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bio for resume Masters of Fine Arts, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, Skowhegan, ME. Constitutional Conventions! The Royal College of Art, Exchange Program, London, England. Bachelors of Fine Arts, Kansas City Art Institute, Kansas City, MO. Solo and ucsd political senior thesis, Two-Person Exhibitions and Performances: (Upcoming) Rachel Frank: Vessels , (Solo) Thomas Hunter Projects, Hunter College, Curated by Ellie Krakow, New York, NY. Rachel Frank: Past Future Tense , (Solo) SPRING/BREAK Art Show, Curated by Jacob Rhodes, New York, NY. Essay! Rewilding Stuyvesant Cove Park (Performance), Solar One, Stuyvesant Cove Park, New York, NY. Rewilding Manhattan (Performance), The Select Fair (Presented by college paper TSA and Franklin Furnace Archive), New York, NY.

Sleep of Reason (Performance), The Marran Theater, Lesley University, Cambridge, MA. Rewilding Platte Clove (Performance), Various locations in The Catskill Mountains, NY. Bed on the Floor (Collaboration with Matt Bollinger), Zurcher Studio, New York, NY. Conventions! Sleep of Reason, (Performance), HERE, New York, NY. Masks and Mirrors (Solo), The Women’s Studio Workshop, Rosendale, NY.

Sleep of college paper, Reason (Performance), The Bushwick Starr, Brooklyn, NY. Conventions Essay! Sleep of Reason (Performance), Vaudeville Park, Brooklyn, NY. Collected Essays On Sociology And Social Problem! Black Pool (Solo), Mariboe Gallery, Peddie School, Hightstown, NJ. Recent Work (Solo), The Fahrenheit Gallery, Kansas City, MO. Rapt, The Fahrenheit Gallery, Kansas City, MO.

Awards and Honors: (Upcoming) Museum of Contemporary Art Tucson, Artist-in Residence, Tucson, AZ. Conventions Essay! Platte Clove Cabin, Catskill Center, Artist-in-Residence, Elka Park, NY. Home! Hunter College, Artist-in-Residence, Ceramics Department, New York, NY. The Museum of Arts and Design, Artist Studio Program (Summer), New York, NY. Innoko National Wildlife Refuge, Voices of the conventions essay Wilderness Artist-in-Residence Program, Innoko NWR and resume, Wilderness, Alaska. Platte Clove Cabin, Catskill Center, Artist-in-Residence, Elka Park, NY. Yaddo, Artist-in-Residence, Saratoga Springs, NY. BRIC Media Fellowship, Brooklyn, NY.

Franklin Furnace Archive, Inc., Grant Recipient, Brooklyn, NY. Conventions Essay! The Women’s Studio Workshop, Bookmaking Residency, Rosendale, NY. The Puffin Foundation, Grant Recipient, Teaneck, NJ. The Rema Hort Mann Foundation, Grant Nomination, New York, NY. The Pollock-Krasner Foundation, Inc., Grant Recipient, New York, NY. The Sculpture Space, Artist-in-Residence, Utica, NY. Home! Artist Alliance Inc., Studio Grant Recipient, New York, NY. The Elizabeth Greenshields Foundation, Grant Recipient, Quebec, Canada. Marie Walsh Sharpe Foundation, Studio Grant Recipient, New York, NY. Constitutional Conventions! International Sculpture Center, Outstanding Student Achievement in Contemporary Sculpture Award, Hamilton, NJ. University of Pennsylvania Skowhegan Matching Fellowship, Philadelphia, PA.

University of ucsd political senior, Pennsylvania, Juror's Choice Award, Fox Gallery, Philadelphia, PA. Robert Engman Award, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Selected Group Exhibitions: Deep Time Rewilding (Performance collaboration with Robert Wilson), Fly into the Sun: 24th Annual Watermill Center Summer Benefit, Curated by Noah Khoshbin and Ivan Cheng, The Watermill Center, Water Mill, NY. Contemporary Landscape, Czong Institute for Contemporary Art (CICA Museum), Gimpo-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. Essay! Beads Thread, Las Vegas City Hall Chambers Gallery, Las Vegas, NV. BRIC Biennial, Volume II: Bed Stuy and Crown Heights , Curated by Elizabeth Ferrer and college research, Jenny Gerow, BRIC House, Brooklyn, NY. Constitutional Conventions! Monsters in school our second home essay, America , Curated by essay Richard Saja, The International Crytozoology Museum, Portland, ME.

Creative Climate Awards , The Human Impacts Institute, New York, NY. Monsters in problem, America , Curated by Richard Saja, One Mile Gallery, Kingston, NY. Constitutional Conventions! Field Studies , Curated by Andrew Prayzner and Naomi Reis, Tiger Strikes Asteroid, Brooklyn, NY. Political! Stages , Curated by Matt Bollinger, Zurcher Studio, New York, NY. Common Threads , Curated by Brent Auxier, Danese/Corey, New York, NY. Constitutional Conventions! Feelers, Curated by have for master degree Susan Metrican, Boston Center for the Arts, Mills Gallery, Boston, MA. Pop Up : Franklin Park Art Grove , (Performance, The Autobiographical Animal with Ian Deleon), Franklin Park Art Grove, Boston, MA. Constitutional Conventions! Stream: Chapter 2 (Helpless) ANTHROPOSCENIC (Film screening, Rockaway in collaboration with Brian Zegeer and Ben Lee), Curated by Jillian Brodie, Survivalist Cinema, South Windham, VT. Franklin Park Art Grove Kick-Off Party , (Performance, The Autobiographical Animal with Ian Deleon), Samson Projects, Boston, MA. AIR Exhibition , The Catskill Erpf Center, Arkville, NY. New Short Film Festival, (Film screening, I will make you ), Jackson Library, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC.

SkowheganPERFORMS , (Performance, Rewilding Socrates Sculpture Park ), Socrates Sculpture Park, Long Island City, NY. Home Essay! Fabrica Utopia Festival, (Film screening, The Traveler ), Andros Island, Greece. Video Art Festival Miden (Film screening. The Traveler ), Kallitechniko Steki, Othonos Square, Kalamata, Greece. Constitutional Conventions! Breathless, Curated by school essay Kristin Sancken, House of the Nobleman, Rush Galley, New York, NY.

Works on Paper; TSA Gallery, Brooklyn, NY. Constitutional! Signs of our second home essay, Life , Curated by Richard Burroughs Charlotte Mouquin, Rush Corridor Gallery, Brooklyn, NY. Essay! At Land and Sea, (Film screening, Rockaway in school our second essay, collaboration with Brian Zegeer and constitutional essay, Ben Lee), Curated by school home essay Nick Shimkin, UnionDocs Center for constitutional essay Documentary Art, Brooklyn, NY. In Search of…. , Curated by Dustin Dennis, Amanda Lechner Chris Ulivo, TSA Gallery, Brooklyn, NY. Resume Nyc! Pagan Holiday , Curated by Jacob Rhodes, Field Projects, New York, NY. In Search of…. , Curated by Dustin Dennis, Amanda Lechner Chris Ulivo, Rhodes College, Memphis TN; The Art and Design Gallery. In Search of…. , Curated by Dustin Dennis, Amanda Lechner Chris Ulivo, The University of constitutional, Kansas, Lawrence, KS. Do You A Thesis Degree! The Shadow Side, Curated by constitutional conventions Josh Anderson, Peru State College, Peru, NE. Creative Nonfiction, Kunsthalle Galapagos, Brooklyn, NY. Drawings Related to Performance Works, 92YTRIBECA, New York, NY.

New Prints 2012/Winter, International Print Center New York, New York, NY. Skowhegan PERFORMS, Socrates Sculpture Park, New York, NY. Ucsd Political Science Senior Thesis! Chain Letter, Samson, Boston, MA. Emerging Artists Exhibition, Curated by constitutional essay Julian Zugazagoitia, The Kansas City Art Institute, Kansas City, MO. Tompkins Projects West: Works on a thesis Paper , Dan Graham Project Space, Los Angeles, CA. Conventions! Out of Bounds , Curated by Ryan Russo, Barrier Free Living, New York, NY. Sub Terrain, Curated by Andrew Thompson, WORK: Ann Arbor, University of acting nyc, Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Departure/Arrival, Curated by constitutional conventions Jonah Criswell Maria Buszek, La Esquina, Kansas City, MO. Will It Happen? , Elga Wimmer Gallery, New York, NY. Postcards from the Edge, Metro Pictures, New York, NY. Dream Tigers, Curated by research Brian Zegeer, Vaudeville Park, Brooklyn, NY. Constitutional! Solid Gold; Vox Populi, Philadelphia, PA. Works on Paper, Cuchifritos, New York, NY. A Muzzle of Bees, Curated by Thomas Brauer, 33 Bond Gallery, New York, NY. No New Tale to Tell, 31 Grand Gallery, New York, NY. Working Space, Cuchifritos, New York, NY.

This is Not the Future, Vox Populi, Philadelphia, PA. Our Dark Heroes, Secret Project Robot, Brooklyn, NY. MFA Biennial, The Delaware Center for have to write a thesis for master degree Contemporary Arts, Wilmington, DE. MFA Thesis Exhibition, The Ice Box Gallery, Philadelphia, PA. Outstanding Student Achievement in Contemporary Sculpture Exhibition , Grounds for Sculpture, Hamilton, NJ. Constitutional! BFA Thesis Exhibition, HR Block Art Space, Kansas City Art Institute, Kansas City, MO. The Stray Show, with The Fahrenheit Gallery, Kingsbury, Chicago, IL. National Society of Arts and Letters: Small Sculpture Exhibition, Opie Gallery, Leedy-Voulkos Arts Center, Kansas City, MO.

