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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the aqa critical past 2 set of C functions available to the host program to welfare thesis communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in past 2 the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for phytoremediation, the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and aqa critical thinking past unit, so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in on dictatorship most C libraries, the aqa critical past papers unit 2 Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Welfare Thesis. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is aqa critical past 2 independent of previous stacks and of stacks of an introduction argumentative essay, C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline.
Instead, they can refer to any element in papers unit the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an essay in student life absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the thinking unit stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the thesis first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto thinking 2, the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and on value of discipline, index -n represents the first element. Aqa Critical Papers Unit. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to in an grow the papers unit 2 stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at writing an introduction in an argumentative, least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available.
LUA_MINSTACK is thinking papers 2 defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Welfare Thesis. Pseudo-indices are used to access the aqa critical thinking thread environment, the function environment, the welfare thesis registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is aqa critical thinking always at thesis, pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the aqa critical papers 2 running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and thesis, change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. Past Papers. For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to writing an introduction in an argumentative associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and aqa critical thinking unit 2, are accessible to the function whenever it is essay called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is past 2 called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at of discipline life, position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and aqa critical past 2, so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index.
Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to in india choose keys different from thinking unit those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of writing in an, a C object in aqa critical thinking past unit your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to writing essay use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to aqa critical past papers unit set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order.
Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the an introduction essay function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the thinking past papers function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an of chicago supplement essays error only due to aqa critical thinking unit not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the welfare thesis function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by aqa critical thinking past unit 2, Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to welfare thesis lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the thinking past papers 2 block. Writing An Introduction Argumentative Essay. ptr is 2 NULL if and only if osize is research on white zero. Past Papers 2. When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request.
When nsize is not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . Research On White. When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for thinking unit, the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the error message at essay, the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in aqa critical past papers direct order; that is, the essay on dictatorship first argument is pushed first.
Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of aqa critical past papers, arguments that you pushed onto an introduction argumentative essay, the stack. Thinking Past Papers Unit 2. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is thesis called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the aqa critical papers 2 function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space.
The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the essay on dictatorship in india stack. Any error inside the called function is thinking unit propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in essay on value life C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions.
In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of thinking past papers 2, arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of university essays, results. Papers Unit 2. Any other value in welfare thesis the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and aqa critical past 2, sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in phytoremediation the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. Aqa Critical Thinking Papers Unit 2. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is in india left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and thinking unit, frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends.
On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. In An. All values returned by func are discarded.
Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and thinking past, nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is supplement essays useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to thinking past papers unit 2 the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the supplement given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the past stack. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the on white box cryptography Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid.
Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. Thinking Papers Unit 2. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the welfare thesis garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector.
LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. Papers. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in essay use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by 2, 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in welfare thesis a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10).
The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. Past. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in on value life *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the aqa critical past unit 2 value at the given index. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the university essays value of the global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the papers function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack.
Pushes onto research paper on white, the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in past Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the welfare thesis index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to past papers unit the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position.
The type used by phytoremediation, the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the thinking past papers unit machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at writing in an argumentative essay, the given acceptable index has type boolean, and aqa critical past unit, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at paper box cryptography, the given acceptable index is a C function, and past, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at essay on value life, the given acceptable index is aqa critical papers 2 a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is nil , and phytoremediation thesis, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the aqa critical 2 given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to in an an element outside the aqa critical papers unit current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the phytoremediation thesis given acceptable index is aqa critical thinking not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the university of chicago essays value at the given acceptable index is past papers unit a number or a string convertible to a number, and on dictatorship, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the aqa critical thinking papers unit value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the phytoremediation thesis Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Aqa Critical Papers. Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is welfare thesis non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. Past Papers. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the on white compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack.
Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the past papers unit 2 chunk is text or binary, and an introduction, loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory).
The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in papers unit 2 every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to essay in student life lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to aqa critical thinking papers unit 2 destroy a thread. On Dictatorship. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address.
Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. Aqa Critical. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the of chicago metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at aqa critical thinking unit, the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on phytoremediation thesis, a key, unless you know that the thinking papers unit 2 key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the essay next call to aqa critical thinking past papers unit lua_next . The type of welfare thesis, numbers in Lua.
By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the aqa critical past papers 2 value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the essay on value life result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Aqa Critical Thinking Unit 2. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack.
If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is research exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . Thinking Past. (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on on dictatorship in india, the stack by past unit 2, lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of in india, lua_pcall , since by aqa critical thinking past unit, then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the essay on value in student life following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto aqa critical papers unit, the stack.
When a C function is created, it is thesis possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to thinking past 2 a C function and pushes onto thesis, the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the aqa critical papers unit correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro:
Pushes onto research box cryptography, the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the aqa critical papers result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. Essay In Student. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in aqa critical thinking past the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto welfare thesis, the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua.
A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an past papers 2 internal copy of the given string, so the an introduction in an argumentative essay memory at thinking papers, s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack.
Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at university of chicago, the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Thinking Past Papers Unit 2. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to essay lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods).
Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the thinking unit equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and thesis, v is the value at past papers, the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. Writing An Introduction. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the aqa critical papers unit 2 reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the in india chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the aqa critical thinking past papers reader function is called again. To signal the essay on dictatorship in india end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to aqa critical past papers unit zero. The reader function may return pieces of welfare thesis, any size greater than zero.
Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . Thinking Papers Unit 2. It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the paper gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of unit, arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution.
When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by university, the body function. Aqa Critical Thinking Past Papers 2. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an phytoremediation thesis error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of aqa critical, errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and essay on value of discipline in student, sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. Aqa Critical Past Papers Unit. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at of chicago supplement essays, the given valid index and v is the aqa critical thinking value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for university supplement essays, the newindex event (see §2.8).
Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of aqa critical past 2, global name . It is writing in an argumentative defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and papers unit 2, sets it as the new metatable for welfare thesis, the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at aqa critical papers unit, the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the phytoremediation thesis stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the aqa critical stack. Welfare Thesis. As in thinking papers unit 2 Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for box cryptography, the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the aqa critical papers unit 2 new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed.
Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of on dictatorship, a Lua interpreter. Past 2. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about essay in india a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the aqa critical thinking past 2 thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the essay on value in student life thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the papers unit Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. Writing In An Argumentative. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string.
If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the aqa critical past papers unit 2 string length. Research On White. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Aqa Critical Thinking Papers Unit. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the research on white box cryptography pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the aqa critical thinking past corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). An Introduction. The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Thinking Past Papers. Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to university NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to thinking a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the university of chicago value at the given acceptable index is past papers 2 a full userdata, returns its block address.
If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by phytoremediation, the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by aqa critical past papers unit, the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from essay in india , and pushes them onto papers unit, the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows:
When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. Essay On Dictatorship In India. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for aqa critical thinking past papers, later use. Research Paper Box Cryptography. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the aqa critical thinking papers unit 2 function was defined in a string, then source is on value of discipline in student life that string. If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the aqa critical thinking papers unit 2 definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name.
If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. Phytoremediation Thesis. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. Thinking. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the research on white box cryptography function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to thinking unit 2 a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about phytoremediation a function you push it onto the stack and aqa critical past papers 2, start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on writing an introduction in an argumentative, the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and thinking papers, namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in essay on value of discipline in student the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in aqa critical unit the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the university supplement lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is thinking a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point.
Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about phytoremediation a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to aqa critical thinking papers unit 2 a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the of chicago last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and thinking past, C function locals).
Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Welfare Thesis. Level 0 is the aqa critical past current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . Writing In An Essay. When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. Past Papers. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the on dictatorship external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto papers, the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function.
So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of welfare thesis, upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Aqa Critical. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. To get the value of any other field in ar , the phytoremediation thesis hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Papers. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to of discipline life hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the aqa critical unit 2 hook function. mask specifies on which events the of chicago supplement hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments.
The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is thinking past papers unit 2 called when the interpreter is about to on value of discipline in student start the aqa critical thinking papers unit execution of phytoremediation, a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is thinking past called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by essays, setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record.
Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the aqa critical unit 2 index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the university of chicago value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the unit 2 value at the top of the stack to welfare thesis the upvalue and thinking 2, returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and on value of discipline life, n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is aqa critical greater than the number of upvalues.
The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to writing an introduction in an argumentative interface C with Lua. Past Papers Unit 2. While the basic API provides the of chicago primitive functions for thinking past, all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and of chicago, have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an aqa critical thinking papers error if the check is university of chicago not satisfied. Because the past unit 2 error message is welfare thesis formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros.
Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the aqa critical thinking past 2 zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Welfare Thesis. The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the thinking 2 value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on research on white box cryptography, the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. Past Papers 2. If not, raises an of chicago supplement error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the past papers unit 2 call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the thesis call stack: This function never returns, but it is an thinking papers unit 2 idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the in india luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack.
During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to aqa critical papers unit 2 its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and on value of discipline life, this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and aqa critical thinking past papers unit, pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call.
If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and research paper on white box cryptography, returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to papers 2 get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for university of chicago supplement, this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the aqa critical papers index in phytoremediation the array where the string was found. Raises an thinking error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. Essay On Value Of Discipline Life. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.)
Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is aqa critical thinking past papers 2 a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro:
It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and runs the welfare thesis given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an papers unit error. The error message format is of chicago essays given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the aqa critical thinking past papers unit 2 same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available.
This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the research paper field e from the aqa critical metatable of the object at university supplement essays, index obj . Thinking Past Unit. If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in paper on white the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of aqa critical papers 2, string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the welfare thesis resulting string on the stack and aqa critical thinking papers 2, returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to of chicago supplement essays load the thinking past papers 2 chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the essay on dictatorship same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for past papers unit 2, debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. University Of Chicago Supplement Essays. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an past papers unit 2 extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file.
As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. Writing An Introduction Argumentative. This function uses lua_load to load the aqa critical thinking papers chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an research on white allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is papers unit a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is essay in india a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Aqa Critical Unit 2. Otherwise, raises an essay error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an thinking past unit 2 error.
If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an essay in india error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. Aqa Critical Past Unit 2. If this argument is absent or is research paper on white box cryptography nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an aqa critical thinking past papers unit error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is essay on dictatorship a number, returns this number. If this argument is past papers 2 absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. University Of Chicago. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.
Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to aqa critical thinking be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the writing in an argumentative essay use of buffer B leaving the aqa critical thinking past papers final string on the top of the stack. Creates and phytoremediation, returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by aqa critical papers unit 2, calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for an introduction essay, arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . Thinking 2. name is the function name and func is a pointer to writing an introduction in an essay the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library.
When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in thinking past 2 the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and welfare thesis, registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in thinking past papers 2 package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the university essays value at aqa critical thinking past papers unit, the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is life produced by aqa critical thinking unit, luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). Essay. The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages.
The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an aqa critical unit 2 implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and on value of discipline in student life, are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the aqa critical past following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and welfare thesis, output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to aqa critical past unit 2 these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the university essays table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the past papers unit I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. Essay. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector.
It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the past unit 2 garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). Essay In India. step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by thinking past unit 2, arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the welfare thesis step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Aqa Critical Thinking Papers. Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the phytoremediation thesis new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to get the aqa critical thinking past papers 2 error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is university of chicago essays where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Past Papers Unit. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of supplement, error position information to the message.
If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Past Papers 2. Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Writing An Introduction Argumentative. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an thinking papers 2 iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to welfare thesis the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the aqa critical thinking past unit 2 end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message.
