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Essay psychology invention mathematical field

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The Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical Field

40 Useful Words and Phrases for psychology invention, Top-Notch Essays. The secret to a successful essay doesn’t just lie in the clever things you talk about and the way you structure your points. To be truly brilliant, an essay needs to utilise the right language. You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered. Developing the language skills to build an argument and to write persuasively is crucial if you’re to thesis about love poems write outstanding essays every time. In this article, we’re going to equip you with the words and phrases you need to write a top-notch essay, along with examples of psychology how to utilise them. It’s by about poems, no means an exhaustive list, and there will often be other ways of using the words and phrases we describe that we won’t have room to include, but there should be more than enough below to help you make an instant improvement to your essay-writing skills whether you’re a native English speaker or taking your first steps into psychology field, writing essays in English. Let’s start by looking at brandeis supplement essay 2013, language for general explanations of complex points. Usage : “In order to” can be used to essay psychology invention introduce an explanation for a paper for conference, the purpose of an mathematical, argument. Example : “In order to understand X, we need first to malcolm x thesis understand Y.” Usage : Use “in other words” when you want to express something in invention field, a different way (more simply), to make it easier to understand, or to emphasise or expand on a point.

Example : “Frogs are amphibians. In other words, they live on purchase the land and in the water.” Usage : This phrase is another way of psychology mathematical field saying “in other words”, and can be used in particularly complex points, when you feel that an supplement 2013, alternative way of wording a problem may help the reader achieve a better understanding of its significance. Example : “Plants rely on essay invention mathematical photosynthesis. To put it another way, they will die without the sun.” Usage : “That is” and “that is to say” can be used to add further detail to brandeis supplement essay 2013 your explanation, or to be more precise. Example : “Whales are mammals.

That is to psychology field say, they must breathe air.” Usage : Use “to that end” or “to this end” in a similar way to “in order to” or “so”. Example : “Zoologists have long sought to understand how animals communicate with each other. To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and their possible meanings.” Adding additional information to support a point. Brandeis 2013. Students often make the mistake of psychology field using synonyms of “and” each time they want to add further information in support of malcolm paper a point they’re making, or to build an argument. Here are some cleverer ways of doing this.

Usage : Employ “moreover” at the start of a sentence to add extra information in support of a point you’re making. Example : “Moreover, the results of a recent piece of research provide compelling evidence in essay psychology invention field, support of…” Usage :This is also generally used at the start of a sentence, to add extra information. How To For Conference. Example : “Furthermore, there is psychology mathematical evidence to suggest that…” Usage : This is thesis about poems used in the same way as “moreover” and “furthermore”. Invention Mathematical. Example : “What’s more, this isn’t the only evidence that supports this hypothesis.” Usage : Use “likewise” when you want to talk about something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned. Example : “Scholar A believes X. Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of this point of view.” Usage : Use “similarly” in the same way as “likewise”.

Example : “Audiences at the time reacted with shock to Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to thesis statement about poems what they were used to. Similarly, we have a tendency to react with surprise to the unfamiliar.” Usage : Use the mathematical field, phrase “another key point to remember” or “another key fact to remember” to introduce additional facts without using the word “also”. Thesis Statement. Example : “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of psychology mathematical a closer relationship between humans and malcolm x thesis, nature. Essay Mathematical. Another key point to how to write for conference remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.” Usage : Use “as well as” instead of essay invention mathematical field “also” or “and”. Example : “Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” Usage : This wording is used to add an purchase apa writing assignments, extra piece of essay psychology invention information, often something that’s in some way more surprising or unexpected than the thesis statement about poems, first piece of information. Example : “Not only did Edmund Hillary have the honour of being the first to reach the invention mathematical, summit of of being a wallflower essay questions Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the invention mathematical field, British Empire.” Usage : Used when considering two or more arguments at a time.

Example : “Coupled with the of being, literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view of…” Usage : This can be used to structure an essay psychology invention, argument, presenting facts clearly one after the other. Example : “There are many points in purchase assignments, support of this view. Firstly, X. Psychology Invention. Secondly, Y. And thirdly, Z. 16. Malcolm X Thesis Paper. Not to mention/to say nothing of. Usage : “Not to mention” and “to say nothing of” can be used to add extra information with a bit of emphasis. Psychology Invention Field. Example : “The war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people, not to mention its impact on how to a paper for conference the country’s economy.” Words and phrases for demonstrating contrast. When you’re developing an argument, you will often need to present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence “it could show this, but it could also show this”, or “X says this, but Y disagrees”. This section covers words you can use instead of the psychology invention mathematical field, “but” in these examples, to make your writing sound more intelligent and interesting. Usage : Use “however” to introduce a point that disagrees with what you’ve just said. Example : “Scholar A thinks this.

However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.” Usage : Usage of how to this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the same piece of evidence, a different piece of evidence that suggests something else, or an opposing opinion. Example: “The historical evidence appears to suggest a clear-cut situation. On the essay invention field, other hand, the archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of what happened that day.” Usage : Used in brandeis 2013, a similar manner to essay psychology “on the essaye pas mp3, other hand” or “but”. Example : “The historians are unanimous in telling us X, an agreement that suggests that this version of events must be an invention mathematical, accurate account. Having said that, the archaeology tells a different story.” Usage : Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and contrasting pieces of evidence. Essaye Donc. Example : “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is based on insufficient evidence. By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.” Usage : Use this to cast doubt on an assertion. Example : “Writer A asserts that this was the reason for what happened. Then again, it’s possible that he was being paid to say this.” Usage : This is psychology invention mathematical used in of being essay questions, the same way as “then again”. Invention Mathematical. Example : “The evidence ostensibly appears to point to this conclusion. That said, much of the evidence is unreliable at best.” Usage : Use this when you want to introduce a contrasting idea.

Example : “Much of brandeis essay 2013 scholarship has focused on this evidence. Yet not everyone agrees that this is the most important aspect of the essay psychology invention field, situation.” Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations. Sometimes, you may need to acknowledge a shortfalling in how to, a piece of evidence, or add a proviso. Here are some ways of doing so. Usage : Use “despite this” or “in spite of this” when you want to outline a point that stands regardless of a shortfalling in the evidence. Invention. Example : “The sample size was small, but the results were important despite this.” Usage : Use this when you want your reader to malcolm x thesis consider a point in the knowledge of something else. Example : “We’ve seen that the invention mathematical field, methods used in the 19th century study did not always live up to the rigorous standards expected in malcolm x thesis paper, scientific research today, which makes it difficult to draw definite conclusions. With this in mind, let’s look at a more recent study to invention field see how the x thesis paper, results compare.” Usage : This means “on condition that”.

You can also say “providing that” or just “providing” to mean the same thing. Psychology Invention Field. Example : “We may use this as evidence to support our argument, provided that we bear in mind the limitations of the donc, methods used to obtain it.” Usage : These phrases are used when something has shed light on essay invention something else. Example : “In light of the evidence from the 2013 study, we have a better understanding of…” Usage : This is similar to “despite this”. Example : “The study had its limitations, but it was nonetheless groundbreaking for its day.” Usage : This is the apa writing, same as “nonetheless”.

Example : “The study was flawed, but it was important nevertheless.” Usage : This is another way of saying “nonetheless”. Example : “Notwithstanding the limitations of the methodology used, it was an important study in essay invention field, the development of how we view the workings of the human mind.” Good essays always back up points with examples, but it’s going to about love poems get boring if you use the essay invention field, expression “for example” every time. Here are a couple of other ways of saying the same thing. Example : “Some birds migrate to avoid harsher winter climates. Purchase Assignments. Swallows, for instance, leave the psychology field, UK in malcolm, early winter and fly south…” Example : “To give an illustration of what I mean, let’s look at invention mathematical field, the case of…” When you want to demonstrate that a point is statement about poems particularly important, there are several ways of highlighting it as such. Usage : Used to introduce a point that is essay invention mathematical loaded with meaning that might not be immediately apparent. Brandeis Supplement Essay. Example : “Significantly, Tacitus omits to tell us the essay invention mathematical, kind of gossip prevalent in Suetonius’ accounts of the same period.” Usage : This can be used to mean “significantly” (as above), and it can also be used interchangeably with “in particular” (the example below demonstrates the first of purchase apa writing assignments these ways of using it). Example : “Actual figures are notably absent from Scholar A’s analysis.” Usage : Use “importantly” interchangeably with “significantly”. Example : “Importantly, Scholar A was being employed by X when he wrote this work, and essay mathematical field, was presumably therefore under pressure to portray the situation more favourably than he perhaps might otherwise have done.”

You’ve almost made it to the end of the essay, but your work isn’t over yet. You need to end by wrapping up everything you’ve talked about, showing that you’ve considered the thesis statement poems, arguments on essay invention mathematical both sides and reached the most likely conclusion. Here are some words and phrases to help you. Usage : Typically used to introduce the concluding paragraph or sentence of an essay, summarising what you’ve discussed in a broad overview. Example : “In conclusion, the evidence points almost exclusively to Argument A.” Usage : Used to signify what you believe to donc pas mp3 be the most significant point, and the main takeaway from the essay. Essay Invention Mathematical Field. Example : “Above all, it seems pertinent to remember that…” Usage : This is a useful word to paper use when summarising which argument you find most convincing. Example : “Scholar A’s point that Constanze Mozart was motivated by financial gain seems to me to be the most persuasive argument for psychology invention mathematical field, her actions following Mozart’s death.” Usage : Use in the same way as “persuasive” above. Example : “The most compelling argument is presented by Scholar A.” Usage : This means “taking everything into account”. Example : “All things considered, it seems reasonable to how to a paper for conference assume that…” How many of these words and phrases will you get into your next essay? And are any of your favourite essay terms missing from essay invention mathematical our list?

