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blogger essay Nicholas Handler, is a junior at Yale University majoring in history. Handler is active in howto make a resume, social justice organizations and hopes to become a human rights lawyer. I never expected to gain any new insight into the nature of my generation, or the really essays changing landscape of howto make a resume, American colleges, in Lit Theory. My Three Essay? Lit Theory is supposed to be the class where you sit at howto make, the back of the room with every other jaded sophomore wearing skinny jeans, thick-framed glasses, an ironic tee-shirt and really essays over-sized retro headphones, just waiting for howto lecture to be over so you can light up a Turkish Gold and walk to lunch while listening to Wilco. That#8217;s pretty much the way I spent the course, too: through structuralism, formalism, gender theory, and post-colonialism, I was far too busy shuffling through my iPod to sliding control, see what the patriarchal world order of capitalist oppression had to do with Ethan Frome.
But when we began to study postmodernism, something struck a chord with me and made me sit up and look anew at the seemingly blase college-aged literati of which I was so self-consciously one. Letter: Fortunately, College Has Changed. This is in howto make a resume, regard to your college essay contest that took place last year. The essay entitled Fortunately, College Has Changed by Matthew Bender from the University of Arkansas has several factual errors and insinuations. Then entire first and second paragraphs are neither chronologically or factually correct. Essay? How do I know that there are errors? Because I am Mervin Jebaraj, the person referred to in the opening paragraph.
1. Make A Resume? A committee of essays, students wrote the actual text of a proposed bill not a note. The idea began in November of 2007 and not in the spring. 2. There was no staying up all night, and there was no on campus bbq. The committee obtained a meeting with Sen. Madison after a lot of work and didn#8217;t just pass a note to her. The committee also spent months working with her and howto make a resume other legislators. to see the resolution passed.
We don#8217;t appreciate the trivialising narrative of topics, our work. 3. The resolution never asked for the creation of socially aware investments, the options already existed. 4. The conference I went to was well after the divestment process and was to share ideas about divestment with others as opposed to receiving inspiration for divestment. 5. There is an a resume, implication that I was skinny dipping and smoking marijuana in Belize. Neither is true. My Three? I hold the New York times in the highest regard and hope that you will take this seriously. In the howto a resume future, I hope you check the. veracity of flash pda thesis, statements made before you publish them. Mervin Jebaraj, Research Assistant, Center for Business and Economic Research.
Liz Addison , 38, is a biology major whose goal is to howto, become a large animal veterinarian. She has trained a winning racehorse and is interested in American presidential history. Biogrph? Oh, the hand wringing. #8220;College as America used to understand it is coming to an end,#8221; bemoans Rick Perlstein and his beatnik friend of howto, fallen face. Those days, man, when a pretentious reading list was all it took to lift a child from suburbia. When jazz riffs hung in the dorm lounge air with the smoke of a thousand bongs, and college really mattered. Really mattered?
Rick Perlstein thinks so. It mattered so much to him that he never got over my three passions, his four years at a resume, the University of Privilege. Good Essays? So he moved back to live in its shadow, like a retired ballerina taking a seat in the stalls. But when the a resume curtain went up he saw students working and studying and working some more. Adults before their time. Biogrph? Today, at the University of Privilege, the student applies with a Curriculum Vitae not a book list.
Shudder. Frankie Thomas , is a junior majoring in cinema-television critical studies, with a minor in howto make a resume, gender studies. Her immediate plans include dropping out at the end of the year to write and/or travel. Essaycontest Com? She is a film maker and a blogger, with interests ranging from the social history of the Victorian era to birdwatching to the novels of Dawn Powell. I had the make kind of college experience most people only dream about. Charged by the atmosphere of intellectual exploration, inspired by professors who pushed me farther than I#8217;d ever imagined I could go, I made fascinating new friends at Skidmore; together we discovered Nabokov and Kafka, Citizen Kane and Dr. Strangelove, and our own literary voices. It was a three-week summer program. I was fifteen.
Now I#8217;m twenty, halfway toward graduating from University of Southern California, and if I had a thousand dollars for sliding control thesis every college student I know who Struggles With Depression#8230;well, I still wouldn#8217;t have enough money to pay my full tuition. But it would keep me going for a semester or two, assuming I didn#8217;t lose my own struggle and drop listlessly out. As our SATs would have put it, #8220;depression#8221; is to #8220;college campus#8221; as #8220;consumption#8221; is to #8220;Victorian orphanage,#8221; and ours is a generation of wheezing waifs. Max Lance , 23, is a freshman at USC#8217;s School of make, Cinematic Arts, majoring in writing for film and television. He hopes to make his mark either with a #8220;life-changing TV show#8221; or by #8220;marrying someone rich.#8221; When I dropped out of my three passions, college three years ago I would have completely agreed that college isn#8217;t the cultural experience that it was hyped up to be.
As I return this September, I#8217;ve realized that it#8217;s a good thing it isn#8217;t. I completely agree that college as America used to know it has come to an end, but I believe that schools have changed for the better. The problem I had when I quit school the first time around was that I never adjusted to how schools have changed. I dropped out because of my mislaid expectations; the same ones that Rick Perlstein is nostalgic for. I#8217;m going back to school because I#8217;ve realized what the college experience is make a resume, like today and I#8217;m now more than prepared to abuse it. Like nearly everyone in my graduating class, I attended higher education because that#8217;s what we did next. College seemed more like 13th grade rather than a place where I would be opened up to radical people and ways of thinking. I spent my freshman and sophomore years doing what I needed to do to essay, get good grades because that#8217;s all I had done since kindergarten. And even though I worked hard to earn a 3.7 GPA, I dropped out of New York University because of a complete lack of passion for howto what I was studying (journalism, via process of elimination). Travis Weinger , 21, is a senior majoring in history, with a concentration in war, revolution and social change.
His minor is political science. He is a founder of the Triton, a newspaper at UCSD, and really essays of the Symposium, an on-campus discussion group. Rick Perlstein#8217;s article, boiled down, is simply an extended version of the make bitching that every generation hears from the flash pda thesis one that preceded it: #8220;Back when I went to howto a resume, school, we walked uphill in the snow both ways#8230;#8221; In sum, college mattered back when Mr. Biogrph? Perlstein went to it because that was when he went to make a resume, it. Since college has changed from com, when he remembered it, he wants us to howto a resume, believe that it has somehow degenerated into irrelevance. The vast majority of flash gps macromedia pda thesis, Perlstein#8217;s complaints fit under the above rubric. Our college experience is not as liberating as his was (no longer can we simply phone public intellectuals and bully them into visiting our dorms). Howto Make A Resume? Our activists are not as radical as his were (we don#8217;t take over enough buildings). Our connection to the Sixties isn#8217;t as strong as his was (our band members aren#8217;t former revolutionaries). We are not as alienated from society as he was (we engage our world, not whine about it). Perlstein#8217;s claim that his experience was in some way both richer and harder than the next generation#8217;s is an old one, and flash is continuously echoed by every generation.
Like most complaints of howto, this type, it is largely groundless and essay mildly insulting. To respond to howto, it bit by bit would validate his nostalgic whining to a degree it does not deserve. Biogrph? The Cultural Contradictions of howto a resume, American Universities. Eng 102 Topics? For the past twenty to thirty years, we have seen the great degradation of post-secondary education. Conventional wisdom suggests that the problem lies simultaneously within the hands of the politicians and the students. This narrative does not account for the history of college. Throughout the modern age, the role college played in the national debate was minimal.
To this date, there has only been one president with a Ph.D., and both The New Deal and make Truman#8217;s Fair Deal did relatively little for college and education in general (with the exception of the my three passions essay G.I. Bill). And even today, most candidates on both sides of the howto make a resume isle have the same prescription for college: the problem is lack of funding, therefore, the sliding mode thesis solution is to increase funding. It usually ends at that. Make? In order to find the topics true crisis of college, we must first look at its true purpose. A few months ago, Charles Murray wrote a controversial series of make, columns in the Wall Street Journal arguing, not that college had been written out of the national debate, but that its role is too great. Essentially, too many people are going to college who did not need college, but instead needed vocational training.
There are serious problems with his logic to my three passions, be sure, not the least of which is his obvious IQ-ism. While it is make, true that college is in need of some serious reforming, focusing solely on IQ will not solve them, for IQ is not the only purpose of college. For example, there are, what a professor of mine called, #8220;latent overtones.#8221; That is, those unexpected, and essaycontest com unintended consequences of college learning. For example, one might discover a great philosopher that he#8217;s never heard of, or another collegiate finds that they enjoy a field of howto, study which they did not expect. But this is, of flash pda thesis, course, part of the intellectual journey of students. College exists not, as conventional wisdom suggests, to change the culture. It exists to create a new breed of intellectuals. All politics aside, students should exit college not knowing simply what to think, but how to think.
This is where Mr. Murray and I agree. He hits the nail on the head when he describes the purpose of college, that college is created to train the elites to howto a resume, do their jobs. However, this purpose has been lost in a quagmire of gps macromedia, watered-down curricula and howto make fluff courses. And this brings us to eng 102 essay topics, the real problem of college: the searing anti-intellectualism of the youth.
Education is the single most important factor in the growth of our country. Specifically, higher education paves a future and provides opportunity for make students that attend college and gives them a shot at a career. 50 years ago, college was strictly for the elite, high class Americans. Now, it seems that every common household has at least one family member attend college. But with the increasing drop out rate today, students seem less interested in learning at college and their priorities change from their original goal of graduating. The importance of sliding mode thesis, education today is a growing factor because the howto a resume future of control, this country depends on howto make, the students in college today. College is misunderstood by many incoming freshman. All of the television advertisements and billboards encouraging students to attend college are used as bait to reel in student#8217;s tuition. Parents encourage their kids to attend college after graduating high school because they want to see their kids have a shot at gps macromedia pda thesis, success. Howto Make? However, college is not cut out for everyone.
More freshman than ever are dropping out after their first year because college can be overwhelming through everything that takes place within campus boundaries. The pressures of really good essays, college whether it#8217;s to impress parents or maintain a high GPA grasps hold of many students while they are in college, freezing them from work and attending class regularly. Back in the 50#8217;s and a resume 60#8217;s when college was becoming so popular, people attended college solely to improve their education and biogrph learn through the college experience, in hopes of obtaining a career after graduation. Now, people attend college because their friends or girlfriend go there. Howto? Many people attend college just to party as much as possible. College can be misleading for teenagers fresh out of com, high school, and people who feel that continuing their education isn#8217;t the most important factor in attending college should not apply. College matters because without a thoroughly educated society, America would fall to howto a resume, its knees and regress into essaycontest com deep depression. Jobs would flounder because the make a resume people applying for them wouldn#8217;t get accepted without college degrees. Pat Brown expanded university development in California in 1966 to passions, encourage people of howto, every social class to attend college and gain a higher education. The reason for his rapid expansion was because the good essays number of college students doubled from 1957 to 1967, and Brown decided in order to improve society and howto make a resume keep America running, more universities should be built to attract new students.
However, in 1997, only 54 percent of control thesis, students that attended college as freshmen graduated with a degree six years later, 30 percent not even finishing their freshman year. Once students enroll in college, dropping out howto make a resume is the worst decision they can make. The opportunity cost of dropping can be detrimental to a student#8217;s financial standing. Dropping out control also means dropping tuition, and students are often left with debt to a resume, pay off depending on which year they dropped out. Entering in a low paying job, drop outs must slowly pay back student loans, which is why college is so important to stick to and graduate once enrolled. The likelihood of students being able to my three essay, pay off student loans quickly after graduating is much greater than the likelihood of a drop out paying off loans. A Resume? Drop outs sometimes will only my three make enough money per paycheck to pay off previous college debts, not leaving any left over cash for leisure activities. Once choosing the decision to attend college, remaining in college is the a resume most important decision a student can make, in order to avoid living a below average lifestyle. My Three? Young adults are fed by change. No matter how resistant or welcoming I am to howto, change, when all is eng 102 essay topics, said and done change sustains me. Two years as an undergraduate student at Fordham University have been made slightly easier by knowing this about myself, because college means change.
Even with the still shrinking cyber community and the #8216;real world#8217; opportunities offered to many young people today, nothing can replace the howto make a resume rush of change attached to the college experience. College students are encouraged to make noise. When interviewed by Rick Perlstein for an article entitled #8216;What#8217;s the Matter With College#8221; students were very vocal. Hamilton Morris, a New York bred college student, described a college experience where many students hate school #8220;with a passion#8221; and #8220;don#8217;t leave#8221;. Perlstein writes that Morris#8217;s feelings are proof of a #8220;culture of flash, enervation#8221; which overwhelms many campuses today. Instead of seeing what Perlstein describes, students without hope or the will to pursue their studies, I see Morris as describing a culture of restlessness.
Students who claim to hate college but still do not leave are experiencing a kind of restlessness which comes with the make a resume package. Students experience change so quicklychanges of passions, opinions and biogrph interests. They are bound to become restless, especially when the howto off-campus world is within arm#8217;s length. I often smile to think the essay world is at my fingertips when I am surfing the internet, but the truth is my fingers are touching my keyboard, and I am planted in make a resume, my kitchen chair drinking Diet Coke. Com? College offers me the opportunity to shake hands with the leaders of business, art, science and medicinesomething the internet can not give me. College professors do not want students to be excited about school and theory alonethey want them to a resume, take their passion into the world beyond the campus. I am not writing this commentary for my school newspaper. I am writing it for eng 102 essay topics New York Times Magazine, a publication Journalism majors like me aspire to work for. College urges me to aspire, to voice my opinions, and yes, to howto make a resume, change. The problem with colleges in the 21st century is convoluted with many deciding factors, resulting in essay topics, a more complex position for current college students to experience, unlike any previous generation of college students. In my opinion, being a college graduate student and one who has been involved in my school, I can honestly say that the biggest problem with our generation is the sense of nihilism, which is plaguing the our very core of our being.
It is important to realize that this comes not only from make, college campuses, but the society in general; people just don#8217;t care. If they do care and want to be involved, societal pressures, mostly economic, is what keeps them from being invoked with the spirit of the previous generations. There seems to be no sense of urgency when it comes to our generation. Nihilism will do that to everyone. I also find it interesting that the people who do want to be involved do not necessarily know what to sliding mode control thesis, get involved with. In the 60s, it seemed to be clear cut what the problem was; racism, sexism, or the war in a resume, Vietnam. A contrast between the 60s generation and us now is that people do not what the pda thesis problems really are. Make A Resume? The mentality when speaking to college students; they seem to focus more on trying to get that 80K a year job then the socio-political issues affecting us. It is evident that we value the dollar more so than we value the biogrph human struggle.
So apathy also plays a role. It is important to realize that we must do something, otherwise everyone suffers. Sending your child to college is not an option in American society, and it#8217;s hardly a privilege at that. Make A Resume? In today#8217;s fierce and fast paced world it is a necessity For most parents, thought goes into how they will even fund such a venture within the first few months of the child#8217;s conception. College funds and savings bonds, money from relatives and graduation parties, this all gets stored until an entire portion of that funding goes towards expensive college visits. Not only essays does the child want to a resume, go to sliding mode thesis, college, that child has picked out 10 in which there is an orientation at each for prospective parents. They want to see where their money is going, as well as where their child will sleep, learn, and become the successful adult they were meant to be. What is wrong with college? As a successful student at a prominent Chicago school, I, for make one, have plenty of opinions on the matter. Let#8217;s look at #8220;our war#8221; by first taking a retrospective glance at Vietnam. My father, a student at the time of mode control thesis, Vietnam, was a conservative at a very conservative Indiana school.
He still wore his GDI shirt most days of the week and talked highly of the camaraderie between fellow students. Make? There were protests that were actually allowed on his campus. When the students died in the Kent incident he remembers rallies against the war in their honor. Com? He also remembers reading the names of the dead soldiers with the rest of his class, keeping in somber memory the howto fight his country was in. Bands of students were scared, there was a draft in effect. Com? Everyone had war on the mind and as those 18 year olds took on their first years of college, they had a lot more to worry about than where the weekend#8217;s keg party was taking place. They were learning, growing, and forming opinions on the world they were entering by knowing their current events and make a resume being passionate about biogrph them. Of course, without the internet, their local papers brought them more world events and less Lindsay Lohan. Being passionate about the make world takes a certain naivety that forms when someone does not already have the opinions of others so easily accessible. The internet has taken so much of passions, this away from current students. In my experience, you only have to make a choice on which websites to read.
Looking at our war today, many students walk away from it, choosing not even to recognize that it affects their daily world. There are many more cliques, many more places to make, falter, and many more reasons not to care. Hold a pen in front of you and look at it; notice its size and color in particular. Essays? Now, slowly move it away until you have your arm fully extended. Notice anything different? Probably not, and that is how it should be. If we remember back to howto a resume, middle school science class, color is partially dependent upon the angle that light hits an object. But we just moved an object, causing the angle to change from our perspective, and did not notice any change in color. The pen also moved further away without any apparent change in size. I forgot the intricate details that explain why this happens, something to do with a portion of the brain that keeps our perceptions fluid . What I do remember, and will never forget, is how cool this all seemed and essay topics how much more there is to the world when you get past the surface. College is a pretty different place today than it was for my parents thirty years ago.
Then again, so were the two worlds in howto, which we were raised. Most kids in my generation were not raised in the Sandlot. We did not hang out at the malt shop after school. And we definitely did not attend any sock hops (or if we did, best believe we did not call them that). Instead, we started out eng 102 playing on howto make, jungle gyms with woodchips and protective rubber flooring underneath. Biogrph? Eventually, we found ourselves being chauffeured to organized baseball practice, in a minivan. By high school, the importance of getting into a good college had been seared into us and serious attention had to howto, be allocated toward after-school activities and other kinds of enriching events to make sure that we were #8220;well- rounded#8221;. Essaycontest Com? Here#8217;s a fun game that anyone my age can play: ask your parents what they got on their SATs. If they can, you win! Basically, it is like hitting the howto lottery, since your parents have to be like one out of a million.
High school students in eng 102, the 60#8217;s did not pay $1,000 for an SAT class and definitely did not go to any Independent College Consultants. As Mr. Make A Resume? Perlstein stated, college was seen as a place sort of apart from the rest of the world. Kids went there and were met with new people, ideas, and situations. Back then, as I understand it, college was not seen as a stepping stone or a rung on the ladder. You did not go with the mindset that it was simply a means to end, a place to simply collect good grades and then experience the #8216;director#8217;s cut redux edition#8217; of college admissions in the form of graduate school, an internship or a job.
Why College Matters: A Response to #8220;What#8217;s the Matter With College#8221; I suppose I should begin by saying that I don#8217;t go to a real college. Mode Thesis? I mean, I don#8217;t feel like I go to a real college. I don#8217;t take real classes. I don#8217;t live on a real campus. I#8217;m a music major and howto attend the Peabody Institute in com, Baltimore, Maryland. Peabody is an established music conservatory, one of the howto make schools of Johns Hopkins University (despite what I say about sliding control thesis it not being a #8220;real#8221; school). In his essay, Perlstein is making it seem that today#8217;s college undergraduates and the ideals we pursue are somehow deficient.
That we#8217;re missing out. He#8217;s especially concerned that we#8217;re nothing like the students of the 60s and 70s. He#8217;s right about that, but that is nothing to be ashamed of. We#8217;re students who want (or carry) the iPhone. We are environmental activists.
We#8217;re more technologically savvy than Perlstein#8217;s generation. We get our information and communicate in a totally different way. Howto A Resume? We#8217;re amazing jugglers. We#8217;re a new breed. It is interesting to biogrph, read that the defining issue for the 1966 California gubernatorial race was college. For my sake, and I#8217;m sure for the sake of a lot of my peers, I wish it were still that way. College sounded romantic and fun. My friends argue that things have changed in the past 40 years, and that there are bigger fish to fry. The war, for example. Make? Making a living once college ends.
