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c net resume next Pearson Software Consulting Services. Error Handling In VBA. Error handling refers to the programming practice of anticipating and proquest phd dissertations coding for error conditions that may arise when your program runs. Nietzsche Essay Good And Evil. Errors in general come in three flavors: compiler errors such as undeclared variables that prevent your code from compiling; user data entry error such as a user entering a negative value where only a positive number is proquest, acceptable; and run time errors, that occur when VBA cannot correctly execute a program statement. We will concern ourselves here only editorial service with run time errors. Typical run time errors include attempting to proquest access a non-existent worksheet or workbook, or attempting to divide by zero. The example code in this article will use the division by phd publication resume services zero error (Error 11) when we want to deliberately raise an error. Your application should make as many checks as possible during initialization to ensure that run time errors do not occur later.
In Excel, this includes ensuring that required workbooks and worksheets are present and that required names are defined. The more checking you do before the real work of phd dissertations your application begins, the more stable your application will be. It is essay, far better to detect potential error situations when your application starts up before data is change than to wait until later to proquest phd dissertations encounter an error situation. If you have no error handling code and a run time error occurs, VBA will display its standard run time error dialog box. While this may be acceptable, even desirable, in a development environment, it is not acceptable to the end user in a production environment. The goal of well designed error handling code is to anticipate potential errors, and correct them at run time or to terminate code execution in a controlled, graceful method. Your goal should be to prevent unhandled errors from arising. Service. A note on terminology: Throughout this article, the term procedure should be taken to mean a Sub , Function , or Property procedure, and the term exit statement should be taken to mean Exit Sub , Exit Function , or Exit Property . The term end statement should be taken to mean End Sub , End Function , End Property , or just End . The On Error Statement. The heart of error handling in proquest VBA is the this, On Error statement.
This statement instructs VBA what to do when an run time error is encountered. The On Error statement takes three forms. On Error Goto 0. Phd Dissertations. On Error Resume Next. On Error Goto label: The first form, On Error Goto 0 , is the default mode in VBA. This indicates that when a run time error occurs VBA should display its standard run time error message box, allowing you to enter the code in debug mode or to terminate the essay for sports, VBA program. When On Error Goto 0 is in effect, it is the proquest phd dissertations, same as having no enabled error handler. Any error will cause VBA to display its standard error message box. The second form, On Error Resume Next , is the most commonly used and misused form.
It instructs to VBA to essentially ignore the phd publication services web, error and resume execution on the next line of code. Proquest Phd Dissertations. It is very important to service remember that On Error Resume Next does not in any way fix the error. It simply instructs VBA to proquest phd dissertations continue as if no error occured. However, the essay, error may have side effects, such as uninitialized variables or objects set to Nothing. It is the responsibility of proquest your code to test for an error condition and take appropriate action. You do this by testing the value of Err.Number and if it is not zero execute appropriate code. For example, On Error Resume Next. N = 1 / 0 ' cause an error. If Err.Number 0 Then.
This code attempts to assign the value 1 / 0 to the variable N . This is an illegal operations, so VBA will raise an impact television children, error 11 -- Division By Zero -- and phd dissertations because we have On Error Resume Next in effect, code continues to the If statement. This statement tests the value of Err.Number and nietzsche first good assigns some other number to N . Proquest Phd Dissertations. The third form On Error of is service, On Error Goto label: which tells VBA to transfer execution to the line following the specified line label. Proquest Phd Dissertations. Whenever an error occurs, code execution immediately goes to the line following the line label. None of the code between the error and the label is executed, including any loop control statements. On Error Goto ErrHandler: N = 1 / 0 ' cause an error. ' error handling code. Nietzsche First Essay And Bad. Enabled And Active Error Handlers.
An error handler is said to be enabled when an On Error statement is executed. Only one error handler is enabled at any given time, and VBA will behave according to the enabled error handler. Proquest Phd Dissertations. An active error handler is the marks, code that executes when an error occurs and execution is transferred to another location via a On Error Goto label: statement. Proquest Phd Dissertations. Error Handling Blocks And On Error Goto. An error handling block, also called an error handler, is essays, a section of code to which execution is tranferred via a On Error Goto label: statement. This code should be designed either to fix the problem and resume execution in the main code block or to terminate execution of the procedure. You can't use to the On Error Goto label: statement merely skip over lines. For example, the following code will not work properly: On Error GoTo Err1: Debug.Print 1 / 0. On Error GoTo Err2: Debug.Print 1 / 0. Phd Dissertations. The Resume Statement. Nietzsche First And Evil. The Resume statement instructs VBA to resume execution at a specified point in the code. You can use Resume only in an error handling block; any other use will cause an error.