Let us know in the comments below! 221 Responses to about love poems #8220;40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays#8221; January 09, 2015 at 8:47 am, Jimmy Tan said: January 23, 2016 at mathematical, 1:13 am, AN INDIAN said: It is very useful for brandeis 2013, junior as well as to senior.It is awesome#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230; thanks for this. November 29, 2016 at psychology invention field, 9:46 am, Mofasa said: March 10, 2017 at 3:30 pm, Vaibhavi said: May 04, 2017 at paper, 3:54 pm, felix said: September 17, 2017 at psychology mathematical field, 8:02 am, arjun said: April 29, 2016 at 1:13 pm, ron said: September 01, 2016 at 1:18 am, RedKeyMon said: Ty bruv! It#8217;s really useful!

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Thanks a lot for the assistant support. December 27, 2015 at 10:55 am, Ikoo said: I need more information about black#8217;s writing .also,his romantic way in essaye pas mp3, nature . Essay Invention. Please could you help me ? May 26, 2015 at 2:39 pm, Mike said: These are reach-me-downs and the ideas you express are poorly connected. For example, #8216;As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature. Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.” You link these facts incorrectly they are not a series of points that are additive. Pas Mp3. They are causally related, i.e. Invention Field. one is write a paper for conference a consequence of the other. I believe this is better, both logically and stylistically: #8216;Romantic writers, including Blake, decried the essay psychology invention mathematical field, negative impact of the Industrial Revolution on, amongst other things, society’s connectedness with the natural world.

Consequently he foregrounded the importance of improving the relationship between humankind and x thesis, nature.#8217; You also lace your examples with contractions and these have no place in academic writing. September 19, 2016 at 11:18 am, Helena said: March 23, 2017 at psychology invention field, 5:33 pm, Dr. Brandeis Essay 2013. Jim Loving said: You are correct. I have taught writing for 40-plus years, and I find many of these suggestions wordy and unnecessary. For instance, #8220;In order to#8221; can simply to be #8220;To.#8221; June 02, 2015 at 1:48 am, phertauwete said: Thanks so much, I got it.

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It was very helpful for my term end English examination! October 04, 2015 at 4:47 pm, Joanna said: This is how to for conference helpful! Thanks for sharing! October 06, 2015 at 10:59 pm, Joe said: Thanks for psychology invention mathematical, the list. I think it would also be helpful to malcolm x thesis paper include a list of words to help express the thoughts of the writers being referenced in the essay, for example, #8220;Jacob states that teachers need to psychology invention field consider the learning abilities of all students#8221; or #8220;Williams asserts that reading English texts more often can increase the writing skills of ESL learners#8221;. It sometimes becomes boring to keep saying, #8220;so-and-so states that#8230;#8221; October 12, 2015 at x thesis, 9:07 am, faiz said: This was useful for invention field, me. October 14, 2015 at 3:09 am, Lilow W. X Thesis Paper. said: This article was wonderful.

Furthermore, I don#8217;t think my world history grade, as well as my grades in language arts and science, would have been half of what they are now without it. All things considered, this was an essay, amazing article and I recommend it to anyone looking to the perks a wallflower questions give their essay an elegant twist. October 15, 2015 at 3:41 pm, Ayushi said: Thanks!! Really a very useful list! October 18, 2015 at invention mathematical field, 3:29 pm, Missy said: Really helpful ……………. Thank you guys. October 19, 2015 at 10:49 am, steven O'Donnell said: I would have also included #8220;in fact#8221; October 19, 2015 at 9:42 pm, Tom Howell said: *Gasp* As someone who has studied and takes a modicum of interest in the English language, and having spent a lifetime writing scientific essays, all I can say is this list of purchase apa writing cliches will not aid you in your academic pursuits. This is psychology invention field a categorical list of English don#8217;ts that will undoubtedly be highlight with a sigh, and a comment something along the lines of #8220;Please, no more#8221; paraphrased of course.

Some of statement about love these are inescapable and are useful tools, but please use in moderation. Invention Field. If you truly wish to improve your writing, consider the use of language in literature you may study as part of your academic endeavours be it english or technical based. What makes a writing style worthy of how to for conference note, and what makes it tedious and psychology mathematical field, monotonous? The use of structure, engaging writing styles, and even metaphors can be true keys to essay success. December 07, 2015 at brandeis essay, 8:24 am, Jeff B. said: Tom, I must agree. In my English class such cliches as listed here would be highlighted and returned to the student with an admonition to #8220;please use your own words,#8221; or something to that effect. As I like to essay invention mathematical field joke, #8220;Cliches should be avoided like the plague.#8221; October 20, 2015 at 8:22 pm, yoursif said: October 22, 2015 at assignments, 5:00 pm, nur amira said: thanks it was indeed helpful. November 02, 2015 at 1:11 pm, sania said: really..its very helpful. im unanimous in asserting that how this has engendered an psychology invention field, advantageous my result. November 12, 2015 at 10:59 am, Alex said: This is questions so great#8230; thanks for the A grade. Invention Field. November 16, 2015 at malcolm paper, 1:22 pm, Chala said: Thanks a lot for this helpful article.

One question though: The example given for phrase 12 #8220;Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” has a comma included after #8220;X#8221;, but isn#8217;t a serial comma incorrect in a series of two items? November 21, 2015 at 9:05 pm, Yo said: November 26, 2015 at 5:29 pm, courage said: thanks very much.very useful we look forward for psychology mathematical field, other posts. Assignments. November 29, 2015 at essay psychology, 1:13 am, Joey said: I don#8217;t really feel comfortable using firstly, secondly, thirdly to introduce new points#8230; does anyone else feel the same? December 07, 2015 at 7:58 am, Jeff B. said: While some of the suggestions in this article are valuable, I am going to have to thesis about agree with Tom Howell about the use of psychology mathematical cliches. Many of the phrases suggested (e.g. #8220;To put it another way#8221; and essaye, #8220;Another key thing to remember#8221;) are cliches, and invention, should be avoided in original writing. Another note: this article recommends the use of #8220;In conclusion#8221; to introduce the for conference, conclusion.

My suggestion is to avoid it, and I am not the psychology invention mathematical, only one who feels this way. To quote the Writing Center at Harvard University: summary,#8217; and donc, #8216;to sum up.#8217; These phrases can be. usefuleven welcomein oral presentations. But. readers can see, by the tell-tale compression of the. pages, when an essay is about to end. You#8217;ll irritate. Essay Psychology Invention. your audience if you belabor the obvious.#8221; If your readers cannot figure out that from reading your text that you are presenting your conclusion, then your conclusion has more problems than simply the malcolm paper, introduction to essay psychology mathematical field it. December 07, 2015 at 8:03 am, Jeff B. said: Note: In my comment above, I should have specified #8220;for college-level writing#8230; and above.#8221; Further, I will say that sometimes, indeed, #8220;In conclusion#8221; can be a useful phrase, but in many if not most cases it should be avoided. December 07, 2015 at essay, 10:43 am, Jeff B. Essay Psychology Invention. said: * Assuming, of donc course, that my #8220;comment above#8221; is actually posted after it undergoes #8220;moderation.#8221; Otherwise my note makes no sense#8230; December 07, 2015 at essay psychology invention mathematical field, 8:25 pm, pavla said: put (or set) the record straight. December 09, 2015 at how to for conference, 12:42 pm, Ahsan said:

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February 12, 2016 at 9:45 am, ORA Admin said: Thank you for your comment. It is worth bearing in mind that examiners often consider idioms risky, as when over-used (or mis-used) they can place a candidate at psychology invention mathematical field, a disadvantage. Essaye Donc. You are absolutely correct, however, that learning idioms is vital to essay acquiring fluency in any language you might enjoy our article on purchase assignments some of the more bizarre idioms in essay mathematical, the English language! Best of luck in your studies, February 17, 2016 at 2:58 pm, reyan said: Thanks it came in handy. February 20, 2016 at how to write, 5:20 pm, Unknown said: I think this might help me to improve my essays. Thanks to essay invention whoever gave such great words#128522; February 28, 2016 at 6:04 pm, Divya said: In all probability I find this this things very helpful which would surely enhance my essay. February 29, 2016 at the perks of being a wallflower essay, 1:28 am, Tanya Roy said: this phases helped me in 10th board icsc examination#8230;.. thanks a lot #128512; February 29, 2016 at essay mathematical field, 2:39 am, shubham said: I think this might help me to improve my essays.

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And then your writing will be fine. You have the most wonderful writers in America, really great stylists, people like Damon Runyon, and there#8217;s no floweriness, no literary effect, in the work of Damon Runyon, he is as neat as he can possibly be. One of psychology mathematical field his stories begins #8216;Some parties who do not wish him well have put Maury in some quicklime.#8217; March 23, 2017 at the perks of being questions, 5:39 pm, Dr. Psychology Mathematical. Jim Loving said: Excellent advice. Many writing students would do well to read Zinsser#8217;s book #8220;On Writing Well.#8221; He emphasizes clarity in writing, and no one does it better. May 04, 2016 at brandeis, 1:43 pm, angielski said: Very useful to invention mathematical have it in essaye, one place. Thanks ! May 10, 2016 at 7:57 pm, Cheese said: Hello Oxford Royale community, Thank you for this extremely helpful guide on improving flow using phrases. This has helped me improve, overall, as I have now taken these tips to my heart. Thanks an awful lot, May 11, 2016 at 9:17 pm, Khirod Maharana said: I greatly appreciate thankful#8230; May 12, 2016 at 12:11 am, Inderpreet said: thnk u for invention, the amazing words#8230; May 26, 2016 at apa writing, 11:11 pm, Georgia Kathleen said: This is essay mathematical field really helpful, I#8217;ve been looking to statement love poems expand and essay invention mathematical, vary the words I use during English exams.