When they start complaining, however, about really good classes and stress, I ask them, #8220;aren#8217;t there bigger fish to fry?#8221; at make, which they sigh outwardly, roll their eyes, and throw their hands up in the air. Eng 102 Essay Topics? I understand where their frustration lies. Howto Make? We still feel young in flash pda thesis, the scheme of things, and not ready to plan out howto make a resume our lives after college. It feels like we#8217;ve been doing nothing but planning since freshman year of high school. Who has time to worry anyway? Right now, I am worrying if I have enough money to pay the rent this month. Many of my classmates worry how to pay for the next semester. To be honest, when it came to college, most of us never really had a choice. Where I grew up, in Greenwich, Connecticut, there was never the option of #8220;college vs. no college.#8221; The choice was #8220;Ivy League vs. state school,#8221; or something along those lines. The whole getting-ready-for-college experience was important. As you thumb these pages, reader, loyal subscriber, conscious citizen with an appetite for inquiry and thoughtfulness, or may I say fellow American, you tell yourself that you want to sample a young student#8217;s intellect.
Certainly I do believe that my own college experience has been important, even critical, to my life and to my thoughts here and now, but young and impressionable does not necessarily partner with a tame, meaningful sense of hindsight#8230; My college experience has fostered some growth. But for biogrph the nation? Lend me some relevance. Howto A Resume? Am I to accurately describe my confusion with you over coffee to tell you how this all breaks downI fit in the puzzle and I#8217;m one of the corners, right? Politics. We don#8217;t have movements, and we don#8217;t have causes. A choice between higher education and higher purpose has been made; show me one text message, fellow student, that you have wanted the whole country to really good essays, read.
Children live at school. Howto Make A Resume? Especially if they don#8217;t have much of a home life to live in the afternoon or evening, kids live and mode learn at school. Howto Make A Resume? College isn#8217;t so different, only first graders aren#8217;t expected to shape up all by themselves when they appear to be wasting time. Oh, college students aren#8217;t either? Pity. I guess higher education isn#8217;t all that important. Maybe the problems of higher education are just fronds atop a mirage of public schooling. Talk to Herbert Kohl, Jonathan Kozol, John Taylor Gatto, men who are trying to wake this country up, and they#8217;ll show you what#8217;s happening to flash pda thesis, my younger brothers and sisters. Content in the shade, college students loaf, while in more dangerous environs, under the pretext that they are to learn, children sit down in their desks each morning in the arms of a crumbling system. In college, we choose to sleep in, not to participate, excel, regress, etc.
If higher education is important to the nation, why don#8217;t more people act like it? Better yet, if education is so important to the nation#8217;s future, why is it neglected? Important as it is, I feel proud to remember the words of Thomas Jefferson, who often can remind us of politicians#8217; and howto a resume citizens#8217; true responsibilities: #8220;It is highly interesting to our country, and it is the duty of its functionaries, to sliding control thesis, provide that every citizen in it should receive an education proportioned to the condition and pursuits of his life.#8221; He speaks to the politician, tells him to take a good look at his fellow Americans. What sort of education will he provide to match the condition, the quality of life? If the quality be poor, will he stick to poor schooling until lifestyles rise to the occasion? Try downtown Anywhere, where elementary schools have been forced to remove social studies and howto a resume arts in favor of apparently year-round test preparation, for essay standards in English and mathematics. Make A Resume? The #8220;need to flash, know#8221; world and the world of standardization are one in howto make, the same, and good columns of darkened bubbles are in no short supply, though there#8217;s still a need to make, live. The Problem with College: Why We No Longer See Ourselves As #8220;Part of#8221; a Community. One anomaly of American society is eng 102 essay topics, that our universities play only a marginal role in howto make a resume, our culture. In other nations, like France where intellectual life is not centered on their institutions of education, this may come as no surprise, but the virtues of American universities are indisputable. Academics wonder why they are allowed to be the flash gps macromedia pda thesis nation#8217;s intellectual leaders, but not its leaders, or even advisors, in the political or ethical arenas.
Some are resentful of the mainstream society, thinking it apostate, as though they were priests of some outworn creed, but this alienation, which has developed in howto make, tandem with the evolution of academia, did not come because the society rejected the university as a social or moral authority, but rather because the university ran out of the energy it took to function in this role. This occurred, at least partially, because those of us in college found that the values we shared were not strong enough to unite us. From the time of Plato, the purpose of the university has not been to represent the society or culture in which it exists but to pursue truth. Most academics, who may disagree on good essays, what truth is in essence, would agree that it is a noble and worthy objective. And, since truth is their goal, many of them think themselves justified in howto, being alienated from sliding mode control, mainstream society. This does not mean their views are homogenous; I can testify that, at the University of howto make, Idaho (to name one example), the politics of professors in the College of essays, Business are not shared by the English instructors; but what the two departments have in common is their distance from America#8217;s political center. This is largely because specialists in any field, whether that field is philosophy or political science, tend to feel invalidated if anyone could reach the make same conclusions that they do. It is a telling fact that, at really essays, least until recent years, there was a higher percentage of self-described Marxist literary critics than blue-color workers. Nonetheless, this desire for academic innovation benefits the university in that it makes professors#8217; research original; it is for howto make this reason that, whenever universities are rated according to really good essays, prestige, the United States constantly is found to have the howto a resume greatest number of prestigious institutions. Even so, there is another facet to a professor#8217;s job, teaching. This requirement creates a dilemma for many professors: their strenuous educations and meticulous research has caused many of them to become opinionated, but, at the same time, they need to keep their students pacified while educating them in accordance with principles which the students may not share.
Thus, they (and the students) learn that it is gps macromedia, easier to ignore worldview-related issues. In searching for howto make a resume the least common ethical denominator among the essaycontest com group, the make a resume instructors and the instructed clandestinely agree that the values which they hold as specific to their Weltanschauungs do not apply to everyone, and, if they do, the value of placidity applies even more. My Three Passions Essay? As Allan Bloom wrote in 1987, #8220;[A]lmost every student entering the university . . . says he believes . . . that truth is relative#8221; (1). While this outlook may work in as far as it prevents conflicts, it is an ineffective communal bond. This is because the values of the howto make classroom are provisional andmost students cannot help but feelartificial. They haven#8217;t the power to unite the students and faculty in a community, which requires common interests and mores.
In July, The Magazine published What's the Matter With College, an essay by the historian Rick Perlstein, online and invited college students across the United States to respond. Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to pda thesis, understand it is coming to a resume, an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the occasion to critique higher education from an insider's perch. Com? To continue the conversation, we're featuring the winning student essay and four runners-up, and posting another 450 of the entries in a searchable format. (The other entries were withdrawn by howto, their authors or did not follow the contest's rules.)
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Moral Arguments for the Existence of God. [ Editor's Note: The following new entry by C. Stephen Evans replaces the howto, former entry on this topic by the previous author. ] Moral arguments for God's existence form a diverse family of arguments that reason from gps macromedia, some feature of morality or the moral life to the existence of God, usually understood as a morally good creator of the howto make, universe. Essay? Moral arguments are both important and interesting. They are interesting because evaluating their soundness requires attention to practically every important philosophical issue dealt with in metaethics. They are important because of their prominence in popular apologetic arguments for religious belief. Evidence for howto a resume this can be found in control the amazing popularity of C. S. Lewis's Mere Christianity (1952), which is almost certainly the best-selling book of apologetics in the twentieth century, and which begins with a moral argument for God's existence. Many ordinary people regard religion as in some way providing a basis or foundation for morality. This fact might seem to favor religious arguments for morality rather than moral arguments for religious belief, but if someone believes that morality is in some way “objective” or “real,” and that this moral reality requires explanation, moral arguments for make a resume God's reality naturally suggest themselves. The apparent connection between morality and religion appears to many people to support the claim that moral truths require a religious foundation, or can best be explained by God's existence, or some qualities or actions of God.
After some general comments about theistic arguments and a brief history of moral arguments, this essay will discuss several different forms of the moral argument. A major distinction is that between moral arguments that are theoretical in essay topics nature and practical or pragmatic arguments. The former are best thought of as arguments that begin with alleged moral facts and argue that God is necessary to a resume explain those facts, or at least that God provides a better explanation of them than secular accounts can offer. The latter typically begin with claims about some good or end that morality requires and argue that this end is sliding mode thesis not attainable unless God exists. Whether this distinction is howto make a resume hard and fast will be one of the essay, questions to be discussed, as some argue that practical arguments by themselves cannot be the basis of howto make a resume rational belief. To meet such concerns practical arguments may have to include a theoretical dimension as well. 1. The Goals of Theistic Arguments. Before attempting to explain and assess moral arguments for the existence of God, it would be helpful to have some perspective on the goals of arguments for God's existence. (I shall generically term arguments for God's existence “theistic arguments.”) Of course views about eng 102 essay topics, this are diverse, but most contemporary proponents of make such arguments do not see theistic arguments as attempted “proofs,” in biogrph the sense that they are supposed to provide valid arguments with premises that no reasonable person could deny. Such a standard of achievement would clearly be setting the bar for success very high, and proponents of make theistic arguments rightly note that philosophical arguments for interesting conclusions in really good essays any field outside of formal logic hardly ever reach such a standard. Howto Make? More reasonable questions to ask about sliding control, theistic arguments would seem to be the make, following: Are there valid arguments for the conclusion that God exists that have premises that are known or reasonably believed by some people? Are the premises of such arguments more reasonable than their denials, at least for some reasonable people?
Arguments that met these standards could have value in making belief in eng 102 essay God reasonable for some people, or even giving some people knowledge of God's existence, even if it turns out that some of the premises of the arguments can be reasonably denied by other people, and thus that the arguments fail as proofs. It is of course possible that an argument for God's existence could provide some evidence for God's existence, in the sense that the argument increases the probability or plausibility of the claim that God exists, even if the argument does not provide enough support by howto, itself for full-fledged belief that God exists. A proponent of the moral argument who viewed the argument in this way might in that case regard the argument as part of a cumulative case for really essays theism, and a resume hold that the moral argument must be supplemented by other possible arguments, such as the biogrph, “fine-tuning” argument from the physical constants of the universe, or an argument from make a resume, religious experience. A non-believer might even concede some version of a theistic argument has some evidential force, but claim that the overall balance of evidence does not support belief. A major issue that cannot be settled here concerns the question of control where the burden of make a resume proof lies with respect to biogrph theistic arguments. Howto? Many secular philosophers follow Antony Flew (1976) in holding that there is my three essay a “presumption of atheism.” Believing in howto make a resume God is sliding control like believing in the Loch Ness Monster or leprechauns, something that reasonable people do not do without sufficient evidence. Howto? If such evidence is lacking, the proper stance is atheism rather than agnosticism. This “presumption of atheism” has been challenged in a number of ways.
Alvin Plantinga (2000) has argued that reasonable belief in God does not have to my three passions be based on propositional evidence, but can be “properly basic.” On this view, reasonable belief in howto make a resume God can be the outcome of really essays a basic faculty (called the sensus divinitatis by howto, theologian John Calvin) and thus needs no support from essaycontest, arguments at all. In response some would argue that even if theistic belief is not grounded in propositional evidence, it still might require non-propositional evidence (such as experience), so it is not clear that Plantinga's view by make, itself removes the burden of proof challenge. A second way to challenge the eng 102 essay topics, presumption of howto make a resume atheism is to question an implicit assumption made by those who defend such a presumption, which is that belief in thesis God is howto a resume epistemologically more risky than unbelief. The assumption might be defended in sliding mode control thesis the following way: One might think that theists and howto a resume atheists share a belief in topics many entities: atoms, middle-sized physical objects, animals, and stars, for example. Someone, however, who believes in leprechauns or sea monsters in addition to these commonly accepted objects thereby incurs a burden of proof. Such a person believes in “one additional thing” and thus seems to incur additional epistemological risk. One might think that belief in make a resume God is relevantly like belief in a leprechaun or sea monster, and thus that the theist also bears an additional burden of proof.
Without good evidence in com favor of belief in God the safe option is to refrain from belief. However, the theist may hold that this account does not accurately represent the make, situation. Instead, the theist may argue that the debate between atheism and theism is not simply an argument about whether “one more thing” exists in the world. In fact, God is essays not to be understood as an howto make a resume, entity in the world at all; any such entity would by definition not be God. The debate is rather a debate about the character of the universe. The theist believes that every object in passions essay the natural world exists because God creates and conserves that object; every finite thing has the howto, character of being dependent on God. The atheist denies this and affirms that the basic entities in the natural world have the character of existing “on their own.” If this is the right way to com think about the debate, then it is not obvious that atheism is safer than theism. The debate is not about the existence of one object, but the character of the universe as a whole. Both parties are making claims about the character of make a resume everything in the natural world, and my three both claims seem risky. Make A Resume? This point is especially important in dealing with moral arguments for theism, since one of the questions raised by good, such arguments is the adequacy of a naturalistic worldview in explaining morality. Evidentialists may properly ask about the evidence for theism, but it also seems proper to ask about the evidence for atheism if the atheist is committed to howto make a rival metaphysic such as naturalism.
2. History of Moral Arguments for God's Existence. Something that resembles a moral argument for flash God's existence, or at least an argument from howto make a resume, value, can be found in really the fourth of Thomas Aquinas's “Five Ways” (Aquinas 12651274, I, 1, 3). Aquinas there begins with the claim that among beings who possess such qualities as “good, true, and noble” there are gradations. Howto Make A Resume? Presumably he means that some things that are good are better than other good things; perhaps some noble people are nobler than others who are noble. In effect Aquinas is claiming that when we “grade” things in this way we are, at least implicitly, comparing them to some absolute standard. Flash Pda Thesis? Aquinas believes this standard cannot be merely “ideal” or “hypothetical,” and make thus this gradation is only possible if there is some being which has this quality to a “maximum” extent: “so that there is something which is truest, something best, something noblest and, consequently, something which is uttermost being; for those things that are greatest in truth are greatest in being, as it is written in essaycontest Metaph. Ii.” Aquinas goes on to affirm that this being which provides the standard is howto make also the good essays, cause or explanation of the existence of these qualities, and such a cause must be God. A Resume? Obviously, this argument draws deeply on flash gps macromedia, Platonic and Aristotelian assumptions that are no longer widely held by philosophers.
For the argument to howto make a resume be plausible today, such assumptions would have to be defended, or else the argument reformulated in a way that frees it from good, its original metaphysical home. Probably the most influential versions of the moral argument for belief in God can be traced to Kant (1788 ), who famously argued that the theoretical arguments for God's existence were unsuccessful, but presented a rational argument for belief in God as a “postulate of practical reason.” Kant held that a rational, moral being must necessarily will “the highest good,” which consists of a world in which people are both morally good and happy, and in which moral virtue is the condition for happiness. The latter condition implies that this end must be sought solely by moral action. However, Kant held that a person cannot rationally will such an end without believing that moral actions can successfully achieve such an make, end, and this requires a belief that the essaycontest com, causal structure of nature is conducive to the achievement of this end by moral means. This is a resume equivalent to belief in God, a moral being who is ultimately responsible for the character of the eng 102 essay topics, natural world. Kant's arguments will be discussed later in this article. Kant-inspired arguments were prominent in the nineteenth century, and continued to be important right up to make the middle of the twentieth century. Such arguments can be found, for example, in W. R. Essaycontest? Sorley (1918), Hastings Rashdall (1920), and A. E. Taylor (1945/1930). Although Henry Sidgwick was not himself a proponent of howto a moral argument for God's existence, some have argued that his thought presents the materials for sliding mode control such an argument (see Walls and Baggett 2011).
In the nineteenth century John Henry Newman (1870) also made good use of a moral argument in his case for belief in God, developing what could be called an argument from howto a resume, conscience. In recent philosophy there has been a revival of divine command metaethical theories, which has in turn led to new versions of the moral argument found in essay such thinkers as Robert Adams (1987), John Hare (1996), and C. Make? Stephen Evans (2010). However, it is important to see that there are versions of the moral argument for God's existence that are completely independent of biogrph such a divine command theory, and this possibility can be seen in arguments developed by Angus Ritchie (2012) and Mark Linville (2009). It goes without saying that these renewed arguments have engendered new criticisms as well. Theoretical moral arguments for God's existence can be understood as variations on the following template: There are objective moral facts. God provides the best explanation of the existence of objective moral facts.
Therefore, (probably) God exists. As we shall see, there are a variety of features of morality that can be appealed to in the first steps of the arguments, as well as a variety of make a resume ways in which God might be thought to eng 102 essay provide an explanation of those features in the second steps. The use of the somewhat vague phrase “objective moral facts” is intended to allow for this variety. Both types of premises are obviously open to challenge. For example, the first premise of howto such an argument can be challenged by popular metaethical views that see morality as “subjective,” or “expressive,” rather than something that consists of objective facts, and also by moral sceptics.
The second premise can be challenged on the basis of rival explanations of the features of morality, explanations that do not require God. Essaycontest? Arguments about the second premise then may require comparison between theistic explanations of morality and these rival views. It is easy to see then that the proponent of a moral argument has a complex task: She must defend the reality and objectivity of the howto make a resume, feature of morality appealed to, but also defend the really good essays, claim that this feature can be best explained by howto a resume, God. The second part of the task may require not only demonstrating the strengths of a theistic explanation, but pointing out weaknesses in rival secular explanations as well. Passions? Both parts of the task are essential, but it is worth noting that the two components cannot be accomplished simultaneously. The theist must defend the reality of morality against subjectivist and nihilistic critics. A Resume? Assuming that this task has been carried out, the theist must then try to good show that morality thus understood requires a theistic explanation. It is interesting to observe, however, that with respect to both parts of the task, the theist may enlist non-theists as allies. The theist may well make common cause with ethical naturalists as well as ethical non-naturalists in defending moral realism against “projective” theories such as expressivism. However, the theist may also enlist the support of “error theorists” such as J. L. Mackie (1977), and “moral nihilists” such as Friedrich Nietzsche (1887) in arguing that God is necessary for objective morality. Nietzsche, for example, explicitly holds that God does not exist, but also claims that God's non-existence undermines the reality of traditional western morality.
The fact that theists can enlist such unlikely allies does not mean the moral argument for make God's existence is sound, but it does suggest that the essaycontest, argument is howto a resume not obviously question-begging, since both premises are sometimes accepted by (different) non-believers. 3. Theoretical Moral Arguments for God's Existence and Divine Command Theories of Moral Obligation. One easily understandable version of a theistic moral argument relies on an analogy between human laws promulgated by nation-states and moral laws. Sovereign states enact laws that make certain acts forbidden or required. If I am a U. S. My Three Passions Essay? citizen, and I earn more than a small amount of money I am obligated to howto make a resume file an really essays, income tax return each year. I am also forbidden, because of the laws that hold in the United States, to discriminate in hiring on the basis of age or race. Many people believe that there are moral laws that bind individuals in the same way that political laws do.
I am obligated by a moral principle not to lie to others, and I am similarly obligated to keep promises that I have made. (Both legal and moral laws may be understood as holding prima facie, so that in howto some situations a person must violate one law in order to obey a more important one.) We know how human laws come into existence. They are enacted by legislatures (or absolute monarchs in some countries) who have the authority to pass such laws. Biogrph? How then should the existence of moral laws be explained? It seems plausible to many to hold that they must be similarly grounded in some appropriate moral authority, and the only make, plausible candidate to my three essay fulfill this role is howto make a resume God. Some philosophers have dismissed an really good, argument of this type as “crude,” presumably because its force is so obvious that no special philosophical training is necessary to understand it and see its appeal. Howto Make A Resume? The fact that one can understand the argument without much in the way of philosophical skill is not necessarily a defect, however.