Moreover, Resume is the only way, aside from exiting the procedure, to get out of an phd dissertations, error handling block. Do not use the Goto statement to direct code execution out of an phd publication services, error handling block. Doing so will cause strange problems with the error handlers. The Resume statement takes three syntactic form: Used alone, Resume causes execution to proquest resume at the line of code that caused the editorial, error. In this case you must ensure that your error handling block fixed the problem that caused the initial error.
Otherwise, your code will enter an endless loop, jumping between the line of code that caused the phd dissertations, error and marks for sports the error handling block. The following code attempts to activate a worksheet that does not exist. This causes an error (9 - Subscript Out Of Range), and the code jumps to the error handling block which creates the sheet, correcting the problem, and proquest phd dissertations resumes execution at the line of code that caused the research papers for management, error. If Err.Number = 9 Then. ' sheet does not exist, so create it. Phd Dissertations. ' go back to the line of research for management code that caused the problem.
On Error GoTo ErrHandler: ' go back to the line following the error. On Error GoTo ErrHandler: ' code that is skipped if an error occurs. ' more code to execute. ' go back to the line at Label1: Error Handling With Multiple Procedures. Every procedure need not have a error code. When an error occurs, VBA uses the last On Error statement to direct code execution. Proquest Phd Dissertations. If the thesis, code causing the error is in a procedure with an On Error statement, error handling is as described in proquest phd dissertations the above section. However, if the editorial service, procedure in which the error occurs does not have an error handler, VBA looks backwards through the procedure calls which lead to the erroneous code.
For example if procedure A calls B and B calls C, and A is the only procedure with an error handler, if an phd dissertations, error occurs in procedure C, code execution is research, immediately transferred to the error handler in procedure A, skipping the remaining code in B. A Note Of Caution. It is tempting to deal with errors by placing an On Error Resume Next statement at the top of the phd dissertations, procedure in order to get the code to run without raising an error. Editorial. This is very bad coding practice. Remember that using On Error Resume Next does not fix errors. It merely ignores them.
The Future Of Error Handling In VBA. Error handling in VB6 and VBA is based on the On Error statement, which leads to awkward code structure. Languages like C++ provide a code structure call Try/Catch that allows much more granularity and control. At some point, Microsoft will introduce their NET framework in to phd dissertations Office, and when this happens, VBA programmers will have at their disposal the essays, language features of Try/Catch/Finally code structure that VB.NET developers already enjoy. Created By Chip Pearson and Pearson Software Consulting, LLC.
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my valentine essay My Funny Valentine : The Disintegration of the Standard. We just blew the top off that place that night. It was a motherfucker the way everybody played, and I mean everybody. Phd Dissertations. (Miles Davis) So Miles Davis declared to Quincy Troupe in his autobiography, referring to a concert which took place at essays impact television children, New York's Philharmonic Hall on the night of February 12, 1964. Proquest Phd Dissertations. It was a charity concert sponsored by the NAACP, organized to support voter registration in Mississippi and Louisiana. Produced by Teo Macero, part of the concert was issued on the Columbia LP My Funny Valentine (now available as a 2-CD set, The Complete Concert 1964 , Columbia Legacy C2K 48821 or COL 471246). Davis, accompanied by the youthful Herbie Hancock, Ron Carter, Tony Williams, and the tenor saxophonist George Coleman, gave birth to one of his best LPs and marks for sports one of the high points in his interpretation of jazz standards. The aim of this essay is to explore what makes My Funny Valentine such a brilliant and unique LP. I shall look carefully at how Davis and his quintet treat the musical forms, and how the musicians manage to create free and phd dissertations original forms while at the same time respecting the formal structures of the tunes.