Lectures, Classes, and School Visits: (Upcoming) The Center for Craft, Creativity, and Design, Trans: Across, Beyond, Through , Panel Discussion, Asheville, NC. Museum of rigzone resume, Arts and Design, MADmakers Workshop, New York, NY. College of Staten Island, Visiting Artist Project Class (Soft Sculpture), Staten Island, NY. Essay! Inner Fields, Rewilding: A Return , Discussion and listening event, Brooklyn, NY. Swale, Rewilding Talk, Brooklyn Bridge Park, Brooklyn, NY. And Social Problem! Galena City School, Visiting Artist for Workshops, Galena, AK. Hofstra University, Guest Juror and constitutional conventions, Visiting Artist, Hempstead, NY. North American Drama Therapy Association, Conference Co-presenter, A Reflection on college the Uses of Performance Art as Social Commentary , White Plains, NY. Franklin Grove Panel Discussion with Dr. Barbara Lewis, Empathetic Environments: Animals as Mentors, Masks, and Mirrors, Franklin Park, Wilderness Picnic Grove, Boston, MA.

Lesley University, Visiting Artist/Workshops/ Performance, Cambridge, MA. Conventions Essay! SUNY Purchase, Visiting Artist/Lecturer, Purchase, NY. SUNY Purchase, Visiting Artist/Lecturer, Purchase, NY. AICAD Kansas City Art Institute Summer Studio Intensive, Visiting Artist/Lecturer, Brooklyn, NY. Pratt Institute, Professional Practice Lecturer, Brooklyn, NY.

The Kansas City Art Institute, Visiting Artist/Panel Discussion, Kansas City, MO. Pratt Institute, Professional Practice Lecturer in conjunction with NYFA, Brooklyn, NY. SUNY New Paltz, Visiting Artist/Professional Practice Workshop, New Paltz, NY. The Kansas City Art Institute, Visiting Artist/Panel Discussion, Kansas City, MO. Peddie School, Visiting Artist/Lecturer, Hightstown, NJ. Stanford University, Visiting Artist/Lecturer, Palo Alto, CA.

Rhode Island School of rigzone resume, Art and essay, Design, Visiting Artist, Providence, RI. Rhode Island School of Art and Design, Visiting Artist, Providence, RI. Mayday! Mayday! Mayday! (Film screening with The Skowhegan Alliance), Skowhegan School of Painting Sculpture, New York, NY. Divisions (Film screening with The Skowhegan Alliance), Skowhegan School of political science, Painting Sculpture, New York, NY.

Excavations , Field Projects, New York, NY. Essay! The Impossible, (Film screening with The Skowhegan Alliance), Skowhegan School of Painting Sculpture, New York, NY. Home! The Double, (Film screening with The Skowhegan Alliance), The Select Fair, New York, NY. This Might Not Be For Now, (Film screening with The Skowhegan Alliance), Cabinet, Brooklyn, NY and Public Fiction, Los Angeles, CA. Conventions Essay! Liars, Actors, and Believers, (Film screening with The Skowhegan Alliance), Cabinet, Brooklyn, NY. The Double, (Film screening with The Skowhegan Alliance), Cabinet, Brooklyn NY and LAXART, Los Angeles, CA.

Out of the Woods, (Film screening with The Skowhegan Alliance), Regina Rex, Brooklyn, NY. Publications and Press: • Schwarting, Jen, and Derek Stroup. Rewilding: Rachel Frank in essays on sociology, Conversation with Jen Schwarting Field, Issue 1, 2017. • Vartanian, Hrag. The Messy, DIY Aesthetic of the constitutional conventions essay Spring/Break Art Show Hyperallergic , March 6, 2017. Rigzone Resume! [LINK] • Blackard, Colleen. Art in essay, the City Presents: A Curated View of ucsd political, SPRING/BREAK Art Show, 2017 HiConcept Magazine , March 2017. Essay! [LINK] • Lynch, Scott. Research Paper! Inside Spring/Break, The Best Armory Arts Week Fair Inside A Times Square Office Building Gothamist , March 1, 2017. (Photos) [LINK] • Sutton, Benjamin. Conventions Essay! “Another favorite from @springbreakartshow” I Saw This Thing, March 5, 2017. (Blog posting) [LINK] • Duron, Maximiliano.

A Tour of the 2017 Spring/Break Art Show ARTnews , March 3, 2017. (Photos) [LINK] • Frank, Rachel. Interview with Artist Carla Edwards, Arte Fuse, February 15, 2017. Resume Nyc! [LINK] • Mitter, Siddhartha. Constitutional Conventions! At the BRIC Biennial, Dozens of Local Artists Shine a Light on Brooklyn The Village Voice, November 23, 2016. [LINK] • The Sharpe-Walentas Studio Program, Artist to Artist, Volume 2 , New York, 2016. • BRIC Media Center, BRIC Biennial Volume II: Bed-Stuy/Crown Heights Edition, Exhibition catalogue. Brooklyn: 2016. • Danese/Corey. Political! Common Threads, Exhibition catalogue. New York: Danese/Corey, 2016. Constitutional Conventions Essay! • Frank, Rachel, Ellie Krakow, and Sarah Madole. EXCAVATIONS: A Conversation on Fragments Field Projects, April 2016. [LINK] • A.K., Atif, “EXCAVATIONS - Imagination Worth Digging” Arte Fuse, March 28, 2016. [LINK] • Rubin, Maxine Margo. College Research! Rewilding Manhattan: Interview with Rachel Frank, The Many Shades of Green , Brooklyn, NY, August 2015, Radio Interview [LINK]

• WSI Administration, Signs of Life Wall Street International Magazine , November 26, 2013. Constitutional Conventions! [LINK] • Kohler, William Eckhardt. “Matt Bollinger at paper, Zurcher Studio: The Road of Ashes” The Huffington Post, March 28, 2013. [LINK] • Hitchings, Jen. “In Search Of…Elegantly Mystical Work as TSA” The Bushwick Daily, March 4, 2013. Constitutional Conventions! [LINK] • Lechner, Amanda, and Dustin Dennis. In Search of…, Exhibition catalogue, November 11th - December 7th, 2012, The University of college paper, Kansas Art and conventions essay, Design Gallery, Lawrence, KS. Collected On Sociology! • Frank, Rachel. Constitutional Essay! Untitled. Ed. Paper Monument. Our Second! Draw it with Your Eyes Closed: the essay Art of the collected Art Assignment. New York City: n+1 Foundation Inc., 2012: 18 [LINK] • Frank, Rachel.

Sleep of Reason. Conventions Essay! Emergency INDEX. Ed. Gluzman, Yelena. Brooklyn: Ugly Duckling Press, 2012: 71 [LINK] • Connell, Lee. “Rachel Frank: Drawing out the Shadows” Women’s Studio Workshop, December 6, 2010. [LINK]

• Frank, Rachel. Sleep of Reason. Rosendale: The Women’s Studio Workshop, 2010. • Sanders, Brad. Acting Nyc! “Sub-Terrain explores states of being at essay, Work Gallery” The Michigan Daily, September 27, 2010. Research Paper! [LINK] • Tateishi, Stephen. Constitutional! “Comments on the Retreat into Reality” Sleep of Reason: A Sculptural Performance (Brochure), March 2010, February 2011. Degree! • Lerner, Sarah. “Shocking Photos are Dramatically Interpreted at Vaudeville Park” TimeOut New York, March 24, 2010. • Purcell, Janet. Constitutional Conventions Essay! “Inspirations of Young and Imaginative Artists on Display at Grounds for Sculpture” The Times , Friday, December 9, 2005. • Fallon, Roberta. “Schools’ Clout” The Philadelphia Weekly , May 18-24, 2005: 45. • “Outstanding Student Achievement in Contemporary Sculpture Awards” Sculpture October 2005: 59. • Ismael, Amelia. “Rachel Frank and James Woodfill at the Fahrenheit Gallery” Review February 2005: 48. • Bembnister, Theresa; Kaufmann, Gina. “Rachel Frank: Art Capsule Review” The Pitch, Kansas City October 28, 2004. Home Essay! [LINK] • Trafton, Robin. “Soft Cloth Becomes a Harsh Reality” The Kansas City Star October 9, 2004: 10. • Buszek, Maria.

In Review Surface Design Journal Spring 2004: 48-49. Essay! • Doug Kubert, “Best Pairing of Artists, Best of Kansas City”, The Pitch, October 9, 2003. • Thorson, Alice. Absurd and Violent The Kansas City Star June 27, 2003: 27.

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gcse english essay How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for each of the types of conventions writing you'll meet on rigzone resume your course but this particular guide is probably the most important of them all. Constitutional Essay? It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay to write? Do you fill with f-f-fear? W-w-wobble with worry? P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!).

He's yet to discover that writing an essay is never going to rigzone resume be an easy task, even for the best writers. But you're about to find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and conventions, effective . Oh, and likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to feel, well. just a little bit excited about! It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on that one. Our Second Home Essay? It's just not like that. In an English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to 'prove'. Constitutional Conventions? That isn't to resume nyc say there aren't wrong answers - there are. These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts.

But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in which you give an constitutional, overview of your response to the essay question. This is a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at aspects of the rigzone resume, text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of conventions essay your essay . There is no better way to begin an research, essay than like this. From this point on you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to constitutional conventions essay write next. the remainder of the essay is acting merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by constitutional conventions, point, argue the case for what you have just stated.

Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to have support (E) from the text (either a quotation, or an explanation of to write a thesis for master degree some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an constitutional, explanation (E) of how the text brought you to such a view, the effects it created, the methods the author used to create the effects and, finally, its relevance to the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Done and dusted! More detail below if needed. The secret of political science senior thesis a good essay? Make it an argument ! An effective essay is a piece of writing that makes a strong and well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for is your response to the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at after a couple of readings of the text, more if a poem, and one of constitutional essay which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by form and structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of acting violence in Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the characters of Mercutio and Tybalt and an analysis of these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the heart of your 'argument'. It's what the essay goes on to explain and support to show that it is a view that is well - considered, based on the text and reasonable to hold . Essays are about essay, opinions, not facts. This point is crucial to take on board. Acting Resume Nyc? There is never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title. There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for example, misinterpreting the text; but the 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of view . Essays deal in constitutional essay opinions, not facts . This is why your teacher is looking to research paper read your views and constitutional essay, why you have come to think in this particular way.

How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview? This is the tough part - there's no getting away from political, that. Essay? Not least, this is because it puts to the test your knowledge of the text and your understanding of the essay title or question . The good news is that when it's done and done well, the remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to political thesis write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for constitutional conventions essay an Effective Essay. As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the aspects of the text you'll be analysing to rigzone resume show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the essay, major 'signposts' that give your essay and its general direction.

Importantly, you need to set a confident tone early on in the essay. This can be done by adding in a very few details to show you've grasped the research paper, text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is everything in essay the opening paragraph) on on sociology and social problem the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of constitutional conventions any relevant context , (that is the college, situation you feel brought the writer to want to write their text, including key aspects of their social , cultural and literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to be focused on the needs of the constitutional conventions essay, essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to resume keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the essay title or question. This is the bulk of the essay. It is a series of constitutional essay paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in a way that inspires little confidence and which drifts from the essay question or argument. Research? Avoid this by opening each and every paragraph in a way that is clearly and directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to conventions essay write in these body paragraphs. This is where you restate, in a different form, your opening argument and and social problem, give a brief list of the constitutional, major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and relevance of what you have found. It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher?

Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in college research paper the form of quotations each one itself supported by constitutional essay, a commentary derived from an rigzone resume, analysis of the quotation's literary and conventions, linguistic content . However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and flowing through the political science thesis, entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the constitutional conventions, text for aspects and do you have, quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the essay's points. Each point and constitutional conventions essay, supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and college research, comment . Some teachers call this the P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. Essay? ( point quotation comment ) system. This is essay needed to explain how and why the aspect of the text or the quotation 'works' within the context of the essay question and the originally stated argument. Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used:

What techniques have been used to make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the writer's methods , e.g. Constitutional? through the creation of realistic dialogue; the use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the method used affect the reader's understanding of the text and its themes (e.g. 'the effect of this passage is to create a sense of really being there for the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. what was the for master degree, writer's purpose )? E.g. 'At this point on the story the author wants to gain the reader's attention in order to constitutional conventions essay begin exploring the ucsd thesis, overall theme of injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. Constitutional Essay? 1! Begin all of your paragraphs in such a way that it is college absolutely clear you are focused on constitutional essay the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. This will keep the essay on track and research, avoid the conventions, plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and waffle!

What if your essay title isn't in the form of nyc a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to constitutional essay it - the main idea upon which you will then base the remainder of your essay . Here is an example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. thesis statement ) that could be used to create an argument essay from the science senior thesis, above question: The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of points with each point explained , developed and supported in conventions a paragraph of its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in the opening paragraph, which itself is your response to the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the rigzone resume, first of what is called the body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of ambition is shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by constitutional conventions, Shakespeare to say and do in Act One of the play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and support how the theme of ambition is shown through these two characters in some part of Act 2, and so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for writing an effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the resume nyc, basic idea.

Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into constitutional your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and the essay question. Here are some examples of how to do you have to write use embedded quotations. The first is from the conventions, opening of collected essays on sociology and social John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and constitutional conventions, Men': 'Small and quick' George is rigzone resume presented by Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie. Here is a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an important message Priestley gives his audience.

Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and essay, time and so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of understanding of the text on which the essay is based. This is to collected and social take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to know your text well.

You won't succeed if you don't! I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to hand. Also, talk the text over with friends or your teacher. Constitutional? There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus. This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and rigzone resume, generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on the surface features of the text you are writing about. This happens when you write at length about the constitutional conventions essay, meaning of the science senior, text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the text. You need to be discussing how and why the author has created an constitutional conventions, effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to support the points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to try to use at least one quotation - or reference to the text - per paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an English essay and this means you need to reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in effective ways in their writing . Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to political discuss in depth aspects of, for constitutional essay example, their literary style , language or structure.

Consider discussing, for example, how the essays on sociology problem, quotation acts to build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the conventions, text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and as a contribution to rigzone resume the whole , i.e. the way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of constitutional conventions essay language , structure and style . 1. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is college paper your attempt to argue for your point of view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the constitutional essay, text is research asked in the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at different levels ; it is constitutional essay your interpretation of the text that will be at the heart of the essay: an interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement. 2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to search through the text and note down a series of aspects and quotations that can be used to support the overall view you have developed. Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . 3. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of acting resume nyc view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to make clear your thesis statement - response to the essay question: that is, to explain the focus of your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at the opening to essay your essay, this shows how you intend to answer the essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in the body of the senior, essay.

This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and how you intend to answer it. Importantly, in essay the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to write an overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the text; importantly, too, of research course, this must be focused on the requirements of the essay question. Giving a succinct account of the constitutional conventions, big picture of the text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the detail of three key aspects of the on sociology and social problem, essay: the essay question, the text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the best essays. TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into your own sentences, using quotation marks of course, a short suitable quotation taken from the text. Constitutional Conventions Essay? Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and college paper, any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful).

The majority of marks in an English essay are awarded for the quality of conventions essay analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the author's uses of the English language and literary uses of political science senior thesis this. If your essay title does concern aspects of conventions essay context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from acting resume, quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of context; in other words allow the text to constitutional essay introduce the context. TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author. Saying that Shakespeare is acting resume nyc 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to your essay. 4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the 'body' of the essay. Each of conventions essay these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in acting resume your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the text for this.

In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. or P.Q.C. For more on this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of constitutional view; comment on how the language of each of these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of research paper language to make this point in constitutional conventions essay this way? How does it help a) the research, audience and b) the constitutional conventions, writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the rigzone resume, text forms a useful structural part of the text by essay, leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the rigzone resume, themes, messages or purposes of the conventions, text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to thesis show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to essay open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for each of the acting nyc, points you make by referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the text but you might choose to describe an event. It's very important NOT to write a long description of WHAT happens. If you do you are merely 'retelling the conventions, story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and stage action.

You will need to follow each quotation with an explanation of and a discussion on aspects of the school our second home, language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the writer used, the effect the language creates and the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of constitutional conventions essay P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the text (this is also the on sociology and social problem, EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). 5. Constitutional? CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in a clear way through the text, from beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to an earlier point. Do You Have To Write? This ignores the work the writer puts in to develop an effective structure to their text - and conventions essay, loses marks! 6. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY.

The conclusion to an essay is important but causes problems for many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of ucsd senior 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the main points from the constitutional essay, preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an idea). 3. End by identifying some of the wider implications and relevance that arise from essay, what you have found and explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to sound convincing and authoritative . It's crucial to keep the constitutional conventions essay, conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at all.

ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is collected essays problem a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. Constitutional Essay? ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the play is set in Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the school home essay, above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for constitutional essay the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the ucsd science senior, violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in the coming scene. It will be against this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and Juliet will have to struggle.' Which approach and style would gain the higher mark?

STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the conventions essay, basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about a text at the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of its language have been used by the writer in important and effective ways. To give you an idea of the importance of form to a text, you yourself make use of the college research, form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the form - of your writing. This, albeit subtly, affects the conventions essay, way the writing is received and interpreted. A novelist makes use of form by writing in rigzone resume sentences and paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an effective use of form, as is the use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the inclusion of bullet points or sections.

Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the constitutional conventions essay, use of form. A poet makes use of form, for do you to write example, by consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of poetry . This allows the poet to constitutional conventions exaggerate a particular word by placing it at the end of a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and acting resume nyc, appearance and by conventions, adding illustrations and photographs , and so on. All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and our second home essay, so on. A playwright, of course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form. In a play, much of the 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the staging and conventions, stage action. This includes not just what the actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto your essay. Form is always worthy of comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the content of college paper a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . This is its basic dictionary meaning.

It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on constitutional conventions of a storm'. This is collected and social a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Conventions? Words and phrases can be used differently from their literal context and given what is called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). College? The most common way this is done is to use a word not for its literal meaning but for conventions essay its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from its literal meaning. E.g. 'As well as suggesting the coming of a storm, the darkness also acts to suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over the character's mind. In this way the darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an rigzone resume, ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of which might be humorous. Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of constitutional meaning. Sarcasm is irony, but this is a spoken form of irony that is intended to research hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of them.

It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for conventions essay writing. Essays Problem? Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of language. But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is constitutional conventions essay probably true to say that irony is one of the most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the text. This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is ucsd senior a real enjoyment and constitutional conventions essay, satisfaction in unpicking the various levels of meaning created by the irony. Creating an 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is much harder than in speech because the original sound of voice and facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent. Collected Essays On Sociology And Social Problem? To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for conventions that matter), words have to be chosen with great care.

It is a key reading skill to be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is taking towards their subject matter. An example of irony occurs in an old story by do you a thesis for master, O. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the essay, one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in resume nyc order to buy his girlfriend an essay, expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to on sociology and social sell to a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. Conventions Essay? a chain for his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of writing in an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and their purpose. It is important to comment on the structure of acting a text, e.g. 'The way the author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of constitutional conventions essay real excitement and mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to suit a particular audience to ucsd political thesis achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is more emotional and persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of their own that is quickly recognisable.

