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artaud essay When I was in graduate school, I saw a posting on the bulletin board in my department indicating that poets were 50 percent more likely than those in other professions to experience mental illness. In the moment, it didn#8217;t occur to me to wonder why it was necessary to post these survey results, where any number of poets were liable to see them. Instead, I thought they bore some important news: that poets were the dearchse, genuine article. Essays In Literature. Because: nothing was more genuine than mental illness. Job Resume. Where#8217;s the beginning and the ending of the theater, the building which houses this evening#8217;s drama? This is one of the first questions I ask when I#8217;m reading Antonin Artaud. Artaud no longer seems to think of the theater as inhabiting a particular space, just as there is no longer a space in the world uncontaminated by his theater. His is a theater as big as the world. No part of our lives is untouched by the need for its spectacle.

In senior year of breast cancer essays, college, I appeared in a production of The Cenci, by Artaud. True, this particular drama is unproducible, generally speaking, and not terribly #8220;good,#8221; according to the standards of conventional theater. Probably The Cenci is an example of the failure of Artaud to find a way to apply his ideas. This didn#8217;t stop us, the job resume, players of my undergraduate years. In the on existentialism in literature, course of the action I was meant to dearchse simulate copulation with an actress who just then happened to be both my apartment mate and the lover of one of my best friends. Good Thinking. I threw myself into it, the simulation.

I believed in the cruelty part of #8220;Theater of Cruelty.#8221; I simulated so violently, one night, that I banged my hand on the set, on the mise-en-scene, as it were, and gashed myself. It took a long while for the wound to heal. When it did, I was launched on the world. I was a graduate. In those days: Genet and Derrida and Barthes and Foucault and Deleuze, as well as Artaud.

Thus, the specific Artaud influence was a general French influence, and the general thrust of that French influence, as I understood it, included trusting in imagination as an anarchic force, the unstoppable force, a force in the midst of job resume, forestalling the on existentialism, attempts of society and metaphysics to control and organize. #8220;Withdraw allegiance from the old categories of the Negative (law, limit, castration, lack, lacuna), which Western thought has so long held sacred as a form of power and dearchse an access to good critical reality. Prefer what is job resume dearchse positive and on existentialism in literature multiple, difference over uniformity, flows over unities, mobile arrangements over systems#8221; (Foucault#8217;s preface to L#8217;Anti-Oedipe ). I therefore loved the surrealist manifestos, too. Dearchse. [ 2] I got bored only with the 1904 collected virginia, surrealists when the principals became too enamored with politics. Job Resume Dearchse. Artaud got bored early, too. He turned on them with a vengeance. The spurned lover. My hypothesis: Artaud is pay someone a thesis part of job resume dearchse, a European and good critical thinking specifically French intellectual lineage obsessed with the job resume, rigors of thinking, truth-telling. (#8220;We are born, we live,#8221; he said, speaking to a tradition of dearchse, paradoxical truths, #8220;we die in write on student, an environment of lies.#8221;) Artaud aspires to be a magus of truth, a sorcerer of truth, and he is willing to die for it, or to be driven insane by his perceptions: #8220;I believe that our present social state is iniquitous and job resume should be destroyed. If this is a fact for in literature, the theater to be preoccupied with, it is even more a matter for machine guns.#8221; Does he believe what he#8217;s saying exactly as he#8217;s saying it, or does he simply believe that the truth is in the avowal, which avowal changes its utterer, makes it nearly impossible for job resume, him to bring the message back to the place where it most needs to be brought—the place of 1904 collected essay essay virginia virginia woolf woolf, mendacity? #8220;Should I be writing like Artaud? I am incapable of it,#8221; Derrida says, #8220;and besides, anyone who would try to write like him, under the pretext of writing toward him, would be even surer of missing him, would lose the slightest chance ever of meeting him in the ridiculous attempt of this mimetic distortion . Job Resume. #8221;

Sontag argues that he#8217;s a gnostic (#8220;Artaud wandered in the labyrinth of a specific type of religious sensibility, the Gnostic one#8221;), meaning, I suppose, that he believed in a secret, unimpeded route to the divine, that he could have personal access, without requiring the apparatus of the church and its intercessions. Or: gnostic meaning that the divine with which he consorts is a malignancy? A failed demiurge? I#8217;m not always sure which gnosticism Sontag refers to. Cancer Essays. [ 3] And yet you do feel Artaud#8217;s fealty to the concealed, especially in, e.g., To Have Done with the Judgment of God, his radio play. Likewise the dearchse, late work generally, Artaud le Momo, and 1904 1912 essay virginia woolf Van Gogh, The Man Suicided by Society, etc. Perhaps the secret he pursues is between things and between the words that describe these things. His secret is unpronounceable and cannot be passed on, but certain gestures indicate the direction in which we might proceed. Thus his love of hieroglyphics, words that are illustrative, not alphabetical, #8220;And these three-dimensional hieroglyphs are in turn brocaded with a certain number of gestures—mysterious signs which correspond to some unknown, fabulous, and dearchse obscure reality which we here in the Occident have completely repressed.#8221; I was studying a lot of drama, and I therefore remember, reading from the Theater of the Absurd. Pirandello and some Ionesco and some Arrabal and some Beckett. I loved these playwrights, even when the absurdist humor was, well, a little juvenile in spots.

Scatological, but perhaps with an emphasis on the logical. I liked the Arrabal play set in an automobile graveyard. I liked the Ionesco play featuring rhinoceroses. And yet this anarchy was too gentle. The Theater of the Absurd had been tamed by then, and that was obvious, especially so when I came to read The Theater and Its Double, the overture of which ends with a miraculous, life-altering terminus, a terminus which was enough to discredit, in some measure, much of what I loved about the Theater of the Absurd: #8220;And if there is still one hellish, truly accursed thing in our time, it is our artistic dallying with forms, instead of being like victims burnt at the stake, signaling through the flames.#8221; The Theater of Cruelty, you see, was never tamed. What#8217;s with the write an essay unrest, before and after photos of Artaud?

Always before illness and then after ? You#8217;d think he was a dieter. Yes, Artaud was an incredibly beautiful young man and later, per contra, he was weather-beaten and humbled. Wracked by cancer and decades of addiction, not to dearchse mention ECT and other exotic psychiatric treatments. Insulin therapy. Yet perhaps the good thinking, beaten-down quality is still an job resume dearchse, interpretation of Artaud. The photos are a luxury for those who already know what they think.

We imagine there is an appearance to mental illness, though mental illness looks like nothing. Suffering looks like something. But generally mental illness is simply the physical illness that bears no trace. Derrida: #8220;It would certainly be disingenuous to close our eyes, either because of some literary feeling or some absentminded politeness, to what Artaud himself describes as a neuropathological persecution. Moreover, that kind of disingenuousness would be insulting.

The man is sick.#8221; When I was acting in college, there was a certain kind of play, a certain kind of theater, that flattened life and reduced its complexity and menace and variety, leaving a mere residue of pabulum. I refer to the issue-oriented parlor drama . The protagonists in these plays sit around yacking about to write abortion or euthanasia or about church and state, and someone gives a monologue and then commences to dearchse weep. On Student Unrest. Artaud#8217;s contempt is instructive: #8220;All true feeling is in reality untranslatable. Dearchse. To express it is to betray it. But to translate it is to dissimulate it. In Literature. True expression hides what it makes manifest.#8221; What would theater be like if there could be a genuine Theater of job resume dearchse, Cruelty along the lines proposed? I admire, e.g., the Living Theater, at least as I understand them to have been, from videos and written accounts. They argue for something like an applied Theater of dissertation, Cruelty. Paradise Now or Dionysus in 69: these seem to have consisted of people running around in an audience shouting things. Dearchse. Breaking the Fourth Wall.

Are the words being shouted about Vietnam? The savagery of good thinking topics, American capitalism? The iniquities and inequities of human things? They are. Perhaps this revolution feels quaint now. Why, then, am I so fascinated, so moved, by the idea of any such performance? By the Living Theater and the work of Jerzy Grotowski, et al.?

Because it#8217;s spontaneous, because it is happening now, because it puts the life back in live theater. Psychosis is timeless, psychosis is dearchse exclusionary, psychosis is isolated, psychosis is excruciating. Not that I have experienced more than the drug-induced kind, but I have shared a room. Breast Essays. Psychosis involves torment. It#8217;s hard for the layperson to construct what this variety of torment feels like. [ 4] As if schizophrenia were a contagion, so complete is our recoiling from it. Artaud reiterates this quality of his predicament so regularly, his torment, [ 5] that we become inured to dearchse the protestations, and in this way perhaps he is forced into metaphor: #8220;You have seen the hordes of demons which afflict me night and day, you have seen them as clearly as you see me. You have seen what filthy erotic manipulations they are constantly performing on me.#8221; In metaphor, the flourishing of the etiology of torment, as if translated for us.

Later, when I was in the psychiatric hospital myself, I shared the ward with a guy called Herbie. Really nice guy. He might have been my buddy back in high school. Pay Someone. He had an job resume dearchse, impish sense of humor, and a poorly grown-in mustache, but he had taken too much acid, which had gotten to him, and now he was more or less schizophrenic—depending on the day and on his levels of medication. When Herbie was not floridly psychotic, he was very badly depressed. He had a good sense of what he#8217;d done to write on student himself, what synapses he had cooked. I spent a memorable evening once watching Herbie attempt to explain playing cards, their meaning, to a catatonic woman. For Herbie, the words of the explanation existed mainly as sounds, not words, but as assonances and job resume dearchse euphonies. As the explanation was addressed to someone unresponsive, it could not be but successful, if only in a limited way.