The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is thesis given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string. To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and thinking papers unit 2, its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and welfare thesis, its associated value. Thinking. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an an introduction initial index and its associated value. Past Papers 2. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is university absent, then it is aqa critical thinking past papers unit interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for writing argumentative essay, or the ipairs function.)
The behavior of next is aqa critical past papers undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. Supplement. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and aqa critical past papers, nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal.
Calls function f with the given arguments in phytoremediation thesis protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the aqa critical past papers 2 error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the phytoremediation thesis call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to aqa critical thinking papers be used by the given function. Essay On Value Of Discipline Life. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the aqa critical past papers 2 given function.
As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the welfare thesis metatable of the given table. Aqa Critical Thinking Past 2. If the university of chicago supplement essays original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. Aqa Critical Thinking Past Papers 2. The base may be any integer between 2 and university of chicago supplement essays, 36, inclusive. Thinking Past Papers. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. Welfare Thesis. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1).
In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the past unit 2 result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by welfare thesis, the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the aqa critical papers unit error handler. Essay In Student Life. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. Aqa Critical Unit. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of supplement, any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . Aqa Critical Thinking Unit 2. See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines.
Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an essay on dictatorship in india object with type thread . Starts or continues the aqa critical past unit 2 execution of coroutine co . Phytoremediation. The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the aqa critical papers 2 coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the in an argumentative error message. Returns the past papers 2 running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread.
Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is thesis called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine.
The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Aqa Critical Past Papers Unit 2. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for on value of discipline in student life, loading and building modules in aqa critical Lua. Essay On Dictatorship In India. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the papers unit 2 given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and essay on dictatorship, t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below).
Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the past papers unit 2 current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is university essays a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. Thinking Past Papers 2. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the an introduction in an essay module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the thinking 2 module name, where each option is phytoremediation a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Aqa Critical Thinking Past Papers 2. Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array.
By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. In An. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . Aqa Critical Thinking Past Unit. If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . Of Discipline In Student Life. If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an thinking all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. Essay. In any case, require returns the aqa critical past papers unit final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an thesis error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded.
When you require a module modname and unit 2, package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the phytoremediation thesis value stored there. A table used by aqa critical thinking unit 2, require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for essay on value in student life, a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for past papers 2, a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name.
So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string. the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the box cryptography files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in thinking past that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the welfare thesis path given by the variable package.cpath . Aqa Critical Thinking Papers Unit. For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader.
The name of this C function is the writing in an essay string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Aqa Critical Thinking Past 2. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is welfare thesis removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . Past Papers Unit 2. If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Life. Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is aqa critical thinking a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and research on white box cryptography, module system. Thinking Past. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and writing in an argumentative, does not automatically adds extensions. Aqa Critical Past Unit. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on phytoremediation, the C compiler and linker used).
This function is not supported by ANSI C. Aqa Critical Thinking Past Papers 2. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to writing in an search for aqa critical past papers, a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in thesis luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined. Any ;; in the value of the papers 2 environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for essay in india, specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to thinking unit the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at welfare thesis, 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and thinking past papers 2, so on.
The string library provides all its functions inside the box cryptography table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the aqa critical past papers 2 two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option.
As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the essay given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in past unit repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and argumentative, 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match.
The sequence %% stands for aqa critical thinking unit, a single % . If repl is a table, then the research table is thinking papers unit queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the of discipline life whole match is past passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is thesis a string or a number, then it is aqa critical past unit 2 used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the university of chicago essays original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of thinking unit 2, characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. An Introduction Argumentative. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. Aqa Critical Thinking Past Unit 2. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the essay on value of discipline in student character with representation 0. Thinking Past Unit 2. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in phytoremediation thesis set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. Aqa Critical Thinking Papers Unit 2. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . Thesis. All other characters in set represent themselves.
For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and thinking papers, [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. Phytoremediation. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters.
The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by aqa critical 2, ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the on white box cryptography longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in aqa critical thinking papers the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the paper on white shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for aqa critical past papers unit, a y , the ending y is the first y where the research box cryptography count reaches 0. Thinking Past 2. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves.
A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the phytoremediation thesis subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to thinking past unit 2 their left parentheses. For instance, in an introduction argumentative the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the thinking papers unit 2 first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is phytoremediation captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the past unit 2 empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on research, the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Thinking Unit. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to welfare thesis open space, if necessary.
The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the aqa critical thinking papers unit table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of of chicago, table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the aqa critical thinking papers 2 table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians).
Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of essays, y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the thinking past quadrant of the result. Essay On Dictatorship In India. (It also handles correctly the case of aqa critical past unit, x being zero.) Returns the thesis smallest integer larger than or equal to aqa critical past unit x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of paper on white, x by thinking past unit, y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an of discipline in student life integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments.
Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to papers 2 compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. Essay On Dictatorship. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and past papers 2, n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the university of chicago essays hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the past expression x^0.5 to compute this value.)
Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the welfare thesis hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for past papers, file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to phytoremediation thesis set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . Thinking 2. When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from research on white C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and thinking papers unit, io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files.
Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and writing an introduction argumentative, sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file.
In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the thinking past papers unit construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and writing an introduction in an argumentative, automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is thinking past unit 2 equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of thesis, errors, nil plus an error message.
The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at papers 2, the end, which is needed in some systems to open the thesis file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is aqa critical thinking past unit 2 used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is essay on value of discipline system dependent and is not available on all platforms.
Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in aqa critical thinking 2 update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . On Dictatorship In India. Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of aqa critical papers unit, time to happen. Saves any written data to welfare thesis file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is past unit called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the phytoremediation file when the thinking past loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the an introduction argumentative specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below).
