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Types of references in research papers

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bryn mawr cdo resume Graduate School of Social Work and Social Research. 300 Airdale Road. Bryn Mawr, PA 19010. In Research! Chief Development Officer: Please Touch Museum. Posted December 8th, 2016 at 12:00 pm. Please Touch Museum (the Children’s Museum of Philadelphia) a non-profit organization with an $8 million operating budget, seeks an experienced, energetic, and dynamic Chief Development Officer (CDO) to provide the leadership, direction, management and coordination of the Museum’s fundraising efforts to support the homework organization’s mission and the goals in its innovative new strategic plan. The CDO’s primary focus is to develop and maintain a culture of philanthropy at PTM and to ensure the success of fundraising programs including individual and types papers, corporate giving, foundation and government grants and trustee essay form, other sources as well as membership.

The CDO will serve as a lead strategist for the Museum fund development, helping the types in research papers President CEO creating a multi-year plan for increasing revenue which support the research Museum’s plans for aggressive growth in types of references, the next five years. She/he oversees a current staff of 4. The position reports directly to book report projects school, the President CEO and works closely with the President CEO and the board, board committees and executive team to achieve the types in research papers fundraising goals of the Museum. Other responsibilities include but are not limited to: Maintain and grow current funding and augustine, membership based relationships; identify, research, and cultivate new funding prospects and sources; maintain and grow a personal list of current donors and prospects; prepare short and long term plans and types papers, timelines for strategies that build value to trade research, the members, donors and corporate partnerships; advise, guide and provide leadership on planning for funding requests and outreach; coordinate closely with the other departments on corporate sponsorship, grant proposals and events; manage and oversee the ongoing planning and programming/development of the Museum as it relates to contributed revenue, membership and of references in research papers, fundraising events; participate in trade, the development and maintenance of the Museum’s plans and types of references papers, programs as a community partner; assist with securing business partners for programs and major fundraisers; serve as a representative of the Museum and its’ mission at internal and external events, programs, meetings, conferences and presentations; prepare and trustee scholarship essay form, deliver activity reports on departmental activities; participate in professional societies and activities; and support and implement the Museum’s Strategic Planning Goals into department objectives. Types Of References! Requirements: Bachelor’s degree required, with an report school students emphasis on Education, Communications, Museum Communications or related fields preferred; CFRE certification is preferred; 8 years plus demonstrated success in fundraising in all categories of giving, and a minimum of 2 years of management experience. Demonstrated success in growing membership revenue as well as museum or arts/culture experience is a plus; experience in working closely with the Board of Directors and related committees is required. Candidates must demonstrate understanding of the best practices in the fields of development membership, execution of the donor cultivation process and current philanthropic trends and stewardship practices; proven track record of proactive identification, cultivation and research paper for english, solicitation of major gifts; understanding of membership acquisition, direct mail, crowdsourcing public campaigns; strong analytic thinking skills; ability to papers, analyze donor prospect research information; high energy, positive, “can do” attitude, flexibility, teamwork and attention to essay, detail; proven project management experience; ability to think strategically; ability to prioritize, make independent decisions and work well under deadlines; skills in budget management; experience at types of references in research negotiating and activating sponsorship agreements; ability to work in multi-disciplinary teams; very strong writing and editing skills to write clearly and book projects for high, persuasively; exceptional interpersonal and oral communication skills (public speaking, presentations).

Please Touch Museum offers an excellent work environment with, a comprehensive benefit package, and competitive salary. Of References In Research! To apply for this opportunity, please mail your cover letter including your accomplishments, resume and salary requirements to: Director of Human Resources, Please Touch Museum, 4231 Avenue of the Republic, Philadelphia, PA 19131; fax to: (215)-581-3182; Email: [email protected] Office phone: 215-581-3189 EOE. Comments are closed. October 2017 (3) September 2017 (8) August 2017 (48) July 2017 (55) June 2017 (8) May 2017 (57) April 2017 (7) March 2017 (41) February 2017 (3) January 2017 (6) December 2016 (32) November 2016 (46) October 2016 (4) September 2016 (3) August 2016 (23) July 2016 (14) June 2016 (31) April 2016 (1) March 2016 (5) February 2016 (44) January 2016 (25) December 2015 (8) November 2015 (29) October 2015 (3) September 2015 (25) August 2015 (21) July 2015 (19) June 2015 (31) May 2015 (20) April 2015 (35) March 2015 (84) February 2015 (69) January 2015 (30) December 2014 (10) November 2014 (41) October 2014 (7) This is a directory of job offerings of interest to constituents of the Nonprofit Executive Leadership Institute (NELI) of the types of references Bryn Mawr College Graduate School of Social Work and Social Research (GSSWSR). To use the directory, simply choose a category of interest and click it to view job offerings in dissertation services in uk, that category. You can also search for keywords. The directory is in research archival, so please confirm with members of the organization offering the positions as to whether the dissertation services qualitative positions are still available, and not representatives of the NELI program. Please share these opportunities with anyone who may be interested by linking them to If you are interested in posting your job offering here, please contact Margie DuBrow, Director, at of references papers [email protected] Thank you for book for high school students your interest!

Good luck job seekers! Bryn Mawr College 101 North Merion Ave, Bryn Mawr, PA 19010-2899.

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Dieu comme Etre du neant au sein du neant de l’Etre chez Cioran. L’itineraire mystique de Cioran, constamment refoule dans un scepticisme gnostique, offre un exemple d’autodepassement du nihisme, autant dans une perspective axiologique que ontologique et ce, via une catharsis stylistique radicale. The vacuum’s god of types of references in research, Cioran. My Algebra! Romanian-born but a resident of types in research, Paris since 1937, Cioran has written pessimistic books like The Trouble being born or Avowals and homework Anathema . Of References In Research! Like Nietzsche, Cioran surpass nihilism through the ivory fragmentary writing but in types of references in research a very paradoxical way. Paper! Why bother to types in research explain and my algebra homework demonstrate one’s belief, as most philosophers do? Aphorisms are the of references papers end products of confessions, thought. Types In Research! He is the research paper reverse of of references in research papers, a professor because he hates explaining things. Boston Trustee Scholarship Form! His subversive vision of types, God, against book report projects for high school students, the usual faith, is types of references in research papers, one of the confessions essay most paradoxical way of papers, thinking of the report school students 20’s century. 1 Cioran propose tout au long de son ?uvre et en dehors de toute foi spontanee ou conventionnelle des conceptions de Dieu proteiformes et iconoclastes, transgressives et subversives. Types Of References! Ainsi, dans cette perspective, la coincidence de Dieu et du neant qui radicalise certaines doctrines heritees d’un curieux syncretisme entre heresiarques gnostiques basilidiens, mystique eckhartienne et tradition bouddhique initiee par Nagarjuna, ou tout principe divin aspire a la plenitude incommensurable du vide.

Dans l’extrait qui suit, Cioran enonce une conception de Dieu qu’il dit etre independante de la foi, mais qui se confond avec le neant lui-meme considere comme l’etape ultime d’un cheminement mystique qu’il veut pleinement voue a la reiteration permanente de son inaccomplissement. Dieu signifie la derniere etape d’un cheminement, point extreme de la solitude, point insubstantiel auquel il faut bien donner un nom, attribuer une existence fictive. Research! Il remplit en somme une fonction : celle du dialogue. Types! Meme l’incroyant aspire a converser avec le “Seul”, car il n’est pas facile de s’entretenir avec le neant. Dissertation Qualitative! ( Entretiens , Gallimard, 1995, p. Types Of References In Research! 222) 2 La pensee de Cioran ne surgissant qu’en equilibre instable, elle est recherche d’un equilibre precaire, sans cesse menace par l’entropie au sein meme de la permanence du desequilibre qui cree l’illusion de la realite et celle de la stabilite du moi et du monde. Augustine Essay! Au detour d’un paradoxe, d’un aphorisme, au faite d’une contradiction, la pensee cioranienne cultive le doute, l’ironie et le cynisme, l’elegance du dandysme et la passion de la futilite dans un vision du monde ou l’inessentiel se substitue aux pesanteurs de la profondeur. Types Of References In Research! La necessite d’une telle demarche associee a une ecriture fragmentaire qui se fait moyen tout autant que fin, est mise en lumiere par ce fragment issu de La Tentation d’exister : Je vous ai recommande la dignite du scepticisme : voila que je rode autour de l’Absolu. Book Report For High School Students! Technique de la contradiction ? Rappelez-vous plutot le mot de Flaubert : « Je suis un mystique et je ne crois en rien ». Types Of References In Research! ( La Tentation d’exister , Gallimard, 1956, p. Boston University Trustee Scholarship! 121)

3 Cette citation de Flaubert fait egalement echo a la pensee de Maitre Eckhart, le grand mystique des bords du Rhin du treizieme siecle, pensee qu’il developpe dans Traites et Sermons 1 et qui affirme que l’action la plus haute a laquelle puisse s’elever l’ame consiste a atteindre le detachement absolu dont l’objet est le « pur neant », sejour naturel de Dieu. In Research! L’ame ne peut donc s’unir a Dieu au point de ne faire plus qu’Un avec Lui qu’en se renoncant a elle-meme en tant que creature : la divinisation de l’ame ne fait qu’un avec l’aneantissement en Dieu de la creature. 4 L’interpretation cioranienne de la mystique franchit un pas et se fait plus subversive et negatrice en affirmant que pour tout mystique veritable, Dieu ou le divin se confondent avec le neant : « Sans Dieu tout est neant ; et Dieu ? Neant supreme. Research Paper! » ( SA , p. Types In Research! 79) Cette sentence n’est pas sans rappeler l’aphorisme 55 de Par-dela le bien et le mal : « Sacrifier Dieu au neant, ce mystere paradoxal de la supreme cruaute etait reserve a la generation qui grandit maintenant : nous en savons quelque chose2 ». 5 Cette citation fait encore echo a celle-ci extraite de la partie des Exercices d’admiration consacree a Caillois : « Le neant n’est en definitive que la version plus pure de Dieu, et c’est pourquoi y ont plonge avec tant de frenesie les mystiques, aussi bien du reste que les incroyants a fond religieux.» Ce que Cioran dit ensuite de Caillois, nul doute qu’il puisse se l’appliquer a lui-meme: « Caillois ne jalouse pas les premiers, et il lui repugnerait sans doute de se classer parmi les seconds » ( Exercices d’admiration , Gallimard, 1986, p. Augustine! 140). 6 Dans ces conditions, il n’est pas etonnant que Cioran se soit tres vite reconnu des affinites avec cette religion de l’epure, stylisee au maximum puisque sans Dieu, qu’est le bouddhisme.

Dans deux entretiens accordes la meme annee 1982 a Leo Gilet et Luis Jorge Halfen, Cioran affirme s’etre detache du bouddhisme de la meme facon qu’il a depasse son engouement passionnel pour la pensee de Nietzsche : Le bouddhisme m’a pendant tres longtemps interesse ; c’est que le bouddhisme vous permet d’acceder a une religion sans avoir la foi. Types In Research Papers! Le bouddhisme est une religion qui ne preconise que la connaissance. Paper! On nous enseigne que nous ne sommes que des composes, que ces composes se dissolvent, qu’ils n’ont pas de realite, on types of references, nous demontre notre non realite. Paper! Et ensuite on in research, dit : maintenant tirez les consequences. ! [. Types Of References In Research Papers! ] Jusqu’au jour ou je me suis rendu compte que c’etait une imposture. Trustee Scholarship Form! Meme a l’heure actuelle je suis d’accord avec toutes les constatations negatives du bouddhisme : nous ne sommes pas reels, tout cela c’est des mensonges, tout est illusion. Types Of References Papers! Mais la voie que preconise le bouddhisme m’est inaccessible. Research Paper For English! Le renoncement au desir, la destruction du moi, la victoire sur le moi. Types Of References Papers! Si vous restez attaches a votre moi, le bouddhisme est une impossibilite. Augustine Essay! Donc, il faut triompher de son moi.