John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is constitutional conventions essay sometimes referred to as the essays and social problem, writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to comment on its style - on what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to have been chosen to create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose. So. Constitutional? if you are commenting on the form and content of a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to essays problem write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and contrast the conventions essay, texts . Aside from not knowing the texts sufficiently well, failing to compare and contrast is the school our second home essay, number one reason marks are lost in this kind of essay. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the briefest details of constitutional conventions each text (i.e. Our Second Essay? your writing needs to be succinct !).

This will mean being even more careful and sparing when you write an essay, overview of each text, in rigzone resume which you give the constitutional conventions, big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the second - still using the techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the first. 2) Alternatively, and this makes the rigzone resume, most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about both texts as you proceed . This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in which examples to essay support the points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to the point. This second method is the more complex and science thesis, sophisticated of the two.

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mars research paper Where there is conventions, no vision, the people perish. Before space exploration, Mars was considered the best candidate for do you have to write for master degree harboring extraterrestrial life. Astronomers thought they saw straight lines crisscrossing its surface. Constitutional? This led to the popular belief that irrigation canals on the planet had been constructed by intelligent beings.

In 1938, when Orson Welles broadcasted a radio drama based on the science fiction classic War of the Worlds by H.G. Wells, enough people believed in the tale of invading Martians to cause a near panic. Another reason for scientists to expect life on Mars had to do with the apparent seasonal color changes on the planet's surface. This phenomenon led to speculation that conditions might support a bloom of Martian vegetation during the warmer months and cause plant life to become dormant during colder periods. In July of 1965, Mariner 4, transmitted 22 close-up pictures of collected essays and social problem Mars.

All that was revealed was a surface containing many craters and naturally occurring channels but no evidence of artificial canals or flowing water. Constitutional Conventions? Finally, in July and research paper September 1976, Viking Landers 1 and 2 touched down on constitutional conventions essay, the surface of Mars. The three biology experiments aboard the landers discovered unexpected and enigmatic chemical activity in the Martian soil, but provided no clear evidence for the presence of living microorganisms in the soil near the landing sites. According to thesis, mission biologists, Mars is constitutional conventions essay, self-sterilizing. They believe the to write a thesis for master, combination of solar ultraviolet radiation that saturates the surface, the constitutional conventions essay, extreme dryness of the soil and the oxidizing nature of the soil chemistry prevent the formation of ucsd science thesis living organisms in the Martian soil. The question of life on Mars at constitutional, some time in the distant past remains open. Other instruments found no sign of organic chemistry at either landing site, but they did provide a precise and definitive analysis of the composition of the Martian atmosphere and found previously undetected trace elements. The atmosphere of Mars is quite different from resume nyc that of Earth. It is composed primarily of carbon dioxide with small amounts of other gases. The six most common components of the atmosphere are: Carbon Dioxide (CO2): 95.32% Nitrogen (N2): 2.7% Argon (Ar): 1.6% Oxygen (O2): 0.13% Water (H2O): 0.03% Neon (Ne): 0.00025 % Martian air contains only about 1/1,000 as much water as our air, but even this small amount can condense out, forming clouds that ride high in the atmosphere or swirl around the slopes of constitutional essay towering volcanoes.

Local patches of early morning fog can form in valleys. At the Viking Lander 2 site, a thin layer of water frost covered the to write for master degree, ground each winter. There is evidence that in the past a denser martian atmosphere may have allowed water to flow on the planet. Physical features closely resembling shorelines, gorges, riverbeds and islands suggest that great rivers once marked the planet. The average recorded temperature on Mars is -63° C (-81° F) with a maximum temperature of 20° C (68° F) and a minimum of -140° C (-220° F). Barometric pressure varies at each landing site on a semiannual basis. Constitutional? Carbon dioxide, the major constituent of the atmosphere, freezes out to form an immense polar cap, alternately at each pole. The carbon dioxide forms a great cover of snow and then evaporates again with the have a thesis for master, coming of essay spring in each hemisphere.

When the southern cap was largest, the mean daily pressure observed by ucsd political senior thesis Viking Lander 1 was as low as 6.8 millibars; at other times of the year it was as high as 9.0 millibars. The pressures at the Viking Lander 2 site were 7.3 and 10.8 millibars. In comparison, the average pressure of the Earth is 1000 millibars. Carbon Monoxide (CO) This image of mars came from a series of pictures taken by the Mars Global Surveyor wide angle cameras. A map was created and then wrapped around a sphere to generate this view of Mars. Here, bluish-white water ice clouds hang above the Tharsis volcanoes. (Copyright 2005 by constitutional Calvin J. Hamilton) This image is a large mosaic of the Valles Marineris [VAL-less mar-uh-NAIR-iss] hemisphere of Mars. It is a view similar to that which one would see from our second essay a spacecraft. The lower center of the scene shows the entire Valles Marineris canyon system, more than 3,000 kilometers (1,860 miles) long and essay up to 8 kilometers (5 miles) deep, extending from home essay Noctis Labyrinthus, the arcuate system of graben to the west, to the chaotic terrain to the east.

Many huge ancient river channels begin from the chaotic terrain and constitutional conventions north-central canyons and do you have to write a thesis degree run north. Many of the channels flowed into a basin called Acidalia Planitia, which is the dark area in the extreme north of constitutional conventions this picture. The three Tharsis volcanoes (dark red spots), each about 25 kilometers (16 miles) high, are visible to the west along with Olympus Mons the largest volcano on the planet. Very ancient terrain covered by many impact craters lies to the south of college paper Valles Marineris. The polar cap can be seen to conventions essay, the north. Do You A Thesis For Master Degree? (Copyright Calvin J. Hamilton)

The current understanding of the interior of Mars suggests that it can be modeled with a thin crust, similar to constitutional conventions, Earth's, a mantle and a core. Ucsd Political Science Senior Thesis? Using four parameters, the Martian core size and mass can be determined. However, only three out of the four are known and include the constitutional essay, total mass, size of Mars, and the moment of inertia. Mass and size was determined accurately from home essay early missions. The moment of inertia was determined from Viking lander and Pathfinder Doppler data, by measuring the precession rate of Mars.

The fourth parameter, needed to complete the constitutional conventions essay, interior model, will be obtained from senior thesis future spacecraft missions. With the three known parameters, the model is significantly constrained. If the Martian core is dense (composed of iron) similar to constitutional conventions essay, Earth's or SNC meteorites thought to originate from Mars, then the minimum core radius would be about 1300 kilometers. If the core is made out of ucsd political senior less-dense material such as a mixture of sulfur and iron, the maximum radius would probably be less than 2000 kilometers. (Copyright 1998 by conventions Calvin J. Hamilton) A towering dust devil, casts a serpentine shadow over the Martian surface in this image acquired by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The scene is a late-spring afternoon in the Amazonis Planitia region of northern Mars. Degree? The view covers an constitutional area about four-tenths of a mile (644 meters) across. Ucsd Political Thesis? North is toward the top.

The length of the dusty whirlwind's shadow indicates that the dust plume reaches more than half a mile (800 meters) in height. The plume is about 30 yards or meters in conventions essay, diameter. A westerly breeze partway up the height of the dust devil produced a delicate arc in the plume. The image was taken during the time of Martian year when the planet is farthest from the sun. To Write A Thesis For Master Degree? Just as on Earth, winds on Mars are powered by solar heating.

Exposure to the sun's rays declines during this season, yet even now, dust devils act relentlessly to constitutional essay, clean the surface of freshly deposited dust, a little at a time. (Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona) This image is a newly released topographic map of Mars. The full range of topography on Mars is about 19 miles (30 kilometers), one and a half times the range of elevations found on Earth, The most curious aspect of the map is the striking difference between the planet's low, smooth Northern Hemisphere and the heavily cratered Southern Hemisphere, which sits, on average, about three miles (five kilometers) higher than the do you have degree, north. (Courtesy GSFC/NASA) This image is a mosaic of the Schiaparelli hemisphere of essay Mars. The center of this image is near the impact crater Schiaparelli, 450 kilometers (280 miles) in diameter. The dark streaks with bright margins emanating from craters in research paper, the Oxie Palus region, upper left of image, are caused by erosion and/or deposition by the wind.

Bright white areas to the south, including the essay, Hellas impact basin at extreme lower right, are covered by carbon dioxide frost. (Courtesy USGS) This image shows part of our second Candor Chasm in Valles Marineris. It is centered at constitutional conventions essay, Latitude -5.0, Longitude 70.0. The view is from the north looking into the chasm. Candor Chasm's geomorphology is complex, shaped by tectonics, mass wasting, wind, and perhaps by water and volcanism. (Courtesy USGS)

This picture (centered at latitude 4° S, longitude 76° W) shows areas of central Valles Marineris, including Candor Chasm (lower left), Ophir Chasm (lower right), and Hebes Chasm (upper right). Complex layered deposits in collected and social problem, the canyons may have been deposited in lakes, and if so, are of great interest for future searches for fossil life on Mars. The pinkish deposits in essay, Candor Chasm may be due to hydrothermal alterations and the production of crystalline ferric oxides. ((Geissler et al., 1993, Icarus 106,380). Viking Orbiter Picture Numbers 279B02 (violet), 279B10 (green), and 279B12 (red) at 240 meters/pixel resolution. Picture width is 231 kilometers. North is 47° clockwise from science top.) Ophir Chasma is a large west-northwest-trending trough about conventions, 100 km wide.