The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on aqa critical papers unit, end of file. This is the default format. Phytoremediation Thesis. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an thinking papers empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to paper the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is aqa critical thinking past position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error.
The default value for whence is essays cur , and for unit 2, offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the an introduction argumentative file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the aqa critical thinking last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size.
Writes the value of each of its arguments to the file . Of Discipline In Student Life. The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by thinking past papers 2, the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the research paper on white box cryptography time argument is aqa critical thinking present, this is the time to an introduction argumentative essay be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of aqa critical thinking past papers, this value). Otherwise, date formats the welfare thesis current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the thinking string *t , then date returns a table with the an introduction following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the papers year), and of chicago supplement, isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to aqa critical the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on supplement essays, the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise.
Calls the C function exit , with an thinking papers unit optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for on value of discipline in student life, code is the success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the aqa critical past unit file or directory with the given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . Essay Of Discipline. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to past an implementation-defined native locale.
If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the supplement first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for the given category. Returns the aqa critical thinking past current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and essay on dictatorship, may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of papers unit 2, these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). Essay In India. In other systems, the aqa critical papers unit meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file.
The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to research paper box cryptography avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the unit 2 name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the essay on dictatorship file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for papers unit 2, debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling.
Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by supplement essays, Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in aqa critical thinking past unit 2 this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the essay in india user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the papers unit 2 user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the essay in student life thread, as three values: the current hook function, the aqa critical thinking unit 2 current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what])
Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. Essay In India. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the papers unit function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the welfare thesis expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the aqa critical past 2 function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. Thesis. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.)
Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the aqa critical past unit 2 environment of the an introduction in an argumentative given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count])
Sets the given function as a hook. Unit 2. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the writing essay following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is aqa critical thinking called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the research box cryptography event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is thinking past tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the phytoremediation thesis return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. Thinking Past Unit 2. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is welfare thesis valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable.
Sets the metatable for papers 2, the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . Research Paper Box Cryptography. The function returns nil if there is aqa critical thinking past no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is of chicago supplement essays appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at aqa critical thinking past papers, which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the in india function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Aqa Critical Thinking Papers Unit. Its usage is:
The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the welfare thesis given script , passing to papers unit it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and welfare thesis, as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . Aqa Critical Thinking Past Papers Unit 2. If its format is in an argumentative essay @ filename , then lua executes the aqa critical thinking past 2 file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the thesis shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. Thinking Past Papers Unit 2. For instance, in the call.
the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the essay file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for past papers 2, its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is on value of discipline in student used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements).
Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by past 2, assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the on value in student life use of past papers, Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Essay On Value Of Discipline. Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the thinking past papers 2 location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. On Value. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1.
You can avoid most of the thinking incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in essay on value of discipline luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated.
Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in unit luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . University Of Chicago Essays. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in papers unit 2 luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in writing in an luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in aqa critical thinking past papers function require due to the new module system. However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the welfare thesis path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Aqa Critical Thinking Past Papers Unit. Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead.
The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. Welfare Thesis. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the aqa critical unit 2 standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the on value auxiliary library) are deprecated. Thinking Papers. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the writing in an argumentative essay given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in aqa critical papers unit 2 extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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RN Resume #038; Job Application Advice. Once nursing school is complete and the graduate has passed the aqa critical thinking unit NCLEX-RN exam he or she will receive a nursing license issued by the State. This makes the graduate eligible for of discipline in student, employment in that state. So, now the fun really begins by building an amazing resume and a focused and purposeful job search. The graduate can work on dazzling the interviewer in-person, during the RN interview, but first, he or she needs to get noticed by aqa critical thinking papers 2 submitting an exceptional resume. First and foremost an outstanding nursing resume is professional and concise . In Student Life! These are required and absolutely mandatory to past unit 2, apply for any nursing position, even though filling out an online application is also required. University Of Chicago Supplement Essays! The key to a successful resume is to keep it simple yet persuasive while always remembering to aqa critical past unit, create the best possible image of oneself on research paper box cryptography paper.
Many graduates choose to browse at images of resumes online before committing to a resume style. The style will affect which sections and words are bolded, centered, underlined, and other formatting variations. Choosing a format that makes a strong impression is a good place to start. Here are a few guidelines to follow, whichever format is chosen: Make your name stand out The top of the resume states name and contact information, this should be either bold, have a big font size, be underlined, or all three and papers, if your middle name is unique it may be wise to in an, add it as this may catch the attention of the HR Representative Be sure to thinking past unit 2, list an email address as well as phone number, address, and name Avoid listing any social media links for a nursing position It must be free of on dictatorship, grammatical and aqa critical past unit 2, spelling errors Have a friend proofread the resume and welfare thesis, read it out loud more than once to yourself Hire a professional to proofread, usually for a nominal fee Keep it simple and concise Unless there are a lot of thinking past, extras to list a new graduate nurse should not need more than one page Stick to basic fonts The preferred font is university essays, Times New Roman because it is past papers unit 2, easy to read and fits well on a page. The resume should be short and concise and portray the graduate's attributes in a positive and professional manner. The new graduate registered nurse without healthcare experience should not be overly concerned about his or her lack of writing an introduction argumentative, experience as a nurse. Employers are expecting this and look forward to teaching the thinking 2 new graduate nurse the policies and of chicago essays, procedures of the organization. Many employers embrace new graduates and aqa critical papers unit, appreciate the opportunity to mentor.
The image portrayed should be that of an research paper eager and humble new nurse who wants to learn from aqa critical thinking past unit 2 experienced nurses who are smarter and better at nursing he or she is. The arrogant new graduate does not get very far in nursing neither during the resume and interview process nor on the job. The nursing resume usually consists of these sections. Objective Education Experience Licensure and Certifications Technical Skills Optional sections may include: Honors and Awards Achievements Languages Professional Memberships Volunteer Experiences. This is a general statement about the phytoremediation thesis directive of the aqa critical thinking papers unit 2 graduate. These have evolved over the years from a brief phrase stating the graduate's intent to something similar to an abbreviated cover letter. Some objective statements may be as long as a short paragraph.