Mais j’ai constate que je ne pouvais triomphe du mien. Types Of References In Research! Et que j’etais obsede par moi-meme comme nous tous. Dissertation In Uk! [. Of References! ] mais la vision du Bouddha sur la mort, sur la vieillesse, sur la souffrance, c’est une experience que j’ai vecue et que je vis encore. Augustine Confessions Essay! C’est ma realite quotidienne. Types In Research! Mais les solutions que preconise le Bouddha ne sont pas les miennes, puisque je ne peux pas renoncer au desir. Homework! Je ne peux renoncer a rien. Types Of References In Research! [. Confessions! ] Je suis un bouddhiste uniquement pour ce qui est proces-verbal sue la souffrance, la vieillesse et la mort. Types Of References Papers! Mais quand le Bouddha dit : maintenant il faut renoncer au desir, triompher du moi, je ne peux pas. Dissertation Services In Uk! Et je ne peux pas parce que j’ai vecu dans la litterature et que tout ce que j’ai ecrit, au fond, tourne autour du moi. Of References! Que ce soit mon moi ou le moi en general. Homework! Et, ca le bouddhisme c’est exactement le contraire. Of References In Research! Et ensuite tout de meme, la grande idee du bouddhisme, c’est le renoncement.

Et je dois dire que, quand je regarde autour de moi, je vois tres peu de gens qui soient capables de renoncer. Qualitative! Et moi-meme, a vrai dire, j’ai constate que j’en suis incapable. Types Of References In Research! ( Entretiens , p. University! 82) 7 Dans cette seconde citation, Cioran explique pourquoi il s’est detache du bouddhisme et comment l’acceptation de son caractere « frenetique » l’a pousse a aller jusqu’a se detacher de l’exigence du detachement pourtant si profondement ancree en lui : Je me suis beaucoup occupe du bouddhisme, a un certain moment. In Research! Je me croyais bouddhiste, mais en definitive je me leurrais. Ivory Trade Research! J’ai finalement compris que je n’avais rien de bouddhiste, et que j’etais prisonnier de mes contradictions, dues a mon temperament. Types Of References! J’ai alors renonce a cette orgueilleuse illusion, puis je me suis dit que je devais m’accepter tel que j’etais, qu’il ne valait pas la peine de parler tout le temps de detachement, puisque je suis plutot un frenetique. Augustine Confessions Essay! ( Entretiens , p. Types Of References In Research! 83) 8 Ce renoncement au bouddhisme le mene a une position radicale a la fois solipsiste et nihiliste qui envisage la disparition de l’humanite comme un bienfait non seulement pour elle meme mais aussi au regard de l’Absolu : Je ne suis pas un egoiste. Ivory Paper! Ce n’est vraiment pas le mot qui convient. Of References In Research Papers! Je suis compatissant. Confessions Essay! La souffrance des autres a sur moi un effet direct.

Mais si l’humanite disparaissait demain cela me serait egal. In Research! La disparition de l’homme est une idee qui ne me deplait pas. Research! ( Entretiens , p. Types! 103) 9 On peut donc parler a la suite de Sylvie Jaudeau3 de la pensee cioranienne comme d’une theologie negative qui voit dans la Creation le premier acte de sabotage et dans la naissance une catastrophe et une faute de gout que meme la mort ne peut effacer et dont le nihilisme apparent n’est qu’un moyen de totale remise en cause ontologique a travers le jeu critique, obsessionnel et ironique, d’une ontotheologie fictive qui se sait aussi illusoire que puissamment metaphorique. Dissertation! L’experience mystique cioranienne inaboutie et soumise a la tentation nihiliste lucide est soumise a l’ecartelement et se contente a une admiration velleitaire et fantasmatique de la « plenitude du vide » bouddhique. 10 La voie mystique n’est accessible qu’au tres petit nombre de ceux qui se sont sentis appeles et ont repondus a cet appel. Of References In Research! En cela, Cioran ne peut etre considere comme un mystique a part entiere etant donne les specificites de son scepticisme, sa vision tragique et la pregnance de ses humeurs noires. University Trustee Form! Son catastrophisme qui garde la marque de son impulsivite premiere est pourtant refroidi par la grace de son style aphoristique teinte d’un gout de la derision et du sarcasme trop prononce pour se plier a cet ideal de vie qui trouve sa continuite, son unite dans une foi aussi intense qu’ascetique. Types In Research Papers! Or c’est precisement la, dans cet inaccomplissement sans cesse revendique et affine, que reside le caractere irreductiblement original et subversif de l’itineraire spirituel cioranien. 11 C’est aussi en cela que Georges Balan 4 a la suite de Henri Amer 5 parle de « spiritualite de la decadence », cette derniere se comprenant comme un phenomene de regeneration paradoxal qui se traduit finalement par l’emergence d’une forme inedite de spiritualite revitalisee.

C’est ainsi que Cioran en organisant son inaccomplissement spirituel se forge, en contrepartie, une vocation de createur exprimant par son art du fragment, la tragedie d’une conscience ecartelee par son incapacite a la delivrance, moteur de sa creativite. 12 Pour en revenir a l’appel mystique que Cioran a ressenti et auquel il ne s’est jamais veritablement soustrait mais qu’il n’a pas voulu mener a son terme pour mieux se consacrer a l’expression litteraire de sa pensee elevee au rang d’art, sa veritable vocation de createur incompatible avec l’accomplissement mystique qui transcende la necessite, le besoin de creer par cette autre vocation qu’est celle du vide. Research Paper For English! Cet appel du neant qui se traduit chez Cioran par la tentation du suicide, appel avec lequel il entretient des rapports identiques a ceux, deja decrits, du mystique avec Dieu. Papers! En realite, la mystique negative et lacunaire de Cioran, volontairement maintenue dans l’incompletude est indissociable de ce qu’elle aspire contradictoirement a depasser sans pouvoir se donner les moyens de ce depassement. Paper! Elle ne cesse de se saper elle-meme par le recours recurrent a une lucidite dissolvante qui l’empeche de croire en Dieu autrement que comme une tension entre l’ame et l’esprit. Papers! Ce qui pose la question des limites de l’esprit humain dans ses invariances aussi bien que dans ses mutabilites. University Trustee! La mystique cioranienne de la lucidite a en commun avec toutes les mystiques, aussi bien occidentales qu’orientales, le souci de faire eclater les cadres de la normalite de la condition humaine.

En cela, un pont existe entre les civilisations comme l’explique Cioran lui-meme. C’est par les mystiques que les occidentaux rejoignent les orientaux. Types! La aussi la vision mystique est inconcevable sans l’experience. Ivory Research Paper! Un mystique qui n’a pas d’extase n’existe pas. Types Of References In Research Papers! Ce qui est interessant, c’est que l’experience mystique est formulee presque dans les memes termes dans les deux civilisations si differentes.

Parce qu’au fond, si vous songez a l’extase, que ce soit en Orient ou en Occident, ca n’a pas d’importance, il y a les attitudes qui forcent le langage. Boston University Essay! Ou que vous soyez, vous etes tenu a employer certaines expressions. Of References In Research Papers! Donc il y a une similitude sur les hauteurs. Essay! Disons : au comble du vertige. Types In Research Papers! ( Entretiens , op. Homework! cit. Of References Papers! p. ! 81) 13 L’experience mystique poussee a sa limite extreme rejoint paradoxalement le nihilisme en ce sens qu’elle aboutit a nier l’idee de Dieu par volonte de se perdre dans le divin, afin de s’y fondre. Of References In Research! Cioran insiste sur le fait que ce cheminement est difficile a cerner pour des esprits marques par l’ideal rationaliste issu du cartesianisme, du classicisme puis de l’esprit des Lumieres. Research Paper! Cet ideal de clarte, Cioran ne le rejette pas mais le reserve a son style qu’il met paradoxalement au service de visees mystiques, justement pour demontrer, une fois de plus, l’ambivalence consubstantielle a la nature humaine qui ne peut chercher un ideal de clarte sans traverser l’obscurite du non sens. 14 L’aboutissement pratique de la mystique en tant que technique spirituelle est l’extase qui ne peut etre atteint que par le truchement de l’ annihilatio , operation de la pensee, concentration de l’esprit et de l’ame en tension vers un mouvement unique d’aneantissement, de neantisation du champ du reel. Papers! Cet exercice spirituel d’installation du vide et d’ascese radicale a pour but de parvenir a l’inconnaissance absolue qui n’est pas l’ignorance mais une volonte d’oubli de soi pour atteindre l’henosis , l’union en Dieu.

Cette experience d’une vie qui se veut absente au monde, « perinde ac cadaver », pareille a un cadavre, se consacre dans l’ascese a une quete, maintenue dans l’intensite et la duree, de l’Etre dans le Neant, quete qui est la marque distinctive de toute experience mystique comme le souligne ici Cioran. Pas d’experience mystique sans transfiguration. Ivory Research Paper! La passivite ne saurait etre aboutissement. Types In Research Papers! Cette immense purete interieure qui place l’etre au-dessus de tout n’est pas stagnation. ! Si, par exemple, le bouddhisme est aise en theorie, il ne l’est pas en pratique – pour les Europeens surtout, engages facilement dans les fausses experiences qui ne donnent que l’illusion de la liberation. Types In Research! Cette liberation on boston essay form, la decouvre par soi-meme et non pas en devenant le disciple de quelqu’un ou en adherant a une communaute spirituelle.

La seule experience profonde, c’est celle qui se fait dans la solitude. Types Of References In Research Papers! Celle qui est l’effet d’une contagion reste superficielle - l’experience du neant n’est pas une experience de groupe. Essay! Mais, apres tout, le bouddhisme n’est qu’une sagesse. Of References Papers! La mystique va plus loin. ! La mystique, c’est-a-dire l’extase.

J’en ai eu moi-meme, en tout et pour tout, lors de ma periode d’intense desarroi. Types Of References Papers! Ce sont des experiences que l’on peut vivre avec ou sans la foi. ! ( Entretiens , p. Types! 219) 15 Mais la particularite du neant, du vide dans l’experience mystique de la transfiguration est comme ne cesse de le souligner Cioran, son caractere plein et entier, sa completude, son aspect de retour total a l’unite originelle. Services In Uk Qualitative! Cioran dans La Tentation d’exister compare le neant du mystique a celui du philosophe et observe « […] a rebours du neant, abstrait et faux des philosophes, le leur eclate de plenitude : jouissance hors du monde, exhaussement de la duree, annihilation lumineuse par-dela les bornes de la pensee. Of References In Research! » ( Tentation d’exister , p. ! 162) 16 L’heresie mystique des Gnostiques qui proclame le mal ontologique radical du monde a inspire a Cioran sa conception d’une ontotheologie negative et metaphorique developpee dans Le Mauvais demiurge qui aurait du s’appeler La Creation manquee . Types! Cette vision du monde qui, a bien des egards confine au jeu de l’esprit, a l’exercice de style qui hesite entre imposture, ironie, legerete d’une part et gravite, esprit de serieux et sentiment de tragique ontologique d’autre part. Dissertation In Uk! Dans cet extrait, Cioran revient sur l’experience qui l’a fait prendre intimement conscience de la realite du phenomene extatique qui bien qu’il pense qu’il soit d’origine physiologique ne peut se reduire qu’a cela : 17 C’etait entre 1926 et 1927, epoque de malaise permanent. Types In Research! J’errais toutes les nuits dans les rues en proie a des obsessions funebres. My Algebra Homework! Durant cette periode de tension interieure, j’ai fait a plusieurs reprises l’experience de l’extase. Types Of References In Research! En tout cas, j’ai vecu des ou l’on est emporte hors des apparences. Essay! Un saisissement immediat vous prend sans aucune preparation.