The Chasma is bordered by 4 km high walled cliffs, most likely faults, that show spur-and-gully morphology and smooth sections. The walls have been dissected by landslides forming reentrants; one area (upper left) on rigzone resume, the north wall shows a young landslide about 100 km wide. The volume of the landslide debris is more than 1000 times greater than that from the May 18, 1980 debris avalanche from Mount St. Helens. The longitudinal grooves seen in the foreground are thought to constitutional, be due to differential shear and lateral spreading at high velocities. The landslide passes between mounds of interior layered deposits on to write for master degree, the floor of the chasma. Conventions Essay? (Courtesy USGS)

Although Valles Marineris originated as a tectonic structure, it has been modified by other processes. This image shows a close-up view of a landslide on the south wall of Valles Marineris. This landslide partially removed the rim of the crater that is on the plateau adjacent to Valles Marineris. Note the texture of the landslide deposit where it flowed across the floor of Valles Marineris. Several distinct layers can be seen in the walls of the resume nyc, trough. These layers may be regions of distinct chemical composition or mechanical properties in the Martian crust. (Copyright Calvin J. Hamilton; Caption: LPI)

These Hubble Space Telescope views provide the most detailed complete global coverage of the Red Planet ever seen from constitutional essay Earth. The pictures were taken on have to write degree, February 25, 1995, when Mars was at a distance of 103 million kilometers (65 million miles). Essay? To the surprise of researchers, Mars is do you, cloudier than seen in previous years. This means the planet is essay, cooler and drier, because water vapor in the atmosphere freezes out to form ice-crystal clouds. The three images show the Tharsis, Valles Marineris and Syrtis Major regions. (Credit: Philip James, University of Toledo; Steven Lee, University of Colorado; and NASA) This image of the head of Ravi Vallis shows a 300-kilometer (186-mile) long portion of a channel.

Like many other channels that empty into the northern plains of Mars, Ravi Vallis orginates in a region of collapsed and disrupted (chaotic) terrain within the planet's older, cratered highlands. Acting? Structures in conventions essay, these channels indicate that they were carved by liquid water moving at high flow rates. The abrupt beginning of the channel, with no apparent tributaries, suggests that the water was released under great pressure from beneath a confining layer of frozen ground. As this water was released and science senior thesis flowed away, the constitutional conventions essay, overlying surface collapsed, producing the disruption and subsidence shown here. Three such regions of chaotic collapsed material are seen in this image, connected by a channel whose floor was scoured by the flowing water. The flow in this channel was from do you a thesis for master degree west to east (left to right). This channel ultimately links up with a system of channels that flowed northward into Chryse Basin. (Copyright Calvin J. Hamilton; Caption: LPI) The water that carved the conventions essay, channels to the north and do you have a thesis for master degree east of the Valles Marineris canyon system had tremendous erosive power. One consequence of this erosion was the formation of streamlined islands where the constitutional conventions essay, water encountered obstacles along its path. This image shows two streamlined islands that formed as the water was diverted by two 8-10 kilometer (5-6 mile) diameter craters lying near the rigzone resume, mouth of Ares Vallis in Chryse Planitia. The water flowed from constitutional conventions south to north (bottom to top of the image).

The height of the scarp surrounding the upper island is about 400 meters (1,300 feet), while the scarp surrounding the southern island is about 600 meters (2,000 feet) high. (Copyright Calvin J. Hamilton; Caption: LPI) Unlike the features shown in on sociology and social, the above two images, many systems on Mars do not show evidence of catastrophic flooding. Instead, they show a resemblance to drainage systems on Earth, where water acts at slow rates over long periods of time. As on Earth, the channels shown here merge together to form larger channels. However, these valley networks are less developed than typical terrestrial drainage systems, with the Martian examples lacking small-scale streams feeding into the larger valleys. Because of the absence of conventions small-scale streams in the Martian valley networks, it is thought that the senior thesis, valleys were carved primarily by conventions ground water flow rather than by runoff of ucsd political science senior rain. Although liquid water is currently unstable on the surface of Mars, theoretical studies indicate that flowing groundwater might be able to form valley networks if the water flowed beneath a protective cover of constitutional conventions ice. Alternatively, because the senior thesis, valley networks are confined to relatively old regions of constitutional conventions essay Mars, their presence may indicate that Mars once possessed a warmer and wetter climate in its early history. (Copyright Calvin J. Hamilton; Caption: LPI) This image shows the south polar cap of Mars as it appears near its minimum size of about 400 kilometers (249 miles).

It consists mainly of frozen carbon dioxide. This carbon dioxide cap never melts completely. The ice appears reddish due to dust that has been incorporated into the cap. Rigzone Resume? (Courtesy NASA) This image is an oblique view of the north polar cap of Mars. Unlike the south polar cap, the north polar cap probably consists of water-ice. Conventions Essay? (Copyright Calvin J. College Research Paper? Hamilton) One of the discoveries of the conventions, Mariner 9 spacecraft was that the south polar cap of Mars was made of thin layers or laminations of ice and sediment. Four years later, on October 10, 1976, the Viking 2 spacecraft took this picture of the Martian north polar cap. Rigzone Resume? The visible layering occurred as a result of wind born dust settling upon the polar cap. As the caps experience climatic variations, they expand and contract.

The layers of dust sediment tend to grow thicker near the poles where ice deposits remain for longer periods of time. The thickness of the deposits indicates they were formed during cyclical climatic variation rather than annual changes. As ice withdraws from a region, wind exposes the layers sculpting valleys and scarps. The formation of layered deposits is an active process today. (Copyright 1998 by Calvin J. Hamilton) This image shows several dune types which are found in the north circumpolar dunefield. This thumnail image shows a section of constitutional transverse dunes. The full image has a field of traverse dunes on the left and barchan dunes on the right with a transition zone inbetween. Transverse dunes are oriented perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction. Do You Have To Write? They are long and linear, and frequently join their neighbor in a low-angle Y junction. Barchan dunes are crescent-shaped mounds with downwind-pointing horns.

These dunes are comparable in size to the largest dunes found on the Earth. (Copyright Calvin J. Hamilton) Local dust storms are relatively common on Mars. They tend to occur in areas of high topographic and/or high thermal gradients (usually near the polar caps), where surface winds would be strongest. Constitutional Conventions Essay? This storm is several hundreds of kilometers in ucsd political thesis, extent and constitutional is located near the edge of the south polar cap. Some local storms grow larger, others die out. (Copyright Calvin J. Hamilton; caption by LPI) This image shows a lesser known, but unusual feature on Mars. It is commonly called White Rock . The white feature is eroded crater fill, but exactly how it was formed has not been satisfactorily explained. White Rock was not formed by polar processes because it lies near to the equator at latitude -8 degrees and longitude 355 degrees. It has been modified through aeolian erosion showing transverse and college longitudinal erosional features. (Copyright 1998 by Calvin J. Hamilton) This oblique image taken by the Viking orbiter spacecraft shows a thin band of the Martian atmosphere. This image looks northeast across the Argyre basin.

The Argyre basin is about 600 kilometers across with a rugged rim of about 500 kilometers in width. (Copyright 1997 by Calvin J. Hamilton) The following table summarizes the radius, mass, distance from the planet center, discoverer and the date of discovery of each of the constitutional conventions essay, moons of Mars: Beatty, J. K. and A. Chaikin, eds. The New Solar System . Massachusetts: Sky Publishing, 3rd Edition, 1990. Carr M. H. The Surface of Mars . Yale University Press, New Haven, 1981.

Kiefer, Walter S., Allan H. Treiman, and Stephen M. Clifford. The Red Planet: A Survey of paper Mars - Slide Set. Lunar and Planetary Institute. Mutch T. A., Arvidson R. E., Head J. W. III, Jones K. L., and Saunders R. Constitutional Conventions? S. The Geology of Mars. Acting Nyc? Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1976. Williams, Steven H. The Winds of Mars: Aeolian Activity and constitutional conventions Landforms - Slide Set.

Lunar and essays and social Planetary Institute. Views of the essay, Solar System Copyright © 1995-2011 by Calvin J. Our Second Home Essay? Hamilton. All rights reserved. Privacy Statement.

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Can a War of Words Become a World of War? Andrew Bacevich and Bill Moyers talk Trump and Kim Jong Un. North Korean leader Kim Jong Un inspecting the Korean People's Army Tank Crews' Competition-2017 at an undisclosed location. (Photo by STR/AFP/Getty Images) There is constitutional conventions no saner, seasoned or sensible voice on American foreign policy today than Andrew Bacevich. He graduated from West Point and served in Vietnam, earned his doctorate in diplomatic history from Princeton University, taught history and international relations at Boston University, and has written several acclaimed books, including the collected best-selling Washington Rules: America’s Path to Permanent War and more recently, America’s War for the Greater Middle East . He contributes essays and articles to a wide variety of publications and is writer at large for The American Conservative . Bill Moyers: The rhetoric between Donald Trump and Kim Jong Un gets hotter and more belligerent — it’s incendiary and personal. When’s the last time you heard this kind of vitriolic, threatening rhetoric between a US president and a head of another country? Andrew Bacevich: I don’t believe that we’ve ever had a president who has used this kind of language. Certainly not in my lifetime. One of the things that strikes me about President Trump is that his capacity to use the English language is so stunted.

He simply has no ability to adapt the language he uses to a particular circumstance. In the past when presidents are out essay campaigning, they use one kind of language, a different kind of language when they’re speaking to on sociology problem, a joint session of Congress, [and] a different kind of language when they’re meeting with a foreign dignitary. But [with] Trump, it’s all the same. It’s all crude. It’s all unsophisticated. And with regard to our current standoff with North Korea, it’s that crudeness that makes it so dangerous. Moyers: What’s your take on the rhetoric coming out of North Korea — and in particular from Kim Jong Un and essay the foreign minister, who seems to have taken Donald Trump literally? Bacevich: It’s not unprecedented.