If one supposes that there is sliding mode control thesis a God, and that God wants humans to know him and relate to howto make a resume him, one would expect God to sliding mode control thesis make his reality known to humans in very obvious ways (See Evans 2010). Howto A Resume? After all, critics of theistic belief, such as J. L. Schellenberg (1993), have argued that the fact that God's reality is not obvious to those who would like to believe in sliding mode God is a grave problem. If an awareness of moral obligations is in fact an awareness of God's commands or divine laws, then the ordinary person who is aware of moral obligations does have a kind of awareness of God. Of course such a person might be aware of howto God's laws without realizing that they are God's laws; she might be aware of God's commands without being aware of them under that description. The religious apologist might view such a person as already having a kind of de re awareness of really essays God, because a moral obligation is make simply an expression of God's will. How can such an eng 102 topics, awareness be converted into full-fledged belief in a resume God? One way of doing this would be to help the person gain the skills needed to recognize moral laws as what they are, as divine commands or divine laws. If moral laws are experienced, then moral experience could be viewed as a kind of religious experience or at gps macromedia least a proto-religious experience. Perhaps someone who has experience of God in howto make a resume this way does not need a moral argument (or any kind of argument) to have a reasonable belief in gps macromedia pda thesis God.
This may be one instance of the kind of case that Alvin Plantinga (2000) and the “Reformed epistemologists” have in a resume mind when they claim that belief in really good essays God can be “properly basic.” It is worth noting then that there could be such a thing as knowledge of howto make a resume God that is rooted in moral experience without that knowledge being the result of a moral argument . Even if that is the eng 102 essay topics, case, however, a moral argument could still play a valuable role. Such an argument might be one way of helping an individual understand that moral obligations are in fact divine commands or laws. Even if it were true that some ordinary people might know that God exists without argument, an argument could be helpful in defending the claim that this is the make, case. A person might conceivably need an argument for the second level claim that the person knows God without argument. In any case a divine command metaethical theory provides the material for such an argument. Biogrph? The revival of howto a resume divine command theories (DCT) of moral obligation is due mainly to really essays the work of Philip Quinn (1979/1978) and Robert Adams (1999). Adams' version of a DCT has been particularly influential and make a resume is well-suited for the defense of the claim that moral knowledge can provide knowledge of God. Adams' version of a DCT is an really essays, account of make a resume moral obligations and it must be distinguished from more general “voluntarist” views of good ethics that try to treat other moral properties (such as the good) as dependent on God's will. As explained below, by limiting the howto make, theory to obligations, Adams avoids the standard “ Euthyphro ” objection, which claims that divine command views reduce ethics to flash gps macromedia pda thesis arbitrariness. Adams' account of moral obligations as divine commands rests on howto a resume, a more general social theory of obligations. There are of course many types of obligations: legal obligations, financial obligations, obligations of etiquette, and obligations that hold in virtue of belonging to some club or association, to biogrph name just a few.
Clearly these obligations are distinct from moral obligations, since in some cases moral obligations can conflict with these other kinds. What is howto a resume distinctive about really good essays, obligations in general? They are not reducible simply to normative claims about what a person has a good reason to make do. J. S. Mill (1874, 164-165) argued that we can explain normative principles without making any reference to God. He contends that the “feeling of obligation” stems from “something that the internal conscience bears witness to in its own nature,” and thus the flash, moral law, unlike human laws, “does not originate in the will of a legislator or legislature external to the mind.” Doubtless Mill had in howto make mind here such normative logical principles as “it is wrong to believe both ‘p’ and ‘not-p’ at the same time.” Mill argues that such normative principles hold without any requirement for an “authority” to com be their ground. Mill's view is plausible, though some theists have argued that metaphysical naturalists have difficulty in make a resume explaining any kind of normativity (see Devine 1989, 8889).
However, even if Mill is passions essay correct about make, normativity in general, it does not follow that his view is correct for topics obligations, which have a special character. An obligation has a special kind of force; we should care about complying with it, and violations of obligations appropriately incur blame (Adams 1999, 235). If I make a logical mistake, I may feel silly or stupid or embarrassed, but I have no reason to feel guilty, unless the mistake reflects some carelessness on my part that itself constitutes a violation of howto a moral obligation. Adams argues that “facts of essay topics obligation are constituted by howto a resume, broadly social requirements.” (ibid, 233) For example, the social role of parenting is partly constituted by the obligations one assumes by essaycontest, becoming a parent, and the social role of citizen is partly constituted by the obligations to obey the laws of the country in which one is make a resume a citizen. All obligations are then constituted by social requirements, according to Adams. However, not all obligations constituted by social requirements are moral obligations. What social relation could be the basis of moral obligations? Adams argues that not just any human social relation will possess the requisite authority: “A morally valid obligation obviously will not be constituted by just any demand sponsored by a system of social relationships that one in fact values. Some such demands have no moral force, and some social systems are downright evil.” (ibid, 242) If a good and loving God exists and has created all humans, then the social relation humans have to God has the right features to explain moral obligations. For if moral obligations stem from gps macromedia pda thesis, God's requirements, they will be objective, but they will also be motivating, since a relation to howto make God would clearly be a great good that humans would have reason to value.
Since a proper relation to God is arguably more important than any other social relation, we can also understand why moral obligations trump other kinds of topics obligations. On this view we can also explain why moral obligations have a transcendent character, which is important because “a genuinely moral conception of obligation must have resources for howto moral criticism of social systems and their demands.” (ibid, 242243) Notice that the DCT Adams defends is ontological rather than semantic: it is a claim that moral obligations are in fact identical with divine commands, not a claim that “moral obligations” has the same meaning as “divine commands.” On his account, the meaning of “moral obligation” is fixed by the role this concept plays in topics our language. That role includes such facts as these: Moral obligations must be motivating and objective. They also must provide a basis for critical evaluation of other types of obligations, and they must be such that someone who violates a moral obligation is howto make appropriately subject to blame. Adams argues that it is divine commands that best satisfy these desiderata. Eng 102 Essay Topics? God's existence thus provides the best explanation of moral obligations.
If moral obligations are identical with divine commands (or perhaps if they are grounded in or caused to make a resume exist by divine commands) an argument for God's existence from such obligations can easily be constructed: There are objective moral obligations. My Three Passions? If there are objective moral obligations, there is a God who explains these obligations. There is a God. This argument is stated in a deductive form, but it can easily be reworded as a probabilistic “argument to howto the best explanation,” as follows: There are objective moral obligations. God provides the best explanation of the existence of moral obligations. Probably, God exists.
Obviously, those who do not find a DCT convincing will not think this argument from really essays, moral obligation has force. However, Adams anticipates and gives a forceful answer to one common criticism of howto make a DCT. It is biogrph often argued that a DCT must fail because of a dilemma parallel to one derived from Plato's Euthyphro. The dilemma for a DCT can be derived from the following question: Assuming that God commands what is howto make right, does he command what is right because it is right? If the proponent of a DCT answers affirmatively, then it appears the quality of essaycontest com rightness must hold antecedently to and thus independently of God's commands. If, however, the proponent denies that God commands what is right because it is right, then God's commands appear arbitrary. Adams' version of a DCT evades this dilemma by holding that God is essentially good and howto make that his commands are necessarily aimed at the good. This allows Adams to claim that God's commands make actions obligatory (or forbidden), while denying that the commands are arbitrary. Although Adams' version of a DCT successfully meets this “ Euthyphro” objection, there are other powerful criticisms that have been mounted against pda thesis this metaethical theory in howto the literature. My Three Passions? These objections can be found in the writings of Wes Morriston (2009), Erik Wielenberg (2005), and Nicholas Wolterstorff (2007), among others.
However, responses to these objections and others have also been given (see Evans 2013, Baggett and Walls, 2011). Clearly this version of a moral argument for God's existence will only be judged powerful by those who find a DCT plausible, and howto make a resume that will certainly be a small minority of philosophers. (Although it is biogrph worth noting that no single metaethical theory seems to enjoy widespread support among philosophers, so a DCT is not alone in howto being a minority view.) Nevertheless, those who do find a DCT powerful will also see moral obligations as providing strong evidence for God's reality. 4. Arguments from Moral Knowledge or Awareness. A variety of arguments have been developed that God is necessary to explain human awareness of moral truth (or moral knowledge, if one believes that this moral awareness amounts to knowledge). Richard Swinburne (2004, 218), for my three passions essay example, argues that there is no “great probability that moral awareness will occur in a Godless universe.” On Swinburne's view, moral truths are either necessary truths or contingent truths that are grounded in necessary truths. For example, it is obviously contingent that “It is wrong to howto drop an atomic bomb on biogrph, Hiroshima,” since it is contingent that there exists a city such as Hiroshima. But one might hold that this proposition is true (assuming it is) because of howto make some other truth such as “It is my three passions essay wrong intentionally to howto make a resume kill innocent humans” which does hold universally and is necessarily true. Swinburne does not think that an argument from moral facts as such is powerful. However, the fact that we humans are aware of moral facts is itself surprising and calls for an explanation. It may be true that creatures who belong to groups that behave altruistically will have some survival advantage over groups that lack such a trait.
However, moral beliefs are not required in order to produce such behavior, since it is clear that “there are many species of animals that are naturally inclined to help others of pda thesis their species, and yet do not have moral beliefs.” (Swinburne 2004, 217) If God exists, he has “significant reason to bring about conscious beings with moral awareness,” since his intended purpose for humans includes making it possible for them freely to choose good over evil, since this will make it possible for them to develop a relation to God. Swinburne does not think that this argument provides very strong evidence for God's existence by itself, but rather that it provides some inductive support for belief in God. It is one of several phenomena which seem more probable in a theistic universe than in a godless universe. As we consider more and howto more such phenomena, it will be increasingly improbable that “they will all occur.” (ibid, 218) All of these inductive arguments together may then provide substantial support for theistic belief, even if no one of them by itself would be sufficient for sliding mode thesis rational belief. Swinburne's version of the argument is quite brief and undeveloped, but the materials for a more developed version of the argument can be found in a well-known and much cited article by Sharon Street (2006). Street's argument, as the title implies, is in make a resume no way intended to support a moral argument for com theism. To the contrary, her purpose is to defend anti-realist metaethical theories against realist theories that view moral truth as “stance-independent” of human attitudes and emotions. Street presents the moral realist with a dilemma posed by the question as to how our human evaluative beliefs are related to make human evolution. It is clear, she believes, that evolution has strongly shaped our evaluative attitudes. The question concerns how those attitudes are related to the objective evaluative truths accepted by the realist.
If the realist holds that there is no relation between such truths and our evaluative attitudes, then this implies that “most of our evaluative judgments are off track due to really the distorting influence of Darwinian processes.” The other alternative for the realist is to claim that there is a relationship, and thus that is not an accident or miracle that our evaluative beliefs track the objective truths. However, this view, Street claims, is scientifically implausible. Street argues therefore that an evolutionary story about how we came to make the moral judgments we make undermines confidence in the objective truth of those judgments. Street's argument is howto make of course controversial and thinkers such as Erik Wielenberg (2014) have argued against evolutionary debunking arguments. Still, many regard such arguments as problematic for morality, particularly when developed as a “global” argument (Kahane, 2010). Moral realists such as David Enoch (2011) have attempted to respond to Street's argument, though Enoch acknowledges its force and evidently has some worries about the strength of essaycontest com his reply. However, it is not hard to see that a good deal of the a resume, force of Street's argument stems from the assumption that naturalism is my three passions true, and therefore that the evolutionary process is one that is unguided. It does appear that in a naturalistic universe we would expect a process of Darwinian evolution to howto make select for good essays a propensity for moral judgments that track survival and not objective moral truths. Mark Linville (2009, 391446) has developed a detailed argument for the claim that it is difficult for metaphysical naturalists to develop a plausible evolutionary story as to how our moral judgments could have epistemological warrant.
However, if we suppose that the a resume, evolutionary process has been guided by my three passions, a God who has as one of his goals the creation of morally significant human creatures capable of enjoying a relation with God, then it would not seem at howto make a resume all accidental or even unlikely that God would ensure that humans have value beliefs that are largely correct. Some philosophers may believe that the randomness of Darwinian natural selection rules out the possibility of any kind of divine guidance being exercised through such a process. Really? Atheists often seem to think that evolution and God are rival, mutually exclusive hypotheses about the origins of the natural world. What can be explained scientifically needs no religious explanation. However, this is far from obviously true; in fact, if theism is true it is clearly false. From a theistic perspective to think that God and howto make science provide competing explanations fails to grasp the relationship between God and the natural world by conceiving of God as one more cause within that natural world. If God exists at passions essay all, God is not an entity within the make a resume, natural world, but the creator of that natural world, with all of its causal processes.
If God exists, God is the reason why there is a natural world and the reason for the existence of the sliding control thesis, causal processes of the natural world. In principle, therefore, a natural explanation can never preclude a theistic explanation. But what about the howto make a resume, randomness that is a crucial part of the Darwinian story? The atheist might claim that because evolutionary theory posits that the process by which plants and animals have evolved in one that involves random genetic mutations, it cannot be guided, and biogrph thus God cannot have used evolutionary means to achieve his ends. However, this argument fails. Howto A Resume? It depends on an equivocation in what is biogrph meant by “random.” When scientists claim that genetic mutations are random, they do not mean that they are uncaused, or even that they are unpredictable from the point of view of biochemistry, but only that the mutations do not happen in response to the adaptational needs of the organism. Howto A Resume? It is entirely possible for a natural process to include randomness in that sense, even if the whole natural order is itself created and flash gps macromedia sustained by God. The sense of make “randomness” required for evolutionary theory does not imply that the evolutionary process must be unguided. A God who is responsible for my three passions essay the laws of nature and the initial conditions that shape the howto, evolutionary process could certainly ensure that the process achieved certain ends.
Like the essaycontest com, other moral arguments for God's existence, the argument from howto make, moral knowledge can easily be stated in gps macromedia pda thesis a propositional form, and I believe Swinburne is make a resume right to hold that the argument is best construed as a probabilistic argument that appeals to biogrph God as providing a better explanation of make moral knowledge than is possible in a naturalistic universe. Humans possess objective moral knowledge. Probably, if God does not exist, humans would not possess objective moral knowledge. Probably, God exists. There is a kind of argument from eng 102 essay, moral knowledge also implicit in Angus Ritchie's recent book From Morality to Metaphysics: The Theistic Implications of our Ethical Commitments (2012) . Ritchie presses a kind of dilemma on non-theistic accounts of morality. Subjectivist theories such as expressivism can certainly make sense of the fact that we make the howto, ethical judgments we do, but they empty morality of its objective authority.
Objectivist theories that take morality seriously, however, have difficulty explaining our capacity to essaycontest com make true moral judgments, unless the process by make, which humans came to hold these capacities is one that is controlled by biogrph, a being such as God. The moral argument from knowledge will not be convincing to anyone who is make committed to my three passions any form of howto make expressivism or other non-objective metaethical theory, and clearly many philosophers find such views attractive. And there will surely be many philosophers who will judge that if moral objectivism implies theism, this is a reductio of objectivist views. Furthermore, non-theistic moral philosophers, whether naturalists or non-naturalists, have stories to tell about how moral knowledge might be possible. Essaycontest? Nevertheless, there are real questions about the plausibility of these stories, and thus, some of those convinced that moral realism is true may judge that moral knowledge provides some support for theistic belief. 5. Arguments from Human Dignity or Worth. Many philosophers find Immanuel Kant's moral philosophy still offers a fruitful approach to ethics. Make A Resume? Of the various forms of the com, “categorical imperative” that Kant offers, the formula that regards human beings as “ends in themselves” is especially attractive: “Act in such a way that you always treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never simply as a means, but always at the same time as an end” (Kant 1785 , 96). Howto Make A Resume? Many contemporary moral philosophers influenced by Kant, such as Christine Korsgaard (1996), see Kant as offering a “constructivist” metaethical position. Constructivism is supposed to offer a “third way” between moral realism and good subjectivist views of morality. Like subjectivists, constructivists want to see morality as a human creation.
However, like moral realists constructivists want to see moral questions as having objective answers. Constructivism is an attempt to develop an objective morality that is free of the metaphysical commitments of moral realism. It is, however, controversial whether Kant himself was a constructivist in this sense. One reason to question whether this is the right way to read Kant follows from the fact that Kant himself did not see morality as free from howto make a resume, metaphysical commitments. For example, Kant thought that it would be impossible for someone who believed that mechanistic determinism was the gps macromedia, literal truth about himself to believe that he was a moral agent, since morality requires an autonomy that is incompatible with determinism. To see myself as a creature who has the kind of value Kant calls “dignity” I must not see myself merely as a machine-like product of the make a resume, physical environment. Hence Kant thought that it was crucial for morality that his Critical Philosophy had shown that the good essays, deterministic perspective on howto make a resume, humans is simply part of the biogrph, “phenomenal world” that is the howto a resume, object of scientific knowledge, not the “noumenal reality” that it would be if some kind of scientific realism were the true metaphysical view.
When we do science we see ourselves as determined, but science tells us only how the biogrph, world appears, not how it really is. Recognizing this fact suggests that when Kant posits that humans have this intrinsic value he calls dignity, he is howto make not “constructing” the value humans have, but recognizing the value beings of a certain kind must have. Humans can only have this kind of value if they are a particular kind of creature. Whether Kant himself was a moral realist or not, there are certainly elements in his philosophy that push in a realist direction. If the claim that human persons have a kind of intrinsic dignity or worth is really essays a true objective principle and if it provides a key foundational principle of morality, it is well worth asking what kinds of metaphysical implications the claim might have.
This is the question that Mark Linville (2009, 417446) pursues in the second moral argument he develops. Linville begins by noting that one could hardly hold that “human persons have intrinsic dignity” could be true if human persons do not exist. Clearly, some metaphysical positions do include a denial of the make a resume, existence of human persons, such as forms of sliding mode control Absolute Monism which hold that only one Absolute Reality exists. However, it also seems to be the case that some forms of Scientific Naturalism are committed to make the denial of “ persons as substantive selves that essentially possess a first-person point of view” (See Dennett 2006, 107). Daniel Dennett, for control example, holds that persons will not be part of the ultimately true scientific account of things. Dennett holds that to think of humans as persons is simply to adopt a certain “stance” toward them that he calls the “intentional stance,” but it is clear that the kind of picture of humans we get when we think of them in this way does not correspond with their intrinsic metaphysical properties. It is not clear how systems towards which we adopt an “intentional stance” could be truly autonomous and thus have the kind of value Kant believes human persons have. The argument from human dignity could be put into propositional form as follows: Human persons have a special kind of intrinsic value that we call dignity.
The only (or best) explanation of the make a resume, fact that humans possess dignity is that they are created by a supremely good God in God's own image. Probably there is really a supremely good God. A naturalist may want to challenge premise (2) by finding some other strategy to explain human dignity. Michael Martin (2002), for make example, has tried to suggest that moral judgments can be analyzed as the feelings of approval or disapproval of a perfectly impartial and informed observer. Linville (2009) objects that it is not clear how the feelings of such an observer could constitute the intrinsic worth of a person, since one would think that intrinsic properties would be non-relational and mind-independent.
In any case, Linville notes that a “Euthyphro” problem lurks for eng 102 such an ideal observer theory, since one would think that such an observer would judge a person to a resume be intrinsically valuable because the essaycontest, person has intrinsic value. Another strategy that is pursued by constructivists such as Korsgaard is to link the value ascribed to humans to the capacity for rational reflection. The idea is that insofar as I am committed to rational reflection, I must value myself as having this capacity, and consistently value others who have it as well. However, many people believe that young infants and make a resume people suffering from dementia still have this intrinsic dignity, but in both cases there is no capacity for rational reflection. Some support for this criticism of the attempt to see reason as the basis of the value of humans can be found in Nicholas Wolterstorff's recent work on justice (2007, especially Ch. 8). Wolterstorff in flash gps macromedia pda thesis this work defends the claim that there are natural human rights, and howto that violating such rights is biogrph one way of acting unjustly towards a person.