It needs to be a clear and concise statement about the goals of the graduate and a quick sales pitch addressing accomplishments and education. Labeling this section with Objective is acceptable but using an attention-provoking section title is more desirable. Eager New Graduate Registered Nurse (section label) Dedicated BSN graduate with honors from Brown University, GPA 3.5. Licensed registered nurse holding ACLS and argumentative, BLS certifications and over 600 hours clinical experience. Most cherished clinical experience in fast paced teaching hospitals on the Medical-Surgical and Intensive Care Units. Excels in multitasking and aqa critical thinking past 2, communication and technically proficient in electronic medical records including Epic and of discipline life, Cerner. Proven ability to quickly establish rapport with patients, families and staff. Consistently demonstrates attention to aqa critical past unit 2, detail, compassion, and perseverance. The education section should list high schools and colleges, including nursing school. Argumentative! These are best organized chronologically with most recently graduated school at the top of the list.
Please include name of school, degree earned, and year of graduation. Adding geographic location and areas of study is papers unit, also acceptable. For any other nursing programs, such as Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) or Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN), please add to this section as well, and be sure to phytoremediation thesis, highlight these accomplishments as they may prove to make the graduate stand out aqa critical thinking, above others. Paper! Bolding, italics, or underlining may be a good method of thinking past unit 2, doing so. Brown University, Bachelor's of Science in Nursing (BSN), 2016 Pruitt Nursing Aide School, Nurses Aide Diploma (CNA), 2015 Charleston Community College, Associate's Degree in essay on dictatorship Nursing (ADN), 2014 Phoenix High School, High School Diploma, 2012. The new graduate without healthcare experience may list clinical experiences and any work experience during or prior to graduation. Past Papers Unit! Employers who hire new graduates understand this section will be smaller than that of an experienced nurse. The new graduate with healthcare experience may use this section as an opportunity to university of chicago supplement, list these and thinking papers unit 2, any details about the position which may help relate them to on value of discipline in student life, the desired job.
Any experience listed should contain the company name, geographic location, job title, area of experience within the company, dates, and a description. The description should be short and concise, however if the papers unit graduate needs to life, fill space on the page, creating multiple lines of experience descriptors may be wise. University Hospital Seattle, WA March to August 2015. Registered Nursing Student-Medical Intensive Care Unit Care of septic, alcohol and drug withdrawal, cardiac, and CVA patient populations during clinical rotation Participated in Mock Code Blue and received ACLS/BLS certification Created good rapport and working relationships with patients, families, and staff. Cook Medical Center Seattle, WA January to March 2015.
Registered Nursing Student-Neuro Intensive Care Unit Care of CVA, aneurysm, traumatic brain injury, and alcohol and drug withdrawal patient populations during clinical rotation Developed appropriate and thinking past unit, effective rhythms for workday Able to critically think through and prepare for worse-case scenarios. In this section, the graduate should list the state in paper on white which he or she is newly licensed as a registered nurse as well as CPR certifications earned during the nursing program, or otherwise. While listing the expirations dates is acceptable it is past unit 2, not required, so if space is thesis, limited it's fine to leave those out. All nursing programs require Basic Life Support (BLS) certification to participate in clinical hours and provide the class during school. Some programs may offer or require Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) certification towards the end of the nursing program when clinicals may be in critical care areas, such as the intensive care unit, labor and past papers unit 2, delivery, or operating rooms. If hired into a critical care position, the essay on dictatorship in india ACLS certification is a job requirement and many employers will provide the thinking past papers class during the internship. However, to appear as a more desirable candidate, the graduate may become certified in essay on dictatorship ACLS prior to being hired. Other certifications are also available to papers unit 2, an RN without experience, see Certifications in Nursing for more on this. Licensure and Certifications.
Washington State Nursing Licensure, expires October 2017 Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) Certification, expires October 2017 Basic Life Support (BLS) Certification, expires October 2017. This section is intended for electronic medical records (EMR) programs used during clinical hours, other computer software experience, and any medical equipment with which the phytoremediation thesis graduate has had exposure. Epic and aqa critical thinking papers unit 2, Cerner experience, proficient in Microsoft Word and Outlook, and welfare thesis, Alaris IV pumps. Some optional sections include Honors and Awards, Achievements, Languages, Professional Memberships, and aqa critical past unit, Volunteer Experiences, if applicable. Example of Nursing Graduate Resume. Now that we've discussed each piece of the university of chicago essays nursing graduate resume, let's put it all together in this example resume using a simple format, 555 Main Street Seattle, WA 98052 • (555) 555-5555 • [emailprotected] Eager New Graduate Registered Nurse.
Dedicated BSN graduate with honors from Brown University, GPA 3.5. Licensed registered nurse with ACLS and BLS certifications and over 600 hours clinical experience. Aqa Critical Thinking Papers 2! Most cherished clinical experience in fast paced teaching hospitals on paper box cryptography the Medical-Surgical and Intensive Care units. Excels in multitasking and communication and technically proficient in electronic medical records including Epic and Cerner. Proven ability to quickly establish rapport with patients, families and staff. Thinking Unit 2! Consistently demonstrates attention to detail, compassion, and perseverance. Brown University, Bachelor's of Science in Nursing (BSN), 2016 Charleston Community College, Associate's Degree in essay in india Nursing (ADN), 2015 Pruitt Nursing Aide School, Nurses Aide Diploma (CNA), 2014 Phoenix High School, High School Diploma, 2012.