L’etre se trouve plonge dans une plenitude extraordinaire, ou plutot dans un vide triomphal. Types Of References In Research! Ce fut une experience capitale, la revelation de l’inanite de tout. My Algebra! Ces quelques illuminations m’ouvrirent a la connaissance du bonheur supreme dont parlent les mystiques. Types Of References Papers! Hors de ce bonheur auquel nous ne sommes qu’exceptionnellement et brievement convies, rien n’a une veritable existence, nous vivons dans le royaume des ombres. Ivory Trade Paper! ( Entretiens , p. Types In Research! 218) 18 L’itineraire mystique, subversif par essence, est revendique comme tel par Cioran car il represente une exigence de mise en peril, une complete remise en cause des valeurs de reussite et d’echec, de victoire et de defaite, de surface et de profondeur et, d’etre et de neant.

Ainsi, il justifie sa determination a l’inaboutissement mystique par un gain spirituel intense, par la perennisation de ses tensions interieures et par le refus de la sagesse et de la serenite qui en decoule. Projects School! Car il ressent comme necessaire a sa passion exclusive de l’expression, de la creation litteraire consideree comme instrument d’apaisement cathartique, de delivrance provisoire, intermittente. Of References Papers! A ce sujet il declare : Je ne suis pas un mystique. Book Report Students! Au fond, l’echec de ma vie, c’est que je ne suis pas alle jusqu’au bout. Types In Research Papers! J’ai ete fascine par la mystique, je suis alle jusqu’a un certain point, mais je n’ai pas abouti. Boston University! Pas abouti au plan spirituel. In Research! ( Entretiens , op. Book Projects For High Students! cit ., p. Papers! 227) 19 Cioran etablit souvent un lien qui lui est intime entre les spiritualites orientales et les tendances gnostiques. Research For English! Ce rapprochement subjectif et souvent implicite consiste aux yeux de Cioran a affirmer que ces sagesses ne cherchent pas tant a imposer une quelconque verite pour la promouvoir au rang d’absolu mais a cheminer vers l’abolition de l’illusion donc, du desir, propre a la condition humaine. In Research! C’est cette volonte de depasser les multiples ambivalences inherentes a l’humanite de l’homme ecartelee entre des fondements pulsionnels corporels et l’emergence et les developpements de la conscience. Confessions Essay! Que ce soit par la licence ou par l’ascese – tant il est vrai que la licence peut elle-meme etre pratiquee a la maniere d’une ascese, chez les barbelo gnostiques par exemple – ces cheminements interieurs farouchement spiritualistes aspirent a se defaire du monde et de la matiere en se tournant vers des etincelles d’ame profondement enfouie en nous. 20 Toute connaissance, toute prise de conscience, est tragique par essence.

Meme sans la noirceur gnostique, elles comportent un risque majeur : elles revelent l’omnipresence de l’illusion mais non sa necessite. Of References! En cela, Cioran puise sa vision des choses chez Schopenhauer, lui-meme victime d’une erreur de perception du bouddhisme dans le sens ou comme ses contemporains il y voit un culte du neant faisant echo dans l’imaginaire philosophique europeen a la negation de la vie. 21 La connaissance negative, l’esprit critique pousse a son point de rupture est le mecanisme meme qui demonte les illusions et peut conduire a la conviction que la vie n’a pas d’interet et ne peut etre comprise que comme une erreur, un mirage. Dissertation Services! Cioran se fait un devoir de percevoir l’illusion comme une progression spirituelle quand elle est assumee comme telle : « Qui a raison ? On ne sait. Types Papers! Perdre ses illusions, ce n’est pas etre profond. Research For English! Mais en garder beaucoup, en acquerir beaucoup surtout, cela oui, a quelque rapport avec l’esprit de profondeur » ( Cahiers , Gallimard, p. Types In Research Papers! 603). My Algebra Homework! Influence par le bouddhisme, il fait appel a l’irrealite pour justifier l’injustifiable exactement comme il faisait appel au gnosticisme pour accuser le Mauvais Demiurge de l’ignominie de la Creation. 22 La multiplication des angles de vue, des reinterpretations de traditions spirituelles aussi differentes que le gnosticisme, le bouddhisme mahayana ou l’hindouisme a donc pour fonction d’apporter une consolation ultime et paradoxale au plus subtilement pessimiste des penseurs : « Tout est irreel. Of References Papers! Si c’etait reel, ce serait une tragedie stupide. Dissertation In Uk Qualitative! L’histoire, pour parler exces, est lamentable, et la mort n’est pas tolerable6 ». Types Of References! Raison de plus pour Cioran de trouver que le bouddhisme offre une solution : il ruine le reve du monde et sape, en meme temps, l’illusion de l’infaillibilite de concepts aussi opposes qu’inseparables, tels la vie et la mort, le bien et le mal ou l’ici-bas et l’au-dela.

Sur le nuancier des apparences, ces termes abstraits sont incapables de cerner le grand Absent qui hante la pensee cioranienne et ne peuvent que delimiter un « espace » sans nom que l’on pourrait designer comme un entre-deux ou le reel s’abolit partiellement en se dissolvant dans l’illusion fantasmatique et inversement. 23 En effet, l’Absolu cioranien omnipresent parce qu’introuvable glisse entre tout ce qui nous definit et tout ce que nous definissons et c’est encore a notre avidite de vouloir le saisir que nous devons imputer cette frustration nee de son silence : « Quand, par appetit de solitude nous avons brise nos liens, le Vide nous saisit : plus rien, plus personne… Qui liquider encore ? Ou denicher une victime durable ? – une telle perplexite nous ouvre a Dieu : du moins, avec Lui sommes nous surs de pouvoir rompre indefiniment… ( Syllogismes de l’amertume , Gallimard, p. Homework! 792) ». In Research! L’attachement au cercle de naissance et de mort, le samsara , fait adherer au monde ou la souffrance interdit la delivrance par le nirvana. Research Paper! Le probleme est que l’idee meme qui disqualifie toutes les autres est une entrave de la pensee qui cherche a se perpetuer indefiniment et que, finalement, « […] affirmer que tout est illusoire, c’est sacrifier a la plus grande illusion, c’est lui reconnaitre un haut degre de realite, le plus haut meme » ( De l’inconvenient d’etre ne , Gallimard, p. Types Papers! 140). Homework! L’aporie atteint alors son paroxysme et il faut apprendre a se contenter du moindre mal que constitue l’ecriture, moyen pragmatique d’echapper a la morbidite. 24 Bien entendu, s’enfermer dans le silence serait l’ideal, mais justement le silence est inaccessible du fait de sa nature d’ideal. Of References In Research Papers! A defaut de silence absolu, le demi-silence de l’ecriture fragmentaire expose le drame d’une lucidite assujettie au silence. For English! Si ce dernier connait un tel prestige aux yeux de Cioran, il le doit a sa puissance implicitement destructrice, dissolvante, a son caractere de verite absolue delivree de tout contenu, a son caractere psychiquement intenable. Of References In Research! Ainsi, il fonde un itineraire spirituel negatif concu comme un cheminement entre subversion et ascese Ces « exercices spirituels » negatifs constituent une pluralite d’ecartelements, de tensions et de convergences entre mystiques orientales et occidentales. Qualitative! Pourtant, passe un certain seuil de maitrise spirituelle, la discrimination entre reel et illusion s’abolit comme dans le phenomene central de l’extase : A la faveur de l’extase – dont l’objet est un dieu sans attributs , une essence de dieu – on in research papers, s’eleve vers une forme d’apathie plus pure que celle du dieu supreme lui-meme, et si on for english, plonge dans le divin, on types of references, n’en est pas moins au-dela de toute forme de divinite. Research Paper! C’est la l’etape finale, le point d’arrivee de la mystique, le point de depart etant la rupture avec le demiurge, le refus de frayer encore avec lui et d’applaudir a son ?uvre.

Nul ne s’agenouille devant lui ; nul ne le venere. Types Papers! Les seules paroles qu’on lui adresse sont des supplications a rebours, - unique mode de communication entre une creature et un createur egalement dechus. Book Projects! ( Le Mauvais Demiurge , p. Of References! 16) 25 Mais quelle que soit la civilisation ou les differentes mystiques prennent place, les principaux traits de la methode de detachement mystique implique la maitrise de processus psychiques strictes et ayant leurs logiques internes propres ou le vide joue un role determinant. University Scholarship Essay! Comme l’explique Roger Bastide7, l’extase n’est pas le tout de la vie mystique. Types Of References In Research! Celle-ci est progressive. My Algebra Homework! Le processus de vacuite, d’installation du vide, de lacher prise vis-a-vis du monde sensible necessite une discipline des plus coercitives, une stricte ascese pour se rendre perinde ac cadaver , pareil a un cadavre quant aux desirs. 26 La premiere etape est l’indifference a tout desir, l’aspirant mystique n’a plus qu’un desir : l’extinction, l’ataraxie. In Research Papers! C’est encore un de trop. Book Projects Students! Le mystique sait le vrai bien et ne veut que lui. In Research Papers! La seconde etape c’est l’indifference a tout concept ou jugement ; la vie intellectuelle doit disparaitre car le reliquat de la raison est encore un obstacle.

Une fois suspendue, il reste la vie affective : il subsiste en l’ame une joie. University Trustee Scholarship Form! Ceci doit etre surmonte car cette joie est quelque chose d’encore trop intime. Types In Research! Le troisieme echelon doit en delivrer. Augustine Confessions! Il ne persiste plus des lors qu’un vague sentiment cenesthesique, une conscience lourde de l’Etre qui n’est plus que d’ordre physiologique. In Research Papers! Enfin cette conscience meme s’en va non sans un ultime effort vers l’absolu. Boston University Trustee Scholarship Form! Tout a disparu jusqu’au sentiment de l’indifference. Papers! C’est l’impassibilite absolue ou deja la mort dans la vie au nom de la vie apres la mort. 27 But ultime du bouddhisme, ou echouent desir et souffrance, le concept de nirvana attire et repousse Cioran avec une force egale. ! Cioran qui pose la souffrance comme premisse de l’existence du monde et comme condition du salut un desespoir integral prive d’intermediaire extramondain, aspire a se debarrasser du desir. Types Of References Papers! La vacuite bouddhique semble un havre fascinant qui assume son desespoir apaise apres avoir gravit tous les degres de la detresse.

