george orwell essays were where scan 2 started, the third scan is slower (especially based on the resume keywords and placement). Ipv6 Transition Thesis? This is where commitment to finish reading his resume happens. Visually organized resume content. Ken’s more simple resume is visually organized. Essay Writing? This makes the ipv6 transition thesis, content easier to read and digest. Once the scanning stops, the reader has to decide if it is going to be ‘easy to read.’ This resume model is organized into three sections. Much like a website header, this resume header gives a visual sign of order and essay writing template a quick overview.
The picture is a powerful way for someone to put a person to the page. Ken’s resume model makes effective use of a sidebar that is visually separated by the background color. The information has great keywords and ipv6 thesis summary information for anyone scanning this content. He further separates the content into sections with headers. Easy to scan and coast travel easy to transition, digest.
Ken separates the amalfi travel essays, main content with a white background. He further organizes content with separators. Although there is plenty of content here, it appears brief and ipv6 easy to read thanks to the visual organization. Ken uses the action-result formula for his resume structure instead of simply listing tasks. He quickly tells a story of the value he brings to the business. Tools resources to build this simple resume. For developing content, keywords and organizing this resume model, Ken used a collection of writing, resume strategies I developed. He also didn’t rush it.
He took his time and went through each part thoroughly. As a part of the toolkit, Ken discovered hundreds of templates at transition thesis Canva. He used a combination of the pre-designed templates. The service and templates are free. I also have a list of essay writing template, other free templates in thesis, a resume development toolkit chapter on amalfi coast travel resume design and transition customization.
I list lots of options there! So the question that many of you are probably asking is: How did he fit 20+ years of experience on a one-page resume? He didn’t and you don’t need to either. Pick the most recent and relevant experience based on your position targets.
Ken made fantastic use of a supplemental professional career portfolio. Here’s how he did it and why you should do it too. Career and essay house Professional Portfolio Example. With the ipv6, latest trends in talent acquisition moving to essay writing template, digital, people want to know you before they meet you. The first thing people will do is Google you. Make sure they immediately find the right information. A career portfolio is a digital display of transition thesis, your professional experience and accomplishments. Homework Blog? Professional portfolios range in length from a single page to a thousand-page website that includes case studies, references and visual galleries (especially for photographers). Most people hear ‘website’ and think ‘I. It’s not difficult.
I’ll show you a simple way of creating a simple but powerful career portfolio. Why is a career portfolio important when looking for work? When someone types your name into a search bar, the displayed results are called SERP (Search Engine Result Page). The more authoritative web properties associated with your name, the more information displayed in your SERP. Here is the transition, SERP for homework blog Kris Fannin as an thesis example: A career and professional portfolio will increase your exposure, authority, and SERP when people search for you.
Why does your SERP matter? Because I guarantee people will search for you while looking for essay personality work. A career portfolio helps them find what they want and learn more about you as a person and a professional. Additionally, a professional portfolio provides you exposure even when you aren’t looking for a job. It brings opportunities to you and not you chasing opportunities down in transition, a reactive way. Career portfolios are not just a copy and paste of your resume, although they should contain your resume. Ken did an excellent job of developing a simple yet powerful portfolio together. He used the Wix platform for building and hosting his site. The current version of personality types, Ken’s portfolio can be found here.
He had never built a website before, although you wouldn’t know that looking at it. At the end of ipv6 transition thesis, this section, I’ll give you some other options to build yours. Let’s walk through the sections and content so you can use a similar format. Career portfolio ‘Home’ and introduction page. Use this section to essays, give a brief introduction and catch their attention. Be professional and personable. A career portfolio is a perfect complement to a scannable, simple resume. Just under the introduction, Ken provides a CTA (Call to Action) to learn more about him. Include a simple contact form and transition link to your active social profiles as well.
Career portfolio ‘About Me’ – be human. This is an area to let people know the drama essay dolls house, value you bring as a professional. Notice – and this is very important – Ken did NOT just copy and paste the ipv6 thesis, content of george such such, his resume. He gives a short overview of his career, what he’s looking for and personal traits that make him successful. He has another CTA that invites the thesis, user to explore his resume. He includes some personal information below, which I highly recommend. Why? Hiring managers are looking for an organizational culture fit. They want to know more than your skills and experience.
They want to know you as a person. This is also an opportunity to connect with a potential employer as a human – not just a resume. Seriously? How could you NOT start to like Ken after seeing and reading this? Make sure your career portfolio includes some personal content. It helps to connect with the george essays the joys, person reading it and transition thesis makes you an actual human. Career portfolio ‘Resume’ and ‘Skills’ sections.
Ken broke these into two different pages, and there is a reason. First, he has a page with his resume content. Notice, it is not exactly the same as his actual resume which is key. Be slightly more descriptive. He also added a video background to the header of the essays such, page. Thesis? Because this content can be more ‘dry,’ this is a great strategy to engage a user immediately. He then takes it a step further by adding a ‘Skills’ page.
Why did he separate the homework blog, two? Because he made it conversational. It has great wording and visuals and further builds his ‘case’ to a potential employer. Make your career portfolio conversational and appealing. Ipv6 Transition Thesis? Ken added a separate ‘Skills’ page to his portfolio which further engages a potential employer and thesis death penalty builds his case.
Career portfolio ‘Education’ and ipv6 transition ‘Contact’ sections. Although rather straightforward, these are important sections for a professional portfolio. You might be tempted to put them on one page, but I recommend you separate them. Separate sections allow you to go into more detail. Additional sections to consider for statement death paper your career portfolio. Although not included in Ken’s, some extra content and ipv6 transition thesis sections to consider adding to your portfolio include: Video or a video introduction . What better way for someone to ‘get to know you’ than a video introduction? If you decide to include one, I would put it on essay writing template the first page.
These aren’t difficult to make. Just dress professionally and fire up your webcam. FAQ section . What questions do potential employers ask you? What are some unusual questions you’ve been asked in an interview that you are confident you answered well? Include them in an FAQ section! You could also answer each question on video. Transition? Take a look at Intelivate’s FAQ section for ideas on how to organize them. Alternatives to a dedicated website.
If you don’t want to build a dedicated site, here are a couple of writing, great alternatives. All three have free and premium products. You have just about everything you need to ipv6 transition thesis, build a great, simple resume and career portfolio. I know it can be overwhelming, so take it one step at drama house a time. Bookmark this and come back to it as you start each part. Remember, even if you aren’t in the job market, please do both of these proactively now before you ‘need’ them later. At the least, you’ll open the ipv6, door to homework blog, new opportunities. I know I gave you a lot of ipv6, information here. If you have any questions, don’t hesitate to let me know over on Twitter or Facebook. I’d love to homework blog, connect as well! Don’t forget to subscribe above to get more business and career insights delivered directly to you.
Related solutions to help you with your resume and ipv6 thesis career portfolio. Life After the Interview Rejection Letter – Can You Still Get an Offer? Effective Collaboration By Streamlining Your Internal Communication Tools. 10 Reasons a Coworker is Likely Your BFF. Headquartered in Tampa, Florida, Intelivate’s B2B consulting services, employee training programs, career solutions and essays digital marketing services build the business, team, and career of your dreams.
Whichever solution is right for you, working with us, you won’t get a linear or a flat approach but, instead, a three-dimensional strategy that addresses the core of your challenge.