Herbie therefore gave himself over to 1912 collected essay essay virginia woolf it with great energy. He performed it. Job Resume. How to think of the double in The Theater and Its Double ? Doubling as a figment of to write, a hermeneutically obsessed imagination? The double as the thing behind the thing? The secret component, the true raiment, the aspect of the material realm that shines forth for the chosen ? My own particular emotional difficulty was hermeneutic, in the sense that I thought beneath all men, beneath all masculinity, was savagery that I couldn#8217;t see; all men were rapists, in job resume, my own madness (if madness is the to write a thesis, right word), and they were temporarily concealing this rapacity; I would see it in them, on dearchse the bus, on the subway, each man concealing his bloodthirsty secret. Like many people who are high-functioning but ill, I tried not to discuss these thoughts, these things that I was thinking, which made me feel more isolated, in critical, turn more hermeneutical, more preoccupied with the interiority of my inquiries, the illness thus somehow causing the dearchse, illness, the lack of a cure preventing the possibility of essays, a cure. Artaud lost his mind in Ireland, if by mind we refer to the part of job resume dearchse, him that could construct experience nonmetaphorically. First there was the on banking, trip to Mexico, which must have been a huge undertaking, [ 6] to pull up stakes from home in Europe for this disorderly New World. There was a lot of intoxication in Mexico, and much sorcery, because this was Mexico, a land of myth, where teenagers are sacrificed, and men are turned into coyotes, and job resume dearchse black magic is the good thinking, spectacle.

William S. Job Resume Dearchse. Burroughs looked for and found similar things there. Artaud wasn#8217;t in Mexico long, just a few months, in part because it was not populated by theatrical adepts, but, in the countryside, by an essay unrest, indigenous people trying to scrape by. Not long after Mexico, his trip to Ireland. Dearchse. 1937. A country and a mythological apparatus to critical which I have made pilgrimages myself.

Artaud didn#8217;t speak English very well, it is said, and while he was there, he had a hard time making himself understood. Maybe this is because he was no longer speaking in any recognizable tongue. What is job resume dearchse it about Ireland? On the one hand, like Mexico, it has its substratum of ancient stories, druidic symbols, icons, dolmens. And then again it is a thesis layered over in the habits of job resume dearchse, Christianity, with which Artaud much struggled—the old, vengeful Abrahamic god.

August Strindberg was another troubled psychotic of the theater who interested me, back when. I performed in Ghost Sonata in high school, and later in A Dream Play. In college. These were tortured, haunted, deeply unsettling plays. Artaud mounted productions of dissertation, each. When I was preparing for A Dream Play, I went and job resume dearchse read translations of nearly all of to write a thesis, Strindberg#8217;s journals and novels. He really did believe that there were gears in the walls of his flat (it#8217;s a very popular hallucination) and that neighbors were trying to drive him crazy with infernal engines. Job Resume. [ 7] Artaud delights in paradoxes, he gathers them in, devours them, embodies paradoxes. Thus the assault on pay someone to write a thesis the language of the theater and the preference of the theater for dearchse, text over mise-en-scene is written in the most elevated and perfectly calibrated prose: #8220;What is good critical thinking essential now, it seems to me, is to determine what this physical language consists of, this solidified, materialized language by means of which theater is able to differentiate itself from speech.#8221; What#8217;s so horrible about text, you may want to ask, if it permits this gloriousness we have before us, the Oeuvres of job resume, Artaud?

In glossolalia, favored by the later Artaud, words become vessels of sound, and the repetition is what#8217;s pleasing. The meaning becomes the write an essay on student unrest, materiality, and the gesture of the words in job resume, their improvised modality brings us close to the original spirit of language. It#8217;s like the Latin mass overheard by a nonspeaker of Latin: Artaud advocates glossolalia well before he employs it. He advocates it in his assault on the textuality of good critical thinking topics, European playwriting, and then later, in his illness, he free-falls into non-textuality, which means: as if at job resume, the prompting of to write a thesis, God. There#8217;s a way that I always disbelieve Artaud, too, especially now that I am twenty years from my own time in the psychiatric hospital. In my disbelief, sometimes he seems just a sick person, and job resume I want to say that I am no longer willing to be sick for my own art—it#8217;s a young man#8217;s game—and I think the fact that Artaud exists mostly in fragments, the cancer, fact that his plays are often unfinished, unmounted, or critical failures, doesn#8217;t look so good in the harsh light of retrospection.

Conquest of Mexico, e.g., it might work in film, if you hired some team of digital technicians to design the backdrops and had all the job resume dearchse, actors acting in front of blue screens, but no one would underwrite such a film, and anyway film is not theater, has no legitimate spectacle about it, film isn#8217;t live . In 1984, I saw a performance piece by Sylvere Lotringer—at the St. Mark#8217;s Poetry Project in New York City—about Artaud. 1912 Virginia Woolf. In the course of the evening, Sylvere played a recording of To Have Done with the job resume dearchse, Judgment of God, Artaud#8217;s radio play and last major work. The radio play was in French, but there was a simultaneous translation in English (projected). Finally, I heard Artaud#8217;s voice, a deeply scary thing. To me the radio play sounded punk, like Throbbing Gristle, or like Test Department, or like Einsturzende Neubauten. This sound of torment is simulated in punk and post-punk, but in Artaud#8217;s voice, it was anything but: I learned yesterday / one of the most sensational of those official practices of good thinking, American public schools / which no doubt account for dearchse, the fact that this country believes itself to be in collected essay essay virginia woolf, the vanguard of progress. / It seems that, among the examinations of tests required of a child entering public school for job resume dearchse, the first time, there is the so-called seminal fluid or sperm test, / which consists of asking this newly entering child for a small amount of his sperm so it can be placed in on banking and investment, a jar and job resume kept ready.#8230; When he#8217;s really onto his subject, he inevitably summons the biological horrors.

What he#8217;s written is write unrest written on the body: #8220;The idea of a detached art, of poetry as a charm which exists only to distract our leisure, is a decadent idea and an unmistakable symptom of job resume dearchse, our power to dissertation castrate.#8221; The stench of fiction is a perfume formulated by my friend Bradford Morrow to describe some artifices of the job resume, literary now. The shallowness of literary business as usual, the complicity, the smugness, the self-satisfaction, the in literature, predictability, the job resume, consonance with an existing power structure, the reverence for sentimentality, the melodrama, the bad prose, the total poverty of imagination and innovation, the lack of surprise, the insularity, the flaccidity, the tediousness, the frequent disappointment of literature. Pay Someone A Thesis. Sontag, in her introduction to Artaud, describes the hatred of job resume, literature as part of the process for the surrealists, and to write a thesis thus part of the process for a young Artaud. And yet in job resume dearchse, America, it seems to me, there is much left to be done. Our fiction has a more fecal perfume, and when Morrow describes breathing deep of the stench, therefore, being able to perceive in it its giardia and streptococcus B, even from a distance, he is also describing what I love about Artaud, the 1904 collected essay essay virginia woolf, desire to lay siege, and then to delight in the aftermath. #8220;The Theater and the Plague,#8221; from The Theater and Its Double, is among the most astonishing modern essays on literary aesthetics, and dearchse it shook my very foundations. Perhaps most arresting is the in literature, fact that it does its work entirely by job resume, metaphor. #8220;Before the onset of any marked physical or psychological discomfort, the body is and investment covered in red spots,#8221; the job resume, author begins, before detailing at essays in literature, great length the horrors of the job resume, affliction, #8220;and these blisters are surrounded by circles, of which the 1904 virginia woolf woolf, outermost, like Saturn#8217;s ring around the incandescent planet, indicates the extreme limit of a bubo.#8221; It#8217;s only well into the essay that Artaud finally connects the plague to his subject, the theater. (#8220;There are other analogies which confirm the only truths that count and dearchse locate the action of the theater like that of the plague on the level of a veritable epidemic.#8221;) A simile, wrapped inside a metaphor, inside a metaphor, like a bubo with its rings—literature ought to be like theater, as theater is itself like a plague, as all of life is like theater, is theater. Recently, I had lunch with a schizophrenic guy, an old college friend. It wasn#8217;t so bad. In fact, it was a pleasure. Among other topics, we spoke of the Internet, this friend and I, about social-networking sites in particular. I was expecting him to be suspicious of these sites because it was through them, through connectivity, that the Forces of breast cancer, Evil could locate him and torture him, as he insisted the Forces of job resume, Evil already had.

What he instead said about Facebook was: #8220;Those people will know that I don#8217;t work.#8221; The social part of life had become what was insurmountable to him. He had fallen away from the world. Artaud on literature: Written poetry is worth reading once, and then should be destroyed. 1904 Essay Woolf Woolf. Books, texts, magazines are tombstones. Dear friend, I detest literature more than you do. The duty of the writer, of the poet is not to shut himself up like a coward in a text, a book, a magazine from which he never comes out. One mustn#8217;t let in too much literature. All writing is garbage.

People who come out of nowhere to try to put into words any part of what goes on in their minds are pigs. The second day I was in the psychiatric hospital, they made us take a current events test. There was a girl in there with me, a girl with horrible anorexia and all kinds of scars on her wrists. She was unable to read through a single headline in the newspaper. Job Resume. That was the substance of the test. Read a newspaper article aloud and describe what was in it. She couldn#8217;t even get through a single headline.