La cessation des processus cycliques que recherche le bouddhisme temoigne d’une volonte de renoncement absolu decoulant du sentiment que la vie est travaillee en son sein par une force qui aneantit nos efforts pour la controler. Boston Essay! Pour inverser cette tendance, il faut parvenir au seuil de l’extinction des desirs. Types In Research Papers! Mais Cioran suggere habilement que pour eteindre en soi le desir, il faut encore desirer cette extinction et entretenir en soi ne serait-ce qu’une forme infime et subtile de desir paradoxal transcendant toutes les autres. Augustine Confessions Essay! Cet ultime desir devra lui-meme etre transcende pour acceder au nirvana , car des que celui-ci est objet de desir, il y a rechute dans le samsara . Types In Research! Le nirvana fascine Cioran certes comme liberation mais surtout comme limite et impasse supremes. Paper! Le salut culmine dans le renoncement a la quete.

C’est le repos complet de l’esprit, d’ou toute obsession de but est bannie. Papers! En revanche, ce qui parait inadmissible a Cioran tient au fait que le bouddhisme poursuit ce qu’il n’a jamais perdu car il postule l’equivalence du nirvana et du samsara , qui ne seraient donc pas « deux realites separees, mais le champ de vacuite, percu soit par l’ignorance spirituelle, soit par la vraie connaissance8 ». 28 Cioran se montre totalement inapte a adherer a l’idee bouddhiste mahayaniste selon laquelle ce qui n’a jamais existe n’a pas a etre annihile9. Research For English! Ce principe implique selon lui, que le nirvana ne peut de ce fait etre atteint etant donne que nous y sommes deja. Types Of References In Research! Or le fait de savoir que le bouddhisme est un « cheminement immobile » n’apaise pas Cioran : « Par malheur, sur le chemin de la delivrance n’est interessant que le chemin. Book Projects School! La delivrance ? On n’y atteint pas, on types of references papers, s’y engouffre, on my algebra homework, y etouffe. Of References! Le nirvana lui-meme – une asphyxie ! La plus douce de toutes neanmoins » ( Oeuvres , Ecartelement , Gallimard, p. Form! 1470). Types! L’utilisation de l’adverbe modalisateur final « neanmoins » et l’utilisation du superlatif absolu reduisent la distance au texte de l’auteur qui semble y entrer en fournissant ce commentaire ironique a l’egard de lui-meme.

Yann Porte , « Dieu comme Etre du neant au sein du neant de l’Etre chez Cioran », Le Portique [En ligne], 2-2006 | Varia, mis en ligne le 10 novembre 2006, consulte le 04 octobre 2017. Dissertation Services In Uk! URL : Yann Porte, doctorant en philosophie a l’universite de Metz. Types In Research! Sa these (sous la direction de Jean-Paul Resweber) porte sur l’ecriture fragmentaire cioranienne concue comme un depassement ambivalent et paradoxal du nihilisme. Book Report For High School! Le jeu des ecarts et des correspondances entre les pensees de Nietzsche et de Cioran ne cesse de le requerir. Tous droits reserves. Michel Leiris 35 | 2015.

Philosophie du management 34 | 2014. Sciences sociales et marxisme 31 | 2013. Traduire Heidegger – Lacan / Refonder l’esthetique – Pierre Kaufmann 30 | 2013. Ecrire sur l’art 29 | 2012. Georges Bataille 28 | 2012. La beaute des villes / La ville de l'etranger 27 | 2011. Andre-Georges Haudricourt (1911-1996) : la matiere du monde 26 | 2011. Paul Ric?ur : une anthropologie philosophique 25 | 2010. L’architecture des Milieux 23-24 | 2009. Animalite 22 | 2009. Catastrophe(s)?

21 | 2008. Les Ages de la vie 20 | 2007. Gilles Deleuze et Felix Guattari : Territoires et devenirs 19 | 2007. Philosophies de l'argent 18 | 2006. Heidegger. Types Of References In Research Papers! La pensee a l'heure de la mondialisation 17 | 2006. Marcel Mauss et les techniques du corps 16 | 2005. Sartre. University Trustee Scholarship Essay! Conscience et liberte 15 | 2005.

Foucault : usages et actualites 12 | 2003. Charme et seduction 11 | 2003. Le Respect 10 | 2002. Les paradis artificiels 9 | 2002. Nietzsche et le divin 7 | 2001. Philosophie et sciences 6 | 2000. Le discours universitaire 5 | 2000. Passages du siecle 4 | 1999.

Eduquer : un metier impossible ? 3 | 1999. Technique et esthetique 2 | 1998. Freud et la philosophie 1 | 1998. Archives des Publications du Portique. ISSN electronique 1777-5280.

Informations Title: Le Portique Revue de philosophie et de sciences humaines Briefly: Revue de philosophie et sciences humaines a vocation pluridisciplinaire ouverte a la diversite des objets de la reflexion contemporaine.

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luciferase essay MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs predicted to of references papers post-transcriptionally regulate the majority of the transcriptome [1]. These 20–24 nucleotide-long RNAs have been involved in numerous physiological processes such as development and differentiation [2], and have been linked to many human disorders including cancer [3] and neurodegenerative disease [4]. MiRNAs are recognized mainly as negative post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Report For High School? They exert their function by association to miRNA recognition elements (MREs), predominantly within the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs. In most cases, miRNA binding to mRNA results in in research, the repression of the transcript by one of two mechanisms: mRNA cleavage or translational repression [5]. To understand the role of miRNAs in different physiological processes, it is important to utilize experimental approaches that allow for the detection of fine miRNA-induced alterations in scholarship form, mRNA expression. Currently, the functional relevance of MREs is extensively assessed using reporter gene assays in cell-based systems.

In the types of references papers, miRNA-adapted version of this assay, reporter activity is an indicator of miRNA capacity in regulating the reporter expression in vitro . ? Cells are co-transfected with the miRNA and a plasmid containing a Firefly or Renilla luciferase coding sequence upstream of an mRNA 3'UTR from the gene of interest. If the mRNA 3'UTR is a target of the miRNA, the luminescence variation will be altered, a reflection of the changes in the transcript’s stability and/or translation efficiency. Recently, we profiled miRNAs from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) spinal cord tissues and used miRNA reporter gene assays to test the functionality of in research, dysregulated miRNAs [6]. We observed that the controls and projects for high school students, the normalization methods most commonly reported in these assays do not take into consideration the possibility of direct and/or indirect effects of the miRNAs on the luciferase mRNA. Here, we present a comprehensive miRNA reporter gene assay protocol that includes a rigorous normalization of the types in research, data. We show that incomplete normalization can lead to erroneous conclusions, not only to university trustee scholarship essay form the magnitude of the miRNA expression regulation, but more importantly to the type of miRNA regulation (up- or down-regulation). Interestingly, these results suggest that miRNA up-regulatory effects are not uncommon and could reveal previously undetected roles for miRNAs in regulating the transcriptome. Currently, the luciferase reporter gene assay is extensively used to evaluate the functional relevance of types of references, miRNAs. We have observed that studies in the miRNA field lack rigorous normalization of the reporter activity data, generally only showing a transfection control (such as Renilla luciferase) and a control without miRNA or a non- targeting miRNA negative control. These types of book projects school students, analyses do not consider the of references in research, possibility of homework, indirect effects of miRNAs on the luciferase transcript and/or the existence of functional MREs in of references in research, the luciferase protein coding region [7,8,9].

Therefore, it is important to consider that, in addition to their putative effects on their mRNAs targets, miRNAs and other cellular factors could potentially regulate luciferase mRNA, critically affecting its activity. It is boston trustee essay form important to note that, while miRNAs and other factors could affect both Firefly and Renilla luciferase mRNA levels, it is the of references papers, regulation of the luciferase linked to the mRNA 3'UTR ( Firefly in our study) that is relevant for the normalization of the reporter gene assay data. Any miRNA or cellular effect over the control luciferase ( Renilla in research paper, our study) will be cancelled due to the normalization. We performed reporter assays by transfecting HEK293T cells with a plasmid containing Firefly and Renilla luciferase coding sequences (pmirGLO) or the same vector harboring the low molecular weight neurofilament ( NEFL ) mRNA 3'UTR linked to types of references papers the 3'-end of the Firefly luciferase (pmirGLO- NEFL 3'UTR). Renilla luciferase was used as transfection control. In these experiments, the independent effect of three miRNAs, miR-507, miR-518e* and miR-let-7a (negative control) were studied. Analyses using miRanda algorithm (see experimental section) showed that miR-507 has four MREs and miR-518e* has one MRE within the NEFL mRNA 3'UTR. Additionally, miR-507 had two MREs within the Firefly luciferase coding region (Figure 1). Six wells of book report students, each condition were transfected to types papers obtain the paper, mean of luciferase activity of each experiment (for details, see Experimental Section). After normalizing each sample’s Firefly luciferase activity value with its respective Renilla luciferase activity value (data not shown), we calculated the mean of the of references in research papers, luciferase activity (Mean Luc) for each experiment ( n = 3; Table 1). In this step of the analysis, we noticed that both miR-507 and miR-518e* down-regulated the luciferase activity when pmirGLO- NEFL 3'UTR was transfected.

Interestingly, the negative control miR-let-7a also appeared to trade research down-regulate the luciferase activity (Table 1, Mean Luc columns, rows b compared to rows a). We then analyzed the effect of of references in research papers, each miRNA on the luciferase mRNA without the 3'UTR (pmirGLO transfection), and again found that miR-507, miR-518e* and miR-let-7a down-regulated the research paper, luciferase activity (Table 1, Mean Luc columns, rows d compared to rows c). pmirGLO- NEFL 3'UTR. pmirGLO- NEFL 3'UTR. pmirGLO- NEFL 3'UTR. Abbreviations: Exp: Experiment; Luc: Luciferase; NEFL : Low molecular weight neurofilament; UTR: Untranslated region.

In a second step of normalization, we calculated the of references in research papers, effect of ivory trade research paper, miR-507, miR-518e* and miR-let-7a on the Firefly luciferase with or without the NEFL mRNA 3'UTR (Table 1, columns A and B; Figure 2). This normalization is critical to obtain the specific effect of the miRNA over of references in research the NEFL mRNA 3'UTR. As is described in Figure 3a, the transfection of pmirGLO- NEFL 3'UTR accounts for cellular effects (e.g., RNA binding proteins, endogenous miRNAs, etc. ) on the expression of luciferase linked to NEFL mRNA 3'UTR. The co-transfection of the pmirGLO- NEFL 3'UTR and the exogenous miRNA account for cellular and exogenous miRNA effects on the expression of university essay, luciferase linked to in research papers NEFL mRNA 3'UTR (Figure 3b). When the services in uk, normalization of column A is performed (Table 1), cancellation of the cellular effects occurs, leaving only the exogenous miRNA effects on the expression of luciferase linked to NEFL mRNA 3'UTR. Figure 3c,d describe the controls, pmirGLO and pmirGLO plus the exogenous miRNA respectively, which account for the effects on luciferase expression without 3'UTR. When the normalization of column B is performed (Table 1), we obtain the effect of exogenous miRNA on luciferase expression without 3'UTR. Thus, to obtain the specific effect of the exogenous miRNA on only NEFL mRNA 3'UTR, the effect of this miRNA over the luciferase coding sequence must be eliminated. This is types in research achieved by dividing column A by B (Table 1, Luc relative variation column; Figure 2). Calculation of the relative variation in luciferase activity showed that only miR-507 down-regulated the , activity of luciferase (0.82 ± 0.02, p 0.001).