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An Essay on the Psychology of …

ladybug essay scientific name: (Insecta: Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Introduction - Description - Life Cycle and Behavior - Food - Alternative Food - Natural Enemies - Use in Biological Control - Commercial Availability - Classification - Selected References. Ladybird is a name that has been used in England for more than 600 years for the European beetle Coccinella septempunctata . As knowledge about insects increased, the name became extended to all its relatives, members of the beetle family Coccinellidae. Of course these insects are not birds, but butterflies are not flies, nor are dragonflies, stoneflies, mayflies, and fireflies, which all are true common names in folklore, not invented names. The lady for whom they were named was the Virgin Mary, and common names in essay psychology mathematical, other European languages have the same association (the German name Marienkafer translates to Marybeetle or ladybeetle). Prose and poetry mention ladybird, perhaps the most familiar in English being the children's rhyme: Ladybird, ladybird, fly away home, your house is on malcolm x thesis paper, fire, your children all gone.

Figure 1. Adult Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus, the sevenspotted lady beetle. Essay Invention Mathematical. Photograph by how to write for conference James Castner, University of Florida. In the USA, the name ladybird was popularly americanized to ladybug, although these insects are beetles (Coleoptera), not bugs (Hemiptera). Now, the word ladybird applies to a whole family of beetles, Coccinellidae or ladybirds, not just Coccinella septempunctata . We can but hope that newspaper writers will desist from generalizing them all as the ladybird and thus deluding the public into essay psychology mathematical, believing that there is brandeis supplement essay 2013 only one species. Essay Psychology Invention. There are many species of ladybirds, just as there are of birds, and the word variety (frequently used by newspaper writers) is not an appropriate substitute for the word species.

Many ladybird species are considered beneficial to humans because they eat phytophagous insects (pests of plants, sometimes called plant pests), but not all eat pests of plants, and a few are themselves pests. Coccinellidae are a family of beetles belonging to the superfamily Cucujoidea, which in turn belongs to the series Cucujiformia within the suborder Polyphaga of the beetles (Coleoptera). Their relatives within the Cucujoidea are the Endomychidae (handsome fungus beetles) and Corylophidae (minute fungus beetles). Worldwide, nearly 6,000 species of ladybirds are known, of which 105 are currently reported to occur in Florida (Table 1). Some of these 105 are considered to be native , and others to be adventive (having arrived from assignments somewhere else and established feral populations). Among the adventive species, some were introduced (introduced deliberately), and others are immigrants (having arrived by any means except deliberate introduction) (Frank McCoy 1990).

Ladybird adults are oval, range in length from about 1 mm to over 10 mm depending upon species, and have wings. Females on average are larger than males. Adults of some species are brightly colored. Essay Invention Field. Their mandibles are used for chewing. Adult ladybirds are able to reflex-bleed from the tibio-femoral articulations (leg joints). For Conference. The blood (hemolymph) is repellent by having a repulsive smell as well as containing (in some species) various alkaloid toxins (adaline, coccinelline, exochomine, hippodamine, etc.). Essay Psychology Mathematical Field. The hemolymph is yellow and its repellency and toxicity are believed to malcolm, be a defense mechanism against predators. Some people have claimed that the bright (red on black, or black on red) colors of some adult ladybirds are aposematic, which is to say that the essay psychology mathematical colors warn would-be predators that the purchase apa writing beetles are distasteful or toxic. The immature stages (eggs, larvae, and psychology invention mathematical, pupae) also contain the toxins that their adults have, and in this characteristic, they resemble rove beetles (Staphylinidae) of the genus Paederus (Frank and essay questions, Kanamitsu 1987) although the essay psychology mathematical field toxins are totally different. Toxins are said to be produced by dorsal glands in the larvae (Dixon 2000).

Eggs are elongate-ovoidal, and in just a few species are protected by secretions of the adult female. Cannibalism of eggs, larvae and pupae is common, especially when prey is scarce. Larvae are mobile, and in some species (for example of Scymnus and Cryptolaemus ) are protected by waxy secretions. Thesis Love Poems. Pupae are unprotected by a cocoon (as in essay psychology invention field, some other beetles) but larvae may wander some distance from feeding sites (where they may be at risk from cannibalism) before pupating. Figure 2. Lady beetle eggs. Photograph by Russell F. Mizell, University of Florida. Figure 3. Newly hatched lady beetle larvae. Photograph by Jim Kalisch, University of Nebraska, Lincoln. Figure 4. Larva of Harmonia sp., a lady beetle. Photograph by Lee Ruth, Figure 5. Larva of Scymnus sp., a lady beetle.

Photograph by James Castner, University of Florida. Figure 6. About. Larva of psychology mathematical Harmonia sp., a lady beetle, exhibiting cannibalism by feeding on a lady beetle pupa. Photograph by Russell F. Mizell, University of Florida. Figure 7. Adult and pupa of Harmonia sp., a lady beetle. Photograph by Russell F. Mizell, University of Florida. Life Cycle and Behavior (Back to malcolm x thesis, Top) Ladybird eggs produce larvae that undergo four instars before pupating, metamorphosing, and giving rise to adults. Essay Psychology Mathematical. So far as is known, all the Florida species have this typical life cycle. Typically, ladybirds have several generations each year, and reproduction is slowed or halted by cooler winter weather, when adults may hibernate.

In Florida, adults and larvae of 75 species feed on malcolm, scale insects (in the broad sense, see below), and only 13 feed primarily on aphids. As pointed out by Dixon (2000), there are typical differences in behavior between these trophic groups. Those that feed on aphids develop faster, age faster, move faster, typically are larger, and lay their eggs in essay psychology invention mathematical field, clusters. Those that feed on scale insects develop more slowly, live longer, move more slowly, typically are smaller, and lay their eggs singly. (a) Pest Species - Feeding on Plants. Adults and larvae of the subfamily Epilachninae feed on plants. In Florida, this subfamily is represented only by malcolm paper Epilachna borealis (Fabricius) and E. varivestis Mulsant.

Epilachna borealis , the squash beetle, feeds on members of the essay psychology invention mathematical squash family (Cucurbitaceae), and in Florida is restricted to the north, with a wide distribution in other states of the eastern USA. Apa Writing. Epilachna varivestis , the Mexican bean beetle, feeds on invention, members of the bean family (Leguminosae), and rarely has been found south of northern Florida. It is native to southern Mexico, but it is an supplement 2013 immigrant to the USA, first detected in essay invention field, the west in 1849, and in northern Florida in 1930. Now, its distribution is from Costa Rica north through Mexico to the perks of being questions, the Rocky Mountain states of the USA, and with a separated eastern population (which extends southward to essay field, northern Florida). In Florida it can be controlled efficiently by brandeis supplement essay 2013 releases of the parasitoid wasp Pediobius foveolatus (Crawford) (Eulophidae) (Nong and Bennett 1994), which have to be made annually in the northeastern USA (Stevens et al. 1975) because of the more severe climate. It was discussed by Sanchez-Arroyo (2009). (b) Innocuous Species - Feeding on mathematical field, Mildews. Ladybirds of the tribe Halyziini (of the subfamily Coccinellinae) feed on thesis about love, fungal growths (mildews) on the leaves of plants. In Florida, this tribe is represented by the West Indian Psyllobora nana Mulsant and psychology mathematical, Psyllobora schwarzi Chapin which have invaded the extreme south of Florida, and by assignments the widespread Psyllobora parvinotata Casey which also occupies coastal areas as far west as Louisiana. (c) Predatory Species - Feeding on Mites.

Adults and larvae of the tribe Stethorini (of the subfamily Scymninae) feed on essay psychology invention, tetranychid mites. In Florida, this tribe is represented only by Stethorus utilis (Horn), a tiny ladybird which is also distributed in the coastal plains of the southeastern states from North Carolina through Texas. (d) Predatory Species - Feeding on Whiteflies. Four of Florida's ladybirds appear to apa writing, be more-or-less specialized predators of whiteflies. They are Delphastus catalinae (Horn), D. pallidus (LeConte), and D. pusillus (LeConte) (tribe Serangiini), and Nephaspis oculatus (Blatchley) (Tribe Scymnini). The first seems to be an invention immigrant species from the Neotropical region, with first Florida record in 1974 (Hoelmer and Pickett 2003). Deliberate attempts to introduce that species from California in 1916-1917 to Manatee County, Florida, seem to have had no success (Frank and McCoy 1993, Hoelmer and brandeis supplement essay 2013, Pickett 2003). The next two ( D. Essay Psychology Mathematical Field. pallidus and D. pusillus ) are considered to be native.

The fourth ( N. oculatus ) may be an immigrant from Central America. After D. pusillus was found to be a a very useful biological control agent against brandeis essay 2013 sweetpotato whitefly ( Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hoelmer et al. 1993) including the form that later was named silverleaf whitefly ( Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring), it was exported to California and made available commercially and used in other parts of the psychology mathematical USA. Unfortunately, the ladybird beetle that was called D. pusillus by Hoelmer et al. (1993) seems to write, have been a mixture of D. catalinae and D. pusillus (Hoelmer and Pickett 2003). Somehow this resulted in commercial biological control companies selling D. Psychology Mathematical. catalinae under the name D. pusillus (Hoelmer and brandeis supplement, Pickett 2003). (e) Predatory Species - Feeding on Cottony cushion Scale. Cottony cushion scale ( Icerya purchasi Maskell), native to field, Australia, belongs to the homopterous family Margarodidae (commonly called ground pearls, although this name hardly fits this species) in the superfamily Coccoidea (scale insects). It is a major pest of citrus, and paper, an important pest of several other trees and shrubs including Acacia , Casuarina , and Pittosporum . After its arrival in California, presumably as a contaminant of imported plants, it threatened to essay psychology invention, ruin California's citrus industry in the late 1800s.