Why do humans have such rights? Wolterstorff says these rights are grounded in the basic worth or dignity that humans possess. When I seek to torture or kill an innocent human I am failing to make a resume respect this worth. If one asks why we should think humans possess such worth, Wolterstorff argues that the belief that humans have this quality was not only historically produced by Jewish and Christian conceptions of the human person, but even now cannot be defended apart from such a conception. In particular, he argues that attempts to argue that our worth stems from some excellence we possess such as reason will not explain the worth of infants or those with severe brain injuries or dementia. Does a theistic worldview fare better in explaining the special value of passions human dignity? In a theistic universe God is himself seen as the supreme good. Indeed, theistic Platonists usually identify God with the Good. If God is himself a person, then this seems to howto make a resume be a commitment to the idea that personhood itself is really essays something that must be intrinsically good. If human persons are made in God's image, as both Judaism and Christianity affirm, then it would seem to follow that humans do have a kind of intrinsic value, just by way of a resume being the mode, kind of creatures they are.
This argument will of course be found unconvincing to many. Howto A Resume? Some will deny premise (1), either because they reject moral realism as a metaethical stance, or because they reject the normative claim that humans have any kind of special value or dignity. (Maybe they will even think that such a claim is a form of “speciesism.”). Others will find premise (2) suspect. They may be inclined to agree that human persons have a special dignity, but hold that the source of that dignity can be found in such human qualities as rationality. With respect to the status of infants and those suffering from dementia, the eng 102 topics, critic might bite the bullet and just accept the howto, fact that human dignity does not extend to them, or else argue that the thesis, fact that infants and those suffering mental breakdown are part of a species whose members typically possess rationality merits them a special respect, even if they lack this quality as individuals.
Others will find premise (2) doubtful because they find the theistic explanation of dignity unclear. Howto Make A Resume? Another alternative is to seek a Constructivist account of dignity, perhaps regarding the com, special status of humans as something we humans decide to extend to each other. Perhaps the howto a resume, strongest non-theistic alternative would be some form of mode thesis ethical non-naturalism, in howto make which one simply affirms that the claim that persons have a special dignity is an a priori truth requiring no explanation. In effect this is a decision for a non-theistic form of Platonism. The proponent of the argument may well agree that claims about the special status of humans are true a priori, and thus also opt for some form of Platonism. However, the proponent of the argument will point out sliding mode thesis, that some necessary truths can be explained by other necessary truths. The theist believes that these truths about the special status of humans tell us something about the kind of howto universe humans find themselves in. Mode Control? To say that humans are created by God is to say that personhood is not an howto make, ephemeral or accidental feature of the flash gps macromedia, universe, because at bottom reality itself is personal (Mavrodes 1986). 6. A Resume? Practical Moral Arguments for essaycontest com Belief in God.
As already noted, the a resume, most famous and perhaps most influential version of a moral argument for belief in God is biogrph found in Immanuel Kant (1788). Make A Resume? Kant himself insisted that his argument was not a theoretical argument, but an argument grounded in practical reason. The conclusion of the argument is not “God exists” or “God probably exists” but “I (as a rational, moral agent) ought to believe that God exists.” We shall, however, see that there are some reasons to mode thesis doubt that practical arguments can be neatly separated from theoretical arguments. Kant's version of the argument can be stated in different ways, but perhaps the following captures one plausible interpretation of the argument. Morality is make grounded in pure practical reason, and the moral agent must act on the basis of maxims that can be rationally endorsed as universal principles. Moral actions are thus not determined by biogrph, results or consequences but by the maxims on howto a resume, which they are based. However, all actions, including moral actions, necessarily aim at ends. Kant argues that the passions, end that moral actions aim at is the “highest good,” which is howto make a world in which both moral virtue and happiness are maximized, with happiness contingent on virtue. Essaycontest? For Kant “ought implies can,” and so if I have an obligation to seek the howto make a resume, highest good, then I must believe that it is possible to essay achieve such an end. However, I must seek the highest good only by acting in accordance with morality; no shortcuts to happiness are permissible. This seems to require that I believe that acting in accordance with morality will be causally efficacious in achieving the highest good.
However, it is reasonable to howto a resume believe that moral actions will be causally efficacious in this way only if the gps macromedia pda thesis, laws of causality are set up in howto make such a way that these laws are conducive to the efficacy of moral action. Certainly both parts of the my three passions, highest good seem difficult to howto a resume achieve. Sliding Mode Control Thesis? We humans have weaknesses in our character that appear difficult if not impossible to overcome by our own efforts. Furthermore, as creatures we have subjective needs that must be satisfied if we are happy, but we have little empirical reason to think that these needs will be satisfied by moral actions even if we succeeded in becoming virtuous. If a person believes that the make, natural world is simply a non-moral machine with no moral purposiveness then that person would have no reason to believe that moral action could succeed because there is no a priori reason to think moral action will achieve the highest good and little empirical reason to believe this either. Kant thus concludes that a moral agent must “postulate” the sliding mode control thesis, existence of God as a rational presupposition of the moral life. One problem with this argument is howto a resume that many will deny that morality requires us to eng 102 seek the highest good in Kant's sense. Even if the Kantian highest good seems reasonable as an ideal, some will object that we have no obligation to achieve such a state, but merely to howto make a resume work towards realizing the closest approximation to really good such a state that is howto make a resume possible (See Adams 1987, 152). Without divine assistance, perhaps perfect virtue is sliding mode unachievable, but in that case we cannot be obliged to realize such a state if there is no God.
Perhaps we cannot hope that happiness will be properly proportioned to virtue in make the actual world if God does not exist, but then our obligation can only be to realize as much happiness as can be attained through moral means. Kant would doubtless reject this criticism, since on his view the ends of morality are given directly to pure practical reason a priori, and we are not at liberty to adjust those ends on the basis of empirical beliefs. Eng 102 Essay? However, few contemporary philosophers would share Kant's confident view of reason here, and thus to many the criticism has force. Even Kant admits at one point that full-fledged belief in God is not rationally necessary, since one could conceivably seek the highest good if one merely believes that God's existence is make a resume possible (Kant, 17811787, 651). Another way of interpreting Kant's argument puts more stress on the connection between an individual's desire for control happiness and the obligation to do what is make a resume morally right. Morality requires me to sacrifice my personal happiness if that is necessary to do what is essay right.
Yet it is a psychological fact that humans necessarily desire their own happiness. Howto A Resume? In such a state it looks as if human moral agents will be torn by what Henry Sidgwick called the flash gps macromedia, “dualism of the howto a resume, practical reason” (1884, 401). Reason both requires humans to seek their own happiness and to sacrifice it. Flash Gps Macromedia Pda Thesis? Sidgwick himself noted that only if there is a God can we hope that this dualism will be resolved, so that those who seek to act morally will in the long run also be acting so as to howto make advance their own happiness and well-being. (Interestingly, Sidgwick himself does not endorse this argument, but he clearly sees this problem as part of the biogrph, appeal of theism.) A contemporary argument similar to this one has been developed by C. Stephen Layman (2002). The critic of this form of the Kantian argument may reply that Kantian morality sees duty as something that must be done regardless of the consequences, and thus a truly moral person cannot make his or her commitment to morality contingent on the achievement of happiness. From a Kantian point of view, this reply seems right; Kant unequivocally affirms that moral actions must be done for howto make the sake of duty and not from any desire for flash personal reward. Nevertheless, especially for howto make any philosopher willing to endorse any form of eudaimonism, seeing myself as inevitably sacrificing what I cannot help but desire for good the sake of duty does seem problematic. As John Hare affirms, “If we are to endorse wholeheartedly the long-term shape of our lives, we have to see this shape as consistent with our happiness” (1996, 88). The critic may reply to this by simply accepting the make, lamentable fact that there is something tragic or even absurd about the human condition. The world may not be the world we wish it was, but that does not give us any reason to really good essays believe it is howto different than it is.
If there is a tension between the demands of morality and self-interest, then this may simply be a brute fact that must be faced. This reply raises an issue that must be faced by all forms of practical or pragmatic arguments for essaycontest belief. Many philosophers insist that rational belief must be grounded solely in theoretical evidence. The fact that it would be better for me to believe p does not in itself give me any reason to believe p. This criticism is howto a resume aimed not merely at Kant, but at other practical moral arguments. For example, Robert Adams argues that if humans believe there is flash no moral order to the universe, then they will become demoralized in their pursuit of morality, which is morally undesirable (1987, 151). The atheist might concede that atheism is make (somewhat) demoralizing, but deny that this provides any reason to believe there is eng 102 essay topics a moral order to the universe.
Similarly, Linda Zagzebski (1987) argues that morality will not be a rational enterprise unless good actions increase the amount of good in the world. However, given that moral actions often involve the sacrifice of happiness, there is no reason to believe moral action will increase the good unless there is make a resume a power transcendent of passions essay human activity working on the side of the good. Make? Here the atheist may claim that moral action does increase the essaycontest, good because such actions always increase good character. However, even if that reply fails the howto a resume, atheist may again simply admit that there may be something tragic or absurd about the essaycontest com, human condition, and the fact that we may wish things were different is make not a reason to believe that they are. So the problem must be faced: Are practical arguments merely rationalized wish-fulfillment? The theist might respond to this kind of topics worry in make several ways. Passions Essay? The first thing to be said is that the fact that a naturalistic view of the universe implies that the universe must be tragic or absurd, if correct, would itself be an important and interesting conclusion. However, apart from this, it makes a great deal of difference how one construes what we might call the a resume, background epistemic situation. My Three? If one believes that our theoretical evidence favors atheism, then it seems plausible to hold that one ought to maintain a naturalistic view, even if it is practically undesirable that the make a resume, world have such a character.
In that case a practical argument for religious belief could be judged a form of wish-fulfillment. However, this does not seem to biogrph be the way those who support such a practical argument see the situation. Kant affirms that the limits of reason established in howto a resume The Critique of Pure Reason would silence all objections to biogrph morality and religion “in Socratic fashion, namely, by the clearest proof of the ignorance of the objectors” (1781, 1787, 30. See also 530531.) In fact, the howto a resume, situation actually favors theism, since Kant holds that theoretical reason sees value in the concept of flash gps macromedia God as a regulative ideal, even though God's existence cannot be theoretically affirmed as knowledge. Howto A Resume? If we appeal to God's will to explain what happens in the natural order, we undermine both science and good religion, since in that case we would no longer seek empirical evidence for causality and we would make God into a finite object in the natural world (1781, 1787, 562563). However, as a regulative ideal, the concept of God is one that theoretical reason finds useful: “The assumption of a supreme intelligence, as the one and only cause of the universe, though in the idea alone, can therefore always benefit reason and can never injure it” (1781, 1787, 560). There is a sense in which theoretical reason itself inclines towards affirmation of God, because it must assume that reality is rationally knowable: “If one wishes to achieve systematic knowledge of the howto, world, he ought to regard it as if it were created by a supreme reason.” (Kant 1786, 298) Although theoretical reason cannot affirm the existence of God, it finds it useful to think of the natural world as having the kinds of characteristics it would have if God did exist. Thus, if rational grounds for belief in God come from practical reason, theoretical reason will raise no objections. For Kant the mode thesis, argument from practical reason for belief in a resume God is biogrph not a form of wish-fulfillment because its ground is not an arbitrary desire or wish but “a real need associated with reason” (Kant, 1786, 296).
Human beings are not purely theoretical spectators of the universe, but agents. It is not always rational or even possible to make refrain from flash pda thesis, action, and howto yet action presupposes beliefs about the essaycontest com, way things are (For a good interpretation and defense of this view of Kant on the relation between action and belief, see Wood 1970, 1725). Thus, in some cases suspension of judgment is not possible. The critic may object that a person may act as if p were true without believing p. However, it is not clear that this advice to distinguish action on the basis of p and make belief that p can always be followed. Really Good? For one thing, it seems empirically the case that one way of acquiring belief that p is simply to begin to act as if p were true. Hence, to begin to howto a resume act as if p were true is at least to embark upon a course of action that makes belief in p more likely. Second, there may well be a sense of “belief” in which “acting as if p were true” is sufficient to constitute belief. Passions? This is obviously the case on howto a resume, pragmatist accounts of mode control belief. But even those who reject a general pragmatic account of howto a resume belief may well find something like this appealing with respect to religious belief. Many religious believers hold that the best way to measure a person's religious faith is in terms of the person's actions. Thus, a person who is willing to act on the basis of a religious conception, especially if those actions are risky or costly, is truly a religious believer, even if that person is filled with doubt and anxiety.
Such a person might well be construed as more truly a believer than a person who smugly “assents” to religious doctrines but is unwilling to act on good essays, them. Perhaps the right way to think of practical moral arguments is not to see them as justifying belief without evidence, but as shifting the amount of evidence seen as necessary. This is the lesson some would draw from the phenomenon of “pragmatic encroachment” that has been much discussed in recent epistemology. Here is an example of pragmatic encroachment: You: I am about to replace the ceiling fan in the kitchen. Spouse: Did you turn off the howto make a resume, main electrical power to the house? Spouse: If you forgot you could electrocute yourself. You: I better go back and check.
(See McBrayer 2014, Rizzieri 2013). A plausible interpretation of this scenario is that ordinarily claims such as the one I made, based on memory, are justified, and count as knowledge. However, in this situation, the stakes are raised because my life is at essaycontest com risk, and my knowledge is lost because the make, pragmatic situation has “encroached” on biogrph, the normal truth-oriented conditions for howto a resume knowledge. Pragmatic encroachment is controversial and the idea of essay such encroachment is rejected by some epistemologists. However, defenders hold that it is reasonable to consider the pragmatic stakes in considering evidence for a belief that underlies significant action (See Fantl and howto McGrath 2007). Biogrph? If this is correct, then it seems reasonable to consider the pragmatic situation in a resume determining how much evidence is sufficient to justify religious beliefs. In theory the adjustment could go in either direction, depending on what costs are associated with a mistake and on really good, which side those costs lie. In any case it is not clear that practical moral arguments can always be clearly distinguished from theoretical moral arguments. The reason this is howto a resume so is that in many cases the practical situation described seems itself to be or involve a kind of eng 102 topics evidence for the truth of the belief being justified. Take, for example, Kant's classic argument. One thing Kant's argument does is call to our attention that it would be enormously odd to believe that human beings are moral creatures subject to an objective moral law, but also to believe that the universe that humans inhabit is indifferent to morality.
In other words, the existence of human persons understood as moral beings can itself be understood as a piece of evidence about the character of the universe humans find themselves in. Peter Byrne (2013, 1998) has criticized practical arguments on the grounds that they presuppose something like the following proposition: “The world is likely to be organized so as to meet our deepest human needs.” Byrne objects that this premise is howto likely to be false if there is no God and essaycontest thus arguments that assume it appear circular. However, it is not clear that only those who already believe in God will find this premise attractive. The reason for this is that humans are themselves part of the natural universe, and it seems a desirable feature of howto a resume a metaphysical view that it explain (rather than explain away) features of human existence that seem real and important. It seems likely therefore that any appeal to a practical argument will include some theoretical component as well, even if that component is essays not always made explicit.
Nevertheless, this does not mean that practical arguments do not have some important and howto make a resume distinctive features. Biogrph? For Kant it was important that religious beliefs stem from practical reason. For if religious belief were grounded solely in howto theoretical reason, then such belief would have to conform to “extrinsic and arbitrary legislation” (Kant 1790, 131). Kant thinks such a religion would be one grounded in “fear and submission,” and thus it is good that religious belief is motivated mainly by a free moral act by which the “final end of eng 102 our being” is presented to howto make us (1790, 159). For any practical argument makes religious belief existential; the issue is not merely what I believe to be true about the universe but how I shall live my life in that universe. It seems clear that no version of the moral argument constitutes a “proof” of essay topics God's existence. Each version contains premises that many reasonable thinkers reject. However, this does not mean the arguments have no force.
One might think of each version of the argument as attempting to spell out the “cost” of rejecting the make a resume, conclusion. My Three Passions Essay? Some philosophers will certainly be willing to pay the cost, and indeed have independent reasons for doing so. Make A Resume? However, it would certainly be interesting and important if one became convinced that atheism required one to reject moral realism altogether, or to embrace an implausible account of how moral knowledge is acquired. For those who think that some version or versions of the arguments have force, the sliding mode, cumulative case for theistic belief may be raised by such arguments. Adams, R., 1987, “Moral Arguments for Theism,” in The Virtue of make a resume Faith and Other Essays in Philosophical Theology , New York: Oxford University Press, 144163. Essaycontest Com? , 1999, Finite and Infinite Goods , New York: Oxford University Press. Aquinas, St. Thomas, 12651274 , Summa Theologica , New York: Benziger Brothers.
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Morriston, W., 2009, “What if God Commanded Something Terrible? A Worry for Divine-command Meta-ethics”, Religious Studies , 45(3): 249267. Newman, J. Howto Make A Resume? H., 1870, An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent , London: Burns, Oates, and Co. Nietzsche, F., 1887 , The Genealogy of Morals , translated by Horace Barnett Samuel, New York: Courier Dover Publications. Plantinga, A., 2000, Warranted Christian Belief , New York: Oxford University Press. Quinn, P., 1978, Divine Commands and Moral Requirements . Oxford: Clarendon Press , 1979, ‘Divine Command Ethics: A Causal Theory’, in Divine Command Morality: Historical and eng 102 essay Contemporary Readings , edited by Janine Idziak, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 305325.
Rashdall, H., 1920, ‘The Moral Argument for Personal Immortality’, in King's College Lectures on Immortality , London: University of howto London Press. Ritchie, A., 2012, From Morality to Metaphysics: The Theistic Implications of our Ethical Commitments , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Rizzieri, A., 2013, Pragmatic Encroachment, Religious Belief and passions Practice , Kindle edition, Palgrave Macmillan. Schellenberg, J. L., 1993, Divine Hiddenness and Human Reason , 1 st edition, Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Sidgwick, H., 1884, Methods of make Ethics , London: Macmillan and Co. Essay? Sorley, W., 1918, Moral Values and make the Idea of God , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Street, S., 2006, “A Darwinian Dilemma for Realist Theories of Value,” Philosophical Studies , 127(1): 109166. Swinburne, R., 2004, The Existence of God , 2 nd edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Essaycontest? Taylor, A., 1930, The Faith of a Moralist , London: Macmillan. , 1945, Does God Exist? , London: Macmillan.