Interestingly, we found that miR-518e* up-regulated the activity of the reporter (1.66 ± 0.02; p 0.001). No relative changes in the activity of the reporter linked to the NEFL mRNA 3'UTR was found in cells transfected with miR-let-7a control miRNA (1.05 ± 0.03, p = 0.059). Without this normalization procedure, our data would have falsely concluded that miR-518e* and the negative control miR-let-7a could both down-regulate luciferase via the 3'UTR of NEFL . Our results clearly demonstrate that performing incomplete controls or normalization on the data of the miRNA reporter gene assay without considering the impact of cellular factors and exogenous miRNAs on luciferase without 3'UTR could generate miscalculation of the relative variation in luciferase activity, leading to erroneous conclusions about miRNA functionality. The most extensive experimental approaches to determine functional relevance of predicted MREs are the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) to detect interaction between miRNAs and their targets, and types of references in research papers, the reporter gene assay to study miRNA regulatory effects. Considering that the reporter gene assay is a unique functional tool to study miRNA-based regulation on mRNA expression, it is extremely important to perform appropriate data analysis to avoid inaccurate results and conclusions. Currently, the majority of published miRNA studies perform normalization using only a transfection control reporter (e.g., Renilla luciferase) and boston essay form, controls lacking exogenous miRNA or transfecting a miRNA negative control with luciferase linked to the 3'UTR as target. However, the effect of the exogenous miRNA and cellular factors on types of references in research, the luciferase coding sequence alone has not been included as a control, and as described here, must be considered. We demonstrate that normalization against the effect of the miRNA and cellular factors on the luciferase coding sequence alone is essential to obtaining the specific impact of the miRNA on types of references papers, the 3'UTR target. We propose this normalization method as standard for miRNA luciferase reporter assays. Therefore, errors and misinterpretations in ivory trade, miRNA functionality commonly observed using previous protocols can be avoided. MiRNAs predominantly, but not exclusively, exert their functions through interaction with mRNA 3'UTRs [10].

There is evidence that miRNAs have functional MREs in 5'UTRs [11,12] and protein coding regions of mammalian transcripts [13,14]. Types In Research Papers? In fact, Argonaute HITS-CLIP and PAR-CLIP studies have shown that almost half of all Argonaute binding sites are located in human protein coding regions [15,16]. In addition, it is paper for english well known that reporter gene assays reveal specific regulation of miRNAs on their targets that could be both directly mediated through interaction, and of references papers, indirect for instance through the regulation of other factors involved in mRNA stability. For example, miR-375 down-regulates the expression of HuD, an RNA-binding protein that participates in mRNA stability and other regulatory processes, and thus governs the fate of many neuronal mRNAs [17] through an independent mechanism. Prediction analysis showed MREs for both miR-507 and miR-518e* within the NEFL mRNA 3'UTR. University Trustee Form? The results of the reporter gene assay support the types of references, idea that both miRNAs regulate the reporter linked to the NEFL mRNA 3'UTR. Book Projects For High School? After normalizing against both the of references in research, transfection control ( Renilla luciferase) and research, the control without the miRNA, miR-507 shows a down-regulatory effect on papers, the luciferase linked to the NEFL mRNA 3'UTR that once normalized for boston scholarship essay form effects on luciferase, is only half as strong as what it was originally detected to be before normalization.

In fact, a manual search revealed two MREs for miR-507 within the types in research, Firefly coding sequence, and research paper for english, the reporter gene assay showed that miR-507 regulates Firefly luciferase. Hence, our results suggest that miR-507 could be directly regulating Firefly luciferase. However, it is types papers important to consider that site accessibility and translation efficiency around MREs are two factors that might affect miRNA binding when MREs are located in coding regions [18]. Unlike miR-507, the scholarship, regulation by types of references in research papers, miR-518e* changes from university trustee, negative to types of references papers positive after the normalization against the effect of augustine essay, miR-518e* over Firefly luciferase. Considering that miR-518e* does not have binding sites within the Firefly luciferase coding sequence, our reporter assay results suggest an types papers indirect down-regulatory effect of miR-518e*. All of this evidence supports the idea that miRNAs might regulate Firefly luciferase in miRNA reporter gene assays, and as a consequence the effect of each miRNA on the luciferase mRNA itself must be included in the normalization of the data.

It is important to note that while the trustee scholarship essay form, reporter gene assay is a highly sensitive and types in research, reliable technique, using confirmatory and complementary methods to study the regulatory effects of boston trustee scholarship essay, miRNAs on their targets is greatly recommended. Studies of miRNA effects on mRNA and protein levels and the usage of MRE mutants to determine the specificity of these effects are all valuable approaches. Although the actions of miRNAs on mRNA cleavage or translational repression are their more well-known roles, there is increasing evidence of miRNAs being involved in up-regulation of the mRNA expression [19,20,21]. For instance, in mammalian cells the translation of ribosomal proteins and other proteins involved in in research, protein synthesis is regulated via the 5'TOP motif, which renders transcripts sensitive to stress signals. My Algebra? MiR-10a can interact with the 5'UTR, immediately downstream of the regulatory 5'TOP motif, and types in research papers, enhances the translation of ribosomal proteins [21]. Another example is miR-122, which naturally represses CAT-1 mRNA in hepatoma cells. However, in the presence of book projects school students, HuR protein, the repression of CAT-1 is types of references removed due to the interaction of HuR with the CAT-1 mRNA 3'UTR.

Thus, HuR acts as a modifier altering the ability of for high students, miRNAs to repress gene expression [22]. Recently, we reported a group of dysregulated miRNAs in types of references in research papers, ALS that regulate the expression of a reporter linked to the NEFL mRNA 3'UTR. We found that a significant group of miRNAs up-regulate the expression of luciferase linked to the NEFL mRNA 3'UTR [6]. The novel results shown in research for english, this paper and the data we published previously suggest that up-regulatory roles for miRNAs are not an types of references uncommon phenomenon. 4.1. Plasmid Construction, Cell Culture and Transfection. The reporter plasmid was constructed by inserting human low molecular weight neurofilament ( NEFL ) mRNA 3'UTR (1–1838; GenBank NM_006158) between NheI and SalI sites downstream of the Firefly luciferase gene in the pmirGLO vector (Promega, Madison, WI, USA). HEK293T cells were maintained in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and plated 24 h before transfection in 96-well plates at 9 ? 10 3 cells/well.

Cells were transfected with 3.47 fmol of pmirGLO- NEFL 3'UTR or pmirGLO and 100 nM of research paper, pre-miRNAs (Life Technologies Inc., Burlington, ON, Canada) per well using Lipofectamine 2000 reagent (Life Technologies Inc.) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The total amount of transfected nucleic acid was maintained constant at 350 ng per well by types of references in research papers, adding an empty vector without eukaryotic elements. Services In Uk Qualitative? Six wells of each specific condition were transfected to obtain the in research papers, mean of luciferase activity of each experiment. All the experiments were performed in triplicate. Luciferase activity was measured 24 h after transfection using the Dual-Glo Luciferase Assay System (Promega; Madison, WI, USA) in a Luminometer (Turner Biosystems Luminometer, Promega) according to research paper the manufacturer’s instructions.

Normalization of the data included two sequential steps. (1) Firefly luciferase activity was normalized to Renilla luciferase activity to types in research papers account for variations in the transfection efficiency among experiments. Normalized values out of the mean range of each experiment were eliminated, always maintaining at least four values from the types papers, six transfected wells; (2) The luciferase activity from each miRNA over augustine the 3'UTR was normalized against the effects of the miRNA on of references in research papers, luciferase mRNA without the 3'UTR to finally obtain the specific effect of the miRNA on the NEFL mRNA 3'UTR (for more detailed discussion see the results section). University Scholarship Form? Values of relative variation in luciferase activity over 1 were considered up-regulation and of references, values under 1 were considered down-regulation. Quantitative data of the reporter gene assay are presented as mean ± SEM. Student’s t- test was used to determine significant differences between the effect of each miRNA on the NEFL 3'UTR or the Firefly luciferase alone. Comparison between miR-507 or miR-518e* and miR-let-7a negative control was performed using ANOVA, Newman-Keuls test. To determine miRNA recognition elements (MREs) within the ivory trade research paper, NEFL mRNA 3'UTR, we used the miRanda algorithm [23]. Firefly and Renilla coding regions were examined manually in the prediction of MREs considering the criteria of the seed sequence [24].

Our results using the miRNA reporter gene assay protocol presented in papers, this paper suggest that: (1) roles of miRNAs could be masked by miRNA effects on the reporter being revealed only through proper normalization of the data; (2) up-regulatory roles of form, miRNAs could be a common regulatory mechanism in types of references in research papers, cells; and (3) there could be unrevealed roles for miRNAs as regulatory elements of the transcriptome. We are grateful to Kevin Cheung for his critical reading of the augustine, manuscript. Of References In Research? Michael J. Strong research is funded by the ALS Society of Canada (Senior Scientist Bridge Funding) and the Canadian Institutes of trade research, Health Research (CIHR). DCM and CAD performed the experiments and data analysis. DCM, CAD, KV and in research, MJS wrote the manuscript.

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Citing References in Scienti c Research Papers

analisis essay You’ve been staring at your blank computer screen for what feels like hours, trying to figure out of references papers, how to start your analytical essay. You try to choose between writing the introduction first or getting right into my algebra the meat of it. But somehow, it seems too difficult to do either. What you need is is a blueprint—a foolproof way to types in research papers, get your essay structured. Research! Then all you have to types of references in research, do is fill in scholarship essay the blanks. By Anonymous [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons. What an Analytical Essay Is—And What It Isn’t. Helpful, right?

Um, not so much. First, it might be more useful to types of references papers, explain what an analytical essay isn’t before getting to boston trustee, what it is . An analytical essay isn’t a summary. Types In Research Papers! Though this may seem obvious in theory, it’s more difficult in my algebra practice. If you read your essay and it sounds a lot like a book report, it’s probably only summarizing events or characters. One way to figure out if you’re summarizing instead of analyzing is to of references in research, look at your support. Are you simply stating what happened, or are you relating it back to dissertation qualitative, your main point? Okay, so what is an analytical essay, exactly ? Usually, it’s writing that has a more narrowed focus than a summary.

Analytical essays usually concentrate on how the book or poem was written—for example, how certain themes present themselves in the story, or how the use of metaphor brings a certain meaning to a poem. In short, this type of essay, essay requires you to look at the smaller parts of the work to help shed light on augustine confessions essay the larger picture. An example of a prompt—and the example I’m going to use for the rest of this post—could be something like: Analyze the theme of sacrifice in the Harry Potter series. (Note: there might be some spoilers, but I figured everyone who was planning on types in research reading the books has done so already—or at least has seen the movies.) One Way To Form Your Analytical Essay Outline. There are quite a few ways to organize your analytical essay, but no matter how you choose to write it, your essay should always have three main parts: I’ll get into the nitty-gritty of my algebra, this soon, but for types of references in research papers, all you visual learners, here is a nice representation of all the components that make a great analytical essay outline. You can see that I’ve added a few more details than just the introduction, body, and conclusion. But hold your horses—we’re getting to those parts right now. Types Of References! Introduction of Your Analytical Essay Outline. Research Paper! The purpose of papers, your introduction is to get the reader interested in your analysis. The introduction should include at least three things—a hook, your thesis statement, and a sentence or two describing how you intend to prove your thesis statement.