Her insurance was about to run out, at which point she was going to get shipped to the state hospital, which was not a treatment-oriented facility. By contrast, I was well enough informed on politics and current events. I could easily read from the newspaper. And yet part of my sickness was located in the fact that I found the anorexic girl, so bent on her own demise, glorious, tragic, and and investment luminous. Artaud went to great lengths to defend the word cruelty. Job Resume Dearchse. Some critics of the manifestos of the good topics, Theater of Cruelty were made uncomfortable by the literal associations of the word. Still, there#8217;s a danger, I think, in not taking the job resume dearchse, word cruelty literally. Artaud intends the write an essay unrest, force of what he has written—though he seems not to be the sort of dearchse, person who would have been physically cruel to anyone. Cancer Essays. #8220;Cruelty signifies rigor, implacable intention and decision, irreversible and absolute determination,#8221; he observes, but the sentence, forced on him by job resume, those who would have clarification, doesn#8217;t have the neon savagery of his finer moments: #8220;Death is 1904 woolf cruelty, resurrection is dearchse cruelty, transfiguration is cruelty, since nowhere in a circular and closed world is there room for true death, since ascension is dissertation on banking a rending, since closed space is fed with lives, and each stronger life tramples down the others, consuming them in a massacre which is a transfiguration and a bliss.#8221; Recognizing that paranoid schizophrenic is a term that psychiatrists pencil onto charts or insurance forms, I suppose I would still have to use the term or something like it to describe my college friend Joe, at least if I was bent on oversimplifying. I suppose I would say he is a paranoid schizophrenic, except that he is basically stable, and dearchse presentable, if a person of modest means. On the day we had lunch, I first met him on the street corner, he made small talk in the usual way, and then, with a slightly worried grin, he asked, #8220;Rick, what are you doing here?

Don#8217;t you know how dangerous it is?#8221; I said that I was just there to have lunch with him. On Existentialism In Literature. To which Joe said, #8220;Well, then you must be a double, too.#8221; When I argued that I wasn#8217;t a double, he said, #8220;Then why are you here?#8221; In or about 1956, Gregory Bateson conceived of the #8220;double bind#8221; theory to dearchse describe aspects of difficulties experienced by schizophrenics: [ 8] according to Bateson, the 1912 collected virginia virginia woolf woolf, schizophrenic experiences his symptoms as a result of this causative straitjacketing, a nexus of contradictory social or emotional messages, to which psychosis is a logical response. Dearchse. Bateson suggests that the schizophrenic has #8220;trouble in breast cancer, identifying and interpreting those signals which should tell the individual what sort of message a message is, i.e., trouble with the signals of the same logical type as the signal #8216;This is play.#8217;#8221; [ 9] The psychotic break, in this argument, is the result of the strata of difficulties experienced by the patient—in the job resume, family, in the home, in the world. But maybe doubling is also built into language, into the exchange of utterances, as in the remark by Bateson, #8220;Language commonly stresses only one side of 1904 1912 collected essay virginia woolf, any interaction. Double description is job resume better than one.#8221; And doubling is also implicit in dissertation on banking, the gnostic idea (in Hypostasis of the Archons, e.g.), wherein this world is an inferior copy of the more perfect heavenly one. Job Resume. And doubling is likewise central to world literature, and on banking thus its prevalence in Dostoyevsky, Nabokov, Saramago, Hogg, et al. Job Resume. But as the copies are copied, the image becomes muddier, becomes barren. After Ireland, the pay someone to write a thesis, cast of Artaud#8217;s prose turned dark once and for all (#8220;I no longer know what is normal or supranormal#8221;). This was also the moment in which he was correcting the proofs of his masterwork The Theater and Its Double. Job Resume Dearchse. As Sontag sketches in her time line, #8220;By the time The Theater and Its Double appeared, Artaud was interned in the Sainte-Anne Hospital in Paris.#8221; Was it his childhood case of in literature, meningitis?

Was it getting stabbed, when he was nineteen? Were those trauma enough? Was it the inadvertent opiate detoxification, on the trip to Mexico? Artaud speaks glancingly to this last issue, detoxification, in job resume, the sections I have read of #8220;A Voyage to the Land of the Tarahumara,#8221; concerning his travels. Good Critical Topics. And in my own case, if I may speak to it again briefly, the detox was unpleasant, and the stress made me liable to have even more unintelligible thoughts than I#8217;d had before. Drink made depression far worse. But at the same time, once I detoxed, then I really did imagine I heard people calling to me. Job Resume. I thought I was seeing things on on banking the television that weren#8217;t really there, like transsexual prostitutes. Lots of them. Artaud says of the ingestion of peyote (into his newly detoxified system), on the trip into the Mexican interior: #8220;For now that he was dead his double could not wait for these evil spirits to be neutralized.#8230;#8221; And, later: #8220;Peyote, as I knew, was not made for Whites.#8230; And a White, for these Red men, is one whom the job resume, spirits have abandoned.#8221; The #8217;30s were eventful. In the first part of the decade, he struggled with opiate addiction and with his acting career, soon abandoned, and then in 1936, he embarked for Mexico.

To see his ideas bear fruit! Laying over in Havana, Artaud received as a gift a small sword, which he came to regard as possessed of magical powers. He detoxified again, in Mexico, having been unable to on existentialism in literature secure supply. In due course he relapsed. Job Resume Dearchse. Back in France, he tried twice again to dissertation detoxify, without success. Then, in 1937, he made the job resume, trip to dissertation on banking and investment Ireland.

There he attempted to employ a staff that he insisted was a religious relic to repel necromantic spells. This did not endear him to the locals (#8220;Now the true christ is he who has given me his own staff, his magnetic magic wand, and he has no connection, I beg you to believe, with the christ of Christianity, or the job resume dearchse, christ of Catholicism#8221;). In Dublin, he was jailed briefly, and then deported. An Essay Unrest. Upon landing, he failed to recognize his own mother. No theater extant, no theater in dearchse, history, exists, #8220;which would fulfill Artaud#8217;s desire,#8221; Derrida suggests, #8220;and there would be no exception to be made for the attempts made by Artaud himself.#8221; This is part of why I admired him, especially when young—because his desire was such as to collected essay essay virginia woolf exceed possible fulfillment. But this is why it#8217;s also easy to misread him, as perhaps the Living Theater did, in thinking that mere provocation will do justice to the ideas. Probably what Artaud exhibits, in dearchse, the end, is a purely literary construct, and that#8217;s why his sentences are so dazzling, even when he is at his most ill. The sentences are the and investment, engine of his desire, but things collapse in his unsturdy vision: living and being, body and soul, self and other.

So: I feel what his language means in my extremities, even if I don#8217;t always know what he means in my mind, and that feeling is the job resume dearchse, precondition of being swept away, as in: This century no longer understands fecal poetry, the intestine malady of good topics, herself, Madam Death, who since the age of ages has been sounding the depths of job resume dearchse, her dead woman#8217;s column, her dead woman#8217;s anal column, in the excrement of an abolished survival, the corpse too of her abolished selves, and who for the crime of not having been able to exist, for never having been able to be a creature, had to fall, the better to sound the depths of her own being into this abyss of foul matter and indeed so pleasantly foul in which the corpse of Madam Death, Madam Fecal Uterine, Madam Anus, hell upon hell of excrement, in essays in literature, the opium of her excrement, foments hunger, the fecal destiny of her soul, in the uterus of dearchse, her own center. How indelible his assault, his obliteration of pere-mere, his refusal of origin, which leads, by synecdoche, or by syntax, to his body without organs— because if you have no origin, it stands to reason that you have no organs, no materiality, and thus you do not have to produce, and what Derrida says here, refusing biographical resonances while alluding to them, seems unavoidable: #8220;If it is precisely at good thinking topics, this point that we recall that Artaud died of cancer of the rectum, we do not do so in order to have exception prove the rule, but because we think that the status (still to be found) of this remark, and of other similar ones, must not be that of the so-called #8216;biographical reference.#8217;#8221; If Foucault, meanwhile, is correct in defining madness as #8220;the absence of work,#8221; then Artaud was not mad, as he said himself on occasion (#8220;I want them to understand that I have never been either mad or sick#8221;). He leaves so much behind that constitutes work. Pages and pages of it. Wrestling with his works could fill a life. I, on the other hand, was mad, technically speaking, in the period just after being institutionalized, just after colliding with the institution, because in job resume dearchse, and after, I had trouble writing, couldn#8217;t write, and pay someone thus I constituted an absence of work, an inability to dearchse reflect, a shortage of essays, will. I thought madness was a prerequisite for poetry, once upon a time.

But if you believe Artaud, the prerequisite for job resume, poetry is having a body, living in it, fighting against its limitations, rejecting it. Many are his legacies in me—an attraction to topics a certain kind of dearchse, metaphor, a love of physiognomy as a locator for essays on existentialism, consciousness, and job resume an understanding of the dramatic platform and its possibilities. But most foundationally there is the to write a thesis, sheer music of language, at the moment it addresses the outrages. #8220;I can no longer think except in fragments.#8221; #8617; #8220;Surrealism#8217;s confidence cannot be well or ill placed for the simple reason that it is job resume dearchse not placed. Neither in the palpable world, nor palpably outside of this world, nor in the perpetuity of mental associations which favor our existence with a natural demand or a superior whim, nor in the interest which the #8216;mind#8217; may have in sparing itself our transient clientele#8221; ( Manifestoes of critical thinking, Surrealism ). #8617; #8220;Central to Mithraism, Manichaeism, Zoroastrianism, and Tantric Buddhism,#8221; she says, without narrowing the field ( Select Writings ). #8617; #8220;Every bath I took was connected with ideas of job resume, drowning.#8230; I nearly always entered the bath inwardly afraid that its purpose was to end my life. The inner voices#8230; spoke to me continuously in this sense and derided my lack of manly courage to carry it out.#8221; Daniel Paul Schreber, Memoirs of My Nervous Illness . #8617; #8220;I am a man who has suffered much from the mind.#8221; #8617; #8220;This mission has to 1904 collected essay virginia virginia do with discovering and reviving the vestiges of the ancient Solar culture.#8221; #8617; After his own psychotic break, Nietzsche wrote to dearchse Strindberg—as if all the pay someone a thesis, mad writers eventually find their way to one another: #8220;I have ordered a convocation of princes in Rome—I mean to have the dearchse, young emperor shot.#8221; Strindberg replied with a quotation from the Greek that goes, roughly, #8220;Meanwhile, it is a joy to an essay on student be mad.#8221; #8617; In, e.g., Steps to job resume an Ecology of Mind, University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 1972. #8617; Ibid., p. In Literature. 194. #8617; Rick Moody is the dearchse, author of pay someone, four novels, three collections of stories, and a memoir.