Wielenberg, E., 2010, “On the Evolutionary Debunking of howto make a resume Morality,” Ethics 120(3): 441464. , 2005, Value and pda thesis Virtue in a Godless Universe , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Wolterstorff, N., 2007, Justice: Rights and Wrongs , Princeton: Princeton University Press. Wood, A., 1970, Kant's Moral Religion , Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Zagzebski, L., 2004, “Does Ethics Need God?” Faith and howto a resume Philosophy , 4: 294303. Byrne, Peter, “Moral Arguments for the Existence of God”, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2013 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2013/entries/moral-arguments-god/. Essaycontest Com? [This was the previous entry on make, moral arguments for the existence of God in gps macromedia pda thesis the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy see the version history.] Divine Command Theory, entry by Michael Austin, in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The author wishes to a resume thank Trent Dougherty, Mark Linville, and David Baggett for reading a draft of this essay and making many useful suggestions. Matthew Wilson also deserves thanks for tracking many bibliographical references and page numbers. The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free. View this site from another server:
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A bizarre argument about womens' empowerment. An interesting claim here, that we should indeed be concerned about womens' empowerment - something we agree upon at make, least - but that we must concentrate on their political empowerment, not the economic: The assumption behind all of these donations is the essaycontest com same: Women’s empowerment is an economic issue, one that can be separated from politics. It follows, then, that it can be resolved by howto a resume, a benevolent Western donor who provides sewing machines or chickens, and thus delivers the passions essay women of howto, India (or Kenya or Mozambique or wherever in biogrph what’s known as the “global south”) from their lives of disempowered want. Well, yes, we tend to howto think that those who are dirt poor are not empowered in any meaningful manner. Further, that the very fact that one starts to create economic value empowers. Either through being able to command that economic value itself - we do all tend to agree that richer people have more life freedom - and pda thesis, also by make a resume, being able to flash trade it. Other people would like to share in that value created, this gives you power over them. In fact, a useful definition of either wealth or empowerment is the ability to command the a resume labour and really, resources of a resume, others. Richer people, even if it's only be a couple of laying hens, have more of this. But apparently we're wrong:
It’s time for biogrph a change to the “empowerment” conversation. Development organizations’ programs must be evaluated on a resume, the basis of com, whether they enable women to increase their potential for political mobilization, such that they can create sustainable gender equality. Somehow we just can't agree with the idea that another march on the district office in favour of gender parity is going to be as successful as women owning economic assets, such in itself being most empowering. One of the joys of our argument is howto make that Karl and Friedrich would agree with us. The relations of production really do mean that a change in the economic structure leads to a change in who has the power. That is, if, as they do now in the rich world, women have more economic power then they will also have both greater political power and eng 102 topics, greater gender parity. Economic development thus bringing about the howto make desired goal rather than being an alternative to it.
Force against Catalonia risks a high cost for Spain. It pays to stay ahead of the biogrph game. If you don’t plan or innovate as a business you find a competitor will appear in front of you. If you’re a political party that doesn’t catch voters' imagination you’ll find a rival beating you to office – the Tories might like to take note of this after a disastrous end to howto make a resume their party conference in Manchester this week. But what happens if you’re a country and you don’t move with the passions essay times to a resume ensure you retain the support of your citizens? In Spain this fortnight they’re finding out. Sliding Control! It turns out that the cost of a rigid and unchanging constitution, that was designed to do one thing (namely, end a dictatorship and help the country transition to a modern democracy), is howto pretty high as it risks losing the respect of the citizens it supposedly serves. Mariano Rajoy, the Spanish Prime Minister, has spent the past half-decade hiding behind the words of the constitution that demand the Kingdom be ‘indissoluble’.
Yesterday the Spanish King himself appealed to com these words to undermine the organisers of the howto make a resume democratic vote made on Sunday. Catalonia’s independence referendum was a symptom of a system which doesn’t keep up with shifting priorities of its people. Catalans have, more and more, been drawn to a rival project that says it reflects better the aims, identity and aspirations of the people of Catalonia better than a government based in Madrid. These shifting priorities have come up against essaycontest com the hard fact of a constitution that Spanish authorities will not let bend. Companies go bust when they fail to keep up with their consumers, political parties fall out of power if voters desert them. Howto! Countries are no different, if their institutions and essay, structures don’t match their citizens’ preferences they find their authority dissipates totally and they unravel without extreme coercion. Beating old women, using military police to injure nearly a thousand of their own people, troops on the streets, and a resume, now suspending parliamentary operations makes it pretty clear that Spain is choosing the option of force.
Spain should be more careful, its constitution and modern authority is derived from its commitment to democracy. Flexibility, conciliation and eng 102 essay, a proposal to run a second and fully respected referendum could yet save Spain. Make! It’s still an option for Rajoy and the Spanish establishment. It could win a vote if it gave its Catalan citizens the choice. Really Good Essays! It’s a risk that Spain should take. And, after a decade of intransigence and a weekend of violence it’s a right Catalonia has won. If Spain doesn’t take the risk, just like a business running out cash, the make a resume state will find (very quickly indeed) it doesn’t have enough Catalan supporters to justify its continued control of the region. But what happens if Rajoy chooses to inflict pain on Catalonia? Frankly, Spain risks undermining not just its own authority but the legitimacy of the European continent to speak out on the issues of democracy and violence against citizens across the world – that’s one hell of a cost for the EU to bear in order to really essays maintain the territorial integrity of a member state. I have a small bet in howto the office. I am betting that the passions European Commission, its Parliament and its member states abandon Catalonia when it declares independence (which the Spanish court’s planned suspension of the make Catalan parliament for next Monday has almost certainly made even more inevitable).
If I’m right, if Europe turns the other way and Spain is free to crack down on its own people without any international repercussions, it will show up the flash gps macromedia lie that the EU is a project that works for its citizens and not just its bureaucracies and elites. The European Union might just find its own authority goes as well and it risks a crisis of its own legitimacy – of those that were drawn to its nature as crossing boundaries and transcending national identities – the Catalan crisis is a European crisis too. Will the EU step ahead of the make game? If artificial meat does take over then climate change just isn't much of a problem. George Monbiot tells us all that artificial meat is soon going to be a real product rather than a lab curiosity and he could be right about that. However, it's what happens after that which interests here. George goes on eng 102 essay topics, to tell us that this will, quite obviously, curb all those emissions that raising livestock currently causes. And the howto make a resume subsequent rewilding of pasture will reduce emissions once again.
As the final argument crumbles, we are left facing an uncomfortable fact: animal farming looks as incompatible with a sustained future for humans and other species as mining coal. That vast expanse of pastureland, from passions, which we obtain so little at such great environmental cost, would be better used for rewilding: the mass restoration of nature. Not only howto a resume would this help to reverse the catastrophic decline in habitats and the diversity and abundance of wildlife, but the returning forests, wetlands and savannahs are likely to absorb far more carbon than even the most sophisticated forms of grazing. OK - don't think about sliding mode control whether this will happen but think about make what if? The answer being that climate change stops being a problem. If we take seriously the IPCC and the like reports then there are various scenarios for how emissions will turn out in the future. The whole problem being a serious one if we're on A1FI or RCP 8.5 (dependent upon which set of scenarios we want to use). It not being a serious one if we're on A1T or RCP 2.6. And the truth is com that neither A1FI or RCP 8.5 are really even possible, let alone likely for we've already done more than enough to head them off. They both insist, for example, that the world will be using more coal in 2070 than it does now. Not just more but more as a portion of total energy provision.
Given what has already been done with solar and wind power that's just not going to a resume happen at all. Eng 102! And certainly not when we consider what is likely to happen to solar over the coming decades. One of the sadnesses of the make climate change debate is that whenever we see a new report stating that if we don't do something about climate change then - the results are always based upon the assumption that A1FI or RCP 8.5 are what is flash gps macromedia going to happen - entirely ignoring that we have already done something. And this thought about artificial meat just adds to this. If it is true, that the technology becomes mainstream, then we are again moving further away from the predicted danger and much closer to the don't worry about it scenario. At which point, of howto, course, then we've got to essay struggle mightily a great deal less, don't we? That is, all these predictions of how things are changing just keep telling us how much less change needs to be done. Oddly, very few people indeed tell us this. This argument about Catalonia is howto true but incomplete. Catalonia, as we've seen, has a number of people in biogrph it who would like to be independent of Spain. Make A Resume! Whether this is a good idea or not is not for essay us to decide.
But, as this Spanish writer puts it, it is possible to construct an argument about it: I live in howto make a resume Pozuelo, a municipality in the outskirts of Madrid, where I commute daily. Pozuelo is the richest city in Spain, with an average household income of eng 102 essay topics, €73,000. Howto Make! Pozuelo is full of good private schools. Many of my neighbors use neither the public school system nor the public health system. Let’s imagine one of my neighbors starts a movement for Pozuelo’s “right to decide”. His proposal to the neighbors is simple: we will remain in the EU, but we will be independent from Spain. He would explain that the over €35,000 in taxes that each of our households currently pay (including over €20,000 in income taxes) finance services that we don’t consume. He would tell them that Carabanchel is stealing from us, just like the Andalusians and the people from Extremadura steal from us. He will promise a fiscal dividend of €20,000 per family.
OK, yes, that could be true. Essay Topics! Further: I hope, dear reader, that the make argument is clear. The right to self-determination is not compatible with a welfare state and high-quality public services, especially in a single and my three passions essay, integrated market. The rich will always have an a resume, incentive to essaycontest benefit (single market, freedom of movement) without paying for redistribution to howto the poor. That’s why Europe cannot, must not, allow these self-interested demands to succeed. Tuscany or Bavaria would reap great benefits if they could split, without cost, from their states to the detriment of their fellow citizens in Southern Italy or East Germany. That would also be true. As the arguments about Scottish economic independence show us, there are indeed cross subsidies within the nation states. But that's not the end of the chain of logic at all. We all do agree that we've different redistributional responsibilities to different groups. No one at biogrph, all thinks it odd that we redistribute more to the children in our households, less to those in other households in our same nation and very much less to those in other nations.
If this were not so then there wouldn't be all that fuss about whether Germany should be paying Greek government expenses or not. Or within nation redistribution would be that 0.7% of GDP that we distribute as overseas aid. We all do indeed agree, the occasional moral philosopher aside, that the howto make a resume volume of topics, that cash flow is going to be different according to whether the recipient is perceived as in-group or ex-. Yes, we do still argue about how large the make a resume flow is but the basic idea of it being different is really essays well founded. The argument about secession and redistribution then becomes, well, who is in-group and howto make a resume, who is essaycontest com ex-? It is entirely true that if one of the richer parts of Spain leaves Spain then poorer parts will get less redistribution. A Resume! But we cannot just say that it must not happen therefore - we've got to eng 102 essay topics have a justification ofwhy the howto make different parts are all to be considered in-group. And if we're honest about it it's really not clear at all that current national borders do indeed usefully define who is in- and ex-. As Ireland leaving in 1921, Scotland arguing about it now, Yugoslavia breaking up, the implosion of the Soviet Union and all the rest show. Gps Macromedia! Just because the lines on the map are as they are isn't a sufficient justification for a resume the insistence upon redistribution across that total grouping. For that's just not how people work, is sliding control it?
A little lesson for those who would nationalise everything. Make A Resume! As we're being told many people - more so the young and inexperienced of course - are in favour of thesis, nationalising near everything. We've even seen one claim that the banking system is a natural monopoly and therefore should be nationalised. We who are rich in maturity could, as we all are of course, carry on reminding people of how bad things were when nationalisation was rife. Sadly, none of those Marinas and Allegros have survived long enough to be usable as present day examples of the horrors that were. So, instead, how things work out elsewhere: Also, there are widespread objections among consumers against LPG cylinder price.
They said they have to pay different prices for a same product of a company in howto a resume different areas. A 12.5kg cylinder sells at Tk950 in gps macromedia Dhaka, while it is priced between Tk1,100 and Tk1,200 in Rajshahi, Khulna and Barisal. On the other hand, a cylinder of state-run LP Gas Ltd sells at Tk800, though it is priced at Tk700. This type of cylinders, however, is not available in markets due to a supply shortage. This is howto not an aberration. In Venezuela they insist that the government make food nice and cheap. There is no food in Venezuela. Housing was nice and gps macromedia pda thesis, cheap in the Soviet bloc - there was a serious shortage of housing for the 70 years of the Union's existence. Bangladesh has both government and privately supplied LPG.
The government stuff isn't available. Make A Resume! Nationalisation and the political control of prices - along with that absence of the profit motive - will mean that everything is nice and cheap and you can't have any because of eng 102, a supply shortage. As it did, so it will. People aren't quite grasping how markets work. That Jezza and Labour are now promising everything to all - rent control being the latest nonsense - isn't all that much of howto a resume, a surprise. That's politics after all. Topics! But it is worrying that people just aren't grasping why so much of what is make a resume being promised is nonsense: He did it because villainous letting agents encourage owners to essays do so, insisting on “market rents”, which they alone seem to set, and which are often much higher than levels of frozen local housing allowance, and make a resume, devised without inspecting the property (my own rentier has never seen the flat and lives in biogrph another city, so it’s no surprise he relied on the agent’s viewpoint). Market rents, like any other market price, are simply the a resume balance of supply and demand. Essay! And something that most seem not to be aware of: Private rental prices paid by tenants in howto make a resume Great Britain rose by 1.6% in the 12 months to August 2017; this is down from 1.8% in July 2017. In England, private rental prices grew by 1.7%, Wales saw growth of 1.3% while Scotland saw rental prices increase by 0.3% in the 12 months to August 2017. London private rental prices grew by 1.2% in flash gps macromedia the 12 months to August 2017, that is, 0.4 percentage points below the make a resume Great Britain 12-month growth rate.
Rents are rising by less than the general inflation rate, by less than wage growth. That balance of supply and com, demand seems to be working in favour of tenants then. Further, it most certainly is not true that market rents are simply numbers being made up, not by anyone. It would, of howto a resume, course, be rent controls which are simply made up numbers. Mode! Prices simply are not random numbers allocated as we wish. They're the vital information about who wants what so much, who is willing to supply what is howto wanted. As such we mess with them at our peril. They say this about Ryanair as if it's a bad thing.
Apparently selling people something they want at a price they wish to pay is a bad idea now: But that show of transparency shouldn’t persuade anyone that this is an aberration rather than a symptom, a visible culmination of the logic of my three, low-cost economics. Ryanair is a highly efficient business in a resume an industry whose dominant vision is – in biogrph a phrase coined by howto, the government’s airline commission – that “low-cost is king”. Unbundling has become part of our world, and biogrph, not just when we fly. It shows up in howto a host of what are billed as consumer choices, and increasingly in what were once public services. Effects like this aren’t unique to airlines. Biogrph! As consumers, we have been hooked by bargains that come at a cost. Ryanair has nurtured the dream of flying to make a resume obscure cities for a tenner, because we can.
And Uber has encouraged a swath of biogrph, city dwellers to take taxis when before they might have used public transport, Complaints are shrugged off by BA bosses: customers want low fares. All of this is being said in those shocked tones of disapproval. As if it's just clear and howto, obvious that supplying what people want is a bad idea. When, of course, nothing could be further from the truth. This is the entire point and biogrph, aim of our having an economy in the first place, that people gain what they desire, that consumers get as much of what they want as can possibly be supplied to howto make them. Biogrph! There is only one valid point in the diatribe: Ultimately, the cheaper deal is making us all pay. Unbundling doesn’t eliminate costs, it just makes them external. And they still have to be met by howto make, someone, somewhere. Absolutely, and bundling doesn't eliminate costs either, it just internalises them and sliding, thus forces everyone, whether they wish the extras or not, to howto pay for essay topics them. Howto Make A Resume! Which is why we like the unbundling of course - so that consumers may indeed select from thesis, that menu of options.
The very thing being complained about is the very thing which we actually desire. Marvel at make, the effects of a truly unionised workforce. The Guardian tells us that academics in the US have taken to sleeping in their cars, even to indulging in sex work, in my three passions order to keep body and howto make, soul together. Topics! At which point we should marvel at the effects of a truly unionised workforce: There is nothing she would rather do than teach. But after supplementing her career with tutoring and howto, proofreading, the really university lecturer decided to make go to remarkable lengths to make her career financially viable. She first opted for her side gig during a particularly rough patch, several years ago, when her course load was suddenly cut in half and her income plunged, putting her on the brink of eviction. “In my mind I was like, I’ve had one-night stands, how bad can it be?” she said. “And it wasn’t that bad.” The wry but weary-sounding middle-aged woman, who lives in a large US city and really, asked to remain anonymous to protect her reputation, is an adjunct instructor, meaning she is not a full-time faculty member at any one institution and strings together a living by teaching individual courses, in her case at multiple colleges.
Adjuncts, of course, are not unionised. But their pay and conditions are caused by unionisation all the same. American academe, for those who gain tenure, is a very comfy gig indeed. Other than forcing oneself upon a student in the quad it's difficult to howto a resume get fired and while the salary is middling for mode thesis the professions the working hours and pensions are just great. And the best way to think about tenure is howto that it is acceptance into a very strong union indeed. American colleges are not cheap, as we all know, and all the revenue is flash gps macromedia pda thesis sucked up by those very well protected and comfy tenured academics and howto make a resume, the administrators.
Leaving near nothing left over for sliding those adjuncts who carry an howto make a resume, ever increasing part of the teaching load. Pda Thesis! And why is it that the adjuncts are an ever increasing part? Because the employment of those permanent staff is so expensive given their unionisation. A Resume! Further, this is what always does happen. Unions benefit those on the inside at the expense of those outside. American colleges already cost as much as anyone will pay for them. The only solution to the adjuncts' problem is essaycontest that those in make the union get less so they can have more. And, of course, Good Luck with that. We get it, you did a blog about com vaping. I love teasing my friends who use e-cigarettes. There’s something intrinsically uncool about e-cigs – they’re gadgety, a bit silly-looking thanks to their chunkiness and the huge clouds of vapour they produce, and bring to howto mind the sort of middle aged geezer who hangs around CAMRA beer festivals with a beer checklist.
I love to send my friend Dan photos of new vape shops that have silly names like “Vape Lords”, as if he loves vaping so much that he’ll be excited just to see that it exists. The “we get it, you vape” meme came about because vapers often will not shut up about it, which reminds some people of thesis, vegans or that guy who tells you he doesn’t even own a TV at every opportunity. So I understand why people don’t care about vaping and public policy. A Resume! If you’re not a smoker and haven’t experienced some of the costs of smoking in your own life – a relative dying young from lung cancer, say – it’s easy to mode control just ignore it and laugh about the people who keep hammering on about it. I was among that group until a few years ago, and thought that the issue was a minor one compared with the make weightiest issues in thesis public policy – tax, housing, immigration, Brexit. But nowadays, the more I’ve learned, the howto make more I think that e-cigarettes and related products might be one of the easiest ways to improve people’s lives we have. And if public policy can make them better, and biogrph, make people more likely to use them instead of smoking cigarettes, then it should be a major priority for people interested in improving human welfare.
The first point to note is that smoking tobacco – that is, lighting it on fire and howto make a resume, inhaling the smoke – is very harmful. On average, lifelong smokers seem to live for thesis about ten years less than if they had not smoked, and they will be sick more often. But it is also very enjoyable for many smokers, who judge the trade-offs to be worth it, perhaps because they like the howto make a resume taste or the sliding control thesis nicotine. Though it’s important to make smokers aware of the harm that smoking does, most anti-smoking regulation is based on unproven assumptions about smokers’ rationality and ability to compare costs with benefits. I want smokers to be aware of the costs of smoking, and to make sure they bear the costs they impose on others. But most taxes and anti-smoking regulations are designed to increase the cost of smoking, which unless they are systematically irrational (unproved) is welfare-reducing even if they manage to persuade smokers to stop smoking. In short: only individuals can decide if the howto make a resume pleasure of a lifetime of smoking is worth living for ten years less. Many anti-smoking policies do not work very well even by their own standards.
Taxes do, but indoor smoking bans, display bans, advertising bans and really good, others all seem to make do nothing to stop people taking up smoking (though they sometimes do lower smoking rates among current smokers). Plain packaging has been an abject failure in Australia, the only place that has had it long enough for us to measure. And, remember, most of them work by making smokers’ options worse and raising the costs of smoking, not by giving them a better alternative. If some, most or all of the enjoyment of smoking could be delivered with less or none of the harms, humanity would be in luck. Instead of really, stopping people from smoking by make a resume, raising the costs of doing so, as most smoking taxes and regulations do, and lowering human welfare, we would be able to lower the sliding control thesis number of people smoking (and dying young) while also raising human welfare. This is the promise of e-cigarettes and other reduced risk tobacco products. E-cigs are much safer than cigarettes.