1. You gotta hook ‘em from the start. The first part of your introduction should draw the reader in. ! This is called the hook. The hook should be interesting or surprising. You can achieve this by asking a rhetorical question, giving some relevant statistics, or making a statement that’s unusual or controversial. For my Harry Potter example, I might say, “Since the publication of the first book in the Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone , some Christian groups have attacked the books for promoting witchcraft. However, one of the main themes of the books draws inspiration from Christianity itself—that of sacrifice.” Okay, so that’s two sentences. But it’s got a little bit of controversy and relates to what the rest of the essay will discuss. 2. Get to the good stuff—write a killer thesis statement. Okay, so now that you’ve got your reader hooked, you need to start getting to the point.

This is where the thesis statement comes in. Trade Research Paper! My thesis might be, “The theme of sacrifice is prevalent throughout the series and is embodied as sacrifice for the greater good, sacrifice for an ultimate gain, and sacrifice to keep a promise.” 3. It’s time to back up your thesis. Let the reader know how you’re going to prove your claim. Types Of References In Research! For my example, I would let the reader know that I intend to analyze the instances of Harry’s “death,” Voldemort’s sacrifice of types, his soul in exchange for immortality, and how Snape sacrifices in order to honor a promise made to Lily Potter. These points will be the building blocks of the body paragraphs.

Body of Your Analytical Essay Outline. The body is where you can start to get really creative and play around with formatting. Types In Research! In the flowchart, there are three body paragraphs. But that’s because I was trained in the 5-paragraph outline. But you can include as many or as few body paragraphs as you want—as long as you end up thoroughly supporting your thesis. Types Of References! For my outline, each body paragraph includes a topic sentence, followed by paper three sets of claims, evidence to support those claims, and how that evidence ties back to the topic sentence. Again, three is not necessarily a magic number here. Types! You could make one claim with a lot of evidence, or five claims to school students, support your topic sentence. Types In Research Papers! But let’s get into it, shall we? 1. Develop a strong topic sentence.

Each topic sentence in homework each body paragraph of your analytical essay outline should tell the reader exactly what that section is going to be about. My first body paragraph might start with, “Harry Potter is willing to fulfill prophecy and make the ultimate sacrifice—that of his life—in order to save the rest of the wizarding world.” 2. Make your claim. The claim should dive into a smaller part of the overarching topic sentence. The topic sentence I gave can be broken down into several smaller claims—that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, that he was actually willing to die, and that his death would be of profound significance. 3. Provide evidence from the text to back your claim. Augustine Essay! You can’t just go around making claims without any support. You can use quotes or paraphrase parts of the text to in research papers, add evidence. Trade Paper! For evidence that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, you could cite the instance in the hall of prophecies with the quote, “and either must die at the hand of the other for augustine confessions essay, neither can live while the other survives.” 4. Tie that evidence to the topic sentence. You have to make it absolutely clear why you included the evidence. If you don’t, your analytical essay runs the risk of being a summary. For example, with the citing of the prophecy, I would tell the reader that Harry and his friends found said prophecy and figured out that it had to be about him (although there are objections that it could’ve been referring to Neville, but we’ll leave that out of this example).

They knew that either Voldemort had to die or Harry did, and he had to be willing to do that. They’re not needed in the outline, but when you write your final essay, be sure you include effective transitions. This will help your essay flow. Conclusion of Your Analytical Essay Outline. After you’ve built up all of your body paragraphs, given the appropriate evidence to back your claims, and tied that evidence to your awesome topic sentences, you’re ready to wrap it all up. ! The conclusion should be a brief restatement of your main points without being a direct copy. For example, “There are many motivations behind sacrifice—to help others, to help oneself, or to keep a promise to of references, a loved one—and J.K. Projects Students! Rowling explores several of them through the characters in the Harry Potter book series.” This, of course, does not suffice as a full conclusion. To fill it out and give the reader a sense of closure, you can relate the theme to the real world or end with a final quote from the text or the author. Types Of References Papers! Use This Downloadable Analytical Essay Outline as a Guide.

Easy, right? I know you’re pumped to get started, but before you do, I have a template for the analytical essay outline for you to download. Of course, your instructor’s directions will trump mine, so if they say to do something a specific way, I won’t be offended if you take their advice over mine. ! And don’t forget about the Kibin editors. When your analytical essay is all typed up, they can help you make sure that it’s as good as it can get. Psst. Types In Research Papers! 98% of ivory paper, Kibin users report better grades!

Get inspiration from over types of references 500,000 example essays. Book Report Projects School Students! About the Author. Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. You can find her on Google+. Projects! dis was absooltelee fantasteec thxc you 4 de owwline. awesome! Glad you liked it. #128578; @naomi_tepper:disqus Oh my Gosh! this was amazing thank you so much! This helped a lot with my Economics essay for Humanities 6 World Studies! Woot woot! Happy to help. #128578; Thanks for types papers, the comment. This is undoubtedly very much helpful#8230; Thanks a lot.

You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for the comment and thanks for ivory trade, reading. Types Of References In Research! #128578; Hi#8230;.Eden thank you for orienting me on how to structure an analytical essay. because of many reasons which i don#8217;t like to name writing an , analytical essay has been my Achilies Hill. Your effort in writing this article has thrown much need light as far as I#8217;m concerned. I look forward to types of references in research, your reply on the question of my algebra, structuring of analytical political essay on issues like say Affirmative Action or Constitutionalism. Thank you for your kind words. In regards to writing a political analytical essay, it varies depending on the course and the requirements of your instructor.

However, you can follow the same advice in this post. Introduction with a hook and thesis, body paragraphs that make claims with evidence to support those claims, and a conclusion that wraps it all up. The main difference is that you#8217;ll have to do more research than reading just one book. (And make sure to cite your sources.) I hope that helped! Thank you, this will help ? This was really useful I went through so many websites the finally got this one. Sweet! Glad you found it helpful. hi this is great.

Fabulous! Happy to help. How would I write an analytic essay using dramatic conventions? I#8217;m supposed to write an essay on The Tempest from Shakespeare using dramatic conventions and I#8217;m not doing so well at understanding how to do it. basically it#8217;s also asking me #8220;how dramatic conventions make the reader see characters in a certain way. Please respond to this if you can. I think that I would devote one body paragraph to papers, each of the dramatic conventions that you#8217;re covering in your paper.

For instance, in one paragraph, if you are writing about the conventions of soliloquy, the play-within-a-play convention, and asides (these are the first three conventions I thought of #8212; I#8217;m not sure which ones you#8217;ve studied in class), then you could devote one body paragraph to each of types, these topics and their influence on dissertation in uk how the audience views the characters. I hope this puts you on book report the right track! I have two write an essay about types, Animals by O#8217;Hara and confessions how it reflects the innocence and simplicity of of references in research, childhood. I don#8217;t know how to start. Could anyone suggest the first sentence of the introduction? I#8217;ve already got my outline #128578; Hi Lily Awesome that you have your outline ready to go. You might want to start with the quintessential quote from the text that stands out as reflecting these qualities of innocence/childhood simplicity.

For more great hook sentence tips visit: This is amazing and extremely helpful! Thank you author. Hey, thanks for reading and for the nice comment! I#8217;ll be sure to show the author. #128578; do you eat pussy? Haha!

Awesome. We#8217;re happy to help, but don#8217;t sell yourself short just because of your blonde hair. #128578; great site but second para 24th word should be ALWAYS not away. dont take this as offensive but im just trying to improve this site that is all. Thanks for keeping us on our toes, Shayan! No offense taken #8212; we#8217;ll get that updated #128578; Great blog post ! Just to add my thoughts if you are wanting a Express Evictions 3-Day Notice to Pay Rent or Quit , my secretary came across a blank version here Hi there! Although this was really helpful for literary analysis, I was wondering if you had an services in uk, idea as to how to apply this to historical analysis. I have to types in research, write about the effects of European migration, warfare, and ivory disease on Native Americans, and was thinking of finding 3 specific examples of of references papers, each and explaining the effect that each had on Native Americans. Is this a good plan? You could *definitely* apply this framework to confessions essay, a historical analysis, yes! As Eden mentions, you can have as many body paragraphs as you want, so you could devote a single paragraph to each of types of references in research papers, your examples #8212; giving you 9 body paragraphs.

Since that would get pretty lengthy, you could add a header before each of your 3-paragraph sections to keep your paper organized. DIOS MIO! this is really helpful. Woot! That#8217;s awesome. So happy you found this post helpful. #128578; Thanks for the kind comment. This is so helpful, thank you. I have to write an of references in research, analytical essay about my algebra homework, The Killer Angels by Michael Shaara and I#8217;m stuck. Of References In Research Papers! This is my second essay and on the first I received a C #128577; I don#8217;t know how to confessions, start and it isn#8217;t even about the whole book, its only for in research papers, half the book.

Please help. Starting is definitely the hardest part sometimes :/ thanks so much for your blog. you have made it very easy for me to understand this (horrible) essay. I have to write my first Analytical essay. kind regards to you. ! And thanks to types in research, you for reading! Good luck with your essay #8212; you#8217;ve got this.

I have to write an analytical essay for my college English course, and augustine confessions its about an American folk song called #8220;Frankie and of references papers Johnny#8221; and im stuck in how to begin it! my professor gave me an example on how to start, she said #8220;to summarize a short definition of boston trustee essay form, North American folk music from of references in research papers Oxford Music Online#8221; please help. A definition is one way to start your essay, sure! This post contains lots more great advice (plus you can sign up for 14 hook types + examples in the bottom right corner): Damn am I thirsty, any fine white beothches dtf. NAH MEAN. Thank you so much.

I was dying a moment ago. Now I think I can manage it. love the example! it got me even more excited! #128516;#128523;#128526; Yesss, you can totally manage it! Thanks for reading #128578; I feel motivated and have been trying my best all these days#8230; Grateful for dissertation services, everything. )

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Citing References in Scienti c Research Papers

essay on in research papers semiotics We can define semiology or semiotics as the study of signs. We may not realize it, but in fact semiology can be applied to all sorts of human endeavours, including cinema, theatre, dance, architecture, painting, politics, medicine, history, and religion. Homework! That is, we use a variety of gestures (signs) in everyday life to convey messages to people around us, e.g., rubbing our thumb and forefinger together to types of references in research signify money. We should think of messages (or texts) as systems of signs, e.g., lexical, graphic, and so on, which gain their effects via the constant clashes between these systems. For example, the menu we consult in a restaurant has been drawn up with reference to a structure, but this structure can be filled differently, according to time and place, e.g., breakfast or dinner (Barthes, 1964, p. 28). In the dissertation qualitative notes that follow, I will say a few words about structuralism, an intellectual movement which flourished during the 1950s and the 1960s, and semiology, which has been one of the chief modes of this intellectual movement. The major figures in this movement include Ferdinand de Saussure, Roland Barthes, Roman Jakobson, Claude Levi-Strauss, Thomas Sebeok, Julia Kristeva, and Umberto Eco. For reasons that will become obvious, I will focus on types in research papers Saussure and essay, Barthes, the pioneers. All believed semiology is the types in research key to book projects school students unlocking meaning of all things.

the basic elements of structuralism. To begin with, we should think of structuralism as a mode of thought, a way of types conceptualizing phenomena. Whereas in the past, determinists like Aristotle saw things in terms of cause and effect, structuralists look for structures: From the 15th century, the augustine confessions word structure was used as a noun: the process of building (Williams, 1976). During the 17th century, the term developed in two main directions: towards the product of building, as in a wooden structure, and towards the manner of construction generally. Modern developments flow from (b). The sense of the in research papers latter is: the mutual relation of the constituent parts of research paper a whole which define its nature, as in internal structure. The term entered the vocabulary of biology in the 18th century, as in the structure of the hand. The term entered the vocabulary of language, literature, and philosophy in the 19th century, to convey the idea of internal structure as constitutive, as in matters of building and engineering.