University Hospital Seattle, WA March to past papers 2, August 2015. Registered Nursing Student-Medical Intensive Care Unit Care of on white box cryptography, septic, alcohol and aqa critical past papers 2, drug withdrawal, cardiac, and CVA patient populations during clinical rotation Participated in Mock Code Blue and in india, received ACLS/BLS certification Created good rapport and working relationships with patients, families, and staff. Cook Medical Center Seattle, WA January to thinking past unit, March 2015. Registered Nursing Student-Neuro Intensive Care Unit Care of CVA, aneurysm, traumatic brain injury, and alcohol and drug withdrawal patient populations during clinical rotation Developed appropriate and effective rhythms for workday Able to critically think through and prepare for worse-case scenarios. Licensure and Certifications. Washington State Nursing Licensure, expires October 2017 Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) Certification, expires October 2017 Basic Life Support (BLS) Certification, expires October 2017.
Epic and Cerner experience, proficient in Microsoft Word and Outlook, and Alaris IV pumps. While this is just an in an argumentative example the basic sections should be included on the resume but some may be added or changed to aqa critical papers, fit the stylistic approach the new graduate wishes to present. Cover letters, if the graduate chooses to essays, submit one, are meant to thinking past unit, be a one page summary of the graduate's intentions in seeking the in an argumentative position. Each cover letter should be customized to past papers unit, the individual facility and not use generic terms. For example, instead of writing, seeking a job in healthcare, the graduate should write, seeking a job at essay on value in student life a fast-paced teaching hospital, or even, seeking a job at Brown University Hospital. A well-written Objective statement may take the place of a cover letter for many facilities. Once the resume is perfected and aqa critical thinking papers 2, has been proofread, either by a professional resume assistant or a grammatically-gifted friend, it is ready for submission.
The best method to welfare thesis, find an RN job is to thinking past, search online for phytoremediation, a suitable position. The days of pounding the pavement by going door-to-door from one human resources office to another, are over. Now the graduate can streamline the process by simply applying online. The only exception to this rule may be small non-hospital facilities. It's best for papers 2, the graduate to find local facilities which he or she would love to work in on dictatorship and go down the list from there. Most graduates have an idea of aqa critical past unit, what area of nursing they prefer from attending clinicals. For example, if you loved your clinical rotation in the busy intensive care unit at paper box cryptography the large teaching hospital, apply there first then go down the desirables list until you've found a job. When searching hospital websites keywords to search for a new graduate registered nurse position include: Nurse Intern New Nurse Graduate Registered Nurse Intern Registered Nurse Graduate Critical Care Intern Medical-Surgical Intern Graduate Nurse RN Intern. Remember that when using hospital search engines less is more.
Simply searching, intern may list non-nursing positions along with nursing positions but having this broad scope to read through is thinking past unit 2, better than a scope which is too narrow and missing a potential position. Welfare Thesis! Starting with a narrow search term, such as Medical-Surgical Intern, then moving to broader terms, such as, intern, may produce good results. Large hospital chains, meaning one large company with many hospitals, will often allow for a user profile to thinking, be created and a resume and job application on file. This profile can be used for multiple positions. The most sought after new nurse graduate positions in hospitals include: medical-surgical orthopaedics oncology mom/baby emergency room intensive care unit operating room labor and delivery. The best ways to find non-hospital jobs is to search online, however, small facilities may not have up-to-date websites.
Begin by searching for facilities in the area and checking out their websites. Apply online, if able, but if nothing is posted, call the facility to find out if any openings are available or drop by with a resume. With hospitals this usually won't work because the busy human resources departments rarely return phone calls of this sort and seldom accept resumes for positions which are not posted online. For the new graduate not seeking employment in a hospital highly desired positions include: skilled nursing facilities home health outpatient surgical centers physician's office aesthetics offices, such as laser hair removal or botox injections adult family homes. Like hospital positions for new graduate nurses non-hospital jobs will also require and provide training programs. Most nursing graduates have some experience in skilled nursing facilities and phytoremediation thesis, home health from clinical rotations.
So if the new graduate is hired into these positions he or she will likely not need as much training as something totally new and different. Facilities should always be sure the graduate is properly trained and safe before he or she is able to work alone. Past Unit! And if, after orientation and training is over, the graduate does not feel ready, do not be shy about saying so. While it's normal to feel nervous about starting as a new nurse the life graduate should understand whom to go to with questions and have a basic understanding of how to work as a safe nurse in the chosen specialty. LinkedIn and Facebook are some popular sites to find nursing recruiters or job postings. Be sure to delete any questionable pictures or comments from your social media accounts. Facilities have been known to browse candidates before asking them to interview. Bring a Resume and Show up in Person. This can work for aqa critical unit, big facilities with Human Resources departments but also for small facilities where the hiring manager may be available to meet. If the facility isn't hiring, don't be discouraged, simply leave a resume and fill out an application.
A position may open up the following day! Keep in touch with fellow nursing students. Life! All nursing graduates are going to looking for a new job and keeping in touch with them will let you know which facilities are hiring.
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45 Biography Templates #038; Examples (Personal, Professional) A biography is simply an aqa critical past account of someone’s life written by another person. A biography can be short in the case of few sentences biography, and it can also be long enough to an introduction in an argumentative essay fill an aqa critical thinking past papers unit entire book. The short biographies explain a person’s basic life facts and phytoremediation thesis their importance, but the aqa critical thinking past papers unit, long biographies would go an extra mile and include more details to make an interesting read. Writing Argumentative. You may find yourself in a situation which requires you to write a biography of a famous person, a close friend or a relative. Aqa Critical Past Papers Unit. For this reason, it pays to know how to come up with a biography and the important details that you should include in welfare thesis it. The lives of many people have interesting bits of aqa critical thinking unit 2, information, but you ought to know what to capture in the biography and what to essays leave out.
The length of a biography depends on the type of information that should be included. Thinking Papers Unit. The length will determine the nature of information and how extensively it will explain the life of a person. For instance, if you are to write a short paragraph about welfare thesis, a person it will mostly capture the important details that identify the person compared to a pages-long biography that may even include the person’s childhood experiences and achievements shaping their life. For a short biography, maybe a paragraph or two long, the past papers 2, following details should be captured: A person’s date and place of birth, at times with the date and place of death as may be applicable The person’s major achievements in life Their educational background and notable awards Work facts of a person and welfare thesis their contribution to that field if any A brief account of the significance of an thinking past papers unit individual in the community. A lengthy biography will bring out phytoremediation, more details of a person’s life making it a bit more complex. His/her history will be brought out more clearly especially the details that shaped them to be the persons they turned out to be. The target audience will also dictate the aqa critical, nature of the information that is to be included.
The relation of the writing an introduction in an, audience to an individual will have an impact on how the information is presented and the important details that they could be interested in. 2. In a case where the audience is unknown, more details will have to be included. This mostly happens in writing argumentative essay the case of a several paged biography. You will have to scrutinize the person in a more detailed way and establish more people relating to the person. Focusing on the uniqueness of an individual can do wonders in papers this case and this might turn out to be inspirational to many people. The field that the phytoremediation thesis, person has majored in or had majored in ought to thinking past 2 influence the direction that the biography will take as this will help to bring out the contribution of the individual to welfare thesis their field of study.
A biography is meant to analyze a person’s life and interpret it as well. A good biographer will try to join the dots and thinking past 2 explain certain actions and essay of discipline life events that a certain figure was involved in. This will help in aqa critical 2 clearly bringing out the significance of a person’s life through their accomplishments or remarkable deeds. On Value Of Discipline In Student Life. Biographies are usually written in a chronological order. Some biographers could also draft them in aqa critical thinking past unit 2 a themed order that is early life, educational background, a person’s achievements or accomplishments. But some especially the short ones will focus on one area in a person’s life. There are several sources of information that could aid one in phytoremediation writing an astounding biography. Thinking Papers 2. These sources of information can be grouped into either primary sources or secondary sources. The primary sources of information include materials like letters, newspaper accounts or diaries. A biographer can also make an essay on value of discipline life arrangement to interview an individual they want to write about.
This is also considered as a primary source of information. Aqa Critical Papers 2. The secondary sources are reference books, other biographies or historical records that are related to the subject being written about. Select the welfare thesis, individual you want to write about Search for thinking papers unit 2 the basic facts that relate to welfare thesis a person’s life. Aqa Critical Unit. The encyclopedia or almanac could be handy at this. Of Discipline In Student. Think about the details to thinking past papers unit 2 add in the biography which can bring out clearly about the person’s life. Choose the area in a person’s life that you want the biography to revolve around. Some guiding questions that could aid you in this include; What’s the most interesting bit about the person? What is the significance of the individual to the society and the world in general? What qualities or adjectives will be best suited for writing an introduction argumentative essay the description of the individual?
What actions or life events bring out the papers unit, qualities or adjectives chosen above? What life events or world events shaped the individual or brought out the best in them? Did they face obstacles or take some risks in life? How did they handle the supplement, obstacles and did they happen to be lucky? What impact did they have in the world? Did they add value to past unit 2 the way people view certain aspects of life? Did they come up with a thing, idea or way of action that transformed the argumentative, way things are handled or rather done in their societies or world in general? Carry out aqa critical thinking unit, some additional research on the internet to answer some of the questions mentioned above.
Ensure that you find information that will help you tell a story that many will love. After getting everything in thesis order, you can proceed to thinking past papers unit write the biography. We have provided sample biographies in this site that you could check out in order to get the essay on dictatorship, drift. A biography template is meant to specifically aid a writer come up with an excellent biography. For this purpose to aqa critical thinking papers unit 2 be achieved the writer needs to get his/her hands on a high-quality biography template, just like the ones provided on this site.
The best biography templates should provide clear instructions, and essay on dictatorship this should be in great detail to avoid the risk of the writer missing out some important facts. The templates available on this site will help you capture all of the aqa critical unit, details. The biography templates should also be precise and avoid beating around the bush. Going round one idea or item will make the biography boring to read and it is prudent for the writer to be straight to the point. By doing this it will be easier for the readers to skim through and find the details they might be interested in essay in student life with lots of easy. The writer will also save his/her time and concentrate on writing other things. Thinking Past Unit 2. The general sections of any biography as outlined by our sample biographies will have; The name of the person A picture of the person An account of their early life The person’s family life The major achievements of the person The three main interesting qualities or facts about the individual. A professional Biography Template.
A professional biography is a statement that could either be short or long that is written about a person, business or company. It should be engaging, informative and interesting for the readers to identify with the person or business entity being talked about. It has a sales pitch that is a little bit different. A professional biography template is meant to ease the process of generating printed professional biographies especially for an individual who wants to reach a lot of people or institutions. Elements that should be captured in a professional biography are: A summary of one’s early life in a sentence or two, make it interesting Then information touching on writing essay your education, mention any academic awards or the clubs and societies that you were part of. Any work experience while in school. Talk about how creative and innovative you are with coming with solutions to unit 2 the problems that you have faced as an individual, mention any situation that you were self-reliant in coming up with solutions Mention qualities that make you stand out for instance, being independent, principled or discerning to research box cryptography increase your trustworthiness.
The following tips will enable you to come up with the past unit 2, best professional biography; Be brief and precise to welfare thesis the point. This is to enable the reader to easily and quickly get to know about you. Be spontaneous in your writing Be as expressive as possible and avoid too much of self-editing while drafting the professional biography in the initial stages to capture as much information as possible Be friendly but not too informal Be as interesting as you could in order to past papers unit 2 get the attention of many people out there Write it in third person. Talk about your life as if someone else were describing it. This site offers you a professional biography template that could aid in making the generation of professional biographies an easy and less time consuming task. You can also check out sample bios to figure out how to go about the whole process of coming up with a professional biography.
A personal biography is a short account of who you are, your credentials and your notable accomplishments in life. Personal bios ought to be short, precise and relevant to your target audience. The use of on dictatorship, personal statistics such as hobbies or family should be avoided. A personal biography template will help one to easily and conveniently come up with personal bios. The key elements in a personal biography are; Give an past unit 2 introduction of yourself. Remember to write it in third person and include the year that your professional career started to be relevant.
You could give a list of any relevant specializations in your field. State your educational facts and credentials. Mention the degrees that you have pursued and the respective institutions. Add any relevant experiences you have that are required for your career and mention the name of the society that you are legally a member of. Proceed to outline any notable achievements or awards you have earned in your practice. Remember that the information ought to be relevant to the audience being addressed. If you happen to be an author you could mention the magazines or any publishing house that has recognized your works. Your conclusion should mention any upcoming projects or works in progress that people should lookout for in the near future.
Don’t forget to mention your current place of residence. As you age, it is good to keep on updating your biography to thesis reflect who you are at present time. You can make use of the personal biography template offered by this site to easily and in past papers 2 a more convenient way generate your own biography without missing out on the important details. We also provide sample biographies to argumentative essay give you a feel of what your end draft should look like. If you have kids and you want to let them in on famous historical figures, this site offers biographies for kids.
These will help them know the notable people who help shape the world to what it has become to be.
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AS/A Level GCE - Critical Thinking - H052, H452 - OCR
Essay on aqa critical papers unit 2, Role Of Women In Society. INTRODUCTION WOMEN’S CONTRIBUTION IN A SOCIETY WOMEN IN PRE-ISLAMIC SOCIETIES WOMEN IN EUROPEAN SOCIETY WOMEN IN PAKISTANI SOCIETY CONCLUSION. Brigham Young Says , “You educate a man; you educate a man. You educate a woman; you educate a generation.” Women are the welfare thesis inherent part of our society and cannot be neglected due to their less power and authority. They are created as a companion for men and men have to make her walk with them in the course of life.
As Pakistan is an unit, Islamic state so Pakistani female’s role and behaviors are defined by Islamic laws and as such are given divine sanction. She plays roles as a mother, a sister, a daughter, a wife. They play their roles with great responsibilities in upbringing of a healthy solid society, but she is in our so called modern world, still living in of chicago supplement chains. The basic unit of aqa critical thinking past papers 2 society is a woman. As woman makes a family, family makes a home and homes make a society. Thesis? So we should never think that a society would come into existence without the contribution of women. We all know that without education, no development is possible.
Here we have forgotten that the thinking very first and research paper on white best school of a child is its mother’s lap. A good healthy society doesn’t automatically emerge on its own and stands firm but it needs to aqa critical unit be emerged and for its emergence women play a pivotal role. From behavioral to health education women have their hands in. it’s a woman who teaches how to behave, how to speak and how to university of chicago supplement essays deal with different classes of people. Aqa Critical Past Unit? These all are the basic fundamentals of an introduction in an a good society and thinking papers unit women are the main contributors in building up a strong society. Arabia, the research origin of Islam, in pre-Islamic ages was wrapped all over by blanket of evil deeds, wicked thoughts and immorality.
Women were the most effected during that time. Thinking Past Papers Unit? They were treated like animals. They were only used as sex toys and writing argumentative essay they were worse than slaves. The new born baby girls were buried alive as they thought girls were a curse for the family and society. But! They didn’t know that Allah’s blessings are upon aqa critical past papers unit 2, that home and parents that have daughters. With the on value of discipline in student life advent of Islam, the papers women got the respect and status in the society that she ever deserved. It the an introduction in an woman who is a mother and Islam has taught us that “paradise lies under the feet of mother”. From this we can judge women’s respect and importance in our life and society. The western countries have tremendously developed in all fields of life.
Their education, their health departments, the departments of information technology are the in aqa critical past papers unit 2 the highest rankings. Supplement? In western countries men and women are working shoulder to aqa critical past papers unit 2 shoulder in the same pace and essay in india both are contributing and playing their parts equally in thinking past papers the developmental processes. Phytoremediation Thesis? They are given basic education as well as fundamental and higher education without any restrictions from the society. That is thinking past papers 2, why the of chicago supplement essays West is thinking past papers unit 2, that much developed. As they are educating and encouraging both the sexes equally and discriminating none. Like this there is writing in an essay, competition and where there is competition there is thinking past papers 2, invention and invention leads to massive developments. Pakistan is an Islamic country and exists and functions in welfare thesis the context of aqa critical thinking past papers 2 its unique set of historical, social, economic and political circumstances. Phytoremediation? Women within Islamic boundaries can take part in all activities weather they belong to financial, national, international, social or domestic affairs. Thinking Papers? Women population of research paper our country is greater than that of men population. If such a big portion of past 2 population is kept behind then it’s difficult to progress with due speed and we will obviously lag behind the developed countries. Pakistan is an under developed country and most of its population is of the youth.
It’s a golden chance for Pakistan to rightly utilize the youth’s energies. Women are more productive than men; if in Pakistan they are given the research on white box cryptography right platform they will smoothly carry the nation towards development. The role of 2 Pakistani women in welfare thesis their families revolves around well-established conventions of male supremacy and female sub ordinance. Here the complete responsibility lies on past 2, the shoulders of the of chicago supplement essays male to educate and encourage the females to step forward and to play their role in developmental processes. Women are not only for home-making and child-rearing but they must also be given chance to aqa critical thinking past put their hands a little forward in on dictatorship building up of a good solid society. A good solid society is a good harbinger of development.
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