It was controlled by importation, release, and how to write a paper, establishment (as classical biological control agents) of Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) and essay mathematical field, a parasitoid fly, Cryptochetum iceryae (Williston). When cottony cushion scale became a problem in Florida, the same two biological control agents were imported from California into Florida. R. cardinalis is a highly effective control agent for cottony cushion scale. (f) Predatory Species - Feeding on malcolm paper, Mealybugs. Mealybugs are the homopterous family Pseudococcidae, which includes some notable pests of invention mathematical plants. The most notable ladybird predator of mealybugs in Florida is Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, a species native to Australia, introduced into California first in 1891, and sometime later from California into Florida. It has been marketed commercially as a control agent for mealybugs and thesis statement about, is often effective, but has one unfortunate characteristic: its larvae produce waxy filaments making them look to the uninitiated like their mealybug prey. Many owners of plants have sprayed the larvae with chemicals in the mistaken belief that they are pests. This misidentification must be overcome by psychology education. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri does not confine its attentions to mealybugs, and also eats soft scales (Coccidae) and armored scales (Diaspididae). Such a catholic diet is normal for a long list of how to for conference Florida ladybirds, so that their diet cannot neatly be pigeonholed as armored scales or soft scales or mealybugs -- they may eat some prey in all of these families, and essay invention, a few of the larger ones may even eat an essaye aphid from time to time.

For that reason, many genera and species are placed below under (h) - Feeding on Scale Insects. (g) Predatory Species - Feeding on psychology mathematical field, Armored Scale Insects. Eight species in four genera seem to feed largely or entirely on armored scale insects (Diaspididae). They include Microweisea coccidivora (Ashmead), M. misella (LeConte), and M. Essay. ovalis (LeConte) of the tribe Microweiseini, Zilus horni Gordon, Z. eleutherae Casey, Z. subtropicus (Casey) and perhaps Zagloba bicolor (Casey) (its diet is a guess) of the tribe Scymnillini, and Cryptognatha nodiceps Marshall of the tribe Cryptognathini. One of these, Cryptognatha nodiceps , is not native, having been imported in essay mathematical field, the 1930s, released, and purchase, established as a classical biological control agent for coconut scale ( Aspidiotus destructor Signoret) (Frank and McCoy 1993).

(h) Predatory Species - Feeding on Scale Insects. Thirteen genera containing 66 species are placed here into this large trophic group that has scale insects as its prey, meaning members of the superfamily Coccoidea (the scale insects). This superfamily includes various related families, notably Coccidae (soft scales), Diaspididae (armored scales), Pseudococcidae (mealybugs), Dactylopiidae (cochineal scales), Kermesidae (gall-like scales), Eriococcidae (felt scales), Cerococcidae (ornate pit scales), and essay psychology field, Asterolecaniidae (pit scales). The ladybird genera are named below, each followed by a number in parentheses, representing the number of species known from Florida: Decadomius (1), Diomus (9), Nephus (3), Pharoscymnus (1) and Scymnus (16) (all in tribe Scymnini), Brachiacantha (7), Hyperaspidius (5), Hyperaspis (17), and Thalassa (1) (all in tribe Hyperaspini), Axion (1), Chilocorus (4), Curinus (1), Egius (1), and Exochomus (2) (all in tribe Chilocorini), Rhyzobius (1) (tribe Coccidulini), and Azya (1) (tribe Azyini) (see Table 1). It is the perks of being not yet clear how, or whether, they divide up the scale insects between them, because reliable prey records are too incomplete. However, there is at least some level of prey specialization in essay psychology mathematical field, these (and groups (e), (f), and (g) above) that feed on scale insects, which seems not to be the of being essay questions case for essay psychology invention mathematical field the next-discussed trophic group (those that feed on aphids). Brachiacantha has a curious life history in that its larvae so far as is known feed on scale insects within ant nests. Figure 8. Adult Scymnus sp., a lady beetle. Photograph by Russell F. Mizell, University of Florida.

Figure 9. Adult twicestabbed lady beetle, Chilocorus stigma (Walker), (red spots are round). Donc. Photograph by J.P. Michaud, University of Florida. Figure 10. Psychology Invention Mathematical Field. Larvae of the twicestabbed lady beetle, Chilocorus stigma (Walker). Photograph by J.P. Michaud, University of of being a wallflower essay Florida.

Rhyzobius lophanthae was introduced to California from Australia in 1892 to control scale insects, and somehow later made its way to Florida (there is no record of an early introduction into essay psychology invention field, Florida). Chilocorus circumdatus (Schoenherr) [other writers give the apa writing author name as Gyllenhal] was released in Florida in 1996, from Australia (although it is native to southeastern Asia and is adventive in Australia) against essay invention citrus snow scale, Unaspis citri , and is established (H. W. Browning, personal communication, M. Essaye Pas Mp3. C. Essay Psychology Field. Thomas, personal communication). Chilocorus nigrita (Fabricius) and Pharoscymnus flexibilis (Mulsant), both native to India, were first detected in Florida in 2007 and malcolm, 2013 respectively. Azya orbigera Mulsant was first detected in Florida in 1975, and seems to be an immigrant from the Neotropical region (Woodruff and Sailer 1977). Decadomius bahamicus (Casey) was first detected in Florida in 1991, and is an immigrant from the Caribbean or the Bahamas or Bermuda (Bennett and Gordon 1991). Diomus roseicollis Mulsant is invention another immigrant, from Cuba (Gordon 1976) as is purchase assignments Egius platycephalus Mulsant (Thomas and Blanchard 2014). These and other insects that immigrated to Florida before 1991 are listed and discussed by Frank and McCoy (1992). Psychology Invention Field. Hyperaspis trifurcata Schaeffer and Thalassa montezumae Mulsant are both native to purchase, the southwestern USA and were detected in invention field, Florida in 2006 and 2009 respectively. Recently detected coccinellids non-native to Florida are discussed and illustrated by Thomas and Blanchard (2014).

(i) Predatory Species - Feeding on Aphids. Adults and larvae of 12 of the remaining 13 Florida species (the tribe Coccinellini) probably feed primarily on aphids. They include Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, C. septempunctata L., Coelophora inaequalis (F.), Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer, Cycloneda munda (Say), Cycloneda sanguinea (L.), Harmonia axyridis Pallas, Harmonia dimidiata (Fabricius), Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Mulsantina picta (Randall), Naemia seriata (Melsheimer), Neoharmonia venusta (Melsheimer). Although the 13 th species ( Olla v-nigrum Casey) feeds on the perks of being essay questions, some aphid species, it has been shown to be an important predator of psyllids (Michaud 2001). Figure 11. Essay Psychology Mathematical Field. Adult Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer, a lady beetle. Essay Questions. Photograph by invention mathematical Russell F. Mizell, University of Florida. Figure 12. Adult Cycloneda sanguinea (L.), a lady beetle.

Photograph by James Castner, University of Florida. Figure 13. Adult Harmonia axyridis Pallas, the multicolored Asian lady beetle. Thesis. Photograph by essay Scott Bauer, USDA. Figure 14. Adult convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville. Photograph by Russell F. Mizell, University of Florida. Figure 15. Write A Paper. Adult Olla v-nigrum Casey, a lady beetle (red spots are trapezoidal and there is a white edge on the pronotum). Photograph by James Castner, University of Florida. Figure 16.

The larva of Olla v-nigrum Casey, a lady beetle. Photograph by J.P. Michaud, University of Florida. Four of these, C. septempunctata (from Europe), C. inaequalis (from Australia), H. dimidiata (from China), and H. axyridis (from Japan) are not native. The first three were introduced into Florida (Frank and McCoy 1993). The last was detected for the first time in the USA in 1988 in Louisiana, and mathematical, it subsequently spread widely. In some habitats it has built large populations and its adults, in their search for overwintering sites, sometimes are able to enter loosely constructed houses; there they die of desiccation, or they are evicted or destroyed by brandeis supplement essay the householders who accuse them of being pests. Two of these genera, Coleomegilla and psychology invention, Mulsantina , include adelgids (Adelgidae), which are closely related to a wallflower, aphids, in their diet. Further, Coleomegilla also includes pollen whereas Mulsantina also includes scale insects in the broad sense. Ladybird larvae and adults may supplement their normal prey in times of essay psychology invention mathematical scarcity with other types of essaye donc pas mp3 food. They consume flower nectar, water and honeydew -- the sugary excretion of invention mathematical piercing-sucking insects such as aphids and whiteflies.

Many plant species also contain organelles in locations on the plant other than the flower -- termed extrafloral nectaries -- that produce a nutrient-laden secretion. While it was first thought that extrafloral nectaries were used by the plant for write a paper excretion, it is well substantiated (Bentley 1977, Pemberton and invention mathematical, Lee 1996) that most plants actually use the extrafloral nectaries to attract predators and parasites for protection from their herbivores. Over 2000 species of write for conference plants in 64 families have extrafloral nectaries. Plants commonly found in Florida landscapes with extrafloral nectaries are the essay invention fruit trees, Prunus spp. (most of the 431 species worldwide have them), passionflower, Passiflora spp.; Ipomoea spp., morningglory; Hibiscus spp., hibiscus; Gossypium hirsutum , cotton; Impatiens sp., impatiens; Sambucus spp., elderberry; and Vicia spp., vetch. Extrafloral nectaries may be located on leaf laminae, petioles, rachids, bracts, stipules, pedicels, fruit, etc. The Perks Essay Questions. Ladybirds often use the secretions from extrafloral nectaries in their diet (Pemberton and essay field, Vandenberg 1993) and are just some of the many beneficial insects that use extrafloral nectary secretions. All insects have predators, parasites/parasitoids, and/or pathogens.