Rather than discussing the pieces in phd publication services web, the the order in proquest phd dissertations, which the they appear on i dedicate thesis to my father, the Columbia LP, I shall consider the proquest phd dissertations them in nietzsche essay good, two groups depending on the basic formal treatment they receive: Group 1: Dividing the structure into parts that do not correspond to the division into phd dissertations 8-measure sections (Stella by Starlight, My Funny Valentine, I Thought About You); Group 2: Enriching the structure by adding tags and resume web turnarounds (All Blues, All of You). Group 1: Stella by Starlight, My Funny Valentine, I Thought About You I shall begin with the phd dissertations pieces belonging to the first group. Research. They show a particular approach to proquest, the musical form. The basic structure of all of these standards is the song form: Stella by Starlight: A (8) - B (8) - C (8) - D (8) My Funny Valentine: A (8) - A' (8) - B (8) - A (12)
I Thought About You: A (8) - B (8) - A (8) - C (8) Musicians typically use some sort of sound signals when they want the essays impact television children rhythm section to change the accompaniment in order to create a new mood. Davis had used this particular technique of arrangement since the 1950s -- it allowed him to adopt a looser attitude towards the structure. During the Philharmonic Hall concert Davis uses two different kinds of sound signals: Type A: short diatonic phrases of crotchets or quavers played in half time for proquest, one or two beats; these are full of phd publication web swing, and their dynamic tends to the forte.
Throughout the sound signal the rhythm section plays an accompaniment in 2 or 4 with a feeling of double-time. (See examples 1a, b, c, d, e.) (a) Stella by Starlight: Davis theme, D section, measure 1 (1:53) (b) Stella by Starlight: Davis chorus I, B section, measure 8 (3:08) (c) Stella by Starlight: Davis chorus I, C section, measure 8 (3:58) (d) My Funny Valentine: Davis theme, A section, measure 9 (2:45) (e) I Thought About You: Davis theme, A' section, measure 3 (1:20) Type B: short chromatic ascending (and sometimes descending) phrases in irregular ternary groups. These signals are typically used to proquest phd dissertations, change a basic pulse into i dedicate to my father double-time. If the music is already in double time, they mark a transition into a section of 4 beats accompaniment supported by a strong walking bass. (See examples 2a, b, c, d.) (a) Stella by Starlight: Davis chorus I, D section, measure 8 (4:28) (b) My Funny Valentine: Davis theme, A section, measure 7 (3:00) (c) My Funny Valentine: Davis chorus I, A' section, measure 7 (5:23) (d) I Thought About You: chorus I , C section, measure 8 (2:17) The musicians use other techniques as well. The striking prolonging of harmonic rhythm in the double-time sections, and the continuous change of accompaniment, divide the regular song-form structure into proquest phd dissertations asymmetrical segments. Children. This gives rise to proquest phd dissertations, the fragmentation of the song form, as we shall see. B. Dividing the marks for sports standard into sections of different meters and accompaniments. Table 1 shows the diversity of accompaniments of Davis' first chorus in Victor Young's Stella by Starlight (2:24-4:37 on the Columbia CD). The song form of four 8-measure sections is completely ignored; Davis recomposes it in eight different musical segments. The eight measures of the proquest phd dissertations B section are subdivided into five different segments.
Latin-sounding rhythms make for an unusual accompaniment of classic ballads -- they are frequently used as pedals and appear several times during the concert, e.g. in My Funny Valentine. Here on a bossa-nova rhythm played by Tony Williams we hear the strong bass pedal of the this to my dominant in the first four measures of the Eb major bridge. The bass groove is characteristic of the latin accompaniments (example 3a). Example 3. My Funny Valentine, bass groove. (a) Davis chorus I, B section, measures 1-4 (4:08) (b) Coleman chorus I, B section, measures 1-4 (6:24) (c) Davis chorus I, A section, measures 11-12 (5:16) In the same bridge we can hear another rhythm like that just described -- Carter introduces a new ostinato (example 3b). Williams and Carter play a typical bossa-nova pedal during Davis' first chorus (example 3c). In such cases, although the proquest form is divided into different sections, we don't hear the music as a succession of unconnected units; it appears from the first notes as a consistent sound continuum. The sudden contrast, within a project that respects the coherence of the piece, is an essays impact, exceptional means of providing unity to the standard. C. The interplay among the musicians.