He plays music in the Wingdale Community Singers. He lives in Brooklyn with his wife and daughter. Image: Artaud as the monk Massieu in Carl Dreyer#8217;s The Passion of Joan of Arc (1928)

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Of Cannibals, by Michael de Montaigne. Montaigne gives his reason for the cannibals not being barbarous by stating that it is dearchse hypocritical for Europeans to judge them without even looking or acknowledge there own barbarous ways. He states that, “I am not sorry that we notice the breast barbarous horror of dearchse such acts, but I am heartily sorry that, judging their faults rightly, we should be so blind to our own” (155). Montaigne feels that the European nature of on existentialism torture is more barbarous than the cannibals eating someone who is already dead, “I think there is more barbarity in eating a man alive than in eating him dead; and in tearing by tortures and the rack of a body still full of feeling, in roasting a man bit by bit, in having him bitten and mangled by dogs and swine, than roasting and eating him after he is dead (155). Montaigne defines the Europeans as being barbaric themselves and job resume gives reasons for essays on existentialism in literature why the cannibals practice is not as bad as the accepted viewpoint.

He states that it is a cultural practice that is not for enjoyment and that everyone engages in the practice. They do not do it for pleasure or nourishment but rather as a way “to betoken an extreme revenge” (155). It is an expected way to designate victory and job resume dearchse it is an old tradition that is simply part of their culture, which is not so barbaric after all. Despite the pay someone fact that Europeans look down on their society because of their practice of job resume cannibalism, the cannibals have many qualities and virtues that are. . Review Bowling for essays on existentialism in literature Columbine: -by Kasper Jorgensen Rating: Michael Moore’s documentary “Bowling for Columbine” is inspired by the school massacre at Columbine High School back in 1999. The film explores what Michael Moore suggests could be the reasons behind such a tragedy. An early scene of the movie shows how Michael Moore gets his hands on job resume, a hunting rifle, simply by opening a bank account (!) Just before leaving the bank, Moore asks, Don’t you think it's a little dangerous handing out guns at a bank? A clear indication of his point of view, so early in the documentary.

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He is known as the job resume dearchse founder and CEO of breast essays Dell, Inc., one of the world’s leading sellers of personal computers (PCs). Job Resume! He is ranked as the 41st richest person in an essay, the world on 2012 Forbes Billionaires list, with a net worth of US$15.9 billion as of March 2012.[1] In 2011, his 243.35 million shares of Dell stock were worth $3.5 billion, giving him 12% ownership of the company.[2] His remaining wealth of roughly $10 billion is invested in other companies, and managed by a firm called MSD Capital (named after Dell's initials).[3] Contents 1 Early life and education 2 Career 3 Writings 4 Wealth and job resume dearchse personal life 4.1 Philanthropy 4.2 Political contributions 4.3 Criticism 5 References 6 Bibliography Early life and education Michael Dell was born to a well-off, Jewish family, on February 23, 1965.[4] The son of Lorraine Charlotte (nee Langfan), an stockbroker[5] and Alexander Dell, a orthodontist, Dell attended Herod Elementary School in Houston, Texas.[6] In a bid to enter business early, he applied to take a high school equivalency exam at age eight. In his early teens, he invested his earnings from part-time jobs in stocks and precious metals.[7] Dell purchased his first calculator at age seven and essays on existentialism in literature encountered his first teletype machine in junior high, which he programmed after school. At age 15, after playing with computers at Radio Shack, he got his first computer, an Apple II. Words: 1236 - Pages: 5. Of Cannibals, by Michael de Montaigne. . 3 August 2008 Research Summary: Of cannibals In Of cannibals, by dearchse, Michael de Montaigne, Montaigne makes a subtle argument to try to show that the critical topics cannibals are not barbarians. He uses a rebuttal argument to make the claim that the cannibals are not terrible people because of one practice that they engage in. Another claim he makes is that the cannibals also exhibit many qualities and virtues that are well respected by Europeans. Job Resume Dearchse! Montaigne gives his reason for the cannibals not being barbarous by stating that it is hypocritical for Europeans to and investment, judge them without even looking or acknowledge there own barbarous ways. He states that, “I am not sorry that we notice the barbarous horror of such acts, but I am heartily sorry that, judging their faults rightly, we should be so blind to our own” (155).

Montaigne feels that the European nature of torture is more barbarous than the cannibals eating someone who is already dead, “I think there is more barbarity in eating a man alive than in job resume dearchse, eating him dead; and in topics, tearing by job resume dearchse, tortures and essays on existentialism the rack of job resume dearchse a body still full of 1912 collected essay virginia woolf feeling, in roasting a man bit by bit, in having him bitten and mangled by dogs and swine, than roasting and eating him after he is dead (155). Montaigne defines the job resume Europeans as being barbaric themselves and gives reasons for why the cannibals practice is not as bad as the accepted viewpoint. He states that it is a cultural practice that is not for good enjoyment and that everyone engages in the practice. They do. Words: 534 - Pages: 3. . professional industry today are involved in. Michael Jordan is one of the most poised and proper men that you could find. Job Resume Dearchse! On the court he may be aggressive and forceful but off the court he is thinking topics a true gentleman. What else can Mike do? Play defense. He became the fourth player to record 2,000 career steals in 1996. He has led the league in steals 3 times.

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Once as a college player and the second time on Dream Team I in job resume, 1992. Air Jordan, is one of the breast cancer two most explosive. Words: 1434 - Pages: 6. . Job Resume Dearchse! Michael Jackson Personnel: 38 years of Michael Jackson's career as a solo artist. But some artist were significant to pay someone, his career. The Jackson 5 recorded 14 albums and Michael recorded 4 solo albums with Motown records. Job Resume Dearchse! Jackson 5: It jumpstarted his career by 1904 essay essay virginia virginia woolf, making him the lead singer of his family band, formed in 1964.

The band put him into job resume dearchse a recording contract with Motown, which boosted his fame. Slash: (VIDEO) In 1991, Slash played lead guitar on the single Give In to Me off Michael Jackson's album Dangerous, as well as in the opening skit for the song Black or White off the same album. In 1995, he played guitar on write on student unrest, D.S., a controversial song from Jackson's HIStory album, and in 1997 appeared on job resume, the song Morphine off the remix album Blood on the Dance Floor. In 2001, Slash played on good critical thinking, Privacy off Jackson's final studio album, Invincible. Slash also played at the 1995 MTV Video Music Awards with Jackson on Black or White Van Halen: Was the feature guitarist in the song “Beat it” and peaking at dearchse No. 2 on the Billboard charts behind Michael Jackson's album Thriller Important recordings: 1. And Investment! Billie Jean- This was one of Michael Jackson milestone songs. This song was true to job resume dearchse, who Michael really was and pay someone a thesis told the job resume story of an event in his life. This song spent 7 weeks at the top of the pop singles chart in 1983 2. Black or White- This songs was the write second biggest hit in Michael Jacksons solo career staying at job resume number 1 for 7 weeks.

This song represented. Words: 333 - Pages: 2. . Jessica Mae L. De Ocampo O2A - ENVIENG The La Mesa Watershed and Eco-Park consists of the La Mesa Dam and an ecological nature reserve site in Quezon City commissioned in 1929 in the Philippines. Pay Someone To Write! It is job resume part of the Angat-Ipo-La Mesa water system, which supplies most of the essays water supply of Metro Manila. The La Mesa Dam is an dearchse earth dam whose reservoir can hold up to 50.5 million cubic meters and occupying an area of 27 square kilometers. Essays! The water collected in the reservoir is treated on-site by the Maynilad Water Services, and at the Balara Treatment Plant further south by the Manila Water.

Both water companies are private concessionaires awarded by dearchse, the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System, the government agency in charge of water supply. It is a vital link to the water requirements of 12 million residents of Metro Manila considering that 1.5 million liters of water pass through this reservoir every day. Pay Someone! It is also the last forest of its size in job resume dearchse, the metropolis. La Mesa Watershed in Quezon City is the primary source of drinking water of about 12 million Metro Manila residents. The property is owned by the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS), a government agency. 1912 Collected Essay Essay Virginia Virginia Woolf! La Mesa Watershed is 2700 hectares, 700 hectares of which is the reservoir and job resume 2000 hectares of on banking and investment which is the surrounding forest. This forest is the last remaining one of its size in Metro Manila and serves as its carbon dioxide sink. La Mesa Watershed, therefore, is vital to the city, not only. Words: 342 - Pages: 2. . Michael Praetorius Michael Praetorius was born on job resume dearchse, February 15, 1521 in Kruezburg, Thuringia, Germany as the youngest son to pastor Michael Schultze.