Ladybirds are not exempt. Larvae of Epilachna borealis and 2013, E. varivestis are attacked by a native tachinid fly ( Aplomyiopsis epilachnae (Aldrich)) which specializes in the genus Epilachna . Larvae of psychology invention field E. varivestis also are attacked by a eulophid wasp ( Pediobius foveolatus , see above). This wasp is a parasitoid of other epilachnine ladybirds in India, and was introduced into the USA specifically to brandeis, control Epilachna varivestis . Another native tachinid fly, Hyalmyodes triangulifer (Loew), is less specialized, attacking larvae not only psychology mathematical field of Epilachna varivestis , but also of Coleomegilla maculata , several weevils, and statement love poems, a pterophorid moth. Essay Psychology Mathematical Field. Perhaps the best known of the parasitoids of ladybirds is the braconid wasp Perilitus coccinellae (Schrank). It attacks adult ladybirds and to a lesser extent larvae and pupae (Obrycki et al.

1985). The Perks Of Being A Wallflower Questions. It attacks Coccinella septempunctata , Coleomegilla maculata , and several other species. Many other parasitoids and pathogens of ladybirds are not mentioned here for lack of space. Use of Ladybirds in mathematical field, Biological Control (Back to Top) Most species of ladybirds are considered beneficial because they are predators of purchase assignments Homoptera or Acarina, many of which are considered to be pests.

These predatory ladybirds contribute to the regulation of populations of mathematical field their prey, and in some situations contribute a high level of regulation. When ladybirds naturally contribute a high level of control of pests, or in combination with other predators and/or parasitoids and diseases contribute a high level of population regulation of pests, people may benefit. That is to brandeis supplement essay, say that gardeners, growers and farmers may benefit, at no cost, because they have no or negligible pest problems. Sometimes, gardeners mistake the essay psychology invention ladybird larvae for pests and assignments, spray chemical pesticides that kill them (this is much less of psychology field a problem with growers and farmers because they have more experience). The result is write increased problems from real pests. The answer is a constant educational effort to inform people about ladybirds and what their larvae look like. This effort cannot end, because people knowing nothing about ladybird life cycles are born each minute. One type of biological control is thus called manipulative biological control (of which a subset is conservation biological control). Essay Psychology. The objectives are simply to capitalize on the ladybirds (or other beneficial organisms) that already are present, to make conditions as favorable as possible for them (manipulation), and especially to avoid spraying chemicals (insecticides, fungicides, or herbicides) that will harm them (conservation) (see Liu and Stansly 1996). A second type of biological control is augmentative biological control. This begins with the recognition that ladybirds in a given pest situation are present but too few to do the job required, and buying more from a commercial producer to release to augment those already present.

A risk is that if adult ladybirds are released, many of them may fly away. But, if ladybird larvae are released, they have the option of eating the pest with which they are presented, or starving -- they cannot fly away. Obviously, this requires matching the pest to a purchased ladybird species that will eat that pest (see above for species options). The rub here is that the about love number of purchased ladybirds needed for a given pest situation may not have been worked out in detail -- it demands a huge amount of practical experience to tie down the details for at least hundreds of situations. Documentation of this experience is progressing very slowly. A third type of biological control is classical or inoculative biological control. Essay Invention. Here, some individuals of malcolm paper a ladybird (or other) species that is not already present are released in the hope that they will establish a population and eventually control the pest that is of concern. Classical biological control typically applies to a situation in which a new pest has invaded, and researchers (from a university, the USDA, or a state department of agriculture) import and release a ladybird (or other kind of essay psychology mathematical field organism) that is believed to control the pest elsewhere. Typically, the imported ladybird (or other organism) becomes established or does not become established; if it becomes established, it may or may not control the pest in love poems, this new situation. Typically, the essay invention field foregoing things are done under the name of research, and either are cost-free to essaye donc pas mp3, gardeners, growers and farmers (especially if done by state or federal departments of agriculture) or, if done by essay psychology invention university researchers, then gardeners, growers and farmers are asked to contribute toward a grant that will pay for the cost of essaye donc pas mp3 importation and research on the biological control agent (but subsequently, after it has become established, there are no further costs). The archetypical example is control of essay psychology cottony cushion scale of citrus by 2013 the introduced ladybird Rodolia cardinalis . Although chemical pesticides of the time were failing to control it, and although it threatened to ruin California's citrus industry, nobody was willing to essay psychology invention mathematical field, invest funds in purchase apa writing, biological control research.

Nevertheless, biological control research was bootlegged onto other operations by dedicated researchers, was astoundingly successful, and saved California's (and later Florida's) citrus industry from essay psychology invention field ruin: there was no subsequent need to use chemicals against this pest, thus saving billions of dollars as against a trivial expenditure (about $1500 at the time, for foreign travel). Glasshouses (greenhouses) provide a habitat for the perks of being a wallflower essay plants and pests and biological control agents that differs from outdoor habitats. Typically, culture begins with initiation of a crop of plants that has no pests (or seems to have none). But then, pests somehow show up, and there are no ladybirds (or other organisms) to control them. Psychology Invention. The situation is very much like that of classical biological control, and ladybirds (and/or other beneficial organisms) released into the greenhouses may control the pests and eliminate need to use chemical pesticides. Here, the apa writing assignments question is not about funding new research into a new pest, but into psychology invention mathematical, buying the right numbers of statement ladybirds (or other organisms) of the appropriate species to control a pest that has already been researched. For many such situations, ladybirds (or other organisms) can be purchased from commercial supply houses to control the essay mathematical pest(s).

A list of ladybird species available commercially follows below. There is no space in this article to describe how they should be used: that should be done in articles about each individual ladybird species. Commercial Availability (Back to Top) It lists four ladybird species available from commercial insectaries: Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mealybug destroyer (mealybugs on thesis statement love, citrus, ornamentals, and vegetables, and in greenhouses and essay invention mathematical field, interiorscapes). Delphastus catalinae Whitefly predator (greenhouse, banded-winged, sweetpotato, woolly, azalea, hibiscus, cloudywinged, citrus and rhododendron whiteflies on ornamentals, vegetables, fruit, and citrus, and in greenhouses and interiorscapes).

Hippodamia convergens Ladybeetle (aphids, scales and thrips, in citrus, ornamentals, fruits and vegetables, and in greenhouses and interiorscapes). This species occurs in Florida but there still is a potential problem - some suppliers do not rear the beetles but collect overwintering adults from the mountains of eastern California - these overwintering adult beetles (a) may be heavily parasitized and many may die, and (b) may be programmed at the end of the apa writing winter to end the hibernation by mathematical flying west (which may do you no good if they all take to flight and leave your property). Rhyzobius lophanthae (also called Lindorus lophanthae ) (hard and soft scales and mealybugs on the perks essay questions, ornamentals). All four species above are known from Florida. Chilochorus nigrita was detected in 2007 as established in invention field, Florida, This new presence allows future importations into Florida from assignments commercial producers elsewhere under Florida regulations. All shipments of living insects into Florida are required to essay, have permits from the essaye donc Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry.

It is the vendors who are required to obtain the essay psychology mathematical permits for commercial shipments. In general, a permit will be supplied for importation of species that already occur in Florida. Four ladybird species ( Cryptolaemus montrouzieri , Delphastus pusillus , Hippodamia convergens , and Rhyzobius lophanthae ) were among other biological control agents imported commercially into Florida in 1982-1993 (Frank and McCoy 1994). Four ladybirds ( Coleomegilla maculata , Cryptolaemus montrouzieri , Harmonia axyridis , and Hippodamia convergens ) have been reared on purely artificial diets, thus promising to reduce labor costs and thus the price of commercially-available ladybirds (Grenier et al. 1994). Some suppliers will send you good, healthy ladybirds, but others may not. The Association of Natural Biocontrol Producers (ANBP) is apa writing assignments dedicated to essay psychology, holding its members to high standards. Table 1. The 105 species of Coccinellidae known from Florida. Brandeis Supplement Essay 2013. Subfamilies are indicated in psychology invention field, bold capitals, and tribes in bold.

For their author names and brandeis essay 2013, distribution by county, see Peck and Thomas (1998). Aristízabal LF, Arthurs SP. 2014. Convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville. UF/IFAS Featured Creatures . (14 May 2014) Bennett FD, Gordon, RD. 1991. New Florida ladybeetle.

Florida Entomologist 74: 598-599. Mathematical. Bentley BL. 1977. Essaye Donc. Extrafloral nectaries and protection by pugnacious bodyguards. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 8: 407-427. Dixon AFG. 2000.

Insect Predator-prey Dynamics: Ladybird Beetles and essay field, Biological Control. New York: Cambridge Univ Press. Apa Writing. ix + 257 p. Frank JH, Kanamitsu K. 1987. Paederus sensu lato (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae): Natural history and medical importance. Psychology Invention Mathematical Field. Journal of how to Medical Entomology 24: 155-191. Frank JH, McCoy ED. 1990.

Endemics and epidemics of psychology shibboleths and other things causing chaos. Florida Entomologist 73: 1-8. Frank JH, McCoy ED. Apa Writing. 1992. The immigration of insects to Florida with a tabulation of records published since 1970. Florida Entomologist 75: 1-28. Frank JH, McCoy ED. 1993. The introduction of insects into Florida.

Florida Entomologist 76: 1-53. Frank JH, McCoy ED. 1994. Psychology Invention Field. Commercial importation into Florida of invertebrate animals as biological control agents. Florida Entomologist 77: 1-20. Golia V, Golia A. 2014.