The Public Health England review into them that concluded they were 95% safer was being highly cautious with that figure – the truth may be closer to 99% or 100% safer. Howto A Resume! Voluntary uptake of e-cigs since they first came to biogrph market has been very rapid and large. Howto A Resume! Since about 2011, three million people (about 5.6% of the adult population of Britain) have taken them up – one vaper for every three smokers (15.8%, 7.6 million people, smoke cigarettes). Two million of these say that they have used e-cigarettes to quit smoking, and another half a million say they are in the process of doing so, though this number may be somewhat exaggerated as self-response surveys sometimes are. Mode Control Thesis! There are some interesting, though rough and uncontrolled, correlations in howto make a resume smoking and vaping rates that might suggest a relationship that we should be interested in. It was only from 2011 that the smoking rate began to fall quickly again after five years of barely falling at all; and from 2014 there is a sharp drop in eng 102 topics under-25s smoking rates right at the same time that there is a sharp rise in e-cig use. That's quite an exciting trend! The biggest anti-smoking public health groups have come out in favour of e-cigs, with ASH, Public Health England, Cancer Research UK and many others writing to the government to say that “e-cigarettes are the most popular quitting tool in the country with more than 10 times as many people using them than using local stop smoking services”. And fair play to them for that. On their side of the debate, there are people that oppose anything even resembling smoking without good reason for doing so, and howto, giving in to them would have been easy.
What now matters is really good regulation, where Britain faces some important questions that will determine how much more e-cigs can do. Until last year, we basically left e-cigs alone from a regulatory perspective. Howto! There is no legislation (yet) banning their use in public places or buildings, though obviously many places privately choose to ban them indoors (we do at the ASI, during office hours). Advertising as a consumer product is fine, but if you want to make claims about com harm you need to get the device regulated as a medical product, which is prohibitively expensive and time-consuming. Make A Resume! There are three questions on the regulatory front that we need to make decisions about. Essaycontest Com! One, after Brexit whether we should continue the Tobacco Products Directive’s rules around things like vape liquid bottle sizes, which make vaping less convenient; two, whether we should change the advertising rules to a resume make it easier for public health campaigners and e-cig companies to advertise the fact that they are much safer than cigarettes (and nearly as enjoyable!); and three, whether we should try to my three passions essay create a regulatory framework for howto make other products that are like e-cigs so that it is easy to bring them to market. Of these, changing the biogrph rules around advertising is probably the most important. The Advertising Standards Agency is currently holding a consultation on this, at the request of public health groups.
If they do change the rules the howto a resume risk is that they only do so in biogrph a narrow way, so that e-cigs’ safety can be promoted as part of a stop-smoking campaign but not alongside claims about them being enjoyable, fashionable, or whatever. The gains are potentially enormous. Many smokers, including many who have tried but not stuck with up e-cigarettes, do not realise how much safer they are. 91% of make, dual smokers/vapers agreed in a survey that e-cigs were safer, but only 60% of smokers who had not tried an e-cig and 75% of smokers who had tried them but had given them up. Gps Macromedia! 23% of smokers said they hadn't tried an e-cig because they were concerned about safety, and of people who had tried e-cigs but gave them up, 35% said that it was because e-cigs might not be safe enough. If they could be made aware, through better advertising and marketing, that e-cigs were not just safer, but at least twenty times safer than cigarettes, millions of smokers might choose to switch. To me, one group in particular stands out here. In most age groups, men and women both smoke and vape at similar rates to each other. But in the under-25s group, only 2.6% of howto make, women vape compared to biogrph 8.9% of men.
I do not think it is much of a stretch to assume that the make uncool image e-cigs have is part of the reason for this. This age group is particularly important because people who do not become regular smokers while they’re this age are very unlikely to take up smoking in later life. If better and more convincing advertising could be brought to bear to essays make e-cigs less embarrassing for young women to use, and we merely brought their usage rates up to that of make a resume, young men, 1.7 million women who otherwise would have taken up smoking might not do so. 1.4 million disability-adjusted life years are lost every year to essay topics smoking. Even small shifts from smoking to vaping would have a very large impact in terms of life-years saved. If marketing could make e-cigs less uncool, and make smokers better informed about the howto a resume safety, the potential gains are huge. Eng 102 Essay! The method seems effective, it doesn’t cost us anything, and it’s voluntary, so we’re expanding choice and improving welfare, not just raising costs on a choice we don’t like.
For anyone interested in howto make a resume human wellbeing, making public policy more e-cig-friendly seems like it should be a top priority. I even promise to tease my vaping friends less. If you're going to be at Conservative Party Conference in Manchester next week, you might want to come to flash gps macromedia pda thesis our panel discussion on vaping, synthetic alcohol and other ways that innovation is beating the nanny state at its own game. Details here. We've long been amused by The Guardian's Hardworking Britain column. Frances Ryan writes The Guardian's Hardworking Britain column and we've long been amused at the examples being offered to us. It is always, of course, that pay isn't high enough, that people are working fingers to bone and just not, still, having enough to get by upon. Our problem being that numbers just never quite seem to add up. One example that we explored with her was this: Mike is frantic about finding money to pay for his multiple medications, but it’s buying presents for his daughters’ landmark birthdays – 13 and 18 this year – that’s playing on his mind. We reminded her that the NHS charges a maximum fee for howto make a resume all prescriptions over a year.
An entire ?104 in really good essays fact. Her response was that Mike didn't have ?104. We never did get a response to our pointing out howto a resume, that the NHS is absolutely delighted to finance this over 10 months. It is, quite obviously, possible that someone doesn't have ?10.40 a month. My Three Passions! We think it's unlikely though if someone is far enough up Maslow's Pyramid to howto a resume be worrying about birthday presents.
Which brings us to biogrph today's offering: Julia has a system to survive. Every month, she maxes out howto make a resume, her overdraft: ?1,000 in the red to pay for utility bills, council tax, mortgage, and food for herself and her daughter. Then the 49-year-old’s salary puts her back in the black – and she does it all over again. This is the definition of precarious living: a life where, in Julia’s words, “everyday needs pile up”. The overdraft isn’t enough to keep her head above water. In the past nine months, she’s fallen into ?5,000 worth of credit card debt. As we talk, Julia writes it all out – listing basic family costs, item by eng 102 topics, item: replacing broken furniture (“It was falling apart,” she says); buying her daughter shoes and a uniform for secondary school, and a bike to get there; hiring a plumber to unblock the toilet.
She can’t remember the howto make a resume last time she went out biogrph, with friends or bought something as a treat. Howto! “I have holes in control my clothes,” she says. This is of a teacher earning ?34,000 a year. We agree that this is not a fortune. Well, actually, no, we don't. By global standards Julia is in howto a resume the top 0.5%. Yes, this is adjusting for gps macromedia pda thesis price differences across geography, we're using PPP here. As we say, the numbers just never do quite add up.
Precarious just isn't the howto make a resume right word, nor is poverty, to describe someone in biogrph that top 0.5%. Seriously, whining about the make a resume living standards of one of the biogrph richest people to ever have existed on the planet just doesn't strike us as being valid poverty porn. Obviously, things are different at The Guardian.
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Custom Correlation essay paper writing service. 1997315. 6.6.any. STATS UNITS 4, 5, 6 11958 CORRELATION Fill in the blanks: 8.1. The magnitude of the correlation is a resume indicated by the correlation COEFICIENT, which can range from -1.00 to +1.00. 8.2. The most common and efficient way to essay, present the correlations of several variables with each other is by using the ANOVA summary table and the Equation variable table. 8.3. The correlation between two variables can be shown graphically by a SCATTERGRAM OR SCATTER PLOT.
8.4. The null hypothesis predicts that the a resume, correlation coefficient is equal to 0. 8.5. The Spearman rank order correlation is used when the essay topics, variables to make a resume, be correlated are measured on an ORDINAL scale. Circle the correct answer: 8.6. Essay! The hypothesis that states that r=0 is an example of NULL hypothesis. 8.7. When an increase in one variable is associated with a decrease in the other variable, the correlation between these two variables is NEGATIVE. Howto! 8.8. In order to use the Pearson product-moment correlation, the variables to be correlated should be measured on an INTERVAL scale. Eng 102 Essay! 8.9. When the howto make a resume, points on a scattergram go from the bottom left to the top right they represent a POSITIVE correlation.
8.10. Biogrph! The true correlation between two variables may be underestimated when the variance of one of the variables is VERY HIGH. 8.11. When the null hypothesis is rejected at p.001, it means that the chance that r=0 is VERY SMALL. 8.12. The null hypothesis is rejected when the obtained correlation coefficient is a resume LOWER than the critical value.
Answer/compute the following questions: 8.13 Which correlation coefficient (a or b) shows a stronger relationship between the biogrph, two variables being correlated? b. X2Y2: r = -.94 8.14. Following are two scattergrams (in Figure A and in Figure B). Four different correlation coefficients are listed under each scattergram. Howto! Choose the coefficient that best matches each scattergram. Y Y • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • X X Figure A Figure B A1. r= .50 and B3. r= .38 8.15 Following is a scattergram showing the mode, scores of 8 statistics students on two tests, X and a resume Y. Each of the passions, first 7 students is represented by a dot and howto a resume their scores are listed in the table that follows. Use the scattergram to find the biogrph, scores of student #8 on test X and test Y. The location of this student on the scattergram is represented by a large dot (•) next to number 8. Y 1 4 4 • • 5 2 3 • • 6 8 2 • • 7 3 1 • • X 1 2 3 4 5 Student # X Y 1 2 4 2 3 3 3 2 1 4 5 4 5 2 3 6 2 2 7 1 1 8 1 4 8.16 What do these two scattergrams have in common? Y Y • • • •• • •• • • • • • •• • •• • • • • • •• • •• • • •• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• • •• • • •• • • • •• • •• • • • • • •• • •• • • •• • • •• • •• • • •• Answer: they are both positively correlated 8.17 Estimate (do not calculate!) the howto make a resume, correlation between the eng 102 topics, advertising spending and howto make sales that were obtained over a 5 year span. Indicate whether the correlation is positive or negative, and whether it is high or low. Explain your answer. Year Ad Spending Sales 1 $21,000 $83 2 15,000 70 3 17,000 68 4 25,000 90 5 19,000 74 Answer: The correlation is positive, it is high as, generally, an increase or decrease in AD spending proportionally corresponds with increase or decrease in sales.
8.18 Estimate (do not calculate!) which of the two sets of essay topics consumer research studies (AB or XY) has a higher correlation. Howto! Explain your answer. Set 1 Set 2 Study # A B Study # X Y 1 41 50 1 66 47 2 41 47 2 53 36 3 38 43 3 50 45 4 30 39 4 48 38 5 28 37 5 45 39 Answer: STUDY A and B has a higher correlation because the decrease/increase in values is more vividly represented 8.19 Match the my three, correlation coefficient and the diagram illustrating this correlation. a. r = .91 b. Make! r = .28 c. Biogrph! r = .15 8.20. Study the following intercorrelation table. Two surveys measure consumer attitudes and two surveys measure marketers’ promotional spending. Knowing that Test 1 measures consumer attitudes, speculate which is the make a resume, other consumer attitudes survey (2, 3, or 4) and which two surveys measure marketers’ promotional spending. (A hint: the two consumer attitudes surveys should correlate higher with each other than with the two marketers’ promotional spending surveys, and the two marketers’ promotional spending surveys should correlate higher with each other than with the flash pda thesis, two consumer attitudes surveys.) 2 3 4 1 .35 .89 .23 2 .39 .92 3 .34 Answer: Tests 1 and 2 -- consumer attitudes surveys; Tests 3 and 4 -- marketers’ promotional spending surveys. 8.21. Following are results from a study correlating gross domestic product (GDP) and make a resume the Consumer Price Index (CPI) from a group of essay topics 16 Asian countries, a group of 15 European countries, and the two groups combined.
Group Correlation (r)/ Group Size (n)/ Significance (p value) Asia r =.59 n = 16 p =.02 Europe r =.52 n = 15 p =.05 Combined r =.53 n = 31 p =.01 a. Which correlation coefficient is the highest? ASIA, r =.59 b. Which correlation coefficient has the highest statistical significance? Combined, r =.53 c. How can a correlation of r=.53 (from the combined group) be more statistically significant (better p value) than a correlation of r=.59 (from the Asian countries)? Answer: In this case, the significance level indicates how possibly it is that the correlations shown may be due to chance (thus untrue) in the form of a resume random sampling error. Significance level is very crucial in this case as we are dealing with small sample size. Chapter 9 PREDICTION AND REGRESSION Fill in the blanks: 9.1.
In simple regression, there is one predictor. 9.2. The regression line is also called the regression line of Y on X 9.3. The slope of the regression line is represented by the letter b, in the formula Y = bX + A. 9.4. When the regression equation is used to draw a line, the point where that line intersects the vertical line (the Y-axis) is represented by the letter A which indicates the really good, intercept in howto make the formula b, in the formula Y = bX + A. 9.5. When the correlation between two variables is perfect and good essays positive, and make we use one of these variables to predict the other one, the standard error of estimate (SE) is 0. 9.6. The difference between an actual Y score and its corresponding predicted Y score (Y’) is called the Total Distance (that if we consider Y’ to be the grand mean of the distribution). 9.7.
In multiple regression with two predictors, there is one intercept, represented in the equation by the letter a. It shows the points at really good which the regression plane crosses the make a resume, y-axis in the case when values of the predictor scores are 0. Circle the correct answer: 9.8. In regression, the predictor is called the independent variable, and the predicted variable (or the biogrph, criterion variable) is called the dependent. 9.9. The predicted variable is represented by the letter Y and howto make the predictor is represented by the letter X. 9.10. In the regression equation, the letter b represents the coefficient and biogrph the letter a represents the constant. Howto A Resume! 9.11. The dependent variable can be predicted more accurately as the correlation between the independent and really good dependent variables increases. 9.12. As the correlation between the predictor and howto a resume the criterion variable increases, the standard error of estimate (SE) decreases. 9.13.
The predicted Y scores are expected to be around the regression line. 9.14. The criterion is predicted more accurately when SE is smaller. Answer/compute the following questions: 9.15. Study the following graph.
If a company is able to maintain a 25% gross margin (the predictor X), what is the company’s predicted Return on Investment (ROI) (the criterion Y)? NO GRAPH PROVIDED, please make your own decision by simply looking at the graph. 9.16. Compute SE (the standard error of mode control estimate) when the howto make a resume, standard deviation of the Y-variable is 5 (SDY=5) and the correlation is 0.00 (r=0.00). Use the following equation to compute the SE: What is the relationship between the SE (the standard error of estimate) and the SD of the dependent variable Y (SDY=5) when the correlation is zero (r=.00)? Explain. In this case SE = 5 because if the correlation equals zero 0, then SE = standard deviation of the criterion variable Y. 9.17. Essaycontest Com! A sales manager used her last year’s mid-year and end of the year sales results to derive a prediction equation. Make A Resume! This year her sales force has the same 6 salespeople as last year and essaycontest the market conditions are very similar to last year. Howto Make! In the eng 102 essay topics, middle of this year the manager wants to predict the year-end sales results for each of her 6 salespeople.
Following are the make, mid-year sales results of the 6 salespeople, and the prediction equation. Eng 102 Topics! a. Calculate the make a resume, salespeople’s' predicted end of the topics, year sales results (Y’ scores). (Note: Use the prediction equation to compute the students’ Y’ scores.) Salesperson Salespersons’ Mid-Year Sales X Predicted Final Sales Y’ Jay 52 Dorin 45 Sam 54 Michael 49 Beth 42 Rachel 55 b = 1.5 a = 13.2 Y’ = 13.2 + 1.5 * 52 + 45 * 1.5 + 54 * 1.5 + 49 * 1.5 + 42 * 1.5 + 55 * 1.5 = 458.7 Individual results can be derived by make using one predictor in the formula (e.g. Jay: 13.2 + 52 * 1.5 = 91.2) 9.18. Study the following graph, and determine what is the value of the slope of the regression line (i.e., b). Control! Explain your answer.
NO GRAPH PROVIDED, please make your own decision by simply looking at the graph. 9.19. Howto A Resume! Draw a regression line in the following graph, when the intercept is 10 (a=10), the mean of the X-variable is 20 (X¯=20), and the mean of the Y-variable is essay 30 (Y¯=30). Make! This regression line intercepts Y-axes at 10. The regression line runs in the middle of the sliding thesis, points that are structured on the graphs as follows: The regression line is linked through the point of averages, generally its slope is equal to Standard Deviation of howto make Y divided by the Standard Deviation of eng 102 essay topics X if correlation is greater than or equals zero (this value is negative if correlation coefficient is howto negative). 9.20. Figure A shows three predictors, X1, X2, and X3, and their correlations with the criterion variable Y1. Figure B shows three predictors, Z1, Z2, and Z3, and their correlations with a criterion variable Y2. a. Which predictor variables, those depicted in Figure A or those depicted in Figures B, correlate higher with each other? b. Which set of three predictors, those shown in biogrph Figure A (X1, X2, and X3) or those shown in Figure B (Z1, Z2, and Z3) is likely to predict the criterion variables (Y1 or Y2) more accurately? Figure A Figure B NO GRAPH PROVIDED, please make your own decision by simply looking at a resume the graph. Unit 5 Chapter 10 t TEST Fill in the blanks: 10.1.
In a t test for a single sample, the essay topics, sample's mean is compared to the population Mean. 10.2. When we use a paired-samples t test to compare the pretest and posttest scores for a group of 45 people, the degrees of freedom (df) are (n-1) = 44 . 10.3. Make! If we conduct a t test for independent samples, and n1 = 32 and n2 = 35, the degrees of control thesis freedom (df) = n1 + n2 2; = 65 10.4. Howto A Resume! A researcher wants to study the effect of college education on people’s earning by comparing the annual salaries of a randomly-selected group of 100 college graduates to the annual salaries of 100 randomly-selected group of people whose highest level of really good education is high school. To compare the mean annual salaries of the two groups, the researcher should use a t test for independent samples. 10.5. A training coordinator wants to determine the howto make a resume, effectiveness of a program that makes extensive use of educational technology when training new employees.
She compares the scores of her new employees who completed the training on mode control a nationally-normed test to the mean score of all those in the country who took the same test. The appropriate statistical test the howto, training coordinator should use for her analysis is the t test for independent samples. 10.6. As part of the process to develop two parallel forms of com a questionnaire, the persons creating the questionnaire may administer both forms to a group of students, and a resume then use a t test for paired samples to compare the mean scores on essaycontest com the two forms. Circle the correct answer: 10.7.
A difference of 4 points between two homogeneous groups is howto likely to be more statistically significant than the same difference (of 4 points) between two heterogeneous groups, when all four groups are taking completing the biogrph, same survey and have approximately the howto make, same number of com subjects. 10.8. A difference of 3 points on a 100-item test taken by two groups is likely to howto a resume, be more statistically significant than a difference of 3 points on a 30-item test taken by the same two groups. 10.9. When a t test for paired samples is used to compare the pretest and the posttest means, the number of pretest scores is the biogrph, same as than the number of posttest scores.
10.10. When we want to compare whether females' scores on the GMAT are different from males' scores, we should use a t test for independent samples. 10.11. Make! In studies where the alternative (research) hypothesis is biogrph directional, the critical values for a one-tailed test should be used to determine the level of significance (i.e., the p value). 10.12. When the alternative hypothesis is: HA: µ1 = µ2, the critical values for two-tailed test should be used to determine the howto make a resume, level of statistical significance. Answer/compute the sliding control, following questions: 10.13. In a study conducted to compare the test scores of experimental and control groups, a 50-item test is administered to howto a resume, both groups at the end of the study. The mean of the experimental group on the test is 1 point higher than the mean of the control group. Gps Macromedia! The researchers conduct a t test for independent samples to compare the howto a resume, two means. The obtained t value is 1.89, and the p-value is .05.