Scholars would talk (1863) about the structural differences that separate man from gorilla say. We need to know this history if we are to understand the development of structural and structuralist thinking in the 20th century, as in linguistics and anthropology. We note that this theoretical construct dominated intellectual life in France, extending into the literary arts, during the period from WW I to WW II. Linguists in North America had to discard the presuppositions of dissertation services in uk qualitative Indo-European linguistics when they studied the languages of types in research American Indians. They developed procedures for studying language as a whole, i.e., deep internal relations. Thus, we now distinguish function (performance) from structure (organization), as in structuralist linguistics and functional anthropology. According to projects for high (orthodox) structuralism, these structures range from kinship to myth, not to mention grammar, one permanent constitutive of human formations: the defining features of human consciousness (and perhaps the human brain), e.g., Id, Ego, Superego, Libido, or Death-Wish in psychology. Of course, the in research papers assumption here is that the structuralist is an objective observer, independent of the object of consideration.

In this context, we use words like code (hidden relations) to describe sign-systems (like fashion). We should note that structuralism challenges common sense, which believes that things have one meaning and this meaning is pretty obvious. Common sense tells us that the of references in research papers world is pretty much as we perceive it. In other words, structuralism tells us that meaning is constructed, as a product of services qualitative shared systems of signification. Semiology: Two Pioneers. Again, semiology can be defined as the study of types of references in research signs : how they work and how we use them. We note again that almost anything can signify something for , someone. Papers! Saussure developed the principles of semiology as they applied to language; Barthes extended these ideas to for high students messages (word-and-image relations) of all sorts. 1. Ferdinand de Saussure , 1857-1913. Saussure was born in Geneva, Switzerland, to of references in research papers a family celebrated for its accomplishments in the natural sciences.

Not surprisingly, he discovered linguistic studies early in life. In 1875, he entered the University of Geneva as a student of physics and chemistry, taking course in Greek and dissertation services in uk, Latin grammar as well. Types Of References Papers! This experience convinced him that his career lay in the study of language. In 1876, he entered the University of confessions essay Leipzig to study Indo-European languages. Here, he published (1878) a monograph on the Primitive System of Vowels in Indo-European Languages . Types! He was awarded the Ph.D. for his thesis on the genitive case in Sanskrit.

After completing his thesis, he moved to Paris, where he taught Sanskrit, as well as Old High German. For 10 years, he focused on specific languages--as opposed to general linguistics. In 1891, he returned to Geneva, to teach taught Sanskrit and historical linguistics at types of references, the university. The university provided the catalyst for shaping semiology--he was asked to teach (1906-11) a course of lectures in general linguistics. He died in February of 1913. His students thought his course so innovative that they assembled their notes and published (1916) a work called Course in General Linguistics . In this work, Saussure focuses on dissertation services in uk qualitative the linguistic sign, making a number of types crucial points about the relationship between the augustine signifier (Sr) and the signified (Sd). Below I summarise the key ideas: Language (Saussure, 1916) is a self-contained system, one which is made up of elements which perform a variety of functions, based on the relations the various elements have one with another. We can think of types syntax and research paper, grammar as organizing principles of langauge. We have no trouble recognizing the grammatical sense of the following construction: Colorless green ideas sleep furiously . We can think of language (p. 34) as a system of signs, which we can study synchronically (as a complete system at any given point) or diachronically (in its historical development).

A signifier (Sr), the sound-image or its graphical equivalent, and its signified (Sd), the concept or the meaning, make up the in research sign (pp. 36-38). For example, we can say that, to an English speaking person, the three black marks c-a-t serve as the book projects for high school signifier which evokes the cat. The relation between Sr and of references, Sd is arbitrary (pp. 37-38). Different languages use different words for the same thing. No physical connection links a given signifier and a signified. Described in these terms, language is a system of formal relations. This means that the key to understanding the structure of the system lies in difference . One sound differs from another sound (as p and b ); one word differs from another (as pat and bat ); and one grammatical forms differs from another (as has run from will run ). No linguistic unit (sound or word) has significance in and of itself.

Each unit acquires meaning in conjunction with other units. We can distinguish (p. 29) formal language (Saussure calls it langue ) from the actual use of language (which he calls parole ). Every expression we use is based on collective behavior or convention. We can say that a sign is confessions, motivated when we perceive a connection between Sr and Sd, e.g. in instances of in research papers onomatopoeia like bow-wow and tick-tock (pp. 39-30). 2. Trade Research! Roland Barthes , 1915-80. This cultural theorist and analyst was born in Cherbourg, a port-city northwest of Paris. His parents were Louis Barthes, a naval officer, and Henriette Binger. His father died in 1916, during combat in the North Sea.

In 1924, Barthes and his mother moved to Paris, where he attended (1924-30) the types Lycee Montaigne. Unfortunately, he spent long periods of his youth in sanatoriums, undergoing treatment for TB. When he recovered, he studied (1935-39) French and the classics at the University of Paris. He was exempted from military service during WW II (he was ill with TB during the of references period 1941-47). Later, when he wasn't undergoing treatment for TB, he taught at services in uk, a variety of schools, including the Lycees Voltaire and Carnot. He taught at universities in Rumania (1948-49) and Egypt (1949-50) before he joined (in 1952) the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, where he devoted his time to sociology and lexicology. Barthes' academic career fell into of references in research papers three phases. During the first phase , he concentrated on demystifying the ivory trade paper stereotypes of bourgeois culture (as he put it). For example, in Writing degree Zero (1953), Barthes examined the of references papers link between writing and biography: he studied the historical conditions of literary language and the difficulty of paper for english a modern practice of types in research writing. Committed to language, he argued, the writer is at once caught up in particular discursive orders, the socially instituted forms of writing, a set of signs (a myth) of literature--hence the search for an unmarked language, before the closure of myth, a writing degree zero. During the years 1954-56, Barthes wrote a series of essays for the magazine called Les Lettres nouvelles , in which he exposed a Mythology of the Month, i.e., he showed how the denotations in the signs of my algebra homework popular culture betray connotations which are themselves myths generated by the larger sign system that makes up society.

The book which contains these studies of everyday signs--appropriately enough, it is entitled Mythologies (1957)--offers his meditations on many topics, such as striptease, the New Citroen, steak and chips, and so on. In each essay, he takes a seemingly unnoticed phenomenon from everyday life and deconstructs it, i.e., shows that the obvious connotations which it carries have been carefully constructed. This account of contemporary myth involved Barthes in the development of semiology. During the second phase , the semiotics phase dating from 1956, he took over Saussure's concept of the sign, together with the concept of language as a sign system, producing work which can be regarded as an appendix to Mythologies . During this period, Barthes produced such works as Elements of Semiology (1964), and book report projects school students, The Fashion System (1967), adapting Saussure's model to the study of types of references in research papers cultural phenomena other than language. During this period, he became (in 1962) Directeur d'Etudes in the VIth section of the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, where he devoted his time to homework the sociology of signs, symbols, and representations. The third phase began with the publication of in research papers S/Z (1970), marking a shift from Saussurean semiology to of references in research papers a theory of the text, which he defined as a field of the signifier and of the symbolic. University! S/Z is a reading of Balzac's novel Sarrasine , plotting the migration of five codes, understood as open groupings of signifieds and as points of crossing with other texts. In Research! The distinction between the writable and , the readable, between what can be written/rewritten today, i.e., actively produced by the reader, and what can no longer be written but only read, i.e., passively consumed, provides a new basis for evaluation. Barthes extends this idea in The Pleasure of the Text (1973) via the types in research papers body as text and language as an object of desire. During this period, he wrote books as fragments, suggesting his retreat from what might be called the boston scholarship essay discourse of power, as caught in the subject/object relationship and the habits of rhetoric. Types In Research Papers! He tried to distinguish the ideological from the my algebra homework aesthetic, between the language of science, which deals with stable meanings and which is identified with the sign, and types in research papers, the language of writing, which aims as displacement, dispersion.

He offers a textual reading of himself in Roland Barthes by in uk, Roland Barthes (1975). In 1976, he became professor of literary semiology at the College de France. In his last book, Camera Lucinda (1980), he reflects on the levels of meaning of the photograph. Barthes died on 26 March 1980, having been knocked over by a laundry van (reports suggest that the driver was drunk). In the notes that follow, I summarise the principle he forumlates in Elements of Semiology : the basic elements of semiology. The goal of of references papers semiological analysis is to identify the principle at work in augustine confessions, the message or text, i.e., to determine the rhetoric or the of references papers grammar tying together all the elements. I gloss the chief terms used by services in uk qualitative, analysts in the section below, and types in research papers, I provide a short guide to semiological analysis in the very last section. 1. axes of language.

We get a sense of how language works as a system (Barthes, 1983, p. Paper! 58) if we think of language as a pair of types in research axes or two planes of dissertation services in uk mental activity, the in research papers vertical plane being the selective principle (vocabulary) and the horizontal dimension being the combinative principle (sentences). For example, we might select items (words) from various categories in the vertical (associative) dimension, such as kitten, cat, moggy, tom, puss, mouser; sat, rested, crouched; mat, rug, carpet and so on, and link them in the horizontal (combinative) plane to formulate statements like The cat sat on the mat . The idea is to think of language (Saussure, 1916) as a system of dissertation services qualitative signs. Let me say a few words about this important concept. By system we mean an organized whole, involving a number of parts in some non-random relationship with one another. In other words, a system is a set of entities that interact with one another to form a whole. We speak of mechanical, biological, psychological, or socio-cultural systems. A machine is a system. We think of the brake system in a car. Of References! An organism like the body is a system. ! We think of the nervous system. Types In Research Papers! With regard to social units, we think of the family . The members of the family are the objects of the system.

Their characteristics as individuals are the attributes; their interaction forms constitute the in research relationships. A family exists in a social and cultural environment, which affects and is shaped by, the members. The following example will help clarify three related terms: The system of traffic signals performs the function of controlling traffic; the structure of this system is the binary opposition of red and green lights in alternating sequence. To make a long story short, we should think of texts as systems, e.g., lexical, graphic, and so on, which gain their effects via the constant clashes between these systems. As we have seen, de Saussure--the founder of semiology--was the first to elaborate the tripartite relationship. signifier + signified = sign. According to Saussure, the types papers linguistic sign unites a sound-image and a concept. The relationship between Sr and Sd is arbitrary. It should be remembered that neither of these entities exist outside the construct we call a sign. We separate these entities for , convenience only.

The signifier --which has a physical existence--carries the types meaning. This is the sign as we perceive it: the marks on the paper or the sounds in the air. The signified is a mental concept that is the boston university trustee scholarship essay form meaning. It is common to all members of the same culture who share the same language. The sign is the associative total of the two: we speak of papers it as a signifying construct. During the 1960s, long hair on a man, especially if it was dirty (the signifier) usually suggested counterculture (the signified), whereas short hair on a man (the signifier) suggested the businessman or square (the signifier).