North Korean language over decades has tended to be provocative. That said, previous administrations have tended to discount North Korean language — not to ignore it, but to not take it quite so literally as Trump seems to. That tendency to discount has served us well in the past. Part of the thing we have to keep in mind is rigzone resume — and I expect this is true with regard to North Korea, and conventions essay I know it’s true with regard to the United States — is that a leader speaks to resume nyc, multiple audiences. Any sophisticated politician appreciates that and tries to frame a statement so that it will be understood and presumably [be] correctly perceived by multiple audiences.

But these two guys seem to not understand that political requirement. To some degree, I think Trump mostly speaks to conventions, himself. He says things in and social problem, a way that somehow satisfies his own sense of who he imagines himself to conventions essay, be as a leader. He certainly doesn’t take into account the resume fact that American allies as well as adversaries are taking in his every word and trying to interpret them. Moyers: Given the constitutional conventions nature of his rhetoric, given his known temperament, does North Korea have to worry that Trump just might order an attack for school our second home whatever reason? Bacevich: If I were a North Korean who was advising Kim Jong Un — I’d be counseling my boss that we’re dealing with somebody who could easily fly off the handle and make an conventions, impulsive decision.

Kim Jong Un might say to me, “Well, why do you think that?” and I’d say, well, let’s consider the attack on Syria that followed the allegations, probably true allegations, of Syrians using chemical weapons. College Paper. That was a decision made off the cuff, impulsively, with no particular connection to larger policy purposes. From a North Korean perspective, I would take that episode quite seriously. Now, would taking it seriously therefore make the constitutional North Koreans more careful, more cautious, or would it be something that would tend to push them closer to the brink themselves? I don’t know. But it seems pretty clear, I think, to most observers that we have a president who makes decisions impulsively, without necessarily having thought through all the various ramifications of saying something or doing something. Moyers: Kim Jong Un must have seen what happened to Saddam Hussein in collected essays on sociology problem, Iraq and Moammar Gadhafi in constitutional essay, Libya. Do you think it’s possible that he believes the US wants to do him in as well, and that if Hussein and Gadhafi had had some nuclear weapons, they might still be around? Do you think this might cross his mind? Bacevich: Oh, absolutely. Do You A Thesis. The recent language by the Trump administration — they revived the constitutional phrase “rogue regime” — seems to recall the kind of language that was much in evidence in the George W. Bush administration after 9/11.

Remember, North Korea was part of the school home essay “axis of constitutional, evil.” After 9/11, if you were on the “axis of evil,” it seemed pretty clear that the United States was going to come after you. In that post-9/11 period, Gadhafi in our second home, Libya, perhaps taking seriously the possibility that he was going to be somewhere on the hit list, made a point of giving up his nuclear weapons program. From what we know, it wasn’t a very impressive program, but he gave it up and constitutional conventions his reward then was to be attacked and overthrown by the Obama administration. I’m in the camp that believes we cannot know for certain how the North Koreans think, and we cannot know for certain what their purposes are. But I’m in the camp that believes that as vicious, as oppressive as that regime is, nonetheless there is rigzone resume a rational basis for the things that they do, and that Kim Jong Un’s ultimate objective is to maintain his regime, and by extension, to maintain himself.

I also believe that they are likely to appreciate that they are in a position of extraordinary weakness relative to us, relative to almost any other nation in essay, the world. Weak economically, weak militarily, weak in terms of paper, their capacity to innovate, to adjust, to improve their situation. And it makes sense from that perspective to constitutional, see nuclear weapons, particularly nuclear weapons along with some kind of school our second home essay, a long-range ballistic missile capability as a lifeline. I think that that’s their purpose, to constitutional essay, be seen to be developing this capability in on sociology and social problem, order to constitutional conventions, try to on sociology and social, keep us at arm’s length and to constitutional essay, keep China as their only serious ally. Moyers: We don’t have many historians of North Korea, but one of them, Cheehyung Harrison Kim, teaches the history of Korea at the University of Hawaii.

He says, and I’m quoting him: “The nuclear threat as a real war is nyc not real. North Korea is essay using the political science senior thesis nuclear weapons to stand up to the US and South Korea, and to send a message to the world that it will bend to no one. North Korea sees nuclear weapons as one definitive way to gain international attention and be heard, and constitutional essay it sees nuclear energy as a solution to its energy problem.” Make any sense to college research paper, you? Bacevich: It makes great sense to me. I would add this: Without claiming any great knowledge of the constitutional North Korean domestic situation, from college paper Kim Jong Un’s point of view, such posturing could be useful in maintaining discipline in North Korean society.

It would be a way of trying to rally national cohesion and keep at bay any internal adversaries that Kim Jong Un might worry about. Constitutional Conventions Essay. And any dictator of his type is going to be constantly weary of the possibility of internal opposition. Moyers: I heard on television a former military officer saying he thinks that if Kim Jong Un appeared to be going soft, his own military might seek to depose him. Does that make sense to you from what you know about the Korean military? Bacevich: I don’t know much about them myself, but it makes a lot of sense. I think this is standard behavior by autocratic regimes, to try to maintain domestic cohesion by claiming that the outside world consists entirely of enemies. Moyers: As dreadful as it is to rigzone resume, even ask it, what might lead either Trump or Kim Jong Un over the tipping point — to start a war? Bacevich: If one side takes the other side’s rhetoric as literally true. If on either side, the central figures get up in the morning and say, “We believe that the other side is conventions essay going to attack within the next 24 hours,” that can then lead to a decision, “Well, I guess then we should pre-empt.” I think that’s the great danger.

Meaning not so much war by acting calculation, but war by miscalculation and essay misunderstanding. Moyers: Can we know if Trump understands that a US nuclear strike against North Korea would cause huge destruction to do you degree, China, Japan, Russia — probably lead to a worldwide nuclear winter? Surely even the most uninformed 70-year-old man or woman in our society today knows that about a nuclear strike. Bacevich: I doubt if he knew that much about the secondary impact of constitutional conventions essay, using nuclear weapons when he was running for the presidency. You have to think that at this point, people like Gen. Rigzone Resume. McMaster and Gen. Kelly and Gen. Mattis would have had some opportunity on a face-to-face basis to say, “Mr. Essay. President, here is what we think would occur were there to be an actual use of nuclear weapons.” You have to think somebody has spoken to him.

But with this president, you don’t know what sinks in. Just look at his use of rhetoric — “fire and fury like the world has never seen.” That language is so over the top that it seemed to suggest that at that moment, either he didn’t have any understanding of what the collected use of nuclear weapons would produce or simply didn’t care. Conventions. I think that’s why so many of resume, us were taken aback by that kind of constitutional, language. And the way you asked the question, does he understand — even if it is possible to make an argument that a fairly precise nuclear attack could eliminate the resume nyc regime in Pyongyang — does he have any understanding of the secondary implications? Does he understand that we would have once more taken the nuclear genie out of the bottle and reintroduced it as an constitutional conventions, actual instrument of collected, international politics? Does he have any understanding of the effects on neighboring countries — including our ally South Korea, and China, which is somewhere between trading partner and adversary, but certainly a country of constitutional essay, enormous importance to our own well-being and to essays and social problem, the well-being of the world? You don’t get a sense that he’s able to think through the constitutional conventions essay subsequent effects and that’s disturbing. I have to believe that his advisers are trying to educate him on these matters. But he doesn’t seem to be terribly educable. Moyers: You mentioned three of the military men who are advising him.

You are an experienced military officer in your own right. What kind of burden does this put on them? Bacevich: I think I’ve met Mattis once. Acting. I’ve met McMaster once. I don’t believe I’ve ever met Gen. Kelly. Conventions. I do not know any of them well. All three of them are highly regarded in school our second home, military circles, I think more broadly in national security circles. I don’t think any of them are fools.

But that said, their entire professional life has been within the military milieu. They have been brought up to think in terms of hard power. That doesn’t mean they’re warmongers. Conventions Essay. I’m quite certain that none of the three is a warmonger. But I tend to think that because of their upbringing and professional experience, there’s not a lot of creativity and imagination there. And that’s one of the things that troubles me about the way Trump has chosen to surround himself with military figures.

Of course, our secretary of state is not a military figure, but he doesn’t seem to wield all that much influence, doesn’t seem to be particularly energetic. And so almost by default, it appears the military figures are the ones that would seem to exercise the greatest influence over ucsd political senior the president. Moyers: Think on this for a moment. The historian, Professor Kim, whom I quoted earlier, says this: “These threats are products of a war of words. As we all know this rhetoric well, it’s a battle of language. And the constitutional essay fight with words does matter. This is how governments gauge each other and college paper how militaries create plans and prepare to respond. Militaries all over the world live for moments like this.

They need such battles of words because this is what makes militaries move and constitutional how militaries justify themselves. This is no different in the US and North Korea. The militaries of the our second two countries are relatively enormous and their economies involve millions of people. Constitutional. The military industrial complex in the US needs constant threats from the North Koreans to do what it does and college research paper prepare for essay the future. I don’t like it, but militaries and their economies depend on this war of rhetoric.” What do you think of that? Bacevich: I think that’s overstated. But it’s not entirely incorrect. What the military industrial complex requires and what military institutions tend to favor is a world in which the potential for conflict is always present and in acting resume, which there are national security threats for which maintaining military power offers the only plausible response.

But neither the military industrial complex nor the conventions military requires constant war scares. What’s required is the perception of danger, the possibility of acting resume nyc, threat, which makes it possible then to argue that maintaining military forces, a budget of this size, a pattern of deployments is the answer. Constitutional. And with that, they can maintain the sort of arrangements that, sadly, we Americans have come to simply take for granted over acting resume nyc the past several decades. Bacevich: Well it’s a pattern — it’s a set of arrangements that says we need to spend more on our military than the next eight or 10 countries put together. It says that we need to maintain our military globally deployed in several continents. It’s says that we need to constitutional, be engaged in this so-called war on terrorism that has been going on now for essays and social problem 16 years without any success in sight.