Can we conclude that the experimental treatment was clearly effective because the t value is statistically significant? Explain. It can be concluded that t value is statistically significant because P= 0.05, which is the nominal probability value allowing to consider the research to be effective. 10.14. Study the following formula for a t test for independent samples. What measures (e.g., the mean of com Group 1) are needed in order to calculate the t value? (Respond in words, not symbols).
According to Statistical theory, the two P values have to be equal. The t statistics has to be equal in effect. The signs are the same if the howto make, t statistic is derievd by subtracting the mean of group 0 from the good essays, mean of group 1. 10.15. Identify each of the following as a null hypothesis, a directional hypothesis, or a nondirectional hypothesis. a. µ1 ≠ µ2 is a NON-DIRECTIONAL hypothesis b. Howto Make! µ1 = µ2 is a NULL hypothesis c. µ1 µ2 is a DIRECTIONAL hypothesis d. µ1 - µ2 = 0 is a NULL hypothesis 10.16. A company psychologist wants to compare the eng 102 essay, scores of a group of 35 employees on two different IQ tests: one is a group IQ test and one is an individually-administered IQ test. The psychologist compares the mean scores of the employees on the two tests. Which t test should the howto make, psychologist use to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two sets of IQ scores? Explain. The psychologist should use the t test for independent variables (unpaired). We use a simple check to see if the paired t test can apply - if one sample can contain a dissimilar number of data points from the biogrph, other, then we can’t use the howto make a resume, paired t test. In our case, the data points in two tests may be different.
10.17. The CEO of ABC Company wishes to determine whether there are differences between union members and managers in their attitude toward the company. The CEO asks 30 randomly selected union members and 28 managers to complete a 40-item questionnaire designed to measure attitudes toward the company. A higher score indicates a more favorable attitude towards the company. The results are displayed in the following table: Group n Mean SD t p Union 30 18.30 9.85 1.92 .03 Managers 28 23.07 9.07 a. Which t test should the essay topics, CEO use to compare the responses of the union members and the managers? Explain.
CEO should use t-distribution because it accurately shows attitudes toward the company based on the sample. b. What are the degrees of freedom (df)? The degrees of howto freedom for an estimate equals the number of observations (values) minus the number of biogrph additional parameters estimated for that calculation. Make A Resume! c. Com! What are the conclusions of the CEO based on the results in the table? Explain. CEO needs to take additional sampling to howto make a resume, assure accurate results. 10.18. Based on the results of the sliding thesis, study described in the previous question, the CEO and the HR manager decide to implement several programs to get the union more actively involved in making decisions at make ABC. After implementing the programs for a year, the CEO asks the same group of union members (n=30) to about their attitudes towards the company again, using the same questionnaire as the one used the year before. The following table displays the results obtained by the CEO: Scores Mean SD t p Pretest 18.30 9.85 7.13 .0001 Posttest 22.10 8.88 a. Which t test should be used to analyze the data?
Explain. Paired samples t test should be used. This type of test should be used when the number of points in each data set is the same and is organized in pairs, in good essays which there is a specific relationship between each pair of numbers. b. What are the degrees of freedom (df)? (df) = n-1 = 29. Make! c. Based on pda thesis the results in the table, can the CEO conclude that the programs worked? Explain. The CEO can conclude that the programs failed to bring the desired results. The general rule is: We can conclude that the matter influenced positive results if the significance value is less than .05.
We can conclude that the howto make a resume, matter failed to sliding thesis, influence positive results when the significance value is greater than 05. 10.19. A plant manager randomly divides her employees into a resume two groups. One group (Group A) includes 32 employees and the second one (Group B) includes 30 employees. Essaycontest Com! After dividing the employees, the manager wants to confirm that the two groups are indeed similar in performance. He hypothesizes that there is howto a resume no statistically significant difference between the com, two groups. To compare the two groups, the plant manger use ratings given by make the employees’ front-line supervisors at the end of the previous year.
The rating scale ranges from 5 (excellent employee) to 1 (on the brink of termination). Using these ratings, the manager conducts a t test to determine whether the two groups are similar. Essays! The results are as follows: Group n Mean SD t A 32 3.66 1.31 2.008 B 30 3.00 1.26 tcrit(.05,df)=2.000; tcrit(.02,df)=2.390; tcrit(.01,df)=2.660 a. Howto A Resume! Which t test was used and why? Independent samples t test was used. The general rule states that when samples are taken from two dissimilar populations or from randomly chosen individuals from the same population at diverse times, we have to use the independent samples t test. b. What were the degrees of freedom (df)? (df) = n1+n2-2 = 60 c. What are the biogrph, manager’s conclusions?
Explain. There is make a resume a difference between two groups. The point at which degrees of good essays freedom intersect is the critical value of howto make a resume t. Our observed value is mode thesis larger than the critical value, thus we reject the null hypothesis. 10.20. Joe, a new manager suspects that the 23 new employees assigned to his department have lower levels of social skills than the make, new employees hired into the all the other departments in the rest of the company. The company gives all prospective employees a social skills assessment before being hired. The mean score obtained by Joe’s new employees is 635.13 and the mean score of all 678 new employees recently hired by the company on the same social skills assessment is 430 (%uF06D=430). A t test is used to compare the social skills assessment scores of topics Joe’s new employees to all the new employees in the company. The results of the howto make a resume, t test are: X¯ = 635.13 S2 = 71.53 t value = 13.75 p = .0001 a. Which t test is used and why? Independent samples t test was used (2-tailed).
In our case the samples are taken from randomly chosen individuals from the eng 102 topics, same population at diverse times, thus we have to use the make, independent samples t test. Pda Thesis! b. What are the howto a resume, degrees of freedom (df)? (df) = n1+n2-2 = 699 c. What are Joe’s conclusions? Explain. Two groups’ skills differ from each other. In our case, the mean for group 1 is significantly greater than that for topics, group 2, thus we reject the null hypothesis. Chapter 11 ANOVA Fill in the blanks: 11.1. While a t test is used to compare two means, the one-way ANOVA can be used to a resume, simultaneously compare more than 2 groups. 11.2. An ANOVA is considered to be an extension of the t test for independent samples because both investigate differences between samples. Biogrph! 11.3.
By conducting a one-way ANOVA test to compare multiple (more than 2) group means simultaneously instead of conducting a series of t tests to compare these means, the potential level of error is reduced. 11.4. In order to apply the ANOVA test, the data should be measured on an interval or ratio scale. Howto Make A Resume! 11.5. The one-way ANOVA is used when there is one independent variable.
11.6. With 3 groups, the flash gps macromedia pda thesis, null hypothesis (Ho) in ANOVA is more than 1: 11.7. The total (or grand) mean in ANOVA can be thought of as the weighted average of the sample means. Howto A Resume! 11.8. Biogrph! The SSW (within-groups sum of squares) and the SSB (between-groups sum of howto squares) are equal to the sum of squares total (SST). 11.9. To find the MSB, we divide the SSB by dfB.
11.10. To compute the F ratio, we divide the U1/d1 mean square by the U2/d2 mean square. 11.11. Factorial ANOVA is my three essay commonly used when there are at least 2 independent variables. Circle the howto a resume, correct answer: 11.12. The following is an example of a null hypothesis in ANOVA: %uF06D1 %uF0B9 %uF06D2 and/or %uF06D1 %uF0B9 %uF06D3 and/or %uF06D2 %uF0B9 %uF06D3 11.13. Post hoc comparisons should be conducted in cases where the F ratio IS statistically significant. 11.14. Biogrph! The F ratio is likely to a resume, be statistically significant when the differences between the group means are large. 11.15. The F ratio is more likely to be statistically significant when it is used to analyze scores from groups that are heterogeneous in regard to the characteristic or behavior being measured.
Answer the following questions: 11.16. An ANOVA procedure is used to analyze data from a study comparing scores of 3 groups. Following are the obtained mean squares and the appropriate critical values for the F ratio at p=.05 and p=.01. MSB = 26.50 MSW = 3.23 Fcrit (.05,2,20) = 3.49 AND Fcrit (.01,2,20) = 5.85 a. Compute the obtained F ratio. Really Essays! F = MSB / MSW = 8.2 b. Determine whether the results are statistically significant The results are NOT statistically significant, because F value is greater than critical value. c. Report your conclusions. We should accept null hypothesis, stating that means of the groups are the same. 11.17. Make! Three different age groups of consumers (ages 18-25, 26-35, 36-45) in two different regions of the country (Midwest, South) were surveyed about their likelihood of buying a new product. Following are the my three, means and make a resume standard deviations obtained by the 3 age groups in each of the two regions: Means Standard Deviations Region Ages 18-25 Ages 26-35 Ages 36-45 Ages 18-25 Ages 26-35 Ages 36-45 Midwest 50.2 52.8 53.3 2.5 3.1 2.7 South 41.0 48.5 55.9 2.7 3.2 2.8 Two separate one-way ANOVA procedures are conducted to test whether the differences between the three means of the sliding control thesis, three age groups in make a resume each of the two regions are statistically significant. Estimate which F ratio would be larger: The one resulting from analyzing the survey results obtained from the three age groups in the Midwest or the one from biogrph, analyzing the survey results obtained by the three age groups in the South. Howto A Resume! Explain your answer.
The F ratio resulting from analyzing the flash, survey results obtained by the three age groups in the South will be larger because the make a resume, means’ difference within these groups is essaycontest com larger the one in Midwest. 11.18. Three statistics classes at University A took the same test as did 3 other statistics classes at College B. Following are the means and standard deviations of the 3 classes in each of the two schools: Means Standard Deviations SCHOOL Stats Class 1 Stats Class 2 Stats Class 3 Stats Class 1 Stats Class 2 Stats Class 3 University A 71.4 78.8 90.2 3.2 4.3 4.8 College B 72.1 78.6 89.3 9.3 6.6 8.7 Two separate one-way ANOVA procedures are used to test whether the differences between the howto make a resume, means in each of the two schools are statistically significant. Estimate which F ratio would be larger: the one resulting from analyzing the test scores obtained by the three groups at really good University A or the one resulting from analyzing the howto make a resume, test scores of the three groups at College B. Explain your answer. Biogrph! The F ratio resulting from analyzing the test scores of the three groups at College B will be larger because College B’s case presents an F ratio that is statistically significant and thus the null hypothesis should be rejected.
11.19. Each of the two figures below (Figure A and Figure B) depicts a set of 3 distributions. Two separate one-way ANOVA analyses are performed to test whether there are statistically significant differences between the three means in each set and howto make a resume two F ratios are computed. Estimate which of the two F ratios is likely to be higher and explain your answer. Figure A Figure B The general rule is: if F value is greater than critical value, difference between groups is not statistically significant. If F value is less than critical value, then difference between groups is statistically significant. 11.20. Match the interaction shown in the following graph with one of the passions essay, three F ratios (a, b, or c) that was calculated for howto make a resume, the interaction. Explain your answer. Essaycontest Com! ANSWER: a. F=3.23 (p=.07) NOT statistically significant b. F=5.86 (p=.002) statistically significant c. F=2.90 (p=.08) NOT statistically significant 11.21.
In a study comparing means of 4 groups, the howto make a resume, F ratio was significant at mode control thesis the p.05 level. The 4 means are Mean 1=13.12; Mean 2=9.31; Mean 3=13.65; and Mean 4=11.34. Tukey’s post hoc comparison is used to howto, test which means statistically differ from each other. Flash Gps Macromedia Pda Thesis! The obtained HSD value at the p=. 05 level is 3.74. Which means are statistically significantly different from each other? Explain. Mean 2 and Mean 3 statistically differ from each other.
Since our F score is statistically significant, we compare sets of make two various means at flash gps macromedia a time in order to decide where the significance difference is situated. To do this, one usually runs a series of Tukey's post-hoc tests, which are like a number of t-tests. 11.22. A pilot-test marketing research study comparing two new models of widgets was conducted in two companies (Company A and Company B). In each of the two companies, one manufacturing plant used one new widget and the other plant used the other new widget. Make! At the end of the year, the employees using the new widgets in their jobs completed a questionnaire assessing their satisfaction with the widgets. Following is a table listing the mean scores of the two plants questionnaire scores for each of the two companies (those that used new widget 1 and those that used new widget 2). Study the biogrph, data in the table. (Note: Do not attempt to a resume, compute the F ratios or the exact level of significance in order to answer the questions below.) Company Means of Employees Using Widget 1 Means of Employees Using Widget 2 Company A 55 53 Company B 50 48 a. Are there differences in questionnaire scores as a result of the using the two widgets?
Explain. Yes, there are differences in questionnaire scores as a result of the using the two widgets. The paired means show differences when they are compared on the one-to-one scale. b. Are there differences in questionnaire scores between the two companies? Explain. Yes, there are differences in questionnaire scores between the two countries. Varying psychological and social factors influence this difference between the biogrph, countries. c. Graph the interaction. Is there an interaction effect? Explain. Chapter 12 CHI SQUARE Fill in the blanks: 12.1. Howto Make! In a chi square test, the observed frequencies are compared to flash gps macromedia, the expected frequencies.
12.2. Make! The null hypothesis for eng 102 essay topics, the chi square test states that there is howto no statistically significant difference between the expected frequencies and the observed frequencies. Sliding Control! 12.3. In order to use a chi square test, the data have to be in the form of random sample. 12.4. In order to create categories for a chi square test, observations that are measured on howto an interval scale should first be divided into categories in a raw frequency way.
12.5. The degrees of freedom (df) for a 3x4 chi square table are 6. 12.6. In a goodness of fit chi square test with 4 cells, the biogrph, degrees of freedom (df) are 3. Circle the correct answer: 12.7. A chi square test is called a test of independence when there are two variables. 12.8.
The chi square value increases as the differences between the observed and expected frequencies increase. 12.9. In a 2x2 chi square test the total number of frequencies in the first row should always be the same as the total number of frequencies in the second row. A Resume! For each of the following examples, choose which type of chi square test should be used: Goodness of fit test, or test of independence: 12.10. To test whether a four-sided spinning top has an equal probability of essay topics landing on any of its four sides the chi square test of howto a resume independence should be used. 12.11. To test whether two variables are related to or are independent of each other the chi square test of independence should be used. Mode Control Thesis! 12.12. To test whether there are differences or similarities between men and women in the type of books (e.g., fiction, sci-fi) they read the chi square test of independence should be used.
12.13. To test whether the number of right- and left-handed subjects in howto a resume a given population is higher than the national proportions the chi square Goodness of fit test should be used. Answer/compute the gps macromedia pda thesis, following questions: 12.14. A random sample of 100 men and 100 women were asked whether they would be willing to work as unpaid volunteers. The results indicate that 54% of the men and 64% of the women responded YES to this question, while 46% of the men and 36% of the women responded NO to the question. The chi square test was used to determine whether the men and women in the study differ in their willingness to make, work as unpaid volunteers. The obtained chi square value was 2.06 (%uF0632(obt)=2.06). The appropriate critical value at p=.05 is 3.841 (%uF0632crit (.05)=3.841). My Three Passions! a. Which chi square test was used to analyze the data and determine whether there are gender differences between the responses of the men and women who participated in howto make the survey?
Explain. Chi-square test of independence was used. In our case, we test whether men and women differ or not in their volunteering attitude, which is sliding whether there is any dependence between being a man or a woman and howto being more open to working as a volunteer. b. What was the null hypothesis for topics, the study? The null hypothesis states the proportion of the population in the selected category. Howto Make A Resume! In our case, the null hypothesis was that men and women do significantly NOT differ in their willingness to work as unpaid volunteers. c. Essay Topics! Was there a gender difference between the responses of the male and female participants? Explain. Because the obtained chi-square value is smaller than the critical value, we accept the null hypothesis: there is no significant difference between men and women’s willingness to work as unpaid volunteers.
12.15. Undergraduate students in a large state university are required to take an introduction to psychology course. Three sections of this course are offered at the same time and are taught by three different instructors. Make A Resume! The chi square test is used to determine if any of sliding mode control thesis these sections has significantly more students, which may indicate that the instructor of that section is howto make a resume more popular than the other two instructors. The enrollment figures for the three sections are presented in essay the following table. The chi square value is 6.29 (%uF0632=6.29) significant at the p.05 level. INSTRUCTOR NUMBER OF STUDENTS ENROLLED Dr. Make A Resume! Smith 114 Dr. Brown 128 Dr.
Johnson 91 a. Essaycontest Com! Which chi square test should be used to determine whether any of the howto make, sections has a statistically significantly higher number of students? Explain. Chi-square test of independence should be used. This test examines whether the number of students in each class depends on how popular the instructor is. b. Topics! What are the expected frequencies? We calculate the expected values for each cell by multiplying the row total times the column total and by dividing by the grand total. 114*3/333= 1.03 128*3/333= 1.15 91*3/333= 0.82 c. What are the degrees of make a resume freedom (df)? (df) = N-1 = 2 d. What are your conclusions? Explain. Really! Since chi-square value is significant at p0.5, we reject the null hypothesis and thus, the instructor of one section is a resume more popular than the other two. My Three Passions Essay! 12.16. Randomly selected groups of 120 men and 150 women are surveyed about their attitudes toward a new toothpaste that was recently introduced to the market.
One of the questions asks them whether they will or will not buy the a resume, new toothpaste. The respondents’ responses to this question are recorded in the following table. The data were analyzed using a chi square test. The obtained chi square value is 5.65, significant at eng 102 topics the .02 level (p=.02). GROUP WILL BUY WILL NOT BUY Men 75 45 Women 72 78 a. Which chi square test should be used to analyze the data and answer the research questions? Explain. Chi-square test of independence was used in order to test whether there was a ny dependence between gender and a resume toothpaste buying habits. b. Is there a statistically significant difference in the responses of the com, men and women?
Explain. We reject the null hypothesis because the obtained chi square value is 5.65, significant at the p0.5 and thus, there is a statistically significant difference in the responses of the make, men and women. 12.17 . In a recent national poll, people were asked the following question: In your opinion, how important is it for the Federal government to sliding control, regulate retail gas prices? The responses of those who commute more than 20 miles each day were compared to the national responses. A chi square test was used to analyze the data in make a resume order to determine whether there is a difference in responses between those who commute more than 20 miles and the national responses. The results of the study are displayed in the following table. The analysis revealed a chi square value of 4.32, significant at p=.36. RESPONSE COMMUTE 20 MILES NATIONAL TOTALS Very Important 78 80 Fairly Important 13 15 Not Very Important 6 3 Not Important at All 2 1 Don't Know 1 1 a. Which chi square test was used to topics, analyze the data? Explain.
Goodness of howto make a resume fit test should be used. My Three Passions Essay! This test shows if the observed frequencies are dissimilar to what we would expect to howto, find. b. What was the null hypothesis? The null hypothesis was that there was NO significant difference in responses between those who commute more than 20 miles and the national responses. c. What are the conclusions of the study? Explain. We reject the null hypothesis because the obtained chi square value is significant at the p0.5 and topics thus, there is significant difference in responses between those who commute more than 20 miles and make a resume the national responses. 12.18. An advertising executive is interested in the color preferences among her target consumers. The advertiser hypothesizes that the consumers would prefer certain colors to others. For the purpose of the study, only five primary colors are included: yellow, red, blue, green, and black. A group of eng 102 topics 50 consumers are brought to a marketing research firm and are asked to howto a resume, select one ball from a box full of balls.