A new species of Nephus Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Florida. Insecta Mundi 0372: 1-3. Gordon RD. 1976. The Scymnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of the United States and Canada: Key to Genera and Revision of donc pas mp3 Scymnus , Nephus , and essay, Diomus . Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of the perks of being a wallflower essay questions Natural Sciences 28: 1-362. Essay Invention. Gordon RD.

1985. The Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) of paper America north of Mexico. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 83: 1-912. Gordon RD. 1994. South American Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) Part III. Invention. Taxonomic revision of the western hemisphere genus Delphastus Casey. X Thesis. Frustula Entomologica 17: 71-133. Grenier S, Greany PD, Cohen AS.

1994. Psychology Invention Mathematical Field. Potential for mass release of insect parasitoids and predators through development of artificial culture techniques. p. 181-205 In : Rosen D, Bennett FD, Capinera JL. Pest Management in the Subtropics. Biological Control - A Florida Perspective. Andover, UK: Intercept. Hoelmer KA, Osborne LS, Yokomi RK. 1993. Reproduction and feeding behavior of Delphastus pusillus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a predator of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Journal of brandeis supplement essay 2013 Economic Entomology 86: 322-329. Hoelmer KA, Pickett CH.

2003. Geographic origin and essay psychology invention mathematical field, taxonomic history of essaye donc pas mp3 Delphastus spp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in essay psychology invention mathematical field, commercial culture. Biocontrol Science and Technology 13: 529-535. Leppla NC, Johnson KW. 2011. Guidelines for purchasing and using commercial natural enemies and biopesticides in Florida and other states.

UF/IFAS EDIS IPM-146 (IN849). (20 June 2014) Liu TX, Stansly PA. 1996. Toxicological effects of selected insecticides on Nephaspis oculatus (Col., Coccinellidae), a predator of Bemisia argentifolii (Hom., Aleyrodidae). Journal of Applied Entomology 120: 369-373. Liu TX, Stansly PA, Hoelmer KA, Osborne LS. 1997. Life history of Nephaspis oculatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a predator of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 90: 776-782. Michaud JP. 2001. Numerical response of Olla v-nigrum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to infestations of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Florida.

Florida Entomologist 18: 608-612. Michaud JP, McCoy CW, Futch SH. The Perks A Wallflower Essay. (October 2008). Ladybeetles as biological control agents in citrus. EDIS . (no longer available online) Nong L, Bennett FD. 1994. Biological control of the Mexican bean beetle. Psychology Invention Mathematical. p. 115-122 In : Rosen D, Bennett FD, Capinera JL. Pest Management in the Subtropics.

Biological Control - A Florida Perspective. Andover, UK: Intercept. Obrycki JJ, Tauber MJ, Tauber CA. 1985. Perilitus coccinellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): parasitization and development in relation to host-stage attacked. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 78: 852-854. Peck SB, Thomas MC. (1998). A Paper. A distributional checklist of the beetles (Coleoptera) of Florida. Field. Arthropods of brandeis supplement essay 2013 Florida and Neighboring Land Areas. (20 June 2014) Pemberton RW, Lee L. 1996.

The influence of extrafloral nectaries on parasitism of an insect herbivore. American Journal of Botany 83: 1187-1194. Pemberton RW, Vandenberg NJ. 1993. Extrafloral nectar feeding by ladybird beetles (Coleoptera; Coccinellidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 95: 139-151. Sanchez-Arroyo H. (June 2009). Mathematical. Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant. UF/IFAS Featured Creatures . (20 June 2014) Stevens LM, Steinhauer AL, Coulson JR.

1975. Suppression of Mexican bean beetle on soybeans with annual inoculative releases of Pediobius foveolatus . Environmental Entomology 4: 947-948. Thomas MC, Blanchard OJ, Jr. 2014. Ladybird beetles - recent immigrants to Florida.

UF/IFAS Featured Creatures . (14 May 2014) Woodruff RE, Sailer RI. How To Write A Paper. 1977. Establishment of the genus Azya in the United States. Florida Department of Agriculture and essay psychology invention, Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, Entomology Circular 230: 1-2. Photographs: R.F.

Mizell, J.P Michaud and J.L. Castner, University of Florida; Scott Bauer, USDA; Jim Kalisch, University of essaye Nebraska - Lincoln; Lee Ruth, Web Design: Don Wasik, Jane Medley. Publication Number: EENY-170. Publication Date: November 2000. Latest revision: June 2014.

Featured Creatures Editor and Coordinator: Jennifer L. Gillett-Kaufman, University of Florida.

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An Essay On The Psychology Of Invention In Mathematical Field

Plagiarism - What it is and how to essay psychology mathematical field avoid it. Plagiarism is a serious academic offence. Each year a number of cases of plagiarism are brought to the attention of the Dean of Arts and the President#146;s Office. Depending on the severity of the offence, students found guilty of plagiarism may lose credit for about the assignment in question, be awarded a mark of zero in the course, or face suspension from the University. Most simply, plagiarism is intellectual theft. Any use of another author#146;s research, ideas, or language without proper attribution may be considered plagiarism. Because such definitions include many shades of accidental or intentional plagiarism, these need to be described more fully. This is the most obvious case: a student submits, as his or her own work, an essay that has been written by someone else. Usually the original source is a published journal article or book chapter. The use of unpublished work, including the work of another student , is just as serious. In such cases, plagiarism cannot be avoided by paraphrasing the psychology mathematical field, original or acknowledging its use in footnotes . The work is the property of another author and should not be used.

See Example #1. A student may also lift portions of another text and use them in his or her own work. For example, a student might add her or his own conclusions or introduction to an essay. Or a student might scatter his or her own comments through a text taken substantially from another source. These practices are unacceptable. Even with some attribution, the assignments, bulk of the work has been done by another. See Example #1.

In many cases, a student will lift ideas, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs from a variety of sources and stitch them together into an essay. These situations often seem difficult to assess. Most essays, after all, are attempts to bring together a range of sources and arguments. But the line between plagiarism and original work is not difficult to draw. Psychology Mathematical! See Example #2. Lazy plagiarism crops up in essaye, many student essays, and is usually the result of sloppy note-taking or research shortcuts. Psychology Mathematical Field! Examples include: inadvertent use of another#146;s language, usually when the student fails to essay distinguish between direct quotes and general observations when taking notes. In such cases, the presence of a footnote does not excuse the use of another#146;s language without quotation marks. use of footnotes or material quoted in other sources as if they were the results of your research. sloppy or inadequate footnoting which leaves out sources or page references. Although it may not be the student#146;s intention to deceive, it is often difficult for instructors to distinguish between purposeful and accidental plagiarism.

See Example #3. This is psychology invention mathematical field, not intended to discourage students from pursuing specific interests. If you want to use a previously completed essay as a starting point for brandeis essay 2013 new research, you should receive the essay psychology invention mathematical, instructor#146;s approval and provide her or him with a copy of the original essay. If you want to use substantially similar essays to satisfy the requirements of two related courses, you should get approval from all the instructors concerned. It is not hard to draw the distinction between original and thoroughly plagiarized work.

But the grey areas between these extremes are more vexing. The Perks A Wallflower! Students should avoid any hint of dishonesty by maintaining good research habits and paying attention to a few basic rules of writing and documentation. Most written assignments begin with the collection of research notes -- a combination of ideas or quotes from essay psychology invention field, other sources, and the student#146;s own ideas. Whether you keep notes on the perks of being a wallflower questions index cards, in a loose-leaf binder, or on old envelopes in a desk drawer, it is important to record and organize them in such a way that vital information is not lost. Keep careful and psychology invention mathematical complete track of sources. Accurately copy the author, title, and other information about the source publication, including the supplement 2013, number(s) of the page(s) from which notes or quotes were taken. Distinguish carefully between your ideas and mathematical the ideas of others. This is a simple question of malcolm x thesis paper, intellectual honesty. If you use another#146;s conclusions, acknowledge them.

If you come to the same conclusions as another on your own, you should still acknowledge the agreement. Distinguish carefully between your own words and those of others. If necessary, highlight or use coloured index cards for directly quoted material. As you begin to tie your ideas together in essay psychology mathematical, written form, consider the following: Begin by organizing your essay in an original manner . Avoid mimicking the pattern or order of argument used by others. Remember: this is your humble contribution to a debate or a body of research; it is essaye, not (in most case) an attempt to summarize or paraphrase the work of others.

As you weave the ideas and language of others into your work, make clear choices about the use of quoted material . In other words, either quote directly, or state the idea(s) in psychology invention field, your own language. Do not mess around with close paraphrases or purely cosmetic changes. See Example #4. Read the first draft carefully . Is the distinction between your work and the work of a paper, others clear and unambiguous? You might even take an early draft and highlight all those passages that summarize, paraphrase, or quote other sources. Is there enough of your own work left in the essay? Many cases of plagiarism occur in the documentation rather than the body of the essay. You should have a clear idea of the variety of purposes a footnote (or endnote) may serve, and many different ways you can acknowledge the work of others. For specific cases See Example #5 . Also note the essay, following:

Always record your source of the donc pas mp3, information; never use or rely on another author#146;s footnotes. The footnote should allow the reader to find or check the material being cited. Provide exact page numbers for direct quotes, and invention mathematical a range of page numbers for more general points. If you included more than one source or reference in a footnote, the of being, relevance or order of the various sources should be clear to the reader. Once your essay is complete, consider each portion that is drawn from another source, and essay psychology invention mathematical ask yourself the essaye donc pas mp3, following: Is the idea or argument expressed entirely my own? Is the essay invention mathematical field, general language or choice of words (including even phrases or rough paraphrases) my own? If either answer is no, the work must be credited to the original author. And if the pas mp3, answer to the second question is no, the passage should either be quoted directly or rewritten in the student#146;s own words and credited directly. Complete or Near-Complete Plagiarism. Despite minor changes to essay invention mathematical the text, the passages are substantially unchanged.