He was also the nephew to pay someone to write, Christopher Praetorius. Michael attended the University of Frankfurt at a young age where he studied divinity and dearchse philosophy with his brother taking care of him. When his brother died, Michael became an organist at St. Marien Church of Frankfurt in 1587. 1904 Collected Essay Virginia Woolf! Soon after, in the town of Luneburg, he became a Kapellmeister, which was the start of his career. In 1604, he began as the organist for the Duke of job resume dearchse Brunswick at Wolfenbuttel. Later he was a Kappellmeister at the court and often traveled with the essays on existentialism in literature Duke and his court musicians. He was also the job resume secretary for the Duke.

He was appointed honorary prior of the Ringelheim Monastery near Goslar. The year before his death, Michael’s health started to decline rapidly and he was dismissed from his position as Kappellmeister because the quality of music was going down. An Essay! Michael died on February 15, 1621, his 50th birthday in Wolfenbuttel, Germany and left his fortune to charity. His final resting place after his death is beneath the St. Mary’s church in Wofenbuttel, Germany.

He had become famous as a composer of Church music. His first composition was in 1602-1603 while he was in job resume, his early thirties. Michael started writing some of them when Regenburg was the parliament seat for the Holy Roman Empire. Taking after his father and grandfather’s Lutheran. Words: 630 - Pages: 3. . believe he did anything that had a substantially negative impact on the world of finance. 1912 Collected Essay Virginia Virginia Woolf! Michael Milken was the king of the stocks back in the 1980s and early 90s, but that doesn’t mean he was looking out for the best interest of those around him.

Personally, I believe he was a foe in this industry. Even though he helped other companies make millions, he was doing it wrongfully. Essentially Milken got caught and job resume dearchse did time for his misbehavior in the finance world. Ethically, I believe he was only looking out for essays himself and in the long run but got bit in job resume dearchse, the butt when he ended up getting caught. He was doing what any other finance professional was told to do, which was to gain money and respect, yet he was doing it illegally. Once Milken was caught, it put the finance industry in a magnify glass to make sure everything was being done perfectly and by the book. Milken was making millions a year, he approximately made over $1 billion dollars in dissertation and investment, a four year period and was living the high life. He was also making many charitable donations to prostate cancer, but in job resume, actuality that was stolen money.

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They forced Michael into self-incrimination although he kept on telling the officers that everything that he was saying was a lie. Michael Crowe and his friends lied to the police because that’s what the police wanted to job resume dearchse, hear. They thought it would be the easy way out. Escondido Police Department told Stephanie’s parents that they had found her killer, her brother Michael had confessed to them. An Essay! A lie but he had told them what they wanted from him. These officers violated Michaels and his friend’s rights because they forced them to self-incriminate. Words: 330 - Pages: 2. . Cannibal Tours In Cannibalizing, Commodifying , or Creating Culture? Power and Art in job resume dearchse, Sepik River Tourism, Silverman makes several critiques of O'Rourke's Cannibal Tours.

Silverman argues that O’Rourke constructed a limited view of the critical thinking topics New Guinea tribes. Dearchse! Silverman attributes the eroding ‘authenticity’ to the tourists’ pursuit for entertainment in critical thinking, exchange for money. For instance, O’Rourke’s interviews mostly covered reactions from tourists and dearchse how they gawked over good critical thinking the natives, arrogantly depicting their primitive lives. Silverman argues that the job resume film “portrays tourism as a process that only disempowers local people and erodes from their lives all genuine, meaningful dimensions of their culture”(Silverman 1996). Tourism is much more than O’Rourke is presenting on the surface. In fact, Silverman suggests that its advantages go far deeper than monetary value, but attribute to growing, complex hybrid cultures. In Silverman’s opinion, “ Tourism is often a context in which local people exercise subtle forms of power and resistance, and artistically express novel hybrid concept of personal, ethnic, national, and transnational modern identities” (Silverman1996). A Thesis! Throughout O’Rourke’s film, the tourists, either through action or inaction, seem to be going against Silverman’s idea for tourism. For example, the job resume dearchse local people are unable to exercise subtle forms of power; but instead, they experience disempowerment from the tourists’ unfair bargaining for already cheap. Words: 699 - Pages: 3. Michel de Montaigne On Education Children . 1912 Collected Essay Virginia Woolf Woolf! Actions Speak Louder Than Words One cannot learn to dance simply by job resume dearchse, watching.

He must interact with the music, not through his mind but through is body. Calculating the mathematics of dance out on paper will help you no better understand it than watching a muted movie … blindfolded. In Michel de Montaigne’s narrative, “On Educating Children”, he explains how one must put forth character and intelligence before knowledge. It is simple to read then reread for the sake of memorization. For instance, during my toddler years I was able to recite the ABC’s forward and backwards, but if you had asked me to essays on existentialism, read The Great Gatsby by job resume dearchse, Scott Fitzgerald, you would be in for a surprise, for I would had introduced characters and plots unknown to man-kind! My point being, just because I was able to regurgitate the cancer essays alphabet, did not mean that I truly understood the each of the letters. It is through the action of job resume practicing the ‘words’ when one can begin to naturally enrich his mind with understanding. A Thesis! Not all children are one in job resume, the same. In today’s educational system, children are treated as just that, identical. So it would come to no surprise to pay someone to write a thesis, Montaigne that out of a class of job resume 30 individuals, only one or two students would have properly understood the material that was “taught” to the whole class.

Montaigne states, “Spewing up food exactly as you have swallowed it is evidence of a failure to digest and assimilate it; the stomach has not done its job if, during concoction. Words: 1463 - Pages: 6. . teachmg Enghsh when he might have had a happy and interesting life as an electrician or a confidence man. Well, you may ask, what can you do about it? The subject is one on you have few convictions and little information. On Existentialism! Can you be expected to make a dull subject interesting? As a matter of fact; this is what you are expected to dearchse, do. Pay Someone! This is the writer's essential task. Job Resume! subjects, except sex, are dull until somebody makes them interestThe _writer's jo? is to find the in literature argument, the approach, the angle, . Dearchse! wor.

mg that will take the reader with him. This is seldom easy, and IS partiCularly hard in subjects that have been much discussed: ColFootball, Fraternities, Popular Music, Is Chivalry Dead?, and the You will feel that there is nothing you can do with such subjects 5 6 Wo rds / 23 1 to Say No thi ng in 500 ROBERTS • Ho w IS PROCESS ANALYS 23 0 j th in gs yo u ca n do s. But th er e are so me repeat th e ol d br om ide y alive, at least less ex ce pt rs, if no t th ro bb in gl will ma ke yo ur pape wh ich ise be. an th ey mi gh t oth erw insufferably ted iou s th s Co nt en t Avoid th e Obviou ed to be Say th at yo u'v e decid ent is college football. In Literature! com. ur Say th e assignm argum. th at by pu tti ng do wn th e eu studies, against it. Begin stu de nts mm ds off th mmercial, it takes th e s instead of job resume mi nd : it is to o co iversity a kin d of a thesis circu players, it makes th e un . Ca n you it is ha rd on th e it is financially ruinous nter, for dearchse mo st schools. Words: 6637 - Pages: 27. Of Cannibals by Micheal de Montaigne. . To Write A Thesis! In: English and Literature Of Cannibals, by Michael de Montaigne 3 August 2008 Research Summary: Of cannibals In Of cannibals, by Michael de Montaigne, Montaigne makes a subtle argument to try to show that the cannibals are not barbarians. He uses a rebuttal argument to make the claim that the cannibals are not terrible people because of one practice that they engage in.

Another claim he makes is that the cannibals also exhibit many qualities and virtues that are well respected by Europeans. Montaigne gives his reason for the cannibals not being barbarous by stating that it is dearchse hypocritical for Europeans to judge them without even looking or acknowledge there own barbarous ways. Write Unrest! He states that, “I am not sorry that we notice the job resume barbarous horror of such acts, but I am heartily sorry that, judging their faults rightly, we should be so blind to our own” (155). Montaigne feels that the pay someone a thesis European nature of torture is more barbarous than the job resume dearchse cannibals eating someone who is dissertation on banking and investment already dead, “I think there is more barbarity in eating a man alive than in eating him dead; and in job resume dearchse, tearing by tortures and on student the rack of a body still full of feeling, in roasting a man bit by bit, in having him bitten and mangled by dogs and swine, than roasting and dearchse eating him after he is breast cancer dead (155). Montaigne defines the Europeans as being barbaric themselves and gives reasons for why the cannibals practice is not as bad as the accepted viewpoint.

He states that it is a cultural practice that is.

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Free Environmental Studies essays. How can the Dutch state contribute in the best way possible to move towards a viable prevention system to prevent dangerous climate change? When nature speaks, humans can only job resume dearchse listen. Human intervention has caused an increase of the temperate, which would have catastrophical consequences by inaction. In Literature? Resolution 10/4 2009 of the UN Human Rights Council points out that a climate change of more than 2 degrees poses a threat to all humans and their health. It would lead to significant changes in job resume ecosystems, sea level rises, diseases etc. Article 4 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is recognizing commitments that parties have to on banking and investment, undertake in order to job resume dearchse, take measures necessary to mitigate climate change. Article 4 UNFCCC points out that adaption is necessary by developing appropriate and integrated climate change plans on write an essay on student unrest, a national and job resume, regional level. Essays? These adaption measures are necessary in order to prevent threats such as; health-, food- and environmental security threats. Throughout developments in international-, European-, domestic law and case law countries are accountable for dearchse, their contribution of creating dangerous climate change. An Essay On Student Unrest? Fossil fuel extraction, emissions of greenhouse gases and pollution has led to a political and moral catastrophe.

States are in no position to ignore what is referred to as one of the job resume, biggest challenges facing mankind in the coming years. The rising temperate, floods, droughts, melting ice cap that raised sea levels are just a few examples to indicate there all States need to take action. Government are in violation with international-, environmental-, tort- and human rights law. The reality of climate law liability is a certain amount of inadequacy or speed of international action on the occurring changes in the climate. The increasing focus on liability implicates the involvement of a broad range of actors; governments, industry, business, NGOs etc. This paper aims to answer the following question as adequately as possible; How can the Dutch state contribute in the best way possible to essays, move towards a viable prevention system to prevent dangerous climate change? This paper will not discuss the differences in jurisdictions across the world, but will focus on job resume, the Dutch legal system in relation to the prevention of pay someone, dangerous climate change. The Dutch government cannot prevent dangerous climate change by job resume, itself, but can certainly make efforts to contribute in the best way possible. Firstly the environmental protection in the Netherlands will be discussed. Good Thinking? After that the way ‘danger’ can be perceived and what added value it has to dangerous climate changes.

Further on, the international, European and national legislation towards climate changes will be covered. Especially the Urgenda Foundation case against the Dutch government will be looked into. In the end, the future action on which the Dutch government can base its future policies on, will be discussed. The environmental protection in job resume dearchse the Netherlands. The Dutch State has been invested in the protection of the environment since 1875. Ever since the State has adopted several legislation to to write a thesis, act upon the different ray of climate issues. The very first legislation that came into existence was the Nuisance Act in 1875. After a while, in dearchse 1958, the State adopted the Act on Marine Oil Pollution. Between 1960 and 1980, the amount of specialized legislation increased significantly.

In 1962 the Pesticides and Herbicides Act was adopted, after that the Nuclear Energy Act (1963). A specific Water pollution Act was enacted in 1969, after which the Act on Air pollution (1970), Act on Chemical Waist (1976) and the Act on waste products (1977). In 1979 the Noise Nuisance Act and the Act containing general provisions on environmental hygiene got adopted. Now the dissertation on banking and investment, Dutch State had a number of statutory environmental regulations, which were not coherent. In order to improve this situation, the Environmental management Act was adopted in 1993. In 1993 the Environmental Management Act was enacted. It contained general provisions for decision-making, enforcement and job resume dearchse, juridical review on specific environmental issues. Article 1.1a of the Environmental Management Act states the duty of care provision, meaning that every citizen should refrain from actions that are harmful to the environment. Nowadays the basis for environmental protection is article 21 of the Dutch Constitution. It serves as a social right and not as a legal ground for a claim against on student unrest, the government.

Yet, the Dutch State has used article 21 of the Constitution against citizens who were accused of environmental pollution. Furthermore, the Supreme Court accepted it as a legal ground, making it possible to invoke article 21 of the Constitution in a climate law case. The article is the primary article to hold the Dutch State responsible and accountable for dangerous climate change. The Dutch legal framework will be further discussed in this paper, along with European and international law. Before that, the job resume dearchse, notion of ‘dangerous’ climate change will be described. The element of danger will be viewed on from external and internal definitions of danger, after which the dissertation, legal framework that is trying to prevent and mitigate this dangerous climate changes will be discussed. Dangerous climate change. In order to fully comprehend the extent to which the Dutch State can prevent dangerous climate change, it is important to point out what dangerous climate change is. There are two characteristics that give form to the definition for dangerous climate change: external and internal definitions of risk perceptions. The external definitions of danger are connected to job resume dearchse, the expert’s analysis and scientific research. There is no methodology or process that would constitute a dangerous level of collected, climate change.

Experts have pointed out thresholds of climate change or suggested the possible impacts. In table 1 there are a few examples of dangers measured through threshold in physical vulnerability. Because there can be a lack of (analytical) insight into job resume dearchse, some thresholds, a State can use that indistinctness to essays on existentialism, not take any action. Danger measured through threshold in physical vulnerability. 1 Large-scale eradication of coral reef systems. 2 Disintegration of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. 3 Breakdown of the thermohaline circulation. 4 Qualitative modification of crucial climate-system patterns such as ENSO and NAO. 5 Climate change exceeding the job resume dearchse, rate at write an essay unrest which biomes can migrate. The internal definitions of danger means the dearchse, way danger is perceived and or/experienced.

It indicates a strong feeling of unsafety. The internal definition therefore relates to moral, psychological, cultural, social and institutional processes of how a person or a group perceives as danger. Naturally, the internal definition of danger depends mostly on the living area. Together, the critical topics, internal and external definitions of danger constitute what can be perceived and/or experienced as an actual danger to a group of people geographically. The dangerous climate changes are shared responsibilities of governments. Dangerous climate change: the responsibility of States. It is important to job resume dearchse, see to critical topics, what extent the government is responsible to prevent dangerous climate change. And if there is a responsibility, to what extent the job resume, government can be held liable for their contribution in creating climate changes. On domestic level, the constitution has laid down a positive obligation for the Dutch government to act. According to article 21 of the Dutch Constitution, the government is responsible for safeguarding the habitability, the protection and the improvement of the living environment and essays, the country. Job Resume Dearchse? The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (NEAA) is the national institute that advises the Dutch government in the fields of the environment, nature and good, spatial planning by giving strategic policy analysis.

On European level, article 2 (Right to life) and job resume, 8 (Right to health and respect for private and family life) of the an essay, European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR) give states the positive obligation to act. These articles are applicable to the Dutch law because of job resume, article 93 and 94 of the Dutch Constitution. Through the UNFCCC, the 1904 collected essay virginia woolf, Kyoto protocol was developed. This protocol contains measures to work on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by industrialised countries. The Kyoto protocol tackles six greenhouse gas emissions (see figure 2): Figure 2: Emissions of greenhouse gases. carbon dioxide CO2.

nitrous oxide N2O. sulphur hexafluoride SF6. Furthermore, the Kyoto protocol contains provisions with targets to stimulate States to reduce or limit their emissions. Job Resume? By reaching the targets, States receive economic value in return. There are three market-based mechanism to promote States and good thinking topics, enterprises to reach the targets. The first mechanism is emission trading. On national level, the Dutch Emission Authority (NEa) is responsible for the monitoring of enterprises that join the job resume dearchse, European Emission Trade System (EU ETS). The second is the essay virginia woolf, Clean Development mechanism (CDM). CDM is defined in article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol and is the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. Article 12 (5) of the Protocol has laid down three conditions in order for job resume, enterprises to earn Certified Emission Reductions (CERs): ‘ Real, measurable and long-term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change; and.

‘ Reductions in emissions that are additional to any that would occur in the absence of the certified project activity. The third mechanism is the Joint Implementation (JI). These three mechanisms are seen as the most important tools for States and the EU to reduce the good critical thinking topics, emissions of greenhouse gases. An internationally recognized customary law is the no-harm rule. Dearchse? This rule is also included in dissertation on banking principle 21 of the United Nations Stockholm Declaration (1972). A state is allowed to exploit their own resources pursuant to job resume dearchse, their own environmental policies, as long as the damage doesn’t extend beyond the essays on existentialism, limits of national jurisdiction. The principle of no harm obliges a state to prevent, reduce and control the risks that are connected with environmental harm to other states. Dearchse? There is write on student, also the polluter pays principle, which is dearchse, also laid down in Principle 16 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development.

The principle is aiming for national authorities to bear the environmental costs and the use of economic instruments. National authorities bear the responsibility to pay the costs of pollution, with due regard to write an essay on student unrest, the public interest and without distorting international trade and investment. Before invoking domestic, European or international law, it is important to know who the job resume dearchse, parties are who can make claims relating to climate law. Possible parties in claims. There are three possible claims: claims between States, claims by private persons against States and claims between private persons. Only the first two options will be briefly discussed. The third option is not relevant for this paper.

Climate law claims between States is not very common. A State would have to bring a liability claim in front of an international court regarding the climate change policy of breast cancer, a State. Only Cuba and the Salomon Islands have made a declaration with regard to article 14 UNFCCC on compulsory dispute settlement. When it comes to claims by private persons against job resume dearchse, States, a State would have to contribute or cause the dangerous climate change to occur within their territory. The individual or group of individuals would have to live within the jurisdiction of that state. The component of violation of human rights makes international law and on banking and investment, principles of dearchse, liability relevant. If this component is not present, then national tort law is applicable. Through jurisprudence and legislative developments, a state can be held liable, despite its sovereignty.

International law has not regulated the applicability of domestic tort law in climate law liability claims. Making states strictly liable for write, transboundary harm was considered too progressive. A good example of a claim against job resume, a State is the Urgenda case against good critical topics, the Dutch government. The Urgenda case. ‘Judges with the courage to give a ruling on this will one day be applauded, whereas those who don’t will eventually be tarred and feathered.’ ‘ J. Spier. The Urgenda Foundation aims to protect the interest of current and future generations in order that the job resume dearchse, ecosystems and the liveability of the planet are not severely put at risk by on existentialism in literature, planetary heating and climate change caused by humans. The foundation aims for a fast transition towards a sustainable society and views climate change as one of the biggest challenges of our times. On 20 November 2013 Urgenda foundation and 886 citizens (Urgenda c.s.) have initiated a case against the Dutch government. There were two main issues dat Urgenda c.s. were trying to achieve with this case: 1) A declaratory judgment that the Dutch government is contributing to dearchse, dangerous climate change (reducing greenhouse gas emissions) which is a threat for the enjoyment of human rights.

Urgenda c.s. wants to critical topics, order the Dutch State to take action to limit the amount of CO2 emissions to 40% (with a minimum of job resume, 25%) the 1990 level by 2020. The rate of 40% is documented in the United Nations climate Convention, in order to on existentialism, secure any reasonable chance of preventing dangerous climate change. 2) Urging the court of The Hague to compel the Dutch State to act according the positive obligations under the job resume, European Convention of Human Rights. This case is on existentialism in literature, extraordinary, because of two main reasons. Dearchse? First of all, it is the an essay, first case in job resume dearchse Europe in which citizens are trying to hold the state responsible for inaction with catastrophically consequences.

Secondly, it is the good, first case in which human rights form a legal basis to be protected against (dangerous) climate change. Legal grounds in the Urgenda case. Urgenda c.s. based their claims on four legal grounds. They stated that the Dutch State acted unlawful with the greenhouse gas emissions based on these grounds. The first ground is the job resume, no-harm principle. As mentioned before, the principle of collected essay virginia virginia woolf woolf, no harm obliges a state to job resume, prevent, reduce and control the risks that are connected with environmental harm to breast essays, other states. The second legal ground are the obligations arising from the UNFCCC and the COP for all States. The third ground is based on the rights enshrined in article 2 (right to life) and 8 ECHR (right to health and respect for private and family life). The fourth ground are the legal grounds based in tort, like for example nuisance and endangerment. The Dutch was held responsible for co2 emissions that would cause climate damage in and outside the territory of the job resume dearchse, Netherlands. Urgenda c.s. believe that the case of the Dutch Supreme Court Kalimijnen is an important case, because the write an essay on student, proceedings are similar.

In the Kalimijnen case, the job resume, French mines would dispose around four billion salt discharges in the river Rhine on a yearly basis. About 600 kilometers downstream, farmers would use the same water from the Rhine for their crops. There was a direct relation between the 1912 collected essay essay virginia woolf, disposal of salt discharges and the decrease of in job resume dearchse the quality of the crops. These farmers wanted a declaratory judgement from the court in which the actions of the French mines were declared unlawful and on banking and investment, compensation for the suffered and future damaged caused by the salt discharges. In this case, the Court decided that there was a pro rata liability, because the dearchse, damage occurred from thinking topics, several emissions from different sources. Each source was therefore liable for dearchse, its part. Urgenda c.s. Essays? also believe that the job resume, Dutch government is 1904 1912 collected essay woolf, liable for its share of the total Co2 emissions, therefore the State would be pro rata liable. This would mean that the Dutch State has to cover all damages caused proportionally in relation to other States. Dearchse? This is also acknowledged in the preamble of the UNFCCC: ‘Acknowledging that the global nature of climate change calls for on banking and investment, the widest possible cooperation by all countries and their participation in an effective and appropriate international response, in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities and their social and economic conditions.’ The Urgenda case will form an important precedent for dearchse, other lawsuits across Europe. Dissertation On Banking And Investment? So far, litigation has focused on the compliance of regulatory requirements and not on the impacts of dearchse, (dangerous) climate change.

Claims in 1912 collected virginia virginia woolf the Urgenda case deriving from domestic tort law. The claims of job resume dearchse, Urgenda c.s. are based on dissertation on banking, tort law. Job Resume? Essentially the cumulative emissions of greenhouse gases that is caused by humans, changes the chemical composition of the atmosphere, increasing the temperature. There is a causal link between the greenhouse gas emissions and the consequences for breast cancer essays, the ecosystems. Dearchse? Science has provided sufficient proof to determine the essays, causal link.

This has also been confirmed in the UNFCCC and the Cancun Agreements of 2010. In the job resume dearchse, Cancun Agreements, States have acknowledged that a increase of 2 degrees would be a dangerous climate change for mankind. The Dutch cabinet has decided that the State will pursue a reduction of 16% of greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 instead of 25-40%. Urgenda c.s. regard this as an unlawful act, because the State is contributing to a dangerous situation for the Dutch society. The element of danger has been defined by Kelderluik case. The Dutch Supreme set up four questions that served as a criteria to determine to dissertation on banking, what extent there was actual danger. The criteria meets the requirements that are related to article 6:162 (2) of the Dutch Civil Code (DCC).

Article 6:162 DCC is the basis for Dutch tort law of which paragraph 2 is regulating the social due diligence standard. Job Resume Dearchse? In the case of Urgenda c.s. the criteria was affirmed. Write? Therefore the State was acting unlawful by not pursuing a reduction of job resume dearchse, 25-40% of greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. The criteria is as following (see below for the answers on each criteria): o Was the danger obvious? o How big is the chance that the danger will occur? o How big are the to write a thesis, damages (damage to health or to property)? o What are the costs of job resume, taking the necessary precautions?

Was the danger obvious? Yes, research has pointed out 1912 essay virginia woolf that an job resume dearchse, increase of 2 degrees will have dangerous climate change consequences. How big is the chance that the danger will occur Science and pay someone a thesis, international institutes have assesses that the chance is very big that dangerous climate changes will occur within a short amount of time. This has also been recognized in case law: harms associated with dangerous climate changes are well recognized and real. How big are the damages The damages would be catastrophically to all mankind. What are the costs of taking the necessary precautions? It will be financially feasible to act now (preventive) with sustainable and cost effective measures.

The conclusion in relation with domestic tort law is that the Dutch State is acting unlawful according to job resume dearchse, article 6:162 (2) DCC with respect to two elements: 1. The goals in regards to collected essay virginia woolf, emission reductions are low. 2. The State contributes and finances the use of fossil fuels and does not stimulate nor subside renewable energy with the same effort. Besides the domestic tort law based on article 6:162 DCC, article 2 and 8 ECHR were violated. The State has the positive obligation to protect the right to life and health. An increase in the climate temperate will affect these rights, because all humans are threatened by dangerous climate changes. Job Resume Dearchse? The European Court of write on student, Human Rights (ECtHR) has ruled in the case of Oneryildiz v. Turkey that a State has to act in order to protect the job resume, right to have a private family life without any interference or disturbance or nuisance. Besides the domestic tort law and article 2 and 8 ECHR, there has to be a causal link to attribute proportional liability. No State would be liable according to the condition qua sine non requirement.

The condition qua sine non simply means that a certain act that causes an wrongdoing; without that act, the consequence would not have occurred. Dangerous climate changes only occur because of pay someone to write, cumulative emissions of greenhouse gases. Every party that has contributed to damage that is causes, is proportionally liable for his part of the damage. Job Resume? This brings us to the pro-rata liability. The Dutch Supreme Court would have to decide upon climate policy. Is this law or politics? This issue will be discussed briefly. Law or politics? The judges of the Dutch Supreme Court have the tendency to give enterprises their policy freedom in order for the Netherlands to have a strong economic position.

The claims in pay someone to write the Urgenda c.s. case have a legal and political basis. The Supreme Court would have to make a decision in which they encounter the policy freedom of enterprises. The Advocate-General of the Supreme Court, Jaap Spier, has pointed out that the judge would have to have an dearchse, activistic mentality in order to rule in on banking and investment favor of Urgenda c.s. In 2009 the Court of Appeal ruled in the case American Electric Power (AEP) versus the State of Connecticut on a climate issue that was considered to be an issue of dearchse, policy. In fist instance the court decided that it cannot rule in an issue of policy. The Court of in literature, Appeal pointed out that a question of law is justiciable, even if it has political implications. Therefore the Court decided it had jurisdiction. It concludes that climate policies that are seen as unlawful can be contested before court. In order to make a decision that would improve the legal and political situation in job resume dearchse the Dutch State regarding the prevention of dangerous climate changes, the Supreme Court could use the Oslo Principles on Global Climate Change Obligations as a guideline. On Banking? The Oslo Principles will be discussed further on in this paper. The International Bar Association.

The International Bar Association (IBA) has taken the discussions within the UNFCCC and job resume dearchse, the Kyoto Protocol in the Task Force report of 2015: ‘Achieving Justice and Human Rights in an Era of Climate Disruption.’ The report shows strategies to tackle with two issues: mitigation and adaption. The mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and the (necessity of) adaption measures by Sates. Governments need to take appropriate measures for foreseeable risks. Governments do have a margin of appreciation, but they need to take steps to protect the right to life (article 2 ECHR). In short, IBA urges for the creation of an effective and an essay on student unrest, consistent set of standards to address climate harms in order to promote relevant domestic procedural legislation. The Task Force proposes the establishment of an IBA Working Group on Climate Change Justice in order to set up a model statute on legal remedies for dearchse, climate change. The model statute would incorporate the following procedural and substantive issues: ‘ Actionable rights under international and regional human rights law affected by climate change; ‘ Clarification of human rights obligations relating to climate change; ‘ Issues regarding causation, including appropriate standards for proving a legally. recognisable causal link between GHG emissions and breast, relief sought; ‘ Whether knowledge, including foreseeability of job resume dearchse, harm, is relevant to liability or. ‘ Development of methods for awarding remedies and relief as warranted by the. circumstances, including uniform standards by which to apportion damages, and the provision of declaratory, interim and injunctive relief; ‘ Issues regarding standards of cancer essays, liability; ‘ The interrelationship of job resume dearchse, competing claims from nations, communities and individuals; ‘ Limitation periods for claims; ‘ The availability of pre-trial and interim applications for disclosure and discovery; ‘ Guidelines on costs awards in climate change cases; and.

‘ Guidelines for the jurisdictional reach of domestic and international courts to. adjudicate climate change-related claims. IBA believes that it is important to have a legal recognition for a new universal right. This right would relate to a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment for all mankind. A few recommendations that would complement the pay someone to write a thesis, mitigation of dangerous climate changes will be discussed. First of dearchse, all; there must be awareness. 1904 Essay Virginia Virginia Woolf? One of the recommendations is job resume dearchse, that corporate responsibility must be increased in on student unrest order to recognize the impacts of climate change and to enhance climate friendly policies. Secondly, the issuing of World Trade Organisation (WTO) guidelines that trade-related measures in which the technologies are climate-friendly will be subsidized, excluding the use of fossil fuels. Dearchse? A third recommendation is to make bilateral investment treaties and free trade agreements green. This would mean that both parties have to comply with environmental laws and regulations. A fourth element is the creation of an international dispute resolution for climate change issues in which the dissertation on banking and investment, court members are specialist in climate law.

These recommendations and the issues discussed in the model statute of IBA’s Working Group on Climate Change Justice are important considerations for the Dutch State. The Oslo Principles on job resume, Global Climate Change Obligations. On March 1st 2015, the Oslo Principles on Global Climate Change Obligations (Oslo Principles) have been established by a team of experts from different fields of law. They have written down a set of Principles which form the essential obligations for States and companies all over to and investment, world. These Principles have to avert the critical level of global warming and its related effects.

The principles express the current obligations that all States and companies have to protect and the basic means of meeting those obligations. There are four initiatives that are marked as crucial for all States. Job Resume Dearchse? First of all, action by essays on existentialism, international, national and local actors to adapt to dearchse, inevitable climate-change effects in ways that minimize harm to human and other forms of 1904 collected essay virginia woolf, life and to the exercise of human rights. In the second place transparency in the conduct of all actors with responsibility to implement these Principles. The third initiative is widespread education initiatives to dearchse, ensure that humanity, in general, and all people making relevant decisions, including legislative and judicial decisions, understand the urgency of action to avert climate change. The fourth initiative guarantees of public access to information about the climate effects of pay someone to write, policies, projects and job resume, practices, public participation in relevant decision-making, and on existentialism in literature, the establishment of appropriate institutions to coordinate and implement efforts to reduce climate change. The Oslo Principles further lay down a general precautionary principle of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, provide definitions, set down specific obligations (of States and Enterprises) and procedural obligations of states.

These principles complements the recommendations and the issues of IBA’s Working Group as they are trying to job resume, work towards a world with less greenhouse gas emissions and more ‘green’ legislation and agreements. Insurance against risks of dangerous climate change. Regardless of the mitigation and adaption efforts that States will make, there is will be an inevitable change in breast climate. Along with that, risks of dangerous risks will increase. Due to these dangerous changes, it sounds sensible to have insurance against dangerous climate changes.

For example, the Dutch researcher, Willem Jan Wouter Botzen, came up with a public-private partnership to give insurance to people who live close in dearchse an area below sea level. On Existentialism In Literature? Botzen is trying to challenge the Dutch insurance companies to contribute to the climate adaption in the Netherlands. Job Resume Dearchse? The Dutch State would contribute to create an insurance system in which the State compensates the Dutch insurance companies and keeps market distortions into 1912 essay essay virginia virginia, account. This paper will not further discuss the options of climate change insurance and compensation means, it is a side-issue. Job Resume Dearchse? The main focus of this paper will remain on how the Dutch State can prevent dangerous climate change. The aim of the conclusion is to answer the following main question: How can the Dutch state contribute in the best way possible to move towards a viable prevention system to prevent dangerous climate change?

The CanCun Agreements have set the 1912 collected essay essay woolf, limit for States to not surpass more than 2 degrees in global heating. This means that States have agreed on job resume, the fact that the emissions of (six) greenhouse gases are creating a dangerous climate change. The Dutch State has to respect article 21 of the to write, Dutch Constitution, articles 2 and 8 ECHR and adhere to international norms such as the duty of care, the polluter pays- and no harm principles. On domestic level, article 6:162 DCC has provided a causal link and liability based on job resume dearchse, tort law. Breast? The Urgenda c.s. Dearchse? case can be seen as a positive development towards the involvement of more actors in creating a viable prevention system against dangerous climate change.

Key words in the prevention of dangerous climate change is mitigation and adoption. The mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and the (necessity of) adaption measures by Sates to adapt along with the climate changes. An Essay? We need to adapt in a sustainable manner to mitigate the foreseeable risks connected to dangerous climate change. The most important (legal) tools for the State are established by the UNFCCC and dearchse, the Kyoto protocol. The three market-based mechanisms is an effective way to reach reduction targets that the Dutch State needs to address and work on (emission trading by essay virginia virginia, the NEa, the CDM and JI). The Dutch State should further enhance the emission trading within its borders. Unfortunately the UNFCCC and job resume dearchse, the Kyoto Protocol do not take human rights into account when striving for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

Several cases have indicated (so does the Urgenda c.s.) that preventing dangerous climate change is the responsibility of the State. With that responsibility comes accountability in which citizens can call for write an essay unrest, a breach of human rights by their governments. The Dutch State should incorporate the procedural and job resume, substantive issues presented in the model statue of the Task Force that is proposed by the IBA Working Group on Climate Change Justice and the Oslo Principles in order to complement the issues presented by the IBA Working Group. The matter of cancer, dangerous climate change concerns everyone living on job resume, this planet. After reading the catastrophic consequences that research has proven that will occur if the temperate will increase more than 2 degrees, I was shocked. Somewhere in the back of your head you tend to believe that climate change and especially dangerous changes are something you will not be confronted with.

Or that it is a problem for future generations to write an essay on student, worry about. The fact that the right to life and the right to a sustainable climate is considered a human right, is to be applauded. Job Resume? It means that governments, courts, NGOs and enterprises (amongst other actors) are taking their part seriously. I do believe that the topics, Dutch State is taking small steps’too small. The fact that the Dutch cabinet has decided that the State will pursue a reduction of dearchse, 16% of greenhouse gas emissions by critical thinking, 2020 instead of job resume, 25-40%, is alarming. After doing all the research to write this paper, I also believe preventing dangerous climate change is a shared responsibility. The Dutch State can contribute, but certainly not prevent by its own. After all, there are no borders when it comes to climate changes. As a Dutch citizen, I can only hope that in the case of Urgenda c.s., the plaintiffs will win.

It will contribute immensely to towards a viable prevention system of dangerous climate changes within Europe. The Dutch State must protect the vulnerability of the Dutch environment by showing strong adaptive capacity based on to write a thesis, economic resources, flexible use of technology, setting up or funding institutions and providing information and skills to job resume dearchse, society. The Dutch State (or any other government) does not have the luxary to show signs of impasse towards dangerous climate changes. However, the Dutch can contribute towards a viable prevention system to prevent dangerous climate change. ‘ J.M. Verschuuren (ed), Research Handbook on essays, Climate Change Adaption Law, Research Handbooks in Environmental Law series, Edward Elgar Publications: 2013. ‘ M.E. Franke, Verkort verklaard, Gouda Quint: 1993.

‘ R. Lord and others, Climate Law Liability. Transnational Law and Practice, Brick Court Chambers, December 2011. ‘ R. Seerden and M. Heldeweg, Public environmental law in the Netherlands, Kluwer Law International; 2002. European Court of Human Rights. ‘ EHRM 30 November 2004, NJ 2005/210. ‘ ECtHR 28 February 2012, no. 17423/05 ( Kolyadenko v Russia). Dutch Supreme Court. ‘ HR 5 November 1965, NJ 1966, 136.

‘ HR 23 September 1988, NJ 1989, 743. Dutch Administrative Disputes Section of the Council of job resume dearchse, State. ‘ ABRvS, 27 April 1992, AB 1992, 688. ‘ Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency, no. 05-1120, 415 F. 3d 50, cert. On Student? granted, 126 S. Dearchse? Ct. 2960 (U.S. Nov. 29, 2006) (No. 05-1120). ‘ American Electric Power Company v Connecticut, 564 U.S. ___ (2011).

‘ International Bar Association, Achieving Justice and Human Rights in an Era of Climate Disruption, July 2014. ‘ Legal Response Initiative, ‘No-harm rule’ and climate change, 24 July 2012. ‘ M. Faure and A. Nollkaemper, International Liability as an Instrument to prevent and Compensate for Climate Change, Maastricht University 2007. ‘ W.J.W. Pay Someone? Bozen, Financial arrangements for disaster losses under climate change, Faculteit der Economische Wetenschappen en Bedrijfskunde, VU Amsterdam: 2010. ‘ J.M. van den Berg and R.H.J. Cox, Is de staat aansprakelijk voor klimaatverandering?, AV#038;S 2014/2. ‘ D. van Berkel, Summons in the Case: Urgenda Foundation v. Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Regarding the failure of the Dutch State to take sufficient actions to job resume, prevent dangerous climate change, 25 June 2014, nr. 48. ‘ R.H.J. Cox, The liability of European States for Climate Change, Paulussen Advocaten NV, case note. ‘ S. Dessai a.o, Defining and experiencing dangerous climate change. An editorial Essay, last edited 29 July 2014. ‘ J.R.

Malcolm and A. Markham, Global Warming and Terrestrial Biodiversity Decline, World Wide Fund For Nature, Gland, Switzerland: 2000. ‘ O’Neill, M. Oppenheimer, ‘Dangerous Climate Impacts and the Kyoto Protocol’, Science 296: 2002. ‘ S. Rahmstorf, ‘The Thermohaline Ocean Circulation: A System with Dangerous Thresholds’?, Clim. Change 46: 2000. ‘ Timmermann a.o, ‘Increased El Ni??o Frequency in a Climate Model Forced by Future Greenhouse Warming’, Nature 398: 1999. ‘ Vaughan and Spouge, ‘Risk Estimation of Collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet’, Clim.

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