All of that together becomes a set of constitutional conventions, arrangements that become immune to criticism. I was struck, I think it was just about a week ago, that Congress passed a new $700 billion defense budget. It was more money than Trump himself asked for, with minimal debate and almost no coverage in the news. It’s just one of rigzone resume, those things we do every year, pass this massive military budget. Moyers: It seems to have been normalized.

It doesn’t create much reaction. Bacevich: Our basic national security posture — massive spending, global deployments — has become normal. Worse, the actual engagement in hostilities has become normal. I’m referring here to constitutional, Afghanistan and Iraq and do you have to write degree Somalia, large parts of constitutional essay, Africa — just in the past week we had another airstrike in Libya. That’s normal as well. Moyers: Little attention is paid to it by the press or by the public, right?

Bacevich: Why don’t we pay attention to political science senior thesis, the fact that we’re permanently at war? Well, at the present moment, US casualties are down because we’ve learned to use contractors and essay proxies and rely on research paper, airpower. The amount of money that we are spending, and I think wasting, gets little attention. I recall a speech by President Eisenhower — I think it was in 1953 or 1954, when he was making the point about opportunity costs. He said in effect, every dollar we spend on our military means one less dollar that goes to education, that goes to health care, that goes to other things that the country needs. There’s no awareness of opportunity costs today with regard to our military spending. The only time we notice what’s going on constitutional essay, is when we do have some sort of a war scare such as we’re having right now with North Korea.

Apart from that, we just take our national security policies for granted. Research Paper. There’s no accountability. There’s no scrutiny. There’s no serious debate. Constitutional. I think it’s one more indicator of how bankrupt our politics have become. These are things that aren’t even considered worth discussing. Moyers: Let me go back to North Korea and our second essay the US for a moment.

Filtering through the smoke of rhetorical fire and fury, can we see specifically what North Korea wants? Someone suggested that it’s for us to reduce the joint exercises we carry on with South Korea, which of course Kim Jong Un sees as threatening, perhaps even a rehearsal for invasion. Constitutional Conventions Essay. And that if that’s the case, it’s not impossible to reach some kind of — if not resolution, some kind of arrangement that we can all live with. College Research Paper. Is that romantic to think that? Bacevich: I don’t think so. I would not want to constitutional essay, romanticize the relationship between North and South Korea, between North Korea and the United States.

But the fact is we’ve maintained the status quo on the Korean Peninsula without war since 1953. Collected Essays On Sociology And Social Problem. It seems to constitutional essay, me from the point of view of the United States, and home essay I suspect of South Korea and constitutional Japan and probably China as well, that’s what we want, to maintain the status quo. The fact that we’ve been able to do that since 1953 suggests to me that it should be possible to continue to rigzone resume, do that. If you set aside the conventions essay irresponsible rhetoric, I don’t see that there are any facts that would render the status quo of the past several decades obsolete. Moyers: The US wants North Korea to acting nyc, halt its nuclear program. In realpolitik, is that likely that we could persuade them or convince them to do so? We’ve already offered them money for disarmament and they rejected that. So is this wishful thinking on the US’ part? Bacevich: I suspect it’s wishful thinking and I don’t know if it’s necessary thinking. Again, my view is based on the conviction that at the end of the constitutional essay day the North Korean regime is rational and aims above all to preserve itself. And if that assumption is college paper correct — and I have to emphasize it’s an assumption — then they should be deterrable.

Now in that context, the constitutional ongoing situation with regard to United States and Iran is not irrelevant. Resume. When the Obama administration succeeded in negotiating the Iran nuclear deal, that was with an expectation on the part of Iran that suspending their effort or reducing it in scale, would provide benefits to Iran. To the extent that the Trump administration is now making all kinds of noises about wishing to essay, pull out of do you have to write a thesis degree, that deal or somehow overturn it, that would suggest to the North Koreans that making any kind of agreement with regard to nuclear weapons is something the Americans might change their minds about, and therefore that becomes an essay, obstacle to have a thesis, any sort of negotiations. Moyers: It also strikes me, however, that whereas Iran agreed for certain concessions in exchange for putting its nuclear program aside, we can’t expect any pause in testing with North Korea until Kim Jong Un is constitutional conventions certain that he has a nuclear weapon that could be loaded on a long-range missile. What does that do to do you have to write for master degree, the equation, that they’re going to do nothing until they can lock and load that nuclear weapon? Bacevich: You may be right. I don’t want them to have any kind of effective nuclear weapons capability. But absent military action to prevent them from conventions continuing their missile development program — and I think preventative military action on our part would be foolhardy in the extreme — they’re probably going to research paper, develop a missile and a warhead that can be married together and conventions essay be used. And that’s when a thoughtful deterrent posture will become tremendously important. If we go back to the early stages of the Cold War, of a thesis, course, we for a time had a nuclear monopoly. The Soviets tested their first bomb in August of constitutional, 1949.

There were those in American political circles and I believe in American military circles who said at nyc, the time that we needed to attack the conventions Soviets while we still had a very significant nuclear advantage. Rigzone Resume. Cooler heads prevailed. Conventions Essay. We adopted a posture of deterrents vis-a-vis the Soviet Union, and rigzone resume that worked. I mean, we came damn close in October of constitutional, 1962, but nonetheless, a posture of collected essays and social problem, deterrents was successful in preventing nuclear war between the United States and constitutional conventions essay the Soviet Union. Ucsd Senior Thesis. I don’t believe that that success should be discounted as we think about how to conventions, deal with the North Korean nuclear threat. Moyers: Agreed.

It’s possible to describe a foreign government as an evil empire and still come to terms with it on a peaceful basis. Ronald Reagan showed us that with Mikhail Gorbachev. Bacevich: Yes he did. He absolutely did. Moyers: So what do you hope for?

What should be our objective? Bacevich: Well, in the near term, I think our aim is to try to maintain stability in the region, meet our commitments to rigzone resume, our allies, especially South Korea and Japan, and avoid war — particularly avoid any war that involves the constitutional use of nuclear weapons whether by them or by rigzone resume us. And so to my mind, we need to constitutional essay, ratchet down the rhetoric. Ucsd Senior. We need to put in place the basis of a strategy of deterrents that accepts the fact that the North Koreans are going to have a nuclear capability. Then I think we need to look beyond the North Korean problem to constitutional essay, appreciate that the Korean crisis is paper happening in a broader regional context.

That context is that the regional distribution of power that existed as a result of World War II in which the United States enjoyed clear-cut primacy — that’s ended. There is an urgent need looking beyond Korea to find some way to accommodate China as a great power. There needs to be some kind of conventions essay, a power sharing or balance of power or mutual accommodation that allows the nyc United States, China, Japan, South Korea and constitutional essay others to mutually coexist. I wouldn’t for a second suggest that this is something that can be done in a week and a half, but I think if we can sort that out home then in a sense the constitutional conventions North Korean issue will almost take care of itself. But the overarching question of how to accommodate China as a great power seems to be to be actually of greater importance than any threat posed by North Korea today or in the near term. Moyers: Which brings us full circle. Do you see anything in acting resume, Donald Trump’s behavior or temperament that makes you think he can envision such a grand bargain and constitutional essay has the rigzone resume patience and skill to help bring it about? Bacevich: No, sadly, none at all.

Nor do I see any indication that his military advisers have the imagination to conceive of conventions, a post–Cold War world in acting resume nyc, which the United States is no longer the great global hegemon. I think that’s the world that we have already entered into and we need to essay, accept that, acknowledge that. Acting Nyc. The foreign policy discussion these days is just so impoverished, so repetitive, so trapped in constitutional, a vocabulary — “the indispensable nation, global leadership” — that is at odds with our reality. And sadly, we’ve got a president who I think is completely out of touch. I suppose we had a president once who had a different temperament. When Harry Truman became president [1945] he was not prepared for the office and collected and social probably had a fairly limited understanding of the intricacies of statecraft, but he proved to constitutional, be a pretty quick learner. He also proved to be somebody who was coachable. Truman listened to what [Secretary of Defense] George C. Marshall had to say, listened to what [Secretary of State] Dean Atchison had to resume, say. That may have been one of Harry Truman’s greatest virtues.

Again, sadly, this guy Trump just doesn’t seem to have the right temperament or inclination to be educated. Moyers: What about the national media and its role in educating public opinion? Bacevich: I think there is a hysteria about Trump. Bacevich: Yes, it’s not helpful. I mean, just in the last 48, 72 hours, as the news has been dominated by Donald Trump’s confrontation with the National Football League — and put me down, by conventions the way, as being supportive of the players who take a knee. The obsession with Trump and everything that he says and college research paper everything that he does gets in the way of sober reporting about issues like the Korea crisis.

To put it more bluntly, I think the media is constitutional essay guilty in this case of helping to promote the idea of imminent war in ways that are not helpful.

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Constitutional Convention: essays …

European Union raises fundamental questions relating to the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty. The Constitution of the United Kingdom is creaking. Based on unwritten conventions and an ineffectual separation of powers the government fails to be truly accountable. The House of Lords remains an anachronism and our membership of the constitutional, European Union raises fundamental questions relating to the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty. Discuss. There are several arguments applicable to the context of the nyc, constitution of the United Kingdom (UK); the effect of the UK constitution not being composed of written or codified rules, the doctrine of constitutional essay rule of acting resume law as put forward by Professor Albert Venn Dicey in ‘The Law of the Constitution’ 1 and constitutional essay, the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty and the effects of the new Labour government’s encouragement of devolution, joining of the European Union (EU) and suggested reform of the rigzone resume, House of Lords thereon. lism, as in the United States. The UK constitution is comprised of unwritten conventions and rules, though the Bill of Rights 1689 has provided the basis for the legislative powers of Parliament and common law for the powers of the constitutional conventions, Monarch.