In the box there are 50 yellow balls, 50 red, 50 blue, 50 green, and 50 black. The colors of the balls chosen by the consumers are recorded and a chi square test is essaycontest com used to howto make, analyze the data and answer the topics, advertiser’s research question. The obtained chi square value is 8.800 (%uF0632obt = 8.800) and the appropriate critical value is howto make a resume %uF0632crit (.05,4) = 9.488. Following are the colors chosen by the consumers: Color No. of Times the Color Was Chosen (Observed Frequencies) Yellow 6 Red 12 Blue 14 Green 4 Black 14 a. Which chi square test was used to analyze the data? Explain.
Chi-square test of independence should be used. The researcher wants to test whether there is any direct relationship between people choosing different colors or whether such selection is random. b. What are the expected frequencies? We calculate the expected values for each cell by multiplying the row total times the column total and by dividing by the grand total. Thus, 6*5/50= 0.6 12*5/50= 1.2 14*5/50= 1.16 4*5/50=0.4 14*5/50= 1.16 c. What are the study’s conclusions? Explain. Because the obtained chi-square value is com smaller than the critical value, we accept the null hypothesis: there is no real relation between colors and customers choosing them as some particular ones. 12.19. A study of howto a resume 3000 women and men was conducted to explore whether there were gender and industry gaps in job satisfaction.
The study’s participants were asked to respond to the statement I'm happy with my current job by circling Yes or No. The study found that in service industries, 60% of the women and 67% of the men responded Yes. When the same statement was posed to employees in manufacturing industries, 29% of the women and 48% of the men responded Yes. To answer the research questions, two chi square tests were conducted. The first one compared the responses of women and men working in the service industry, and the second one compared the responses of women and men employed in mode the manufacturing industry. The results of the analyses are summarized in the following table. Howto Make A Resume! Is there a difference in essay topics the responses of women and men? Explain. GROUP PERCENT RESPONDING YES χ2 p Service Women Men 60 67 0.30 .53 Manufacturing Women Men 29 48 4.69 .03 There is NO significant difference in responses of women and men in service industry because we accept the null hypothesis in this case: obtained chi-square value is howto make less than the control, critical value and p0.5.
In the howto a resume, second case, observed frequencies are greater than expected frequencies There is my three passions a significant difference in responses of women and men in howto manufacturing industry because we reject the null hypothesis in this case: obtained chi-square value is greater than the critical value and p0.5. Unit 6 Chapter 13 RELIABILITY Fill in eng 102 essay the blanks: 13.1. When we use a reliable instrument over and over, we expect to get the same result each time we use that instrument. 13.2. The consistency of scores obtained for the same group of a resume people upon repeated measures is an indication of the instrument's reliability.
13.3. To assess the test-retest reliability of an gps macromedia instrument, the statistical test of difference between two means is used. 13.4. The two components that make up an observed score are the true score and an error score. 13.5. One way to assess a test’s reliability is to compare two alternate forms of the test with each other. 13.6. Howto! The Spearman Brown Prophecy formula is eng 102 essay topics used to calculate the reliability of a full-length test by first calculating the make a resume, difference or time-length between the two split halves. 13.7. Biogrph! When a person has a score of howto make 85 and the test has a standard error of estimate (SEM) of 5, it means that 68% of the time the person's true score is flash expected to howto make, be between the scores of 75 and 88.
Circle the correct answer: 13.8. Instruments measuring human behavior tend to be less reliable than those measuring physical characteristics. 13.9. The reliability of achievement tests is likely to be higher than that of tests measuring attitudes and opinions. 13.10. The test's reliability is likely to increase when the biogrph, test's error component is decreased. 13.11. Howto Make A Resume! One way to increase the test's reliability is to increase the number of my three passions items in the test. 13.12. An instrument is administered twice to the same group of people and the correlation between the two set of scores is used to assess the howto a resume, reliability of the test. The reliability would be higher when the time interval between the two testing sessions is shorter.
13.13. The correlation between two split halves of a test is likely to be lower than the correlation between two alternate forms of the same test. 13.14. To assess the reliability of really good a test using internal consistency methods, the test is administered multiple (e.g. for howto make, test-rest) times. 13.15. To assess the inter-scorer reliability of an essay, the sliding, degree of howto make agreement between people who score the same essay is commonly used. 13.16. The higher the reliability, the lower the standard error of measurement (SEM). 13.17. When a student takes a norm-referenced test, we can expect that the student’s observed score would be within 50% and good essays 75% SEM 68%/95% of the time 13.18. When the items on a test are too easy or too difficult, the test’s reliability is likely to decrease.
13.19. Teacher-made tests are likely to be more reliable than commercially produced tests. 13.20. The reliability of tests used for decisions about individual students should be higher than the reliability of tests used for group decisions. Chapter 14 VALIDITY Circle the best answer: 14.1. Correlation may be used to assess the content validity of a test. a. face b. content c. criterion-related 14.2. A high correlation of a newly developed instrument with another well-established instrument measuring the same thing indicates a high concurrent validity. a. content b. concurrent c. Howto Make A Resume! face 14.3. The type of validity that is essay most important for achievement tests is the construct validity. a. face b. content c. construct 14.4.
The type of validity that is most important for measuring psychological traits is content validity. Make A Resume! a. construct b. Essay! content c. predictive Circle the correct answer: 14.5. Most tests are valid for a single purpose. 14.6. When there is a poor match between course content and a test that is make a resume used to assess students in the course, the test is likely to have a low content validity. 14.7.
Skills tests written by experienced trainers for their own companies tend to have higher content validity than commercial tests that are designed to be used nationally in a variety of classrooms. 14.8. Well-defined instructional objectives may help test writers create tests that have high construct validity. 14.9. Administering two instruments to the same group of people within a short time is done to establish the instrument’s concurrent validity. Fill in thesis the blanks: 14.10. In studies conducted to assess how well the GMAT (Graduate Management Admission Test) predicts graduate school GPA (grade point average), the GMAT is considered the quantitative variable and the GPA is the qualitative variable.
14.11. To establish the concurrent validity of howto a newly-developed instrument, we can compare it with a well-established instrument which measures the same thing. 14.12. Correlating the scores from a newly-developed short version of a personality inventory with a similar full-length personality inventory may be used to eng 102 essay, establish the convergent validity of the short-version inventory. 14.13. When a test simply appears to measure what it is intended to measure, we conclude that the howto make, test has a high curricular validity. 14.14. In assessing the instrument’s criterion-related validity, the relationship between the instrument and the criterion is indicated by the correlation coefficient. 14.15. Mode! When a test systematically discriminates against a group of test-takers, the test is howto a resume considered invalid. Buy Correlation essay paper online.
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Configuring lircd (the LIRC daemon) If you want to use more than one remote control you can simply concatenate the config files: cat config1 config2 config. Note: If you already have a config file for the libirman package you can convert it using the irman2lirc script that you can find in the contrib directory. It's also possible to howto a resume, convert CCF files and Pronto codes to a valid lircd.conf file using the biogrph pronto2lirc script. A description of the file format is available on the WinLIRC pages. In fact you don't need to a resume, know anything about it except that it's maybe the most important part of the package. Using multiple different devices simultaneously.
There are some situations when you might want to use multiple devices with LIRC simultaneously. Sliding Mode Control! E.g. you might have a TV card receiver and want to control your set-top box with a home-brew serial port transmitter at the same time. Or you might have a serial port receiver connected to howto make, your PC and a different network connected receiver (UDP, different LIRC/WinLIRC instance) in my three, a different room. The configuration depends much on howto a resume the type of devices you want to use. If you are using devices that require a kernel module, then you should first compile and install LIRC individually for each device, basically just to get all required kernel modules installed. The further steps depend on which user-space driver is used in lircd for your devices. Most devices (actually all devices that use a kernel module) use the default driver. You can check which user-space driver is essaycontest, used for your device by running lircd --driver=? . Remember that this might change each time you compile lircd for make a resume, a different device. If you want to use devices that use different user-space drivers then you have to compile LIRC once again using ./configure --with-driver=any . This will compile almost any user-space driver into lircd that is mode, available (but does not compile any kernel modules, that's why you had to build them individually before).
After that you should check if the drivers you want are listed now with lircd --driver=? . You should get something like this: If you want to use more than one device that uses a kernel module you should now have a look at the character device setup in /dev/. Each LIRC kernel module provides a device with major number 61 and a minor number beginning at 0 which is counted up every time a new driver is a resume, loaded (note: both the major number and the minor number concept are subject to control, change in future LIRC releases). If you want to use two devices then the howto a resume LIRC related files in /dev/ should look something like this (this might be done automatically if you are using devfs or sysfs): You can create new entries by running: For each device you want to essays, use you have to make a resume, start an eng 102 topics individual lircd instance.
If you want to receive events from all receivers at one socket interface you have to connect the different lircd interfaces with an additional TCP/IP socket. This could look e.g. like this: All events will now be visible at /var/run/lirc/lircd. Howto Make! The second lircd instance connects to flash gps macromedia pda thesis, the first instance using a TCP/IP socket. The default port is make a resume, 8765. It can be changed by providing an really essays optional parameter to the --listen switch. If you have more lircd instances you want to connect to, you can provide multiple --connect parameters to the last lircd instance. Please note that lircd will not relay events received from howto make one lircd to another. So you can't daisy-chain lircds. Instead you need a star topology setup.
In order to check each lircd instance individually if events are being received, just use irw providing the according socket interface on the command line: Also using a special lircd instance to send infra-red commands is flash, quite easy: use the --device command line option of irsend to provide the desired socket interface. The only situation where the described procedure will not work is when you have two devices that both use a kernel driver that can only handle one device at once like e.g. lirc_serial, lirc_sir or lirc_parallel. You can still make it work with a trick by compiling the howto a resume affected driver multiple times using different names and eng 102, different major numbers. Make! You will find detailed instructions how to achieve this by eng 102 topics, searching the mailing list. Lifting this limitation is one of the todo items for howto a resume, future releases. Configuring lircmd (the LIRC mouse daemon) lircmd can be used to emulate a mouse with your remote control. Depending on the config file described in the next section it converts IR signals into mouse events. It currently supports three mouse protocols (MouseSystems, IntelliMouse and IMPS/2).
For compatibility reasons the default protocol is the MouseSystems protocol but the preferred is the IntelliMouse protocol. The advantage of this protocol is its wheel-mouse support. That way you can for example configure Netscape to scroll if you press certain buttons. IMPS/2 used to be the preferred protocol since it also has wheel-mouse support and IntelliMouse was not available. However PS/2 protocol specifies that the mouse must accept and reply to specific commands, and that can not be done through the pipe lircmd uses. For this reason IntelliMouse support was written and is currently the passions preferred protocol. lircmd can basically be used with two applications: X11 and gpm. Configuration of a resume both is described here: Just put this section in passions, your XF86Config file to use the mouse in addition to your normal one. Additionally you might have to add.
to your normal Pointer Section in order to make the wheel buttons work. Howto! Of course you have to good essays, replace IntelliMouse with IMPS/2 or MouseSystems if you really want to use one of a resume this protocols. Colas Nahaboo's X mouse wheel scroll page gives you further information how to make use of essaycontest com your new wheel mouse. Make sure you use a current version of howto X11. There seems to be a bug in X version 3.3 that can make X crash if you use both mouse and passions, remote control mouse simultaneously.
At least I couldn't reproduce this with other versions. I also received some notes that lircmd does not work with certain X11 versions. But almost always at least one of the protocols did work. So try them all before trying another X11 version. But always remember that you have to modify both XF86Config and a resume, lircmd.conf so they use the same protocol. Put this section in your XF86Config-4 file to use the mouse in addition to my three essay, your normal one. And add a line to the ServerLayout section like this:
You can also e.g. use multimouse (available at ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/ or mirrors) or gpm to use it parallel to your normal mouse. With: I can use my usual PS/2 mouse and my remote control (IntelliMouse, IMPS/2 or MouseSystems protocol) at the same time to control the mouse pointer. Note: If you update lircmd.conf you can send the HUP signal to lircmd: This instructs lircmd to reread its config file. The same is true for lircd if you change lircd.conf. lircd will also reopen its log file on SIGHUP. The config file for lircmd is howto, quite simple.
Just look at the example in biogrph, the contrib directory. Some drivers even already bring their config file for lircmd with them so lircmd is howto make a resume, ready to run. You can choose between MouseSystems, IntelliMouse and IMPS/2 protocol. The default is MouseSystems protocol. Change the flash gps macromedia pda thesis values here if your mouse pointer is make, moving too fast/slow. Usually the good mouse pointer moves 1 pixel every time it receives a signal. The values here specify how much mouse movement accelerates if you hold down the according button on howto make your remote control for a longer timer. The start value is the threshold that starts acceleration. Then the amount of pixels is calculated with the following formula: x = repeat * multiplier , where repeat is the biogrph number of howto a resume repeated signals. max specifies the maximum number of pixels the pointer can move due to a single command. I recommend that you use a special button to activate the mouse daemon with this command. You will see whenever the daemon is activated/deactivated directly on the screen.
If you omit this command the daemon will always be active. The difference between ACTIVATE and sliding thesis, TOGGLE_ACTIVATE is how you leave the howto make mouse mode. With TOGGLE_ACTIVATE you have to press the button that you use to enter the mode to leave it. With ACTIVATE you will leave mouse mode as soon as you press a button that is not used for any function in the config file. The obvious functionality. You can even get better granularity by biogrph, combing different commands (copied from the config file for AnimaX remotes): This also demonstrates that all commands are executed beginning at the top. This will only work with IntelliMouse and IMPS/2 protocols and make, indicates movement of the wheel. BUTTONx_CLICK, BUTTONx_DOWN, BUTTONx_UP, BUTTONx_TOGGLE remote button This simulates according events for the left (x=1), middle (x=2) or right (x=3) mouse button. Pressing ignored buttons won't cause the mouse daemon to deactivate.
This is useful, for example, if your remote sends separate press or release codes that you have mapped in your lircd.conf. This only makes sense if you use ACTIVATE instead of topics TOGGLE_ACTIVATE. '*' is allowed as wild card for button and remote. Please note that every line that fits to make a resume, the received signal will be executed. Parsing starts at the top of the file. At this point all you need are the tools, which react on good the signals decoded by lircd. To do this you need a file called .lircrc . It should be placed in your home directory. Optionally you can create a system-wide configuration file located in /etc/lirc/lircrc, which will be used when no .lircrc file can be found in the user's home directory. The idea is to have configuration information of all clients in one place.
That lets you keep a better overview of clients and simplifies the use of make modes explained later. First I will explain the syntax of the .lircrc file itself. The config file for LIRC tools consists of one or more of the following constructions: Bringing it to eng 102 essay, the point the above says which program ( prog ) should do what ( config , mode , flags ) if you press a certain button ( remote , button ) a specified time ( repeat , delay ). By default for each remote signal received the .lircrc config file is read from top to bottom and each matching configuration is executed in howto a resume, order of appearance. prog gives the name of the biogrph program that should receive the configstring given in a resume, config. Essaycontest Com! remote, button specify a key of howto a remote control that launches an eng 102 action.
Key sequences can be specified by giving more then one remote/button string ( not on the same line, but using separate remote/button tokens on separate lines). Howto! The character '*' can be used as a wild card for remote or button. Eng 102 Essay Topics! The default for remote is '*'. The remote name must always be given before its according button. When using key sequences a given remote is howto make, valid for all following buttons until you specify another remote. Control! repeat tells the program what shall happen if a key is repeated.
A value of zero tells the program to ignore repeated keys. A Resume! Any other positive value 'n' tells the program to pass the biogrph config string every 'n'-th time to the according application, when a key is repeated. The default for repeat is howto make a resume, zero. delay tells the program to ignore the specified number of key repeats before using the repeat configuration directive above. Biogrph! This is used to prevent double triggers of events when using a fast repeat rate. A value of zero, which also is the default, will disable the delay function. config is the howto make string that will be passed to the according application whenever the specified key sequence is received by lircd. If you give more than one config string, the config strings will be passed to the applications by turns. With this feature you can for example implement toggle buttons. You can pass non-printable characters to essay, applications with all standard C escape sequences (most common are: n = line-feed, r = carriage return, t = tab, e = escape, n = ASCII code in octal representation, x n = ASCII code in hexadecimal representation, = backslash). Additionally you can supply Ctrl-X by specifying X where X is an upper character or @. For example C is Ctrl-C. mode tells the program to enter a special mode.
You can group several configurations by putting them into the following, where mode stands for the mode where these configurations should be active: All configurations embraced by this mode construct will stay inactive until the program enters the given mode by using the mode token. Please note that configurations outside a mode will always stay active even though you enter a specific mode. To prevent the howto make execution of such global configurations you can place these at the end of the config file below all mode constructs and use the quit flag described below to stop execution of further configurations when a match happens inside a mode block. If mode is equal to the name of a client application this application will always start in this mode. Com! Consider this situation: you want to make, start xawtv with irexec and enter the tv mode. Then irexec would enter the gps macromedia tv mode but xawtv would begin without any mode enabled. Howto A Resume! By renaming the essaycontest mode from tv to xawtv you can solve this problem. Another way to specify a startup mode is by using the startup_mode flag as described below. If you press a button on howto make your remote the .lircrc is searched from top to bottom for matching configurations. Be aware that the search is not stopped by a match unless you have specified the essaycontest quit flag in the matching configuration. Howto Make! You should also be aware that if a configuration changes the current mode, the change takes effect immediately, which means that the further search for matching configurations beginning at essaycontest the next configuration further down will take place with the new mode setting.
It is possible to howto a resume, split the lirc configuration into several files by using the include command. It tells the parser to essay, read the specified file before resuming the current one: If the howto make specified filename begins with will be substituted with the content of the essays HOME environment variable. The filename also can be put inside and characters which in contrast to the C preprocessor do not have special meanings. Ok, now a simple example for a .lircrc file (supposed you use an AnimaX remote and use the sample files for this remote from the remotes/ directory. If you have another remote change remote= and button= according to your remote [this definitions are made in howto make, the lircd.conf file] ) If you have saved this as .lircrc in essay topics, your home directory, start irexec . Press the button which is selected in the button= line and howto make a resume, you will see a 'Hello world!' on your screen. As you can see irexec is a simple program launcher. Of course you can do a lot more than just start programs.
Be aware that irexec will wait for good essays, the started program to finish, before it will resume it function. If this is howto make a resume, not what you want, you should add a at the end of the config line to start the desired program in background. Differences in essaycontest, the order of configurations in .lircrc can lead to completely different results, as this example shows: Using this order on first key stroke of OK. will appear - the make a resume command is executed and the mode 'order' is entered. The second stroke (and every further one) will lead to.
Both configs are executed, even though the second is outside the mode; the gps macromedia pda thesis quit flag has no effect - no other config is following it in make, the .lircrc file. Changing the order within the .lircrc to. on every stroke. Essays! The second config is a resume, never executed: even though the mode is flash gps macromedia, changed it can not take effect (because of the quit flag). To achieve unrestricted usage of keys within modes place all mode-configurations before all other configurations; and use quit flags within the make mode if you don't want other configurations to be executed.
If you start a LIRC client program, it reads your. /.lircrc and reacts only on prog= entries which point to itself. All programs should give you the possibility to eng 102 essay, use an alternative config file. Howto Make! If you have included more than one program in flash gps macromedia pda thesis, your .lircrc, then start all these programs, they react only to howto make, their according entries in .lircrc. This also leads to passions essay, a disadvantage of the mode concept.
If you don't start all client programs at a time the mode they currently are in may differ between applications. Howto Make A Resume! Also key sequences might not be recognized equally because all programs then don't have the same starting point. In order to solve this problem there is the new lircrcd program since version 0.8.0. lircrcd's purpose is to synchronise all clients and good essays, maintain a common mode for all applications. In order to use the lircrcd feature you have to howto a resume, explicitly enable it by adding the really essays following line at the beginning of the file: