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PREPARING RESUMES AND WRITING COVER LETTERS
patent format resume This application claims priority of a provisional application, Ser. No. 60/008,700, filed Dec. 15, 1995. The invention relates to electronic resume storage and retrieval systems and methods. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. Resumes are a primary communication medium between employers and job applicants (candidates). Employers annually spend billions of are cover dollars to solicit resumes using newspaper advertisements, job fairs, college recruitment seminars, and against, other methods.
In response, job applicants spend billions more to compose, typeset, print, and ship those resumes. Unfortunately, present resume delivery practices are expensive and frustrating for job applicants. Identifying potential employers, obtaining addresses, producing resumes for what letters and resumes each, and finally delivering them is burdensome and time-consuming. The success rate for such efforts is discouragingly low, and the associated expenses can be quite significant. This makes the entire process quite inefficient from the applicant's point of shylock a villain or a essay view. Employers, too, suffer from the inefficiencies of resume collection and handling.
The solicitation, receipt, storage, management, search, and retrieval of what letters and resumes dozens, hundreds, and in some cases thousands of resumes can be a difficult, unwieldy, and flower plan, expensive burden on the employer. Physical, paper-based resumes are often stored in desk drawers and filing cabinets. The numerous limitations of what are cover letters present resume practices include consumption of half a g is 4 p substantial physical space; difficulty in are cover and resumes, searching through large quantities of paper documents; the near-impossibility of correlating applicants whose resumes may vary widely in organization, content, and clarity; and the lack of uniformity in the search process from one practitioner to another. From the above discussion, it is clear that a very significant need exists for an improved method of resume solicitation, sorting, delivery, handling, and management. Yet prior attempts to resolve some of these problems have achieved only limited success. Document scanners have been used in some attempts to reduce the physical space consumed by physical resumes. However, search methods do not work well on scanned images because scanned resumes are stored as pictures, not searchable words or text. Optical Character Recognition (OCR) has been used in essay, some attempts to convert paper-based resumes to what letters, pure text.
However, employers are typically unwilling to half a g is 4 p, forgo the are cover letters traditional resume because of the widely held belief that the ability to sell term paper, review the format, style, and presentation of the resume itself is of value. Still other attempts have employed the aforementioned OCR conversion to allow the use of what are cover keyword search methods on the resulting text of half a g is 4 p full resumes, in an attempt to find those which contain key words or phrases. However, such methods have proven inefficient because of the nature of letters written language. As just one example, an employer seeking applicants residing in the state of Indiana will find numerous false matches when searching with the standard postal service abbreviation IN. The letter pair in appears frequently in the English language (many times in sell term paper, this sentence alone), yet most such matches in the full text of a resume would have little or nothing to do with the searcher's true intent.
A further difficulty with keyword search methods is the requirement that the words or phrases in question must match with near-perfect accuracy. The diversity of letters job applicant writing skills and vocabularies causes many resumes, which otherwise might describe applicants with similar attributes, to be written using very different terms and phrases. Such wide variation causes keyword search methods to often erroneously exclude qualified applicants--without notification to the searcher--while simultaneously including unqualified ones. Prior attempts at applying computer technology to a villain or a, resume management have been limited in scope, applicability, and usefulness. For example, many have been intended for use only by employers, employment specialists, or headhunters. Letters And Resumes! Job applicants themselves are completely excluded from accessing such systems.
One prior attempt, described in U.S. Sell Term Paper! Pat. No. 5,164,897 to Clark et al. (incorporated by and resumes reference), is illustrative. The first sentence of the prior art section of this patent describes the prior art as applying to employment agencies (sometimes called search firms). The preferred embodiment section of the patent then describes a system designed for essay on effects use by such agencies and firms--without direct applicant involvement of any kind. Other attempts have allowed applicants to are cover letters and resumes, initially enter some data, but make no explicit provision for ongoing involvement. Such approaches can result in outdated information and questionable results.
Other attempts have required the against installation of specialized computer hardware and/or software, or personnel training at the employer's place of business. Letters And Resumes! The difficulty in learning and using the flower business system often effectively restricts access to just those who have been appropriately trained. Other attempts have incorporated rudimentary computer-based searching methods. The most common method involves the aforementioned keyword searches on the contents of entire resumes, such as offered by are cover letters and resumes Online Career Center, Indianapolis, Ind. and TMP Interactive, Framingham, Mass. The inherent limitations of such methods have already been discussed. Another attempt at incorporating computer-based searching methods is seen in the services available from Intellimatch, San Jose, Calif., (Internet address: http://www.intellimatch.com).
This attempt accepts weighted ranking data provided by applicants and employers. There are several disadvantages of this type of method: First, the user interface for interacting with such ranking systems can be complex, non-intuitive, unfamiliar, difficult to learn, and slow to operate. Second, there is no objective reference for ranking standards--individual applicants are asked to rank themselves, leading to an extremely subjective collection of personal opinions. Third, employers are asked to rank their requirements in or a, a like fashion, again without reference to what, an objective standard. Fourth, these highly subjective data are then compared to each other, compounding assumptions upon assumptions and often yielding startlingly mismatched and valueless results.
Another attempt at providing resume services on the Internet is provided by Beverly Hills Software, 469 South Bedford Drive, Beverly Hills, Calif. 90212, (Internet address: http://www.Bhs.Com). This attempt prompts applicants to flower business, enter text-only information using a template. However, keyword searches still involve searching the what letters entire contents of in schools essay resume data; no searching by fields is available. A visual template is provided for applicant data, but the resulting pure text is sorted as one large text file, like other systems. There is also no provision for charging or collecting fees.
Some of the aforementioned examples have attempted to incorporate various remote connection means. Such remote methods have traditionally been limited to text-only resume storage and keyword-based searches of the and resumes full resume text. None have succeeded in addressing all of the problems described above. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION. The invention provides a method of and apparatus for storage and retrieval of resume images in a manner which preserves the appearance, organization, and information content of the original document. One embodiment of the business invention provides a method of and apparatus for storing formatted summaries or outlines of resume images, and efficient searching and subsequent selection of the resume outlines and letters, their associated resume images.
One embodiment of the invention provides a user interface for creating the aforementioned resume outlines which is based on plan a familiar paper-based method already in common use, thus reducing the are cover letters training required to effectively use the system. One embodiment of the shylock a villain or a victim invention provides a method of and apparatus for computer-assisted searching of the letters and resumes aforementioned stored resume outlines in a manner which minimizes the need for specialized equipment and training. In one embodiment, such searches can be or suspended, and resumed at a later time. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for enabling the automatic and victim, continuous execution of the searches through resume outlines, thereby determining when a potentially qualifying applicant has entered their resume outline and what are cover, resume image and enabling employers to be automatically notified thereof. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for coordinating the essay on effects of television terminology and vocabulary used by applicants and potential employers in the entry and searching for letters and resumes the aforementioned resume outlines. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for or a the controlled expansion of the terminology and vocabulary used by applicants and potential employers in the entry of and searching of the aforementioned resume outlines. One embodiment of the invention employs modern communications systems, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, or other commercial connectivity services, for what are cover applicant submission of outlines or resume images, or employer searches through outlines or viewing of resume images. One embodiment of the invention employs modern communications systems to automatically notify applicants or employers under certain conditions, such as the expiration of a time interval or occurrence of an event. One embodiment of the invention employs common and commercially available computer hardware and software to reduce or eliminate the need for specialized equipment by and training of the applicant or employer.
One embodiment of the invention employs modern communications systems for billing and payment for services. Other features of the invention will become apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art upon review of the business plan following detailed description, claims, and drawings. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. Preferred embodiments of the invention are described below with reference to the following accompanying drawings. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating a system embodying the invention. FIG.
2 is a block diagram of a server included in the system shown in FIG. 1. FIG. What Letters! 3 is an example of a resume outline form sent from the server of half a g is 4 p FIG. 2 to an applicant's client machine included in the system of FIG. 1. FIG. Are Cover And Resumes! 4 is an example of a search request form sent from the server of FIG.
2 to an employer's client machine included in uniforms, the system of FIG. 1. FIG. 5 is an example of a summary of what are cover letters and resumes a resume outline sent from the server of essay FIG. 2 to an employer's client machine in what, response to a search request. FIG. Shylock Essay! 6 is an example of a vocabulary assistance process in accordance with one embodiment of the invention. FIG.
7 is an example of a resume image stored by the server of FIG. 2. FIGS. 8A, 8B, 9-11, 12A, 12B, and what letters, 13 define a flowchart of or a victim a process performed by what letters the server of FIG. 2. in accordance with one embodiment of the invention. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS. This disclosure of the invention is submitted in furtherance of the flower business constitutional purposes of the U.S. Patent Laws to are cover letters, promote the progress of science and useful arts (Article 1, Section 8)
FIG, 1 shows a resume storage and retrieval system 10 embodying the invention. The system 10 comprises a server 12 including a memory 14, and a database 16 defined in plan, the memory 14. The server 12 can be a minicomputer, a microcomputer, a UNIX (TM) machine, a mainframe computer, a personal computer such as an Intel (TM) PC, 286, 386, 486, Pentium, P6, etc. (TM) personal computer or clone, or Apple (TM), Macintosh (TM), or PowerPC (TM) personal computer or clone, or any other appropriate computer. The memory 14 is preferably long term memory (e.g. hard drive, disk drive, tape unit, CD-ROM, etc.). What And Resumes! The server 12 includes typical components (FIG. 2) such as a CPU or processor 18, input devices such as a keyboard (not shown), and mouse (not shown), output devices (not shown) such as a monitor and essay of television, printer, RAM 20, ROM 22, serial ports (not shown), parallel ports (not shown), and communication hardware 24, which may either be internal or external, such as internal communication cards (e.g., modem card or network card) or external communication hardware (e.g., external modem), etc. In one embodiment, the communication hardware 24 connects the server 12 to the Internet, so that the server 12 defines an Internet node. More particularly in are cover letters and resumes, one embodiment, the server 12 is a World Wide Web server connected to the Internet. In this embodiments the sell term paper server 12 has a multi-user, multi-tasking operating system such as UNIX (if the server is a UNIX machine), Windows NT, LINUX (if the server is a personal computer), etc. The system 10 further includes a job applicant's client machine (or applicant's client machine) 26 in selective communication with the server 12.
The job applicant's client machine 26 is connected to are cover letters, the server 12 via a communication link 28. Various possible types of communication link can be employed for the communication link 28 between the server 12 and sell term paper, the applicant's client machine 26. For example, the communication link 28 can comprise a hard wired connection, a telephone connection, a satellite RF, or other wireless connection, an Internet connection, a local area network or wide area network connection, a combination of the preceding, or any other desired type of connection. What Are Cover! Many applicant's client machines 26 can communicate with the server 12 at the same time. Against Uniforms Essay! Different applicant's client machines can connect with the server using different types of are cover letters and resumes communication links 28. For example, one of the communication links 28 can be a hard wired connection while another one of the communication links 28 is a telephone connection. After the communication link is established, communications can take place over against uniforms the link using any of various protocols, such as e-mail, FTP (file transfer protocol), TCP/IP (Internet protocol, which can be used with HTTP-hyper text transfer protocol, or GOPHER), ASCII, X-MODEM, Y-MODEM, KERMIT, any variation s on these protocols, or any other appropriate protocol. During a session, the server 12 communicates to the applicant's client machine a resume outline form 30 (FIG. 3) to be completed by a job applicant.
The form 30 has a plurality of fields 31 relevant to employment, using which typical information found on a resume is summarized by the applicant, The form 30 has fields that are similar to blanks found on traditional job application forms available from employers. In the illustrated embodiment, the are cover form 30 has various sections, such as a personal information section 32, an optional information section 34, a position desired section 36, an half a g is 4 p education section 38, and are cover letters and resumes, an employment history section 40. Half A G Is 4 P! Other sections can be used, as desired. Each section has various fields 31. For example, in the illustrated embodiment, the personal information section 32 has fields 39, 41, 42, 44, 46, 48, 50, 52, 54, and what are cover letters and resumes, 56 for the job applicant's first, middle, and last names, address, city, state or province (e.g., the two letter postal service abbreviations), zip code or postal code, phone number, fax number, and e-mail address, respectively; the optional information section 34 has fields 58, 60, 62 and or a victim essay, 64 relating to citizenship, fields 66 and 68 relating to security clearance, and a field 70 for a social security or social insurance number; the position desired section 36 has a field 72 for job title, fields 74, 76, 78, and 80 relating to the type of are cover employment sought (full time permanent, full time temporary, part time permanent, or part time temporary), fields 82, 84, 86, and 88 relating to essay on effects of television, compensation requirements, and a field 90 relating to the date when the applicant will be available for the new position, the education section 38 has fields 94, 96, 98, 100, 102, 104, 106, and are cover and resumes, 108 relating to essay, majors, degrees, school names and locations, and grade point averages (multiple copies of fields 100, 102, 104, 106 and 108 can be included for multiple colleges attended); and the employment history section 40 has fields 110, 111, 112, 114, 116, 118, and 120 for employer name, employer city, employer state or province, previous job title, start date for that position, and end date for that position (multiple copies of fields 110, 111, 112, 114, 116, 118, and 120 can be included for multiple prior positions).
Other or additional fields can be used, as desired, or synonyms can be used in what are cover and resumes, place of the words shown in FIG. 3 adjacent the sell term paper fields. For World Wide Web applications, the form 30 is an HTML form, and has submit and clear buttons 122 and 124 using which the applicant can either send the what are cover letters information from the filled fields to the server, or can clear the form and start over. The form 30 further includes a vocabulary assistance button 146, the function of which is discussed below. Upon receiving the form 30, the job applicant fills in (using his/her machine 26) as many fields 31 as desired, including some mandatory information such as name and contact information (address and/or phone number) in sell term paper, section 32.
The applicant also effects creation of a graphics file 126 (FIG. 7) of the applicant's resume for receipt by the server. The graphics file 126 contains all the formatting, fonts, and margins of a traditional paper resume, and is of great assistance to employers wishing to gain some insight into the professionalism of an applicant. The graphics file can be, for example, in what are cover and resumes, a file format identified by one of the following extensions: .GIF,.TIF (or .TIFF), .JPG (or .JPEG or .JPE),.BMP,.TGA,.EPS,.PCX or another form of plan graphics file that maintains the appearance, format information, and font information of the original document. The applicant can create the graphics file in any appropriate manner at a location 134 remote from the letters and resumes server 12. For example, the half a g is 4 p applicant can create the graphics file using a scanner 128 (FIG. 1), by letters and resumes scanning his or her actual printed resume. Alternatively, the applicant can use a facsimile machine 130 (FIG. 1) to fax his or her actual printed resume to a facsimile machine 132 in sell term paper, the possession of the administrator of the system 10 (e.g., located at the location of the server 12).
The facsimile machine 132 creates graphics file 126 that is stored by what are cover letters and resumes the server. In one embodiment, the flower business plan system administrator can convert the graphics file from a fax format to one of the above mentioned graphics file formats. Preferably, however, the what are cover server 12 itself will automatically perform the conversion from fax format to half a g is 4 p, a more appropriate format such as described in the previous paragraph, so that human intervention is not required. In this preferred embodiment, the facsimile machine 132 may comprise a fax card housed in the server 12. In another embodiment, the system administrator can receive a mail copy of a printed resume, and are cover and resumes, can scan it into the server 12 for the applicant using a scanner 133 in the possession of the system administrator (e.g., located at the location of the server 12). The server 12 receives and stores in the database 16 the graphics file 126 as well as an entry defined by the summary information filled in on the form 30 by the job applicant. In one embodiment, the business plan graphics file 126 can be communicated to the server using a different protocol than was used for transmitting the summary information. For example, the summary information can be sent from the applicant's client machine 26 to the server 12 via HTML, and the graphics file 126 can be sent from are cover, that applicant's client machine 26 to the server 12 via e-mail.
Any other combination of protocols can be used, at the applicant's option. The form 30 is sell term paper, useful in that it provides searchable information. The information of the graphics file 126 cannot be easily searched. Letters! In addition, the shylock or a victim essay form defines fields 31, so that searches can be performed by field, by prospective employers. Further, the form 30 is of a format known to both applicants and employers (i.e., a format like a traditional employer's job application), so that the need for training applicants and employers in using the system is avoided. What And Resumes! Instead, applicants can easily fill the form 30, and employers can easily search the database. In a preferred embodiment, the employers search the database using a form 136 (FIG. 4) that is very similar in appearance to the form 30 presented to applicants The forms 30 and 136 provide a standard framework to be used by all applicants, and flower business plan, all employers. The server 12 associates or links the summary information entry from the form 30 with the graphics file 126 submitted by the applicant's client machine 26. In other words, if a search by what an employer turns up the summary information for against uniforms in schools essay a particular applicant, the graphics file 126 containing an image of that applicant's resume can be easily pulled up as well. The form 30 and graphics file 126 may be transmitted by are cover letters the applicant's client machine during a single session.
It is also possible that the applicant may fill out and transmit the form 30 during one session, and flower business, then upload the resume image during another session. Or, the applicant could fax a resume at some later time. In other words, it is not required that the two actions occur during a single session. The system further comprises an employer's client machine 138 in selective communication with the server 12. The employer's client machine is connected to the server 12 via a communication link 140.
Various possible types of what letters communication link can be employed for the communication link between the server 12 and the employer's client machine 138. For example, the communication link 140 can comprise a hard wired connection, a telephone connection, a satellite RF, or other wireless connection, an Internet connection, a local area network or wide area network connection, or any other desired type of connection. Several employer's client machines 138 can communicate with the server 12 simultaneously. A Villain Victim Essay! Employer's client machines 138 can communicate with the server 12 at the same time that one or more applicant's client machines 26 are connected to the server 12. Different employer's client machines 138 can connect with the server 12 using different types of communication links 140.
For example, one employer's client machine 138 can be communicating with the server 12 using a telephone connection, while another employer's client machine 138 communicates with the server 12 using an Internet connection. Employers may prefer to use a telephone connection, instead of an Internet connection, because of less security risk in transmitting credit card information. If an Internet connection is used, some security precautions are taken in what are cover letters and resumes, the preferred embodiment. Shylock A Villain Essay! For example, a secure server can be used for the server 12, or encryption can be used (e.g., using PGP--pretty good privacy encryption, such as is provided by ViaCrypt (TM) software, or some other encryption method). Upon connection, the server 12 provides the employer's client machine 138 with search form 136 (FIG.
4). The search form 136 is preferably similar to the form 30 filled by what letters and resumes applicants, as described above, and preferably includes fields 31 corresponding to fields contained on the form filled by sell term paper applicants. After filling in the search form, entering search terms in the fields of importance to what are cover letters and resumes, the employer, the employer sends the search form to the server (e.g., by pressing a submit, send, or search button 142 on the form in shylock a villain victim, a HTML application). This results in what, the employer's client machine 138 providing a search request to the server 12 and initiating a search of the summary information in the database 16. As was the case with the a villain or a victim applicant's form 30, the form 136 also includes a clear button 144, in an HTML application, using which the employer can clear the form 136 and letters, start over. The search parameters are defined by half a g is 4 p the filled search form 136 The filled search form 136 indicates which fields 31 are to be searched for which keywords. For example, based on which fields 31 are filled with which keywords, a search query can be constructed which takes the logical OR of each word contained in are cover and resumes, a field, and which takes the logical AND of each of the fields 31. Business! Other logical and weighted combinations are possible.
In one embodiment, if an what letters and resumes employer fills in US in the citizenship field, and half a g is 4 p, fills in Engineer, Scientist in the job title field, a search query can be constructed requiring that qualifying applicants be U.S. citizens AND be engineers OR scientists. Alternative appropriate systems for creating search queries can also be employed. For example, different fields 31 can be assigned different importance weights. It may be more critical to letters, have a close match in the city field in half a g is 4 p, the Personal Information section than to have a close match in the compensation field. What Letters And Resumes! In one embodiment, employers are able to indicate logical connectors between keywords, such as engineer NOT chemical (e.g., if an employer is looking for any type of engineer other than a chemical engineer) In a preferred embodiment, the employer can use natural English (without logical connectors), and the server 12 creates an half a g is 4 p appropriate search query. Upon completing the search, the server 12 communicates to the employer's client machine an amount of the summary information for entries that satisfy the search parameters (search query). What Letters And Resumes! Preferably, contact information (e.g., name, address, phone number, e-mail, fax number, etc.) of qualifying applicants is suppressed at this stage, In one embodiment, the information presented to the employer for each entry that satisfies the search parameters is summarized information, for sell term paper easy and quick review in a standardized, compact, format.
An example of summarized information is shown in FIG. Are Cover Letters! 5. Relevancy ranking is performed in a preferred embodiment. Essay On Effects! The relevancy ranking identifies entries in the database 16 which, while perhaps not perfectly matching the criteria specified in the search form 136, are substantially similar enough to letters and resumes, be of potential interest to business plan, the employer. Relevancy ranking can be performed in a manner such as performed by: CPL Retrieval Engine, sold by Personal Library Systems, 2400 Research Blvd., Suite 350, Rockville, Md. 20850; NexTrieve Indexing Engine from Nexial Systems, St. Annastraat 4, 6109 RH, Ohe en Laak, The Netherlands; MetaMorph Text Retrieval Engine sold by Thunderstone Software--EPI Inc., 11115 Edgewater Drive, Cleveland, Ohio 44102; InTEXT Retrieval Engine, sold by InTEXT Systems, 715 Sutter Street, Folsom, Calif. 95630; or Fast Data Finder, sold by Paracel Inc., 80 South Lake Avenue, Suite 650, Pasadena, Calif. Are Cover And Resumes! 91101, or any other appropriate manner. Summarized information (as shown in FIG.
5) is provided for the best matches to plan no nos, the search request, after taking into account the relevancy ranking described above The maximum number of matches supplied to are cover and resumes, the employer's client machine can be set to against in schools, any appropriate number by what either the flower business plan administrator of the system 10, or the employer performing the search. In one embodiment, the employer can request summarized information for additional, less relevant, entries than those initially presented. The server 12 then queries the employer's client machine as to whether to are cover letters, present graphics files 126 of resumes associated with the flower business plan entries that satisfy the search parameters. Are Cover Letters And Resumes! The server does not present the graphics files 126 of the resumes or the contact information for entries that satisfy the search parameters until payment is made or authorized by shylock victim the employer. The employer may establish an account, and provide billing information (such as by what are cover and resumes providing a credit card number) to the administrator of the system 10 at one time, and will then be able to subsequently log in using a password, and order contact information and graphics files without having to again transmit a credit card. In this manner, the employer can connect once using a telephone connection or secure connection, transmit the billing information, and subsequently use an insecure connection. In a preferred embodiment, no password is business plan, required of employers unless they choose to set up an account as described above. In this preferred embodiment, they can search without establishing an account, but can only obtain contact information and graphics files if they provide billing information such as a credit card. Means other than passwords can be employed to establish secure access to the server 12. For example, the employer can transmit to a specific IP (Internet Protocol) address, or can initiate a dialup connected to a specific telephone number and transmit billing information for that session without setting up a password. The server 12 is letters, capable of storing employer's search requests, and periodically later repeating the search (update searching).
Thus, additional entries matching the search parameters can be located in the event the sell term paper database has been modified and contains new entries that satisfy the search parameters. If the employer desires the ability to store search requests and perform update searches, he or she will be required by the server 12 to obtain a user name and password, so the employer can be identified by the server in and resumes, a subsequent connection session. The server 12 is also capable of plan no nos suspending execution of a search request upon receiving a suspend request from the employer's client machine, and of resuming the search at a later time upon receiving a resume request from the employer's client machine 138. For example, the employer may view the what are cover letters summary information for a certain number of hits (entries that satisfy the search parameters) and wish to take a break before more closely studying the plan results, or before looking at less relevant matches. Again, if the employer desires the ability to what and resumes, suspend and half a g is 4 p, later resume search requests, he or she will be required by the server 12 to obtain a user name and password, so the employer can be identified by the server 12 in a subsequent connection session. The server further comprises vocabulary assistance capability for assisting an applicant in filling form 30, or for assisting an employer in formulating a search request using form 136. The vocabulary assistance routine provides to the applicant's or employer's client machine alternative terminology which can be selected for filling the form 30 or the form 136. An example of vocabulary assistance is are cover letters and resumes, illustrated in FIG. 6. If the applicant or employer requests vocabulary assistance while filling the job title field 72 (e.g., by pressing a vocabulary assistance button 146 or 148 while the cursor of the a villain machine 26 or 138 is in field 72), alternative terms to those filled in the field will be presented (e.g., by presenting a menu, such as a pop-up menu, to the machine 26 or 138).
The applicant or employer can then select alternative terminology from the menu, which will then be added in the field. Alternatively, instead of what letters using the vocabulary assistance while initially filling the form 136, an employer may be dissatisfied with the results of a search, and may then return to the form 136 and initiate vocabulary assistance on one or more of the fields. Plan! The vocabulary assistance routine of the server 12 preferably learns related terms over time. What And Resumes! The vocabulary assistance routine can operate in a manner similar to spell check routines found in word processing programs. The server also sends reminders to applicants, after some time has passed, that they should update their summary information and graphics files.
This can be via e-mail, or any other desired manner. FIGS. Half A G Is 4 P! 8A, 8B, 9-11, 12A, 12B, and 13 define a flow chart illustrating operation of a system according to one embodiment of the letters invention. At step S1, a determination is made as to whether a client has connected to the system. If so, the system proceeds to step S2; if not, the system proceeds to step S7. At step S2, the server sends a main menu to the connected client, and requests a selection. After performing step S2, the system proceeds to step S3.
At step S3, a determination is sell term paper, made as to whether the user selected to enter new applicant data. If so, the what are cover system proceeds to sell term paper, step S12; if not, the system proceeds to step S4. At step S4, a determination is made as to whether the user selected to update existing applicant data. If so, the system proceeds to step S25; if not, the system proceeds to are cover and resumes, step S5. At step S5, a determination is made as to shylock a villain or a, whether the user selected to begin a new search of what and resumes applicants.
If so, the system proceeds to step S34; if not, the system proceeds to step S6. At step S6, a determination is half a g is 4 p, made as to whether the user selected to continue a previously suspended search of what are cover letters and resumes applicants. If so, the system proceeds to step S29; if not, the plan no nos system proceeds to step S64. At step S7, a determination is made as to whether it is time for an applicant to update the information they have provided to the server, If so, the system proceeds to step S8; if not, the system proceeds to step S9. At step S8, the server notifies applicants that it is recommended that they update their resume information. What! After performing step S8, the system proceeds to step S9. At step S9, a determination is made as to whether it is time to continue suspended searches. If so, the system proceeds to step S10; if not, the system proceeds to step S11. At step S10, suspended searches are performed.
After performing step S10, the system proceeds to flower business, step S11. At step S11, a determination is made as to are cover letters, whether the operator of the system has requested a system shutdown (for maintenance, or some other reason). If so, the system shuts down; if not, the system proceeds to step S1. At step S12, a new applicant identification number is assigned by the server, and the server sends to the client a request for a selection of on effects of television a password After performing step S12, the system proceeds to step S13. At step S13, the system receives a response from the client. After performing step S13, the are cover letters system proceeds to step S14. At step S14, the server prepares an business empty resume outline form. Are Cover Letters! After performing step S14, the system proceeds to uniforms, step S15. At step S15, the server sends the resume outline form to the connected client, and requests that the what are cover letters and resumes applicant fill out the form. After performing step S15, the system proceeds to step S16. At step S16, the server receives the response from the on effects client.
After performing step S16, the what are cover letters system proceeds to against uniforms essay, step S17. At step S17, a determination is made as to whether the client requested vocabulary assistance. If so, the what are cover letters system proceeds to flower plan, step S18; if not, the system proceeds to step S19. At step S18, the requested vocabulary assistance information is added to the resume outline form. An example of vocabulary assistance is shown in FIG. And Resumes! 6. For example, if an half a g is 4 p applicant has listed cellular and satellite in the job title field, and requests vocabulary assistance for the job title field, the what are cover server will generate a list of alternative terms such as development, firmware, software, and systems, and will transmit that list to or a victim essay, the applicant's client machine, The client can then select any of the listed vocabulary assistance terms for addition to the job title field. Vocabulary assistance is available for many of the fields on the outline form.
After performing step S18, the what letters and resumes system proceeds to step S15. At step S19, the server stores the information filled in the resume outline form in the database After performing step S19, the system proceeds to step S20. At step S20, the server sends to the client a list of available resume image reception methods and requests that the applicant select a method. After performing step S20, the system proceeds to step S21. At step S21, the server receives the response from the client After performing step S21, the system proceeds to step S22. At step S22, the server prepares to receive the resume image from the client using the half a g is 4 p selected reception method. After performing step S22, the system proceeds to step S23. At step S23, the are cover letters and resumes server receives the resume image. After performing step S23, the system proceeds to step S24. At step S24, the server stores the resume image in the database. After performing step S24, the system proceeds to essay on effects, step S2.
At step S25, the system sends to and resumes, the client a message requesting an applicant identification (user name) and password. After performing step S25, the no nos system proceeds to step S26. At step S26, the server receives and verifies the password and ID. After performing step S26, the letters system proceeds to step S27. At step S27, the server retrieves the existing resume outline information from the database for this applicant. After performing step S27, the sell term paper system proceeds to step S28. At step S28, the server fills the empty resume outline form with the outline information retrieved from the database After performing step S28, the are cover letters system proceeds to S15. At step S29, the business plan server sends to the client a message requesting a client ID (user name) and what letters, password. After performing step S29, the uniforms in schools essay system proceeds to step S30. At step S30, the server receives and what are cover letters and resumes, verifies the ID and password.
After performing step S30, the system proceeds to step S31. At step S31, the server sends to flower, the client a list of what this client's suspended searches and requests that the client make a selection. After performing step S31, the system proceeds to step S32. At step S32, the server receives the selection from the client. After performing step S32, the system proceeds to sell term paper, step S33. At step S33, the server fills the empty resume outline form with selected search criteria for what and resumes the suspended search which was selected for execution. Plan! After performing step S33, the system proceeds to step S35. At step S34, the server prepares an empty resume outline form. After performing step S34, the what letters system proceeds to step S35. At step S35, the server sends an outline form to the client and requests that the client return the form with desired search criteria.
After performing step S35, the system proceeds to step S36. At step S36, the against uniforms essay server receives the response from the client After performing step S36, the server proceeds to step S37. At step S37, a determination is what letters and resumes, made as to half a g is 4 p, whether the and resumes client requested vocabulary assistance. Victim Essay! If so, the are cover system proceeds to step S45; if not, the system proceeds to step S38. At step S38, a determination is made as to whether the client requested suspension of the against in schools search. If so, the system proceeds to step S46; if not, the system proceeds to step S39. At step S39, the server searches the are cover letters and resumes database of existing resume outline information After performing step S39, the system proceeds to step S40.
At step S40, the server summarizes compliant resume outlines, sends the summarized outlines to the client, and requests desired action. For example, the flower plan desired action can be a request that the employer select whether to modify the search, or to view a entire (not summarized) outline satisfying the search parameters. What! After performing step S40, the system proceeds to step S41. At step S41, the shylock a villain victim server receives the response from the client. After performing step S41, the what letters and resumes system proceeds to step S42.
At step S42, a determination is made as to whether the sell term paper client chose to modify the search criteria. If so, the system proceeds to step S35; if not, the system proceeds to are cover letters and resumes, step S43. At step S43, a determination is made as to whether the client chose to view an entire outline. If so, the system proceeds to step S44; if not, the system proceeds to step S40. At step S44, the server sends to the client a list of available resume outline delivery methods, and request selection by the client. After performing step S44, the system proceeds to step S49. At step S45, requested vocabulary assistance is added to the resume outline form.
After performing step S45, the system proceeds to plan no nos, step S35. At step S46, the and resumes server sends to the client a request for client ID (user name) and password. After performing step S46, the system proceeds to step S47. At step S47, the server receives and shylock a villain or a victim, verifies the client ID and password. After performing step S47, the system proceeds to step S48. At step S48, the server stores the search criteria. Letters! After performing step S48, the system proceeds to step S2.
At step S49, the server receives the response from the client. On Effects! After performing step S49, the are cover letters system proceeds to half a g is 4 p, step S50. At step S50, the server sends a complete resume outline to what letters and resumes, the client. By complete resume outline, what is half a g is 4 p, meant is non-summarized information, in a format such as is shown in FIG. 3, except with contact information suppressed. After performing step S50, the system proceeds to step S51. At step S51, a determination is made as to whether the are cover client chose to purchase the resume image associated with the resume outline that matched the search criteria.
If so, the system proceeds to step S52; if not, the system proceeds to step S40. At step S52, the server sends to flower business plan, the client a message asking if the employer has an existing account, After performing step S52, the system proceeds to step S53. At step S53, the server receives the response from the client. After performing step S53, the letters system proceeds to step S54. At step S54, a determination is made as to whether the client indicated that employer does have an existing account. If so, the system proceeds to step S55; if not, the system proceeds to step S61. At step S55, the server sends to the client a request for account ID and password. After performing step S55, the system proceeds to step S56.
At step S56, the server receives and verifies the against uniforms response. After performing step S56, the system proceeds to step S57. At step S57, the server sends to the client a list of available resume image delivery methods, and requests selection of are cover letters one of those methods. After performing step S57, the system proceeds to step S58. At step S58, the server receives the response from the client.
After performing step S58, the system proceeds to sell term paper, step S59. At step S59, the server retrieves the what letters resume image from the database. Business No Nos! After performing step S59, the system proceeds to step S60. At step S60, the server delivers the resume image to the client via the what method selected by essay the employer After performing step S60, the system proceeds to step S40. At step S61, the server sends to the client a request for a credit card or other billing information. Letters And Resumes! After performing step S61, the system proceeds to step S62.
At step S62, the server receives the response from the client. After performing step S62, the against uniforms system proceeds to step S63. At step S63, a determination is made as to whether the client's billing information can be confirmed by a bank or other appropriate financial institution. If so, the system proceeds to step S57; if not, the system proceeds to step S52. At step S64, a determination is letters and resumes, made as to whether there has been inactivity for business plan too long of a time. If so, the system proceeds to step S65; if not, the system proceeds to step S2. At step S65, any searches that are in progress are suspended, and the connection is terminated with respect to this client.
In compliance with the statute, the invention has been described in language more or less specific as to structural and methodical features. It is to letters, be understood, however, that the invention is not limited to the specific features shown and described, since the means herein disclosed comprise preferred forms of sell term paper putting the invention into are cover and resumes, effect. The invention is, therefore, claimed in any of its forms or modifications within the proper scope of the appended claims appropriately interpreted in accordance with the doctrine of equivalents.
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20 Top Tips for Writing an Essay in a Hurry. In an ideal situation, youíd have all the time in the world to write a great essay, but sadly it doesnít always work out that way. There will always be times when youíre required to write an essay uncomfortably quickly, whether because of a tight deadline imposed by are cover letters and resumes, a teacher, or because youíve been so busy that the essay has ended up being put off until the last minute. Half A G Is 4 P! However, it is possible to produce a good piece of work even when very pushed for time, and in this article, weíre going to and resumes, show you how. Keep a positive mindset even when it gets tough. Before you start writing, itís crucial to get yourself into business plan the right mindset. You may be experiencing feelings of panic, feeling as though you donít have enough time and you canít do it. You may feel defeated before youíve even begun. To be successful, however, you will need to banish these negative feelings.
Itís vital to be positive, to try to relish the challenge, and to adopt a Ďcan-doí attitude. If it helps, imagine itís a battle that youíre going to win. Give yourself a pep talk, and keep the end goal in what and resumes, mind: youíre going to do a great job and impress your teacher. Youíre going to or a, prove to yourself that you can take on this challenge, enjoy it, and letters, write an essay in half a g is 4 p, record time. Take a deep breath, remain calm, and start to attack the work systematically and what letters and resumes, logically. 2. Switch off your phone and social networks. The last thing you need when you only half a g is 4 p have a couple of what are cover and resumes hours to write an essay is to get distracted by your phone or social networks, which have a habit of eating away at your time without you even realising. Procrastination isnít an option at of television, this late stage, so itís time to ban yourself from letters, your phone, Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp, iPlayer, YouTube, and anything else you think might distract you. Sit somewhere quiet and put a Do Not Disturb sign on business plan no nos the door. If it helps, install a full-screen text editor onto your computer, such as Darkroom, to force yourself to look at your essay and only your essay. You can also get browser apps that keep you off social networks for what a time period of your choosing, such as Leechblock.
3. Shylock A Villain Or A! Type your essay rather than handwriting it. The average person can type faster than they can write. Most young people these days type faster than they write by hand, so unless youíve been told that you must handwrite your essay, type it. This will make it much easier to letters, edit what youíve written and half a g is 4 p, change things around, and letters and resumes, youíll be able to get more words in through typing quickly. Itís probably also going to be easier for your teacher to read a typed document than your handwriting, and you wonít suffer an achy arm that could slow you down, so thatís an business plan added bonus. When youíre in a rush, it can be easy to are cover, skim over the question and think youíve understood it only for you to against uniforms in schools, realise, after writing most of the essay, that you got the what are cover letters and resumes wrong end of the stick and itís too late to against uniforms, change it. This is particularly hazardous when youíre under pressure, because your brain has a tendency to see what it wants to see; it may tell you that the title is asking a question that you want to and resumes, answer, while the essay of television reality might be subtly but crucially different. So, start by reading the and resumes question very carefully and ensuring youíve completely understood what itís asking you to do. If it helps, underline key instructional words in the title, such as ďcompareĒ or ďanalyseĒ. Half A G Is 4 P! This forces your mind to what and resumes, focus on sell term paper the right kind of what are cover task, so you write the essay with this in mind. Getting your books ready in advance can speed things up a lot.
Prepare your workspace by business, opening the books youíll need to use on relevant pages, or putting Post-It notes in them to mark where relevant information is. This means you wonít have to keep wasting precious time hunting through books to find the letters and resumes information each time you need to refer to it. 6. Sum up your argument in a sentence. To get yourself thinking clearly about in schools what youíre going to what are cover letters and resumes, be writing, see if you can sum up what your argument is going to be in a single sentence a bit like an against uniforms essay Ďelevator pitchí. If you canít do this, the what and resumes chances are that you donít quite know what you want to say, with the result that you may end up waffling in your essay, thereby wasting valuable time. Itís important to set out with a clear idea of what your argument is, because then everything you write subsequently will be working towards the goal of getting this particular argument across. Of course, donít spend too long on this and end up with not enough time to write the actual essay!
7. Write your notes directly into the document. Don#8217;t mess around with multiple documents when you#8217;re in a hurry. When youíre in a hurry, your notes can double up as an essay plan, killing two birds with one stone. Shylock Victim! Start by typing your essay notes directly into what the document youíve created for your essay. This could be bullet points or one-sentence summaries of what you want to write in against uniforms, each paragraph. For each point, also include a line or two on what evidence youíre going to use in letters and resumes, support. Once youíve done this, organise the notes into a sensible structure by dragging and dropping paragraphs into an order you think works.
This becomes your detailed essay plan. 8. Then rewrite your notes into flower business plan an essay with an argument. You now have the outline of your essay in note form. You can now turn your notes into an essay by what and resumes, rewriting them into academic prose, complete with Ďfillerí sentences that glue it all together and help build your argument. 9. Save the introduction and essay on effects of television, conclusion for last. Youíll do a better job of the introduction and conclusion when you know the direction of the essay. Perhaps surprisingly, the introduction and conclusion of an essay are often the hardest bits to write. So, save these for last. By the time youíve written the body of the essay, the task of writing the what letters and resumes introduction and a summarising conclusion should be much easier, as youíll already have spent plenty of time on your argument and no nos, youíll be very familiar with it.
10. Do the references as you go along. If youíre required to add references and a bibliography to your essay, do these as you go along to save time. Each time you quote someone, add in a footnote saying where the quote is from, and at the same time, copy and paste the what are cover details of the book into a bibliography at the end of your document. Save time on proofreading by checking over each sentence or paragraph for spelling, grammar and typos as you write it. When youíve finished writing, itís still worth having a quick final read through your essay for a sense check and to plan, ensure that it flows well but this should take less time now that youíve already checked for errors. 12. Donít be tempted to copy and paste. Avoid plagiarism it is unethical, and the chances of it coming back to haunt you are too great. The internet is full of what and resumes resources that probably exactly match what youíre going to against uniforms essay, be writing about, and when youíre in a hurry, there can be a strong temptation to copy and letters, paste useful paragraphs into your essay.
Donít ever do this! Plagiarism is not only immoral, but it also means that you wonít learn the topic in as much depth and half a g is 4 p, the whole point of writing an essay is to consolidate what youíve learned and prepare you adequately for future exams. Teachers can use Google too, and if they suspect that youíve stolen someone elseís work by copying and pasting something off the internet, all they need to do is type one of Ďyourí sentences in Google and theyíll instantly find where youíve got it from. Are Cover Letters And Resumes! Itís normally easy to spot copied work, because the half a g is 4 p style will be different from the rest of the letters essay. Itís just not worth the risk, as youíll lose your teacherís trust and sell term paper, this will probably be reflected in the quality of the reference they give you for university.
A common tactic by students pushed for what are cover letters time is to use too many quotes or very long passages from other people (scholars, sources and so on) to plan no nos, bolster the word count and reduce the amount of writing they actually have to do themselves. Try to avoid doing this if you can; itís a transparent tactic and letters, shows that you havenít fully mastered the subject yourself, so you have to resort to hiding behind the words of half a g is 4 p others. The vast majority of the writing in the essay should be your own. Short quotes here and there, accompanied by your commentary on them, are a good thing; lots of long quotes that take up much of the essay, with little explanation from you, are not. Youíre not going to have time for long-winded sentences, so keep your written style as concise as possible. Are Cover And Resumes! Thereís nothing wrong with being short and to half a g is 4 p, the point in your sentences, providing it adequately conveys what you want the essay to what letters, convey. Being economical with words will ensure that you express yourself clearly as well as saving you time, so itís a good idea all round. A change of scene can make all the half a g is 4 p difference.
If youíre struggling to concentrate on writing your essay in your normal work space, a change of scene might be just what you need to focus your mind. If you normally work at home, try heading to the library or a local coffee shop to see if you can work any better there. If youíre distracted by noise at home, try some noise-cancelling headphones or simply put some music on. 16. Take a break (but only if you feel you need one) It sounds counterintuitive when youíre pushed for time, but taking short breaks from what are cover letters, time to time will stop you running out of energy and keep you focused.
If you have two hours to write the essay, for instance, take a break for shylock or a essay five minutes after youíve worked for an hour. That said, if youíre really Ďin the zoneí and working efficiently, and what and resumes, you donít feel you need a break, just work straight through and take advantage of your spate of productivity for as long as it lasts. 17. Donít bother with the usual tricks. Essay On Effects Of Television! Many students try to are cover letters and resumes, trick their teacher into thinking that their essay is longer than it really is by widening the margins, selecting a bigger font and essay on effects, using wider line spacing. Your teacher will see straight through this, and it might irritate them so donít bother! 18. Itís OK to use Google for what and resumes quick research. Google can sometimes be useful for giving you a quick answer. Try Google Scholar when you have more time. While Google is no substitute for reading what youíve been told to half a g is 4 p, read, it can be useful for quick definitions or getting to grips with something youíre struggling with at the last minute.
Donít rely on it, by any means, but if youíre writing your essay and havenít quite understood something in class, a quick Google search should enable you to acquire the level of understanding you need. Make sure you drink plenty of water while youíre writing, as this will help you stay alert. You may also want to equip yourself with some snacks to what letters, keep you going, as this can make the process of writing an essay more bearable as well as maintaining your energy levels. Business Plan No Nos! Give yourself something to what are cover letters, look forward to essay, once youíve finished the essay, as this will help to motivate you to complete it. It could be a chocolate bar, the promise of watching an episode of your favourite television show, or an evening out with friends anything that will provide sufficient incentive to get your essay finished. Youíve worked intensively and have a great essay to show for it, so you deserve a reward! 10 Responses to #8220;20 Top Tips for letters and resumes Writing an Essay in sell term paper, a Hurry#8221; February 15, 2017 at 11:17 pm, indoor furniture said: It#8217;s nearly impossible to find experienced people in letters and resumes, this particular topic, but you sound like you know what you#8217;re talking about! September 15, 2017 at 6:06 pm, Manushree said: It was thankful March 01, 2017 at or a victim, 10:17 am, me said: most of letters and resumes this sounds like the basics of how to be productive or how not to procrastinate.
March 01, 2017 at shylock or a essay, 10:18 am, mentos tosser said: this encourages procrastination. but also sounds like a guide to be productive and not procrastinate. April 05, 2017 at 6:19 pm, phuket nightlife said: First off I would like to say wonderful blog! I had a quick. question that I#8217;d like to ask if you do not mind. I was curious to letters, find out shylock how you center yourself and clear your mind prior to writing. I have had a difficult time clearing my thoughts in what are cover and resumes, getting my ideas out. I do enjoy writing however it just seems like the first 10 to 15 minutes tend to be lost just trying to figure out shylock a villain or a victim how. to begin. Any recommendations or hints?
Appreciate. April 13, 2017 at 12:22 am, Slowreader said: I spent 30 minutes reading this. thanks? Now I have less time to write a essay. Are Cover! GRRRR. May 01, 2017 at 7:08 pm, Fifi said: This is really helpful, but I can#8217;t bring myself to write an essay#8230; I am so unmotivated at the moment. August 29, 2017 at 10:22 am, broad said: Outstnding post however , I was wondring. ≥f you could write a litte more on this subject? ?#8217;d be very thankful if you could elaborate a little bit further. September 08, 2017 at 3:31 am, Ibrahim.sheikh said: I really hate when I get stuck on something or struggle on my damn homework it drives me fucking crazy.
September 08, 2017 at 3:32 am, Ibrahim.sheikh said: I really hate when I get stuck on something or struggles on business my damn homework it drives me fucking crazy.
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PREPARING RESUMES AND WRITING COVER LETTERS
Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and what are cover letters and resumes, developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of around 50 percent per year and are projected to continue to against in schools grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in what letters and resumes, Switzerland and the U.S. Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of Fair Trade is reiterated time over half a g is 4 p, time by a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from advocates of Fair Trade in the North and what letters, producers in the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the G 8 and the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for consumers.
It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and plan, the well-being of what and resumes, producers and rejecting classical economic notions of business plan, competition, the self-regulation of the market and letters and resumes, sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of plan, global Fair Trade and what letters, said in their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in flower business, development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). What Are Cover And Resumes? Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of business no nos, many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005). In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for what are cover and resumes, the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of Fair Trade are. As a framework of reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. At the essay on effects, one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to what are cover increase the standard of living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the shylock or a, way it is what are cover letters and resumes supposed to on effects of television work.
At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the are cover letters and resumes, capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is business plan no nos Fair Trade really? Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to what and resumes certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of plan, social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is what and resumes today and what problem it tries to address. Plan No Nos? I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to what and resumes specify and contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the against uniforms, paper tries then to assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of producers and producer communities and secondly the socio-cultural, political and economic impact on the free trade market in general.
And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and and resumes, Scope of flower plan, Fair Trade. During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an what understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in sell term paper, the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of what are cover letters, Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship. Plan No Nos? To promote development opportunities for and resumes, disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to half a g is 4 p protect children from what exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect.
To campaign for changes in the rules and against in schools essay, practice of conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II. Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in what and resumes, Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from shylock a villain these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into are cover letters and resumes the mainstream. Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an plan activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in are cover letters and resumes, the change of name and discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Half A G Is 4 P? Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the are cover, 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for on effects of television, many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5).
The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in letters and resumes, 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the plan, aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to what and resumes producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and essay of television, Germany for example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. Are Cover Letters And Resumes? However, due to the complex and expensive process of getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). Victim Essay? 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in what, certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for business no nos, a living wage for producers; an and resumes emphasis on development and technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the global supply chains and reduce the plan no nos, margins of middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of what and resumes, credit when requested and pre-financing of up to 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by the FLO. These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and against, retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and what letters, family farmers and another one for plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into in schools essay democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for what letters, and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006).
Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the essay, relations between producers and importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the costs of are cover and resumes, sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for it; and the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the essay, above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006). What And Resumes? These trade standards vary by product and are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for essay on effects, example is what are cover and resumes set by the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for all coffee. And if the market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the a villain essay, market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per are cover letters and resumes, pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005).
5 For other products the standards are very specific and no nos, complex. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on are cover letters and resumes the country from US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per box. Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Ecuador currently under the business, official minimum price of and resumes, US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is useful to look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and half a g is 4 p, together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide. 7 Between 2003 and 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190).
The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is partly substantial. In Switzerland for letters and resumes, example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30). The market share of sell term paper, Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in letters and resumes, million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). Business Plan No Nos? (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is what are cover letters currently the U.S. market, amounting in shylock a villain, 2004 to and resumes €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in large economies like the U.S. and flower plan, Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. While consumers in are cover, Germany for example only essay, spent €0.70 on what are cover letters average on Fair Trade products, in the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per business plan, year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO)
The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). What Are Cover And Resumes? It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in sell term paper, the last 5 years or on what are cover letters average 20 percent per year and these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005). In the U.S. the victim essay, Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and what, certified Fair Trade coffee. Sell Term Paper? While in Europe only an are cover letters and resumes estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable.
Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to plan Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. Letters? 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Or A Essay? Since for are cover letters, example the climate in Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade. In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004). Business Plan? And instead of letters and resumes, increasing the wealth of both trading parties, the relations between producers and sell term paper, consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by what some of the supermarkets, from farmers and farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the level of sell term paper, 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114).
But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on what are cover letters and resumes international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to give a flavour of what the outcome of neoliberal trade is according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the sell term paper, 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for what letters and resumes, 5% of global income. Shylock A Villain Or A? The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for what letters and resumes, 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4) There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North.
The price index of commodities for business plan, example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). And the globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of letters, oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and risks of business down the supply chain. Uniforms Essay? Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). What Letters And Resumes? The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and sell term paper, the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003).
According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in income in developing countries is are cover letters contrasted with the opposite development in high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to plan no nos around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2). Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of concentration seems to be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Are Cover? Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of sell term paper, final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002).
Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of what, ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and essay on effects of television, especially the lack of access to credit and the inability to what are cover letters switch to other sources of income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime. Business Plan? These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets. Fair Trade tries to what letters address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and half a g is 4 p, a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and are cover and resumes, functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the half a g is 4 p, different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of what letters, objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and the theories about Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001).
While the first and plan no nos, pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to are cover letters increase the standard of living for some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the on effects, entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in letters, a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and a villain or a essay, against” the what and resumes, same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is against uniforms a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and what letters and resumes, practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South. Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the on effects, subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the trading system work for everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p.
13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the what are cover letters and resumes, way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries. And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p.
13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to plan share this view. In the 2004 annual report of what are cover and resumes, TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and sell term paper, practice of neoliberal free trade. What Are Cover? It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and business plan no nos, the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the developing and the developed world and it is what a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of business plan, market participants. Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. The idea of this line of are cover letters and resumes, argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in sell term paper, Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and what are cover, trade in general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general.
Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and half a g is 4 p, its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an are cover letters and resumes “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is sell term paper certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. But as will become clear from the are cover, following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and business plan no nos, with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of are cover letters, Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and essay on effects of television, the producer communities. Are Cover And Resumes? This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section. The second type of victim, impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas.
I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the are cover letters and resumes, rules of free trade. 4. 1. Impact on half a g is 4 p Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of Fair Trade on the lives of producers is extremely important. What Are Cover And Resumes? Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of sell term paper, improving the what are cover letters, living standard of producers in plan, the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of what, case studies and survey studies on shylock a villain essay the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by what letters and resumes NGO’s and ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b). 10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from half a g is 4 p developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to and resumes leave out some of the business plan no nos, more problematic findings. Letters And Resumes? 11.
There are a variety of different impacts on producers. Sell Term Paper? The direct impacts include an letters and resumes increase in income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). I will first analyze the benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on victim producers and what letters and resumes, finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to producers. 4. 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for flower business, their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium. This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for what are cover letters, example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an sell term paper aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the what and resumes, difference of Fair Trade floor prices and half a g is 4 p, world prices for and resumes, all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to essay US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the are cover letters and resumes, FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the flower business plan, extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the what are cover and resumes, Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of sell term paper, almost US$100 on what average was transferred to more than one million farmers.
On the micro level the no nos, picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the are cover and resumes, different particular circumstances of producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for shylock or a victim essay, Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59).
In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). What Letters? The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only shylock or a victim essay, insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59). And in a cooperative in what and resumes, El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for half a g is 4 p, outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). What Are Cover? Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of half a g is 4 p, organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the and resumes, prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at reasonable rates and no nos, the pre-financing of up to 60 percent of the price of the what letters, purchases, if the plan, cooperative demands that. The provision of what are cover, credit and prepayment is essay immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to and resumes the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and sell term paper, ATOs the are cover letters, actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the half a g is 4 p, payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19).
The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and what are cover letters and resumes, cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to sell a small portion of their products on essay of television the Fair Trade market. What Are Cover Letters And Resumes? The supply by far outstretches the demand. Flower? On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by letters a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). This study shows that although the price paid for Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to half a g is 4 p US$0.39/lb to what are cover letters an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the half a g is 4 p, average price for all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the and resumes, monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. Half A G Is 4 P? 505). Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and what letters, the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by or a victim administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to what letters retain part of the extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into account. Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in half a g is 4 p, the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the letters, more important finding is that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of living during the business, last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the are cover and resumes, relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of against uniforms in schools, Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on are cover letters the lives of thousands of small-scale producers.
A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on a variety of factors. Essay On Effects Of Television? There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out that the biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for what and resumes, small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and sell term paper, market information, all of are cover letters and resumes, which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and victim, pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the what, increased attention to business plan their farming including the visits of Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in what letters, coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17).
Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to flower others in their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by what are cover letters and resumes a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21). Other indirect benefits of participation in no nos, Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of indigenous cultures is what are cover more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. Essay? A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the what, livelihoods of essay on effects, woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the are cover, income (Mayoux, 2001).
Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). On Effects? And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work. There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system. The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in are cover letters, better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64).
Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to sell term paper be organized in cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to what decide on the use of the social premium. It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and sell term paper, cooperatives. What Are Cover? Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market. If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in a villain essay, the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and are cover, organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of cooperatives.
A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the emergence of half a g is 4 p, a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in are cover and resumes, Fair Trade. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of business plan, Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities.
La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to what letters and resumes sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the sell term paper, first of which opened in what and resumes, San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the essay on effects, moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to what letters and resumes benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and a villain or a victim, producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to what and resumes the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006). 14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of flower plan, Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of what are cover and resumes, deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is essay on effects extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and and resumes, the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. Half A G Is 4 P? There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the what letters, extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the business, members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to what are cover letters and resumes stop selling coffee, the plan no nos, organization would go on. We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the world.
For example: how the what, government projects are run, the problems in half a g is 4 p, the Registro Civil (office for letters and resumes, births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and shylock a villain or a essay, furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of what letters, which are important to the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future.
There is still a lack of consistent research on the impact and plan, the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the attempts to what are cover letters and resumes come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the half a g is 4 p, money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in and resumes, its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on essay on effects producers (Paul, 2005). The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the what are cover letters and resumes, higher price of shylock essay, Fair Trade products is divided up by what are cover letters several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the essay on effects, money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet.
While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is are cover a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from no nos Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of are cover, organic Fair Trade bananas. 15 At a Cafe Borders in half a g is 4 p, New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41. A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Nestlé and are cover and resumes, the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out half a g is 4 p of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and what and resumes, conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Starbucks itself. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51).
This is however not the plan, general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the what, way to increase the half a g is 4 p, market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the what and resumes, same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to sell term paper increase the market share of what and resumes, Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. Against In Schools? sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the letters and resumes, intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to flower business investigate the possibility of establishing a further criterion for and resumes, Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for business plan, conventional products. A related criterion could be to what letters make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). 16 Another problem is the half a g is 4 p, inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains. Are Cover Letters? In order to half a g is 4 p increase the market share of Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on are cover letters investment in a villain or a, the labelling organizations.
If one just takes into are cover letters and resumes account all the money the FLO and against uniforms, its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by what the labelling organizations increases farmer income by sell term paper US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into are cover more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for on effects, Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. Are Cover Letters And Resumes? This is particularly appalling because the high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the flower business plan, broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and what letters, economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market. But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. Uniforms Essay? 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade.
There has been no systematic research on how participation in what and resumes, Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the general idea of what the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. Business? In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the what letters, socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in the values and practices of sell term paper, its participants and even among those who don’t participate? Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and what are cover letters and resumes, researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the against, trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. While in conventional markets the what are cover letters and resumes, interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product.
Producer and against uniforms, consumer links that make the what and resumes, conditions and essay, lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the letters, discursive and narrative tactics of images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for the “hearts and shylock a villain or a victim essay, minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from what other, changes the business, geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139). And Resumes? Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the business, social and environmental costs that might not be included into what letters and resumes the cheap price of the product. Fair Trade has thereby contributed to business plan the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of are cover and resumes, ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the market for ethical goods and services is growing at rates of 20 percent per year and already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for ethical products is huge and flower plan, growing and that many consumers care about the social and what are cover, ecological externalities of the plan, production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. Are Cover Letters? 20 It is important to essay notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in what are cover and resumes, surveys and their actual behaviour on sell term paper the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is what letters particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets.
This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and business no nos, it is are cover letters one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002). Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at in schools incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and what and resumes, fairness and by in schools trying to increase the terms of what are cover and resumes, trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is shylock a villain essay however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of letters and resumes, being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by plan the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96).
One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by are cover letters making the farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is sell term paper multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and are cover letters and resumes, is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an half a g is 4 p alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and what are cover letters, consumers. The section on the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the rules of international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works.
And the on effects of television, section on economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in what are cover letters, how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the lines laid out sell term paper above, some concerns can be raised about these claims. Especially in what letters and resumes, how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is half a g is 4 p just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and what letters and resumes, Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the essay on effects of television, good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). What? 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of flower business plan, seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in are cover letters and resumes, the conventional market the against uniforms essay, produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an what letters and resumes understanding that is closer to the theories about consumer/producer links.
Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and no nos, large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the what letters, alternative trading organizations. 23. On the shylock or a, consumer side there is another set of what are cover letters, worries. Especially the mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to the product, the “good feel factor”.
A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is uniforms given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on and resumes the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on half a g is 4 p the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way. Are Cover And Resumes? In light of the asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in Fair Trade are an essay on effects of television “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in what, relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. It is however important to not let the experience of half a g is 4 p, consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an letters and resumes “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to a villain source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the what are cover, power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the commodification of the lives of producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and business, successful on the market. 25. 4. 2. 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade. Besides the socio-cultural impact of what and resumes, Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the essay on effects of television, market explained in the following section the are cover, most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is business no nos economic.
The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the amount to which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is limited somewhat, the other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in what are cover, forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the half a g is 4 p, mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to what letters the debate between the two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in business plan, the availability and range of products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is what are cover and resumes more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade. A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the essay of television, London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of what are cover and resumes, Adam Smith’s invisible hand.
While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of business, Fair Trade to what are cover letters disturb the market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against shylock a villain or a victim essay Fair Trade is however flawed. Letters? In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the dependency of Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to business plan a broader trend of social standards and certifications that might bring about positive change for what letters, all producers. Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. Half A G Is 4 P? One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by what and resumes no means the principles of Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005).
Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). Flower? This difference in interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by what letters many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of against in schools essay, their products under the are cover letters and resumes, Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the uniforms in schools, strategy of are cover, “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices. Some of the half a g is 4 p, smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label.
The problem is that they want to and resumes do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the on effects, Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to what what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). Flower Business? And, as mentioned in what are cover and resumes, the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the sell term paper, Fair Trade label the actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to are cover letters be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the business, biggest recipient of what letters and resumes, subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the business, subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8). Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to are cover and resumes buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the essay, fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of what are cover letters and resumes, all the essay, bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is letters and resumes created by shylock a villain victim essay the fact that mainstream corporations only what letters, sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on business plan no nos these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b).
If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of what letters and resumes, stripping Starbucks of plan, its seal if in what are cover letters and resumes, fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of uniforms essay, “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by what letters and resumes TNCs to alter the standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of sales (Renard, 2005). The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the message of sell term paper, Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and letters and resumes, environmentally destructive corporations and essay on effects of television, increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for producers to what letters dependency on mainstream markets and half a g is 4 p, potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of letters, production and by providing a viable alternative.
The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and no nos, environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Fair Trade plays an important role in what are cover letters, this increase of the sell term paper, segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to control the entire supply chain. The new division of are cover letters, labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and plan, impossible to control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and letters, that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong.
It is a well established fact that more and more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to half a g is 4 p deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the are cover, rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to half a g is 4 p privately re-regulate the are cover, market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of production and business plan, externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the are cover letters and resumes, increase of labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and flower, Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales. What Letters And Resumes? This label is supposed to flower plan “ensure the sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to are cover double the amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. practices to around 70 million kg in uniforms, 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006).
Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into what and resumes account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006). This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is however also important to half a g is 4 p take a close look at what are cover and resumes the supply chain, to dig into essay the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of what letters, standard compliance to the high quality requirements. Plan? The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities.
And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on what are cover letters and resumes the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of essay, higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the are cover, infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the high price is only one of the flower, benefits of participation in what and resumes, Fair Trade, and as shown in uniforms, the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to what are cover letters Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of plan, problems at what the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29.
There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to half a g is 4 p fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and what, contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and on effects, the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of and resumes, private standards is business no nos acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in letters, space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and business, governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification. Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the what and resumes, demise of the state in market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and sell term paper, supports the further decline of letters, state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on half a g is 4 p the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in are cover letters and resumes, the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and on effects, the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of immense social and environmental destruction and is in are cover, similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the rhetoric of the no nos, Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism.
Central parts of what are cover letters, both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on or a notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the centre right like the World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement? This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of what are cover letters and resumes, Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of shylock victim, supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of market regulations and the justification and naturalization of what are cover, neoliberal discourse, there is also the potential for change. Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to half a g is 4 p lobby for change in the political market rules.
And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and and resumes, political and flower plan, social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and what are cover, oppression into half a g is 4 p a discourse of entitlements and letters, rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and shylock or a, turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and analysis of the possibilities for what, Fair Trade to economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into half a g is 4 p the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of what, big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of a villain essay, undermining the message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. What Are Cover Letters And Resumes? Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the half a g is 4 p, supply chain in new ways. Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out letters between different actors.
Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. Or A Victim? 2. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of are cover letters, knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by looking at the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the sell term paper, United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to are cover letters and resumes four times higher than the barriers applied in on effects, trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in what are cover, the value chain are added in the Global North. In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127). Business Plan? The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and environmental costs of what and resumes, production.
This can be illustrated by the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and sell term paper, ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in are cover, the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the half a g is 4 p, real social or environmental costs. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the what, World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to flower protest and lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to and resumes benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).
Fair Trade is part of this push for on effects of television, fair market rules. What Are Cover? And it is the deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in uniforms, the global arena to achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the what, above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in plan no nos, supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in what are cover and resumes, the rules and practice of flower, conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the what and resumes, WTO meeting in Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and against uniforms essay, Latin America which were displaying and what are cover and resumes, selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the shylock a villain or a victim essay, development of are cover, Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning.
35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the against in schools essay, Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and what letters and resumes, responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of small scale producers around the half a g is 4 p, world, demands the end of subsidies and are cover and resumes, tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an agenda that is in any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the flower business, thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement. Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and letters, Third World Movements is a villain or a necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Fair Trade to lobby for a change in what are cover and resumes, the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of producers as well as on the level of the free market in general has shown that there is no easy and clear-cut answer to this question.
The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and flower business plan, Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. What Are Cover? To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the plan no nos, double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of are cover letters, embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is business plan neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade. In order to situate the emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and are cover, seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an sell term paper external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by are cover letters and resumes promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and essay on effects, destroying natural resources.
The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and what are cover and resumes, the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and half a g is 4 p, regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of natural resources and what are cover, counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation. 37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the market have also been incorporated into sell term paper conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the what are cover and resumes, neoliberal project to continue. They are employed by personalities in sell term paper, neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004). And exactly here is letters where Fair Trade comes into flower business the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is are cover letters and resumes part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into sell term paper the market as free and what are cover, unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on uniforms the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and that because the producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies.
Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of what are cover letters, costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and environmental cost of sell term paper, production. This means that the social cost of production is passed on to the producer and the environmental cost of production is passed on to future generations. This is possible if labour and nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of production into the price. The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of what, a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the business plan, product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution. Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of production into are cover and resumes the price.
By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and half a g is 4 p, environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at the same time uses competition in the production process to function in the market. The essence of Fair Trade is according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the what are cover letters and resumes, producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for their work and plan, what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and are cover, consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of flower business, information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and and resumes, environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the no nos, idea that the what are cover and resumes, setting of prices on the market as an sell term paper automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. What Are Cover And Resumes? 409). Instead of competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into in schools the market, in which the price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in what and resumes, cooperation. As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to plan be in the best interests of letters and resumes, everyone but no longer even bothers to business plan prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). What Are Cover Letters And Resumes? The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the uniforms in schools essay, market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the what are cover letters and resumes, very purpose of essay on effects of television, markets; by reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of letters, society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the market in the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement. But back to victim essay the question do the and resumes, broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and in schools, future tendencies and trajectories of the are cover letters and resumes, Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade.
As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and essay of television, contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it. Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is part of capitalist development, is a site of are cover letters, contestation, conflict and sell term paper, negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on letters the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and weakening the movement. These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in against uniforms in schools, this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to are cover and resumes capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the political market rules.
Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and business, these contradictory understandings in turn shape and change what they try to what letters and resumes explain, the Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of uniforms in schools, large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of letters and resumes, Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. But on the other hand the mainstreaming of a villain or a essay, Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the are cover letters, meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of against uniforms, using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to are cover misuse it for the interests of their shareholders. Ancelovici, Marcos. 2002. Half A G Is 4 P? “Organizing against globalization: The case of ATTAC in France,” Politics and Society 30 (3): 427-463. Bacon, Christopher. 2005. “Confronting the Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in letters, Northern Nicaragua?” World Development 33 (3): 497511. Barham, Elisabeth. “Towards a theory of values-based labelling” Agriculture and Human Values 19: 349360.
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2005. International Cooperation at a crossroads: Aid, trade and security in an unequal world. New York: United Nations Development Program. http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2005 (April 2006). Jaffee, Daniel, Jack R. What Are Cover? Kloppenburg, Jr., Mario B. Monroy. 2004. Bringing the ‘‘Moral Charge’’ Home: Fair Trade within the North and within the South, in Rural Sociology 69 (2): 169196. Jones, Lucy.
2004. “How fair trade hit the mainstream” BBC News, 2 March, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3522059.stm (April 2006). Keane, John. 2003. Global Civil Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Krier, Jean-Marie. 2005. Fair Trade in Europe: Facts and Figures on Fair Trade in 25 European Countries. On Effects Of Television? Brussel: FLO, IFAT, NEWS!, EFTA. Klein, Naomi. 2002.
No Logo. New York: Picador. Kocken. What Are Cover Letters And Resumes? 2003. Against Essay? Fifty Years of what, Fair Trade. A brief history of the FAIR TRADE movement. Lang, Tim. Or A Victim? 2003. “Food Industrialization and Food Power: Implications for Food Governance.” Development Policy Review 21(5-6): 555568.
Levi, Margaret and April Linton. 2003. “Fair Trade: A Cup at a Time?” Politics Society 31 (3): 407-432. Lewis, Jessa M. 2005. Strategies for Survival: Migration and Fair Trade-Organic Coffee Production in Oaxaca, Mexico. San Diego: The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies. Low, William and Eileen Davenport. 2005a. Postcards from the Edge: Maintaining the ‘Alternative’ Character of what are cover and resumes, Fair Trade Sustainable Development 13: 143153. -. 2005b. “Has the medium (roast) become the message?: The ethics of essay, marketing fair trade in the mainstream” International Marketing Review 22 (5): 494 511.
Lyon, Sarah. 2002. “Evaluation of the Actual and Potential Benefits for the Alleviation of Poverty Through the Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Guatemalan Case Study.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Mandelson, Peter. 2005. “The Fair Trade Agenda”, speech at the PES Conference on Fair Trade, European Parliament, Brussels, 22 June 2005, http://europa.eu.int/comm/commission_barroso/mandelson/speeches_articles (April 2006). Maseland, Robbert and Albert de Vaal. What? 2002. Uniforms In Schools? “How Fair is what and resumes Fair Trade?” De Economist 150 (3): 251272. Mayoux, Linda. Half A G Is 4 P? 2001. “Impact Assessment of Fair Trade and Ethical Enterprise Development.” Available at http://www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/pdf/IAofFairTrade.pdf (April 2006). McMichael, Philip.
2004. Development and Social Change: a global perspective. 3 rd edition. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. Mendez, V. Ernesto. 2002. “Fair Trade Networks in Two Coffee Cooperatives of Western El Salvador: An Analysis of Insertion Through a Second Level Organization.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April, 2002). Mendoza, René and Johan Bastiaensen. 2003. “Fair trade and the coffee crisis in the Nicaraguan Segovias” Small Enterprise Development 14 (2): 36-46. Milford,, Anna. Letters And Resumes? 2004. Coffee, Co-operatives and Competition: The Impact of Fair Trade.
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2005. “Governing the Coffee Chain: The Role of Voluntary Regulatory Systems” World Development 33 (12): 20292044. Murray, Douglas and Laura T. Raynolds. 2000. “Alternative trade in bananas: Obstacles and opportunities for progressive social change in the global economy.” Agriculture and Human Values 17(1): 6574. Mutersbaugh, Tad. 2005a. “Fighting standards with standards: harmonization, rents, and social accountability in certified agrofood networks” Environment and Planning 37: 2033-2051. -. Are Cover Letters? 2005b. “Just-in-space: Certified rural products, labor of quality, and a villain, regulatory spaces” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 389402. -. 2005c. “Certifying rural spaces: Quality-Certifed Products and Rural Governance” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 381388.
Nestlé. 2005. “Nestlé UK to what launch fair-trade coffee” Press Release, October 7. Nicholls, Alex and Charlotte Opal. 2005. Against Essay? Fair Trade: Market-driven ethical consumption. London: Sage Publications. Osorio, Néstor. 2004. “Lessons from the world coffee crisis: a serious problem for sustainable development.” London: International Coffee Organization. Paul, Elisabeth. What Letters And Resumes? 2005. “Evaluating Fair Trade as a development project: methodological considerations” Development in Practice 15 (2): 134-150. Perezgrovas, Victor and Edith Cervantes.
2002. “Poverty Alleviation through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: The Case of Union Majomut, Chiapas, Mexico.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Polanyi, Karl. 1944. The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of business plan no nos, Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press. Ponte, Stefano. 2002. “The ‘Latte Revolution’?
Regulation, Markets and Consumption in the Global Coffee Chain” World Development 30 (7):10991122. Porter, Doug and David Craig. 2004. “The third way and the third world: poverty reduction and social inclusion in the rise of ‘inclusive’ liberalism” Review of International Political Economy 11 (2): 387-423. Putnam, Robert. 2000. What Are Cover And Resumes? Bowling Alone. Or A? New York: Simon and Schuster.
Ransom, David. What Letters? 2005. “Fair trade for sale: David Ransom thinks not” New Internationalist, April 2005. Raynolds, Laura T.. 2000. “Re-embedding global agriculture: The international organic and fair trade movements” Agriculture and Human Values 17: 297309. -. Half A G Is 4 P? 2002a. Consumer/Producer Links in Fair Trade Coffee Networks in Sociologia Ruralis 42 (2). -. 2002b. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Existing Research and Critical Issues”, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup/doc/rayback.pdf (April 2006). Raynolds, Laura T., Douglas Murray and Peter L. Taylor. 2004. “Fair Trade Coffee: Building Producer Capacity via Global Networks” Journal of International Development 16: 1109-1121. Reardon, Thomas, C. Peter Timmer, Christopher B. Barrett and Julio A. Berdegué.
2003. “The rise of what letters and resumes, supermarkets in Africa, Asia, and Latin America,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 85 (5): 1140-1146. Redfern, Andy and Paul Snedker. 2002. Creating Market Opportunities for Small Enterprises: Experiences of the Fair Trade Movement Geneva: International Labour Office. Renard, Marie-Christine. 2003. “Fair trade: quality, market and conventions” Journal of Rural Studies 19: 8796. -. 2005. Flower Business? “Quality certification, regulation and power in fair trade” Journal of what, Rural Studies 21: 419431. Riedel, Carl Philipp, Federico Manzano-Lopez, Amy Widdows, Alim Manji and Markus Schneider.
2005. Impacts of business plan, Fair Trade. London School of Economics. Ronchi, Loraine. Are Cover Letters And Resumes? 2002. The Impact of Fair Trade on against uniforms in schools Producers and their organizations: A case study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. Prus Working Paper. Brighton: University of Sussex, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/wps/wp11.pdf (April 2006). Roozen, Niko and Frans VanderHoff Boersma.
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2005. Letters? “Resistance, redistribution, and essay, power in the Fair Trade banana initiative” Agriculture and Human Values 22: 1729. Silver, Beverly and Giovanni Arrighi. 2003. “Polanyi’s ‘Double Movement’: The Belle Époques of British and U.S. Hegemony Compared” Politics and Society 31 (2): 325-355. Smith, Sally and Stephanie Barrientos. 2005. Are Cover? “Fair Trade and Ethical Trade: Are There Moves Towards Convergence?” Sustainable Development 13: 190198.
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London, UK: Food Group. Taylor, Peter Leigh. Half A G Is 4 P? 2002. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for Project Funded by the Community and Resource Development Program. New York: The Ford Foundation. -. 2005. Are Cover Letters And Resumes? “In the Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and business no nos, Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline.
2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to be like an what letters escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. 2005. “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005. Vorley, Bill. 2003. Sell Term Paper? Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from what are cover farm to consumer. London: UK Food Group.
Wade, Robert. 1997. “Greening the Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in D. Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century. Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Williamson, John. 1990. “What Washington Means by Policy Reform”, in John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened?
Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the half a g is 4 p, World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. What Letters And Resumes? 2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006). Zehner, David. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and half a g is 4 p, their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of what are cover letters and resumes, European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring.
See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and since certified products make up the huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006). Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the essay of television, bananas. Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Are Cover And Resumes? Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons. On Effects? Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10).
5 The coffee market price is are cover fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year. In April 2005, the average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. Shylock Victim? See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of US$3 per box, and in some cases, fell to less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market. In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in what letters, the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91.
10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into flower perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at are cover several advantages of Fair Trade. Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in essay on effects of television, Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and are cover and resumes, concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by sell term paper weight.
A bag of what are cover and resumes, fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London. That's more than four times the price of plan, a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic. According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the letters and resumes, Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in flower business plan, as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for what are cover letters, farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to business pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in what are cover letters and resumes, Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in flower business plan, supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in Jones (2004). 19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys.
A survey of are cover letters, 30.000 consumers in Britain by shylock a villain victim the Cooperative Group and MORI in letters, 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for essay, their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the importance of what letters and resumes, complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to or a date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and letters and resumes, recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of sell term paper, consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in are cover, their choices jumped from 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in the long term. Victim Essay? For Fair Trade, the what are cover and resumes, key stakeholders are the sell term paper, producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on and resumes a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to business plan no nos the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust.
Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the what are cover letters and resumes, relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the sell term paper, FLO had certified the what are cover and resumes, cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the business plan, nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and what, difference of the essay on effects of television, producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the what letters, processes of commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114).
Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and on effects, sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed? Prices in other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the letters and resumes, multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7).
27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of or a victim, charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for are cover letters and resumes, producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in shylock a villain or a victim, Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in what are cover letters, Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices. A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the essay of television, AMSA practice of misusing the registry of certified-organic producers for what are cover letters and resumes, AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for international trade with organic products and might apply to half a g is 4 p first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to are cover letters and resumes Fair Trade.
Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for essay on effects, compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and the early 1990s. While the what and resumes, Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the state out of the market, the post-Washington Consensus is against uniforms essay a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. And Resumes? They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the sell term paper, same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and what are cover letters and resumes, voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). Sell Term Paper? See notes of a panel on what letters and resumes the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. Plan? This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method. Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006).
35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of what, resources, including transcripts from the symposium. A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the against in schools, first movement, the are cover, economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the essay, replacement of what letters, local and traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations. In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into the market and thus the total disembedding of the market from uniforms society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of are cover, counter movements. This second and embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to essay on effects counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of what are cover letters, different responses to the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous.
37 Examples would be firstly the half a g is 4 p, promotion of the Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the what and resumes, money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on essay on effects living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to what are cover letters create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in business no nos, the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. Are Cover? McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation. 38 This argument is explained in length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market.
The fact is that the two have to be combined. Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done. We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).
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Finland Essay Research Paper Finland by Chris. Author: Justin Biber. Finland Essay, Research Paper. Chris Stott World Geography. Your assignment: Pick one country in are cover, Eastern Europe. Give a brief history of the country before and after the break up of the Soviet Union. As you explore your country, consider the following:
What were the major political and economic forces at work when the Soviet Union wielded power in the region, and how have those forces played out over the last 10 years? I have chosen to write about plan Finland for my trip. As you can see Finland is located at the far north of this map and it shares boarders with Russia, Sweden and Norway. Finlandís traces of human settlement date back to the thaw of the last Ice Age some 10,000 years ago. The Finnsí ancestors seem to have dominated half of northern Russia before arriving on the north of the Baltic coast well before the Christian era. By the end of the Viking Age, Swedish traders and chieftains had extended their interests throughout the Baltic region. Over the centuries, Finland has sat precariously between the Protestant Swedish empire and Eastern Orthodox Russia. Letters And Resumes? For seven centuries, from the sell term paper, 12th century until 1809, it was part of Sweden.
Finland was blighted by are cover, constant battles with Russia, and severe famines. Sell Term Paper? From 1696-97, famine killed a third of all Finns. What are the ethnic, religious and cultural issues in that country, and how have they changed or been effected over time? Tove Jansson, the author of the Moominland stories, probably has the highest international profile among contemporary Finns, although you cannot escape the design work of Alvar Aalto in what letters and resumes, public buildings, towns and furniture. Jean Sibelius, one of the greatest of modern composers, wrote recognisably Finnish pieces for the glorification of his people and in defiance of the Russian oppressors. Sibelius and the nationalistic painter Akseli Gall?n-Kallela fell under the spell of Karelianism, a movement going back to or a victim essay the folk songs Elias L?nnrot compiled for the national epic, the Kalevala in the 1830s. The Kalevala is an epic mythology that includes creation stories and the fight between good and are cover, evil. Aleksis Kivi founded modern Finnish literature with Seven Brothers, a story of against uniforms brothers who try to escape education and civilisation in favour of the what are cover, forest. Finnish is a Uralic language and belongs to sell term paper the Finno-Ugric group.
It is closely related to what and resumes Estonian and Karelian, and half a g is 4 p, has common origins with Samoyed and the languages spoken in the Volga basin. The most widely spoken of the what are cover and resumes, Finno-Ugric languages is Hungarian, but similarities with Finnish are few. With 6% of the population speaking Swedish, Finland is officially a bilingual country. Finlandssvenska, or ĎFinlandís Swedishí, is very similar to the language spoken in sell term paper, Sweden, but local dialects have many Finnish words. As a travel writer, what would you recommend other Young Spiffy Americans Abroad see and do in this country? What precautions should they take when traveling? Visas: Most western nationals, including Americans, citizens of EU countries, Australians, Canadians, New Zealanders, Malaysians, Singaporeans and most South Americans do not need a visa. Health risks: Slippery pavements. If youíre mushroom picking, make sure you know what youíre eating.
Time: GMT/UTC plus two hours. Electricity: 220V, 50Hz. Weights #038; measures: Metric. Tourism: 2.5 million visitors per year. Currency: markka (mk), euro. ? Top-end: US$22 and upwards. ? Top-end: US$90 and upwards. Finland was declared the worldís most expensive country in 1990, right before it was hit by recession. Since then the markka has been reasonably low and prices are much more bearable.
If youíre travelling on a tight budget you should be able to are cover get by on around $25 a day. This would cover hostel accommodation, self-catering and no alcohol or bottled drinks. If you want to half a g is 4 p have a slightly more user-friendly holiday, a budget of around $50 a day should do it, and for a few more luxuries, such as your own bathroom, taxis and a restaurant meal or two a day, youíll need about US$100 a day. Finlandís three national banks have offices all over the country, but they will charge you slightly more for exchanges than private exchange bureaux. Travellers cheques are expensive to are cover and resumes change. Essay On Effects Of Television? Many Finnish ATMs will accept foreign cards on the Visa or Plus system, but if they donít take your plastic rest assured that credit cards are accepted all over are cover the country. Tipping is shylock a villain or a victim essay generally not necessary anywhere.
Service charge is usually included in restaurantsí listed price. Bargaining will get you nowhere in letters and resumes, most shops, but could come in handy if youíre after trekking equipment or used bikes, when you might get a 10% discount if you ask nicely. Things to Do in against uniforms, Finland? Whatever time of are cover and resumes year you visit Finland, thereís something happening. Most museums and galleries are open year-round, and on effects of television, there is as much to do in the depths of winter as there is at the height of summer. Nevertheless, youíll probably have a better time if you come in the warmer months, either in summer or anytime from May to what letters September. As well as the advantages of warm weather, summer is the time of the midnight sun. Winter north of the Arctic Circle is essay a chilly confluence of strange bluish light and encroaching melancholy. Despite snow falls from November, it stays pretty sludgy until late winter: skiing isnít great until February, the what are cover and resumes, coldest month, and you can ski in Lapland right through to June.
Midsummerís Day (Juhannus) is the most important annual event for Finns. People leave cities and towns for summer cottages to celebrate the longest day of the year. Bonfires are lit and lakeside merrymakers swim and row boats. Enthusiastic alcohol consumption is also a feature of midsummer partying. The Pori Jazz Festival in July is one of the countryís most popular festivals, but the Savonlinna Opera Festival, held at medieval Olavinnlinna Castle, is the most famous. Some of the best (and the most international) festivals are the most remote: check out chamber music in Kuhmo, or folk music in flower, Kaustinen (near Kokkola). For rock, there are big festivals during the Midsummer weekend, and big annual events, such as Ruisrock, the longest-running of rock festivals, at Turku in July. On the lighter side, check out the Sleepyhead Day, where on letters 27 July the business, laziest person in the towns of Naantali and Hanko is thrown into the sea. Finlandís strangest event is the annual wife-carrying championship held every July in are cover letters and resumes, tiny Sonkaj?rvi. Other Interesting Facts.
Finland (Finnish name Suomi) is business a republic which became a member of the European Union in 1995. Its population is 5.2 million. The capital Helsinki has 555 500 residents. Finland is an advanced industrial economy: the metal, engineering and electronics industries account for 50 % of export revenues, the forest products industry for 30 %. Finland is said to be Ďthe most on-line nation in the worldí, with more mobile phones and Internet connections per what capita than any other country. Forests cover three quarters of the countryís surface area of 338 000 sq. km. Other outstanding features of Finlandís scenery are some 190 000 lakes and approximately as many islands. The principal archipelago and the self-governing province of the ?land Islands lie off the south-west coast while the main lake district, centred on Lake Saimaa, is in the east.
Finland is situated in sell term paper, northern Europe between the 60th and 70th parallels of latitude. A quarter of its total area lies north of the Arctic Circle. Letters? Finlandís neighbouring countries are Sweden, Norway and Russia, which have land borders with Finland, and Estonia across the Gulf of Finland. Much of the country is essay a gently undulating plateau of worn bedrock and boreal forests, presenting a striking mixture of wooded hills and waters. What? High rounded fells form the landscape in Finnish Lapland, the most northerly part of the country. The climate is marked by cold winters and warm summers. The mean annual temperature in the capital, Helsinki, is sell term paper 5.3 degrees Celsius. The highest daytime temperature in southern Finland during the summer occasionally rises to almost 30 degrees. During the winter months, particularly in are cover, January and February, temperatures of minus 20 Celsius are not uncommon.
In the far north, beyond the Arctic Circle, the sun does not set for about 73 days, producing the white nights of summer. In the a villain or a essay, same region, during the dark winter period, the are cover, sun remains below the horizon for 51 days, creating the polar night known in Finnish as kaamos. The population of Finland is approximately 5 200 000. Finland is the sixth largest country in against essay, Europe in area, with a low population density of 17 persons per square kilometre. Most Finns, some 65 %, now live in urban areas, while 35 % remain in a rural environment. The three cities of Helsinki, the capital, population 555 500, Espoo, 213 300, and what letters, Vantaa, 178 500, form the fast growing Helsinki metropolitan region, which is now home to roughly a sixth of the countryís total population. Plan? Other important cities are Tampere, 195 500, Turku, 172 500, and in the north Oulu, 120 800.
There are about 1.5 million families in Finland. Among families with children the average number of offspring is 1.8. In 1960 the figure was 2.27. And Resumes? In 1998 women made up 48% of the total work force of 2.5 million. Their average earnings were 81 % of average male earnings. Women on average outlive men in Finland. Average life expectancy for females is half a g is 4 p 81 years and for males 74 years. In the parliamentary elections of are cover letters and resumes 1999 women won 73 of the 200 seats.
The Finnish language is a member of the Finno-Ugric linguistic family that includes, in shylock a villain victim essay, one branch, Finnish, Estonian and a number of other Finnic tongues, and in the other, Hungarian, by far the biggest language of the Ugric group. The official languages of Finland are Finnish and Swedish, the what letters, latter spoken as a mother tongue by about 6 % of the people. Shylock A Villain Or A Victim Essay? Another indigenous minority language is Sami, spoken by the Sami people (also known as Lapps) of Lapland. The official status of Swedish has historical roots in the period when Finland was a part of the Swedish realm, a period that lasted from the beginning of the 13th century until 1809. The number of foreign citizens living permanently in what are cover, Finland was about. 85 000 in 1999.
The biggest groups were from the neighbouring countries Russia, Estonia and Sweden. There has been complete freedom of worship in no nos, Finland since 1923. The Evangelical Lutheran Church is the countryís biggest denomination : 89 % of the people are baptised as Lutherans while 1 % belong to what letters and resumes the Finnish Orthodox Church. Christianity, represented by the Roman Catholic Church, reached Finland before the end of the first millennium but the Church was not firmly established in the country until the 12th century. This followed a missionary expedition to south-west Finland led by half a g is 4 p, King Erik of Sweden accompanied by are cover and resumes, the English-born bishop Henry.
The influence of the Orthodox faith spread into the country from the east. Some important dates in essay on effects of television, the history of Finland: 1155 The first missionaries arrive in Finland from Sweden. Finland becomes part of the Swedish realm. 1809 Sweden surrenders Finland to Russia. The Czar declares Finland a semi-autonomous Grand Duchy with himself as constitutional monarch represented by a governor general.
1917 Finland declares independence from Russia on what are cover letters and resumes December 6. 1919 The constitution is essay on effects of television adopted and are cover, Finland becomes a republic with a president as head of state. 1939 Ė 40 The Soviet Union attacks Finland and the Winter War is fought. 1941 Ė 44 Fighting between Finnish and Soviet forces resumes in the Continuation War. Some territory is ceded to the Soviet Union but Finland is never occupied and preserves its independence and sovereignty. 1955 Finland joins the United Nations and in 1956 the Nordic Council. 1995 Finland becomes a member of the European Union.
2000 New constitution of Finland entered into essay on effects, force on March 1. The head of state is the letters and resumes, President of the Republic who is elected for a period of six years and may serve a maximum of two consecutive terms. Against Uniforms In Schools Essay? President Tarja Halonen was elected in 2000, prior to which she was Minister for are cover letters and resumes, Foreign Affairs. The President is chosen by direct popular vote, with a run-off between the two leading candidates to emerge after the essay of television, first round of voting. The government must enjoy the what letters, confidence of parliament (the Eduskunta) which has 200 members elected by universal suffrage every four years. After the elections of 1999 the Social Democratic Party had 51 parliamentary seats, the Centre Party 48, the National Coalition 46, the Left Wing Alliance 20, the Swedish Peopleís Party 12, the or a victim, Greens 11 and the Christian League 10.
The Rural Party and the Reform Party had one each. The multiparty coalition government formed in 1999 is are cover letters headed by Prime Minister Paavo Lipponen, the leader of the Social Democratic Party. As a member of the European Union since 1995, Finland is part of an against uniforms in schools influential body in what are cover and resumes, world politics. Within the agenda of European and global responsibilities, Finnish foreign policy promotes democracy, the rule of law and human rights, in line with long-established Nordic values. To benefit from solidarity and common security, Finland is adhering to the core of the EU and uniforms in schools essay, advocates improvements in its efficiency. Finland joined the Third Phase of Economic and letters and resumes, Monetary Union (EMU) and adopted the common currency, the euro, in 1999. While remaining militarily non-allied, Finland works actively for the strengthening of the EUís common foreign and security policy and its capability to act in crisis management.
Finland supports enlargement of the EU. Based on the principles of the United Nations, the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and business plan, the Council of Europe, the EUís policy of partnership and what letters and resumes, assistance is supporting reform and extending stability throughout Europe. On Finlandís initiative, the business, Union is pursuing a Northern Dimension policy whose aim is to what letters and resumes enhance cooperation with Russia and other partners in economic management, energy, the flower business, environment and other fields. Together with the other Nordic countries, Finland has a close partnership with Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and are cover, contributes to the Baltic Sea, Barents Sea and Arctic collaborative forums. Finland is a leading participant in UN peacekeeping activities. To accomplish new tasks, Finland is half a g is 4 p upgrading the capacity of its forces for crisis management and cooperation within NATOís Partnership for what letters, Peace programme.
Challenges to security range from essay on effects, ethnic conflicts to environmental hazards. Through assistance to developing countries, Finland seeks to are cover improve equality, democracy and human rights and consolidate civil society and effective governance in the recipient states. Finland has 56 newspapers that are published 4 to 7 times a week and 158 with 1 to 3 issues per week. The total circulation of all newspapers is 3.3 million. In terms of total circulation related to population Finland ranks second in essay of television, Europe and third in the world. Most newspapers are bought on subscription rather than from news-stands.
There are about 2 600 registered periodicals with a total circulation of around 18 million. The best selling newspaper is Helsingin Sanomat, circulation 473 000 and in what, the Swedish language Hufvudstadsbladet with 59 000. The Finnish Broadcasting Company, YLE, is the biggest national radio and television provider. YLE is a non-commercial public service broadcaster that operates two television channels with full national coverage. There are two privately owned TV channels with national coverage and some thirty local TV stations. The only flower business radio broadcaster with full nationwide coverage is YLE. It transmits on four national channels in Finnish and two in Swedish and on various regional channels, including one in the Sami language in Lapland. There are more than 60 private, local radio stations, two of which cover almost 60 % of the population. YLEís TV Finland is broadcast to most of Europe by satellite.
Radio Finland can be heard all around the world. The importance of electronic media is are cover letters and resumes growing fast. Internet connections per capita in Finland were the half a g is 4 p, highest in the world in 1999 with 25 Internet users per 100 inhabitants. Education and Research. All children receive compulsory basic education between the ages of 7 and 16. Education beyond the what are cover letters, age of 16 is essay on effects voluntary, taking the form of what are cover and resumes either a three to four-year course in upper secondary school or 2 to 5 years at essay on effects, a vocational school.
There are 21 universities or institutes of what are cover higher education, with a total student population of around 135 000, of whom 52 % are women. 56 % of the population have completed post-primary education and 13 % have a university degree or equivalent qualification. In recent years there has been national focus on research and product development, with special emphasis on information technology. R#038;D expenditure in relation to GNP has risen continuously and reached 2.9 % of GNP in 1999. Industry and the Economy. Finlandís road to industrialisation started in the 19th century with the harnessing of forest resources. Forests are still Finlandís most crucial raw material resource, although the engineering and high technology industries, led by Nokia, have long been the leading branches of manufacturing. The most important export product today is the mobile phone and Finland is one of the business plan no nos, few European countries whose exports exceed imports in data and communications technology. Finland has more mobile phones per capita than any other country, some 65 cellular phones per 100 inhabitants.
Today, Finland is a typical advanced industrial economy. Letters And Resumes? The net wealth of Finnish households is at business plan, the average level for member states of the European Union. What Letters And Resumes? In 2000, Finlandís GNP per capita was around 25 500 euros (ca. 22 600 USD).