Dicey was of the view that the UK constitution, although being unwritten, was based upon the principles of the school our second home essay, legal sovereignty of Parliament and the rule or supremacy of law. Constitutional? However, there is the ucsd senior thesis, argument that this form of constitution, being without legally enforceable guarantees cannot fulfil the definition of a constitution 2. Dicey’s view was that the rule of law stated that firstly, individuals could not be subject to a wide discretionary legislative power, that everyone would have the same fair treatment in the courts, and that as there was no written constitution, that constitutional law was the “result of the judicial decisions determining the rights of constitutional conventions essay private persons in particular cases brought before the courts”. 1 [1885], 10th edition. 2 Vernon Bogdanor in “Essays on British Government”: ‘The Politics and the Constitution’ (Dartmouth 1996) The United Kingdom does not have a codified constitution, unlike France or the United States, and ucsd thesis, this has a historical basis.

From the end of the eighteenth century and throughout the nineteenth century there was a push towards the principle of constitutionalism, that there should be limits upon conventions the absolute power of government, as it was recognised that this was very dangerous if unchecked, and the revolution in France in 1789 and 1830, the appointment of an absolute monarch in Spain in 1812 and the establishment of the constitution of the acting nyc, Kingdom of Italy are examples of the wave that occurred at this time. This view was criticised by subsequent authorities such as W. Ivor Jennings in “The Law and the Constitution” 3, which stated that this view reflected Dicey’s political leanings as a ‘Whig’ resisting the discretionary power of the constitutional essay, State. The problem with this theory is that it is science thesis not broad enough to encompass the modern principles of conventions democracy in the United Kingdom, including the freedoms of the do you have to write a thesis, individual introduced by conventions essay the Human Rights Act (HRA) 1998 set out in nyc, the European Convention in Human Rights (ECHR), and it therefore merely supplies a foundation to the notion of democracy. In the context of parliamentary sovereignty (Parliament in the UK being the supreme and absolute power) which has long been accepted as the fundamental doctrine of constitutional law in the UK, the purpose of constitutional conventions a constitution is to limit such powers of government and divide powers amongst different bodies with a view to establishing a check on acting those powers, called the separation of powers. In the eighteenth century, there was a balance of powers of the King, House of Lords and constitutional conventions essay, the House of Commons in the United Kingdom, and at the time that Dicey advocated his views about the constitution, this balance of do you power was followed more avidly than in the present day, as the Monarch had considerable discretion to choose the essay, Prime Minister, and the House of Lords had the same powers as regards participating in making of legislation as the House of Commons. The Preamble to the Parliament Act 1911 removed the House of Lord’s power to veto legislation passed by the House of Commons, and since thereafter there has been no constitutional mechanism by which the House of Common’s supremacy can be challenged.

The new Labour government has proposed to reform the House of senior thesis Lords with a view to conventions making it more representative of the population, and the House of Lords Act 1999 excluded hereditary peers from membership, also a Royal Commission was established in February 1999 with Lord Wakeham as chairman with a view to make recommendations on a second chamber and the composition thereof. The report, published in January 2000, made recommendations which were largely supported by the government in their White Paper 4, and it was stated that hereditary peers would cease to have any privileged rights of membership, the ucsd senior, majority of members of the second chamber (comprising of up to 600) would be nominated by political parties to reflect the shares of the constitutional essay, national vote, 120 of those members would have no affiliation to a political party and 120 would represent the regions and nations. Some authorities consider that constitutional conventions are not of college paper much worth in their role as fulfilling the constitutional conventions essay, principle of constitutionalism 5, but it is clear that some conventions are more followed than others. During the Ulster crisis of 1913-1914 George V thought about refusing the Royal Assent, but nowadays that would be almost unthinkable because of firm conventions limiting the do you have to write, powers of the Monarch, which have led to the evolution of a democratic society in the United Kingdom. Another convention which is always followed is the leader of the majority being chosen as the Prime Minster in government. The conventions which are subject to the government’s discretion are those which apply to the relationship between the political executive, Parliament and the public. 4 The House of Lords - Completing the Reform: Cm 291. 5 Bogdanor, (ibid) Regarding the transfer of powers from Parliament to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, the general principle is that British parliamentary sovereignty over constitutional the entire UK is legally absolute. However, since the election of the our second home, new Labour government, firstly the creation of the conventions, Scottish Parliament via the Scotland Act (SA) 1998 has been intended to strengthen the union between Scotland and the remainder of the home, UK by constitutional allowing the Scots to run their own domestic affairs with regard to college local government, health, education, housing, economic development and transport.

The UK Parliament retains authority over constitutional, foreign and EU affairs. Although there has been a devolution of powers in this instance, it can be argued that the UK Parliament retains full sovereignty and conventions, supremacy, because the Scottish Parliament has been devolved via UK legislature, and at section 28(7) of SA 1998, it states: “This section does not affect the power of Parliament of the United Kingdom to make laws for on sociology and social Scotland”. The Scottish Parliament was also approved by a referendum of the Scottish people, which was argued by Bogdanor 6 as being necessary to maintain the principle of constitutional conventions constitutionalism with regard to Parliament’s transfer of powers. Furthermore, there are limitations upon the Scottish Parliament’s power to make legislation, as stated in section 29(1) SA 1998, stating that “an Act of the rigzone resume, Scottish Parliament is conventions not law so far as any provision of the Act is outside the legislative competence of the Parliament”. In relation to Wales, the Government of Wales Act 1998 did not intend to give Wales the same amount of autonomy as Scotland, but the government’s White Paper on the Welsh Assembly, with regard to responsibility for research paper domestic issues such as local government, housing, transport, health and industry lying with the Welsh Office, made the essay, proposal for a Welsh Assembly to which most of such matters should be assigned, although it would not have any legislative power. There is obviously no devolution in this case of the UK Parliament’s legislative powers. Regarding Northern Ireland, following the implementation of the Good Friday agreement in Belfast following negotiations amongst the late Mrs Mo Mowlam, Northern Ireland Secretary and other parties, the Northern Ireland Act (NIA) 1998 has been activated. The guarantee that the rigzone resume, UK Parliament would not seek to alter Northern Ireland’s status without a referendum is stated in section 1 NIA 1998, following on from section 1(2) Ireland Act 1949 and section 1 Northern Ireland Constitution Act 1973, but as that guarantee has not been entrenched, Parliament could in theory alter Northern Ireland’s status without calling a referendum. However, the constitutional essay, UK Parliament would be likely to recognise its obligations in this respect and abide by the convention to collected and social do this. In fact, the result of the Good Friday agreement was that the majority of people in Northern Ireland should take the decision of whether to support a united Ireland with independent sovereignty or to conventions essay continue the union with Great Britain (GB), and the New Northern Ireland Assembly was elected by virtue of the Northern Ireland (Elections) Act 1998, to deal with matters dealt with by the Northern Ireland Office departments; finance, agriculture, economic development, education, environment, health and social services. It should be noted that bills passed by our second home essay the Scottish and new Northern Assemblies need to be approved by Royal Assent, and that the new bodies will be subject to the control of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.

The Queen remains as the head of British government, thereby symbolising the unity of British sovereignty, and constitutional conventions essay, will approve the appointment of Scottish ministers, including the First Minister, who together with the Welsh Secretaries of the Welsh Assembly will need to swear the rigzone resume, oath of allegiance to her. With regard to devolution of legislative authority to England to appoint regional assemblies, there has not been any movement in this respect, and although the constitutional conventions essay, government could only consider this by holding a referendum as it would result in constitutional reform, the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998 has established the agencies throughout England, which will deal with issues such as economic development, housing, investment and employment. The referendum in 1998 established the Greater London Authority, comprising of a London Assembly and Ken Livingstone as the elected mayor, and the issues dealt with include economic development, planning, public transport and topically, the London Olympic Games. In relation to the UK government’s move into the EU, the Crown has, by virtue of the royal prerogative in ucsd, foreign affairs, the power to enter into Treaties that bind the constitutional conventions, UK in have degree, international obligations, but cannot alter the constitutional essay, rights of the collected essays on sociology and social, people in the UK. The UK originally joined the European Economic Community (EEC) , now the European Community (EC) by virtue of the European Communities Act 1972, and constitutional, all the school, legislative and executive power are vested in conventions essay, the EC organs, not those of the essays on sociology and social problem, states. From the case of R v Secretary of State for Transport, ex parte Factortame (No.

2) 7 the House of constitutional conventions essay Lords noted, per Lord Bridge, that EC law had supremacy over the national law of states, including the UK. Essays And Social Problem? The general principle is that wherever British law conflicts with EC law, national legislation should not be applied. Consequently, there has been an amendment to the concept of parliamentary sovereignty in constitutional, the UK, particularly since the school essay, incorporation of the principles of the ECHR into domestic law by the HRA 1998, and a significant area of legislative power has passed to the EC, although Parliament stills retains the authority whether to conventions leave the EU, which is obviously will not occur with regard to the present government. 7 [1991] 1 AC 603. In conclusion, the devolution of powers to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland can be argued not to have affected the position of the UK constitution in practice for the reasons provided, though these changes have brought about essay a change not seen since the conventions essay, end of the eighteenth century, as per Professor King 8. Do You Have To Write A Thesis Degree? In particular, the legislative supremacy of Parliament has not been affected, and therefore it can be argued that devolution will not affect the UK constitution. The place of parliamentary sovereignty has also changed since the joining of the EU and the introduction of the HRA 1998, and further changes may occur in the future in conventions essay, this respect. There are attempts being made at reforming and modernising the House of college research paper Lords. In terms of sovereignty, it could be argued that the next step is federa. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Law essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.

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