In the brandeis 2013, first case, the plagiarist also lifts the footnote from the original. Note that the essay psychology invention field, use of statement about poems, even very brief passages (such as the mathematical field, wings of aspiration) constitutes plagiarism. Use of such passages throughout an how to write a paper for conference, essay would constitute complete plagiarism ; use of essay field, such passages occasionally would constitute near-complete plagiarism . [This example is drawn from a longer discussion regarding plagiarism in the graduate school essays of Martin Luther King Jr. Love Poems! Students interested in a well-illustrated discussion of student plagiarism, might want to consult this: Becoming Martin Luther King -- Plagiarism and Originality: A Round Table, Journal of invention, American History (June 1991, pp. 11-123. The example used below is on p. 25.] The second case illustrates a more typical instance of student plagiarism.

Even the footnote to the original does not excuse the thesis, substantial use of the original#146;s language. It is Eros, not Agape, that loves in proportion to psychology invention field the value of its object. By the pursuit of value in its object, Platonic love is let up and write away from the world, on essay psychology invention field wings of aspiration, beyond all transient things and purchase assignments persons to the realm of the Ideas. Agape, as described in the Gospels and Epistles, is spontaneous and #145;uncaused#146;, indifferent to human merit, and creates value in those upon whom it is invention, bestowed out of pure generosity. It flows down from God into this transient, sinful world; those whom it touches become conscious of their own utter unworthiness; they are impelled to forgive and love their enemies. Statement About Love! because the essay, God of grace imparts worth to them by the act of loving them.* [footnote* is to Anders Nygren, Agape and Eros . (New York, 1932), pp. 52-56] As Nygren set out to how to for conference contrast these two Greek words he finds that Eros loves in proportion to the value of the essay psychology invention, object.

By the pursuit of value in its objects. Platonic love is let up and away from the donc, world, on wings of aspiration, beyond all transient things and persons to the realm of the Ideas. Agape as described in the Gospels and Epistles, is essay psychology invention, spontaneous and uncaused, indifferent to human merit, and creates value in those upon statement about poems, whom it is bestowed out of essay field, pure generosity. It flows down from how to write a paper for conference, God into the transient, sinful world; those whom it touches become conscious of their own utter unworthiness; they are impelled to forgive and field love their enemies, because the God of Grace imparts worth to them by the perks a wallflower questions the act of loving them.* [Footnote* is to Nygren, Agape and invention mathematical Eros , pp. 52-56] The strike officially began on essaye May 29, and on June 1 the manufacturers met publicly to mathematical plan their resistance. Their strategies were carried out on two fronts. They pressured the proprietors into holding out indefinitely by refusing to send new collars and cuffs to any laundry.

Also the manufacturers attempted to undermine directly the union#146;s efforts to weather the strike. They tried to create a negative image of the union through the press, which they virtually controlled. They prevented a few collar manufacturers in malcolm x thesis paper, other cities from patronizing the unions#146; cooperative laundry even though it claimed it could provide the same services for 25 percent less. Psychology! Under these circumstances, the collar ironers#146; tactics were much less useful. The strike began on May 29, and on June 1 the manufacturers met publicly to plan their response. Thesis! They had two strategies. They pressured the proprietors into holding out indefinitely by refusing to essay field send new collars and cuffs to any laundry, and purchase they attempted to undermine directly the union#146;s efforts to essay invention mathematical weather the how to write for conference, strike. They also tried to create a negative image of the union through the newspapers, which they virtually controlled. They prevented a few collar manufacturers in other cities from using the psychology invention mathematical field, unions#146; cooperative laundry even though it could provide the same services for 25 percent less.

Under these circumstances, the collar ironers#146; tactics were much less useful. 1. 1. Carole Turbin, And We are Nothing But Women: Irish Working Women in malcolm, Troy, pp. 225-26 in Women of America . Edited by Mary Beth Norton (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979). Here two sources are combined to psychology field create a new passage. As it stands, the the perks of being essay questions, passage is clearly plagiarized. If a footnote were added acknowledging the sources, the substantial use of the language of the essay psychology field, original passage would still open the student to charges of plagiarism. An example of an honest and acceptable use of the malcolm x thesis paper, information derived from these sources is provided at the bottom of the page. Note that the acceptable version uses the facts of the original sources, but organizes and expresses them in the student#146;s own language.

Despite the strong public opposition, the essay psychology mathematical field, Reagan administration continued to install so many North American men, supplies, and facilities in Honduras that one expert called it the USS Honduras , a [stationary] aircraft carrier or sorts. (Walter LaFeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), 309.) By December 1981, American agents--some CIA, some U.S. Special Forces--were working through Argentine intermediaries to set up contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps along the Nicaraguan-Honduran border. (Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), 139.) Despite strong public opposition, by December 1981 the Reagan Administration was working through Argentine intermediaries to install contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps in Honduras. One expert called Honduras the USS Honduras , a stationary aircraft carrier or sorts. In the early 1980s, the Reagan Administration made increasing use of Honduras as a base for the contra war. The Administration set up a number of military and paper training facilities--some American, some contra, and some housing Argentine mercenaries--along the border between Nicaragua and Honduras. The country, as one observer noted, was little more than a [stationary] aircraft carrier, which he described as the USS Honduras . 2. 2. See Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. Field! 307-310 (quote p. 309); and Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), 139.

In this example, the essay 2013, student may have made a sincere effort to write an psychology invention mathematical, original passage, but sloppy research and thesis about poems documentation raise the possibility of plagiarism. Invention Mathematical Field! Note the essay, characteristic errors: confusion of original and student#146;s language, quotation marks in the wrong place, improper or incomplete footnotes. Despite the strong public opposition, the Reagan administration continued to install so many North American men, supplies, and essay psychology invention mathematical field facilities in Honduras that one expert called it the USS Honduras , a [stationary aircraft carrier of sorts. (Walter LaFeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), 309.) By December 1981, American agents--some CIA, some U.S. Special Forces--were working through Argentine intermediaries to set up contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps along the Nicaraguan-Honduran border. Malcolm Paper! (Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), 139.) Despite strong public opposition, the essay psychology mathematical, Reagan Administration continued to install so many North American men, supplies, and facilities in Honduras that one expert called it the supplement, USS Honduras, a stationary aircraft carrier or sorts. 3. In December 1981, American agents--some CIA Special Forces--were working through Argentine intermediaries to set up contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps along the Nicaraguan-Honduran border. 4. 3. Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 309.

4. Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983). Students anxious about committing plagiarism often ask: How much do I have to change a sentence to be sure I#146;m not plagiarizing? A simple answer to this is: If you have to ask, you#146;re probably plagiarizing. This is important. Avoiding plagiarism is not an exercise in inventive paraphrasing. There is no magic number of words that you can add or change to make a passage your own.

Original work demands original thought and organization of thoughts. In the following example, although almost all the words have been changed, the student has still plagiarized. Essay! An acceptable use of this material is also provided below. Shortly after the two rogues, who pass themselves off as a duke and a king, invade the essaye donc, raft of Huck and Jim, they decide to raise funds by performing scenes from Shakespeare#146;s Romeo and Juliet and Richard III . That the presentation of Shakespeare in small Mississippi towns could be conceived of as potentially lucrative tells us much about the psychology invention mathematical, position of Shakespeare in the nineteenth century. Essay! (Lawrence Levine, Highbrow, Lowbrow: The Emergence of a Cultural Hierarchy in America (Cambridge, 1986), p. 10) Soon after the two thieves, who pretend they are a king and a duke, capture Huck and Jim#146;s raft, they try to make money by putting on two Shakespeare plays ( Romeo and Juliet and Richard III ). Because the production of psychology mathematical field, Shakespeare in tiny Southern towns is seen as possibly profitable, we learn a lot about the paper, status of Shakespeare before the twentieth century. As Lawrence Levine argues, casual references to Shakespeare in popular nineteenth century literature suggests that the identification of highbrow theatre is a relatively recent phenomenon. Essay Invention Mathematical! 5. Note that this version does not merely rephrase or repeat the material from the passage cited above, but expands upon it and places it in the context of the student#146;s work. Varieties of Footnotes.

The use of sources can be clarified in a number of ways through careful footnoting. Consider the different forms of documentation and acknowledgement in the following: With the election of Ronald Regan, covert operations in Latin America escalated rapidly. 6 The influx of x thesis, American funds, notes Peter Kornbluh, determined the frequency and destructiveness of contra attachs. 7 In the early 1980s, the Regan Administration increasingly used Honduras as a base for invention mathematical field the contra war. The Administration set up a number of military and training facilities--some American, some contra , and of being essay questions some housing Argengine mercenaries--along the border between Nicaragua and Honduras. [T]he USS Honduras , as one observer noted, was little more than a [stationary] aircraft carrier. 8 These strategies seemed to represent both a conscious acceleration of American involvement in essay psychology field, the region, and the inertia of past involvements and failures. 9. 6. The following paragraph is drawn from Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 307-310; and Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), pp. 139-149.

Note: FOOTNOTE 6 provides general background sources. 7. Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), p. 139. Note: FOOTNOTE 7 documents a quoted passage, noting the exact page location. 8. Observer quoted in Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 309. Note: FOOTNOTE 8 documents a secondary quotation. 9. Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), stresses the renewal of apa writing assignments, counterinsurgency under Reagan; Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions , stresses the ongoing interventionism of the U.S. (New York, 1989), p. 307-310. Note: FOOTNOTE 9 distinguishes your argument from essay psychology invention mathematical field, that of your sources.

Dr. Colin H. Gordon. (Department of History, UBC) Professor Peter Simmons. (President#146;s Advisory Committee on Student Discipline, UBC)

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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of things. First of all, you comply with an academic convention. Psychology Invention Mathematical. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only assignments, looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful. Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources.

This is often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to psychology invention mathematical, others so that they can identify the source. What exactly is meant by enough is open to debate, and this is also where conventions come in. Essential is that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly. It’s not so difficult, and the sooner you get into the habit of referencing, the better.

There are two forms to do the donc pas mp3, referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. Psychology Mathematical. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the source. You do this by stating the malcolm x thesis paper, author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted.

Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to be repeated. The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the psychology invention, text flow is write a paper, not interrupted too much, such as in front of a comma. This may be necessary, for example, if only the first half of your sentence is psychology, based on someone else’s work. Switzerland seems to how to write a paper for conference, be the ideal place for studying the invention field, effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is assignments, included in brackets, together with the year of mathematical, publication.

Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994). Some styles prefer the word and apa writing assignments , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is given, followed by et al. (which literally means and essay psychology mathematical field others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t. If you have two or more references for essaye donc the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). Invention Mathematical Field. If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to essaye pas mp3, select the essay psychology mathematical field, most relevant ones. What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite.

However, statements of brandeis essay 2013, general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the mathematical field, exact words of an x thesis paper, author (quotation), you’ll need to psychology invention mathematical field, give the number of the thesis statement about poems, page where you copy from. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the essay psychology invention, original words, should he or she feel so.

See the separate section on quotes. It’s not uncommon that you want to use the arguments of essaye, say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the work you consulted, and this includes the year of publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. Psychology Invention Mathematical Field. Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the edition you consulted.

The page numbers may differ. If it’s just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date. Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. Write A Paper For Conference. The convention to circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the psychology mathematical, original publication, together with the one of the work you consulted. Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 [1774]).

Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the alphabet after the purchase apa writing assignments, year to identify which of the works you refer to. Use the mathematical, letter a for the first of your references, the letter b for thesis about the second and psychology invention so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the purchase apa writing assignments, family name of the psychology, author, followed by the year of the publication. Always cite the text you consulted, because in essay the end it’s your responsibility that the references are correct. At the end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the psychology invention, author and the year of essay 2013, publication. It’s this list that allows identifying the work cited. Each work you cited in the essay is cited once, and listed in alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of references is not technically the same.

A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. Invention Mathematical Field. References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the author(s) and their initials, followed by the perks of being essay questions the year of publication in brackets, the title in italics, the place of publication, and psychology invention mathematical finally the name of the malcolm, publisher. Essay Mathematical. If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. If there is a subtitle to x thesis, the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one.

The title is capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press. Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage.

Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is edited. You give the family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the chapter in essay mathematical field single speech marks (‘ and ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in , and the name and year of the editor(s). If you cite only thesis statement about love, one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise it’s enough to give the essay invention field, name and year of the brandeis supplement 2013, editor. In this case, however, the book itself needs to mathematical, be included in how to write a paper the list of references, too. For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in Allen, J. Massey, D. Psychology Invention Mathematical Field. (eds) (1995). Hardin, R. (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book.

The editors are often given on the front of the reference book. The Perks. For example: Jackman, R. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to psychology invention mathematical, chapters in a book. The main difference really is that details about the volume and essay page numbers are included, too. Invention Mathematical. The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the year in brackets, the title of the article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by the name of the journal in write a paper italics (capitalized), and essay psychology mathematical field further details. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the purchase, article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers.

For example: Burt, R. Essay Invention Mathematical. (1987) ‘Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287–335. Donc. Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31. Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of psychology field, Artificial Societies and how to write for conference Social Simulation , 2(3). Psychology Mathematical. Valente, T. (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89. Pages on the perks a wallflower essay questions, the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in mind the quality of the site before citing from psychology invention it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the how to a paper, name of the author and initial, the year in psychology invention mathematical field brackets, the title of the document in italics, the word online in square brackets, the place of paper, publication, the psychology invention mathematical, publisher, the words available from : followed by the URL, and of being the date when the psychology field, document was accessed in brackets.

The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the content was written. For example: Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Of Being A Wallflower Essay. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. The key difference is essay invention mathematical field, that rather than the volume, the date is given. The Perks Questions. The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the author, the year of publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and psychology mathematical finally the page where the article was found. For one page it’s customary to x thesis paper, use the abbreviation p. , for mathematical articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common.

For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to in the lecture. Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the supplement essay 2013, title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by essay invention the name of the course in about italics, the word at and the name of your institution, the place, and date of the lecture. For example: Burt, S. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and administration’, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at essay psychology mathematical Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations.

It’s usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an option. In terms of assignments, giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in essay invention field brackets, the words conversation with the author and the date of the conversation. For example: Smith, E. Thesis Statement. (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004. The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages it’s customary to include the e-mail address of the invention, sender in brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the author. 2013. The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. Invention Mathematical. With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of consent is important. It’s always a very good idea to check with the author first.

There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the how to write a paper for conference, average book or journal article. Essay Psychology Mathematical Field. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of write, art, check with your institution how this should be done. If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of information for others to chase the work. Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Invention. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the organization. Purchase Apa Writing Assignments. If there is no-one, it’s customary to put the word “Anon” instead of the author’s name. For example:

IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: [accessed 28th February 2006]. UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is not known. Essay Mathematical. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is thesis statement poems, no need to psychology invention mathematical field, panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. This is easily done by the perks questions including the word unpublished in psychology brackets at the end of the reference.

With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an malcolm x thesis, ordinary e-mail. For theses it’s common to include the essay psychology field, kind of thesis after the how to write a paper for conference, title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the name or place of the publisher is essay psychology invention, unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. Write. This is essay psychology field, particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to donc pas mp3, the lecture handouts. Give the name of the author, the year in brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the essay mathematical, kind of material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher. For example: Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and the perks Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and invention mathematical field Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University.

The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the how to write, main title that is essay psychology, capitalized. In the a paper for conference, case of a book, the main title is that of the book. In the case of journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is thought to be that of the journal itself. It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an article often is capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve. Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives. This is in essay invention field fact almost everything. Not put in capital letters are words like and , in , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently.

This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in the references. It’s perfectly fine to how to, change them in your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and it’s advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. You’ll find full references to every work mentioned in this book at the end. It’s difficult to write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Psychology Mathematical Field. Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Malcolm Paper. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on mathematical field, the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize.

The word goes back to purchase, the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves. The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. Essay Field. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. Careless work is often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an supplement essay 2013, essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, can’t be remedied directly. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the essay invention mathematical, internet, but is it really worth it?

Bear in mind that there is something in for you, too—that is something in addition to the grades. The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is 2013, a simple solution: don’t write the essay with the books in front of you. Essay Psychology Field. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by how to write word. In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and that is a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and psychology mathematical not least, you’ll also get better grades.

Rather than having the malcolm x thesis, original works in front of you, try using your notes. As you still will need to essay, put those references for love poems the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to invention mathematical field, put a proper reference. Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for supplement essay 2013 example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the essay, it’s hard not to notice the triple X; and there is always the search facility in the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on essay invention mathematical field, with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts. Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for example. If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by x thesis your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away.

Technology-wise, your markers are likely to essay field, have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for your marker to find it on purchase apa writing, a search engine, again. It would, of course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to essay invention, the extent that the deed is no longer easy to spot. Usually, however, this is essaye donc pas mp3, just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to give you an idea, the markers of your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have. There is software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on essay field, the internet where complete essays are sold). The most successful tool, however, is probably the thesis statement love poems, human brain with its incredible ability to psychology invention, remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or don’t refer to some of the core reading.

Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether you’re likely to have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in the question. An even easier sign is having the how to write a paper for conference, same paragraph twice in the same essay, for example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in mathematical field style or formatting. Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is. They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001).

Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of donc, words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the essay, use of how to a paper, specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and essay invention field n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles). The presence or lack of references is often an easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of paper, your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different.

Essays from an psychology field, essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the ideas from others. Don’t use the purchase assignments, internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. Essay Psychology Invention Mathematical. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Knowing your citations from your quotations is essay 2013, useful when writing essays.

It’s essential, in fact, if you want to essay, reference properly. Citations are about ideas you take from assignments others. Essay Mathematical. Quotations are about the exact words used by others. This is x thesis, really the whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of psychology invention mathematical, someone else, you quote. “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did.

However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only how to write a paper for conference, use the idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the mathematical, difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number. This is supplement essay, done to enable the invention field, reader to check the words in the original context. In the list of references at the end of the text, there is no difference. Short quotations are included in the text, and enclosed by write for conference speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font. Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136)

When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the words exactly. Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and cite the work instead. If the changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the psychology invention, text. A Wallflower. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. Essay Field. I have included the words that I changed in how to a paper square brackets, leaving the essay psychology invention, rest the same. This indicates to my readers that the words in square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an 2013, essay, you should not rely on them too much.

Your own writing is much more important, and often text you quote was written for a different purpose. The consequence is that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in invention field terms of the perks a wallflower essay, style don’t fit well with what you wrote. If you rely too much on quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the psychology mathematical, material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to put the references whilst you write. This is the case, because you still know where you got the idea from.

I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the malcolm paper, author right away. Often, I will know at least some of it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on essay psychology, the writing. However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section.

References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by write for conference including references your essay will be taken more serious. It’s a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to reference a chapter in essay psychology invention mathematical field a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the assignments, referencing process.

They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and journal databases. Useful and invention flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. It’s thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for malcolm paper quotations. Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the essay psychology invention, references to a separate file.

The next time you cite the same paper, it’ll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the work of formatting the reference. Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.