Of course, these meanings vary according to place and time. The terms motivation and constraint describe the extent to which the signified determines the signifier. In other words, the form that a photograph of a car can take is determined by the appearance of the specific car itself. The form of the signifier of a generalized car or a traffic sign is report for high school, determined by the convention that is accepted by types papers, the users of the boston university trustee scholarship essay code. Motivated signs are iconic signs; they are characterized by a natural relation between signifier and signified. Types Of References In Research Papers! A portrait or a photograph is iconic, in that the signifier represents the qualitative appearance of the signified. The faithfulness or the accuracy of the representation--the degree to which the signified is re-presented in the signifier--is an inverse measure of how conventionalized it is. A realistic portrait (painting) is highly conventionalized: this means that to signify the work relies on our experience of the sort of reality it re-presents. Of References In Research Papers! A photograph of homework a street scene communicates easily because of our familiarity with the reality it re-presents. It is important to types of references recognize that (i) in signs of high motivation, the signified is the determining influence, and (ii) in signs of low motivation, convention determines the form of the signifier.

In unmotivated signs, the signifieds relate to their signifiers by convention alone, i.e., by an agreement among the users of ivory trade paper these signs. Thus, convention plays a key role in our understanding of any sign. We need to know how to papers read a photograph or a sculpture, say. Convention serves as the social dimension of signs. We may not understand the unmotivated verbal sign for car that the French use, but we understand the road signs in France in so far as they are iconic. The arbitrary dimension of the unmotivated sign is often disguised by the apparent natural iconic motivation; hence, a man in a detective story showing the inside of his wallet is augustine essay, conventionally a sign of a policeman identifying himself and types papers, not a sign of my algebra homework a peddler of pornographic postcards.

4. denotation and connotation. Saussure concentrated on the denotative function of in research papers signs; by contrast, Barthes pushed the analysis to another level, the connotative. Simply put, these two terms describe the meanings signs convey. By denotation we mean the common sense, obvious meaning of the sign. A photograph of a street scene denotes the street that was photographed. This is the mechanical reproduction (on film) of the object the camera points at. For example, I can use color film, pick a day of pale sunshine, and ivory research paper, use a soft focus lens to in research make the street appear warm and happy, a safe community for services in uk, children. I can use black and white film, hard focus, and strong contrast, to make the street appear cold, inhospitable. The denotative meanings would be the types same. By connotation we mean the interaction that occurs when the sign and the feelings of the boston trustee scholarship essay form viewer meet. At this point, meanings move toward the subjective interpretation of the papers sign (as illustrated by paper, the above examples).

If denotation is what is photographed, connotation is how it is photographed. 5. Types In Research Papers! paradigms and syntagms. Saussure defined two ways in which signs are organized into codes (Fiske, 1982, pp. 61-64): A paradigm is a vertical set of units (each unit being a sign or word), from which the required one is paper, selected, e.g., the set of types of references shapes for road signs: square, round and triangular. A syntagm is the horizontal chain into which units are linked, according to agreed rules and conventions, to make a meaningful whole.

The syntagm is the statement into which the chosen signs are combined. A road sign is a syntagm, a combination of the chosen shape with the chosen symbol. Paradigms and in research, syntagms are fundamental to the way that any system of signs is organized. In written language, the letters of the alphabet are the research basic vertical paradigms. These may be combined into syntagms called words. Types Of References In Research! These words can be formed into syntagms called phrases or sentences, i.e., according to the rules of grammar. Syntagms--like sentences--exist in time: we can think of them as a chain. But syntagms of visual signs can exist simultaneously in space.

Thus, a sign of two children leaving school, in black silhouette, can be syntagmatically combined with a red triangle or a road sign to mean: SCHOOL: BEWARE OF CHILDREN. The term difference describes the augustine essay relationship between the elements at work in any given message. They work as rhetorical figures, such as the figures of addition , where the in research elements are added to a word, sentence, or image; or the figures of suppression , where elements are suppressed, concealed, or excluded. The key to understanding the structure of a system of signs, then, lies in understanding the relationship(s) the system utilizes. We are interested in report, the techniques of additions primarily, which include: Repetition is the repetition of the same element: word, sound or image; Similarity is similarity of types form, as in rhyme, or on similarity of content, as in of references papers, comparisons; Accumulation refers to a number of different elements conveying the idea of abundance or profusion, verging on disorder and chaos; and. Opposition occurs at the level of form (an ad set in two different countries) and the level of content (an advertisement for detergent featuring a man in boston scholarship, white smocking sitting on a heap of coal).

Thus, difference might be a function of contrast or opposition in terms of: high quality - low quality. The idea is that nothing in and of itself has meaning: rather, meaning is a function of some relationship. 7. Metaphor and in research papers, Metonymy. These terms--used by Roman Jakobson, the linguist--define the two fundamental modes by which the meanings of signs are conveyed. Metaphor involves a transposition or displacement from signified to signifier, together with the recognition that such a transposition implies an equivalence between these two elements of the sign. Likewise, visual metaphors are constructed, e.g., a portrait of types of references papers a man is constructed in such a way as to convince us that the two dimensional visual representation is equivalent to its three-dimensional reality. Similarly, a map signifies the reality to which it refers by constructing an equivalent form in whose features we can recognize those of the object itself.

Thus, both verbal and non-verbal, arbitrary and iconic signs can be metaphorical. In metonymy, the signification depends upon the ability of in uk a sign to act as a part which signifies the whole . In Research Papers! Television advertisers are particularly adept at exploiting both metaphoric and metonymic modes in order to cram as much meaning as possible into essay a short period of time. For example, the sign of a mother pouring out a particular breakfast cereal for her children is a metonym of all her maternal activities of cooking, cleaning, and so on, but a metaphor for the love and the security she provides. Types Of References Papers! As we have suggested, the structural relationship between these modes can be visualized as operating on two axes, one vertical and one horizontal in character. 8. three orders of signification. In the study of qualitative signs, we can speak of different levels of meaning or orders of signification. In the first order of signification, the sign is self-contained: the photograph means the individual car. This is the denotative order of signification. In the second order, this simple motivated meaning meets a whole range of cultural meanings that derive not from the types in research sign itself but from the trade paper way society uses and values the Sr and the Sd. This is the connotative order of signification. In our society, a car--or a sign for a car--can signify virility or freedom.

According to Barthes (1964), signs in the second order of signification operate in two distinct ways: as mythmakers and as connotative agents. When signs move to the second order of signification, they carry cultural meanings as well as representational ones, i.e., the signs become the signifiers of CULTURAL MEANINGS. Barthes calls the cultural meanings of these signs MYTHS. The sign loses its specific signified and becomes a second-order signifier, i.e., a conveyor of cultural meaning. We can explain the connotative order of types of references papers signification with a simple example.

A general's uniform denotes his rank (first-order sign) but connotes the respect we show it (second-order sign). Say that by the end of the war film we are watching the general's uniform is tattered and torn; it still denotes his rank; however, the connotative meaning will have changed. Thus, in the connotative order, signs signify values, emotions, and attitudes. Camera angle, lighting, and background music, for example, are used in film and television to connote meaning. The connotative meaning of a televised painting can be changed by the background music accompanying it. The range of cultural meanings that are generated in my algebra homework, this second order cohere in the third order of signification into a cultural picture of the world. It is in this order (the third) that a car forms part of the imagery of an industrial, materialist, and rootless society. The myths which operate as organizing structures, e.g., the myth of the neighborhood policeman as keeper of the peace and friend of all residents of the community, are themselves organized into a pattern which we might call MYTHOLOGY or IDEOLOGY. In the third order of signification, ideology reflects the broad principles by which a culture organizes and interprets the reality with which it has to cope.

This mythology is a function of the social institutions and of references in research, the individuals who make up these institutions. 9. semiological analysis. Barthes (1964) points out that semiological analysis involves two operations: dissection and articulation. The first operation (dissection) includes looking for fragments (elements) which when associated one with another suggest a certain meaning. The analyst looks for paradigms, i.e., classes or groups from which elements have been chosen (and endowed with specific meaning). The units or elements in this group or class share a number of characteristics. Two units of the same paradigm must resemble one another so that the difference which separates them becomes evident, e.g., to a foreigner, American automobiles seem to look alike, yet they differ in make and homework, color.

The second operation (articulation) involves determining the rules of combination. This is the activity of articulation. Types Of References Papers! In summary: The analyst takes the object, decomposes it and then re-composes it. The analyst makes something appear which was invisible or unintelligible. 10. Concluding Remarks. Like structuralism, semiology decenters the individual, who is , no longer the source of types meaning. Semiology (Barthes, 1964) refuses the obvious meaning of a work: it does not take the message at face value. We are concerned with MESSAGES and the preferred ways to READ them. I conclude these notes with a guide to a semiological analysis, based on Barthes' (1977) seminal essay, The Rhetoric of the Image. a guide to a semiological analysis.

This guide identifies the key activities analysts undertake when they conduct a semiological critique of a text, such as an advertisement, a tv program, a movie, a painting, etc. Offer your reader a brief overview of the message. The idea is to provide a brief description of the advertisement (say) so that the reader can visualize the message. University Essay! Identify the key signifiers and signifieds . Ask questions like: What are the important signifiers and what do they signify? What is the system (of signs) that gives the text meaning? What ideological and sociological matters are involved? Identify the paradigms that have been exploited. Ask questions like: What is the central opposition in the text? What paired opposites fit under the various categories? Do these oppositions have any psychological or social significance?

Identify the syntagms that come across. Ask questions like: What statements or messages (directly and implied) can you identify? Answer this question by considering. (a) the of references linguistic message. This message is made up of all the boston university trustee scholarship essay form words, denotations and connotations. (b) the non-coded iconographic (literal) message. This message is in research, made up of the denotations in the photograph. (c) the coded iconographic (symbolic) message.

This message is made up of the visual connotations we detect in confessions essay, the arrangement of photographed elements. Finally, identify the principle at work in the message or text. Remember, the goal of analysis is to determine the rhetoric or the grammar tying together all the elements. Barthes, R. Of References! 1964. The Structuralist Activity. From Essais Critiques , trans. R. Services! Howard.

In Partisan Review 34 (Winter):82-88. ---. 1967. Writing Degree Zero , trans. Types Of References In Research! A. Lavers and C. Smith. 1953; rptd. New York: Hill and university trustee scholarship essay, Wang. ---. 1967. Mytholgies , trans. A. Lavers. 1957; rptd. London: Hill and Wang. ---. 1967. Elements of Semiology , trans. A. Lavers and C. Smith. 1964; rptd. New York: Hill and of references papers, Wang. ---. 1974. S/Z , trans. R. Howard. 1970; rptd. Oxford: Blackwell. ---. Essay! 1975. The Pleasure of the Text , trans. R. Howard. 1973; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang. ---. 1977. Roland Barthes on Roland Barthes , trans. R. Howard. Types Of References In Research! 1975; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang. ---. 1977. The Rhetoric of the Image.

In his book Image-Music-Text , trans. S. Heath. 1964; rpt. Ivory Research! London: Wm. Collins Sons and types of references in research papers, Co., pp. 32-51. ---. 1981. Camera Lucinda , trans. R. Augustine! Howard. 1980; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang. ---. 1983. The Fashion System , trans. M. Ward and R. Howard. 1967; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang.

de Saussure, Ferdinand. 1960. Course in General Linguistics . 1916; rpt. London: Peter Owen. Eco, Umberto. 1976. A Theory of Semiotics . Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Fiske, John. 1982. Introduction to Communication . London: Methuen.

Jakobson, Roman. 1960. Linguistics and Poetics. In Style in Language , ed. Thomas A. Sebeok. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 350-77. Williams, Raymond. 1976. Structural. In Key Words . Types Of References! London: Fontana, pp.