The continual changing of the rhythms, accompaniment, dynamics, and moods, as well as the sound signals just mentioned, show the great interplay of the musicians and their careful reciprocal listening. Phd Dissertations. Davis always demanded was that his musicians be able to play spontaneously and creatively following an open-ended project. Of his masterpiece Kind of Blue he said: I didn't write out the music of Kind of Blue , but brought in sketches for what everybody was supposed to play because I wanted a lot of spontaneity in the playing. Editorial. The level of interplay is closely related to the freedom in structure. In this essay I want to pay special attention to proquest phd dissertations, places where the interaction among the musicians influences the form of the essay songs. Proquest Phd Dissertations. Besides the sound signals already mentioned, consider the father phrase played by phd dissertations, Davis on the tonic chord in services, the last two measures of the Stella by Starlight theme (example 4). Example 4. Stella by Starlight, Davis' phrase and Williams accompaniment, Davis theme, D section, measure 8 (2:21). When he begins his phrase, Miles is accompanied by the light brushes of Tony Williams, who hits the cymbals 3 times allowing the rhythm section to play in 4; and we hear Carter's strong walking bass. Williams' first hit is made with a brush, the other two with the sticks, increasing the dynamic (forte) and dramatically changing the mood of the song.
The change from the brushes to the sticks takes only a moment. Phd Dissertations. Probably Williams' attention to sound details was enforced by some gestures by Davis. This is an example of a very unconventional way of treating the form which depends on the sensitivity of the soloist and on the quick response of the rhythm section. Likewise, from the fifth measure of the B section of first essay good and evil and bad Stella by Starlight, Davis' solo has an energetic double-time rhythm. During a relaxed trumpet phrase, which reinterprets the theme at the beginning of the phd dissertations C section, the pulse ballad returns. The mood suddenly becomes rarefied: Hancock plays dreamy arabesques while the drums elegantly fade. Two trumpet notes change the mood of the song and consequently the form. D. Research. The fragmentation of the standard in different and unusual moods. The standards are divided into sections corresponding to different moods. In his biography of Davis, Ian Carr notes that by comparing the proquest phd dissertations original versions of research My Funny Valentine (October 1956) and Stella by Starlight (May 1958) with the live versions from 1964, we can see that the original versions are melancholic but the proquest emotional range is fairly narrow.
By contrast, in the later versions the essays television children emotional range is very wide. Consider George Coleman's solo in Stella by Starlight. Proquest Phd Dissertations. Here the typical lyrical-romantic mood of the papers song is proquest, only one of i dedicate this thesis father several emotional dimensions of the interpretation. Table 2 shows how the sequence of moods influences the articulation of the structure. The song's symmetrical eight-measure sections are divided into musical segments of proquest phd dissertations different lengths. Moods alternate throughout those musical segments. Unusual moods are used in editorial service, the interpretation of a standard ballad, for instance the phd dissertations dissonant polyrhythmic pedal between the i dedicate this thesis to my C and D sections of the piece (we have already treated the unusual latin pedals appearing sporadically in phd dissertations, the concert).
E. The role of Tony Williams. The drumming of Tony Williams also contributes to the loosening of the marks form. One of his many special talents emerges as a very original one: a brilliant use of pauses and spaces in the sections during which he stops playing or accompanying. He is not bound to the 32-bar structure when he enters or leaves the song. This technique further fragments the song form into parts of different lengths. Phd Dissertations. Table 3 shows the points of standstill of research for management Williams' drumming in relation to the structure of Stella by Starlight (the gray horizontal bars indicate when Williams is proquest phd dissertations, playing). Table 3. Research. Stella by Starlight: The presence of Tony Williams. Likewise, table 4 shows how, in My Funny Valentine, Williams leaves the stage at the seventh measure of the bridge of Coleman's chorus. He deliberately enters and leaves the scene at a different point of the phd dissertations song each time.
In fact, the long pause in My Funny Valentine allows the tearing saxophone solo to fade into loneliness and a quiet dialogue between bass and piano, returning us to the melancholic notes of Richard Rodgers' theme. Table 4. My Funny Valentine: The presence of Tony Williams. It's hard not to sound paradoxical, but the several points of nietzsche good good stillness of the drums are among the most clever and effective accompaniments ever used by a drummer in a standard. F. The irregular extension of the improvisation. The soloists (Davis, Coleman, Hancock) move independently within the standard -- they don't necessarily follow the 32-bar chorus scheme. The extension of the proquest improvisations depends only on the musicians' taste. Table 5 shows the independence of the extension of the improvisations from the song's basic structure. Miles' re-exposition of the theme from the fifth measure of the service B section (11:24) is remarkable.
This unconventional aesthetic choice further contributes to the disintegration of the song and its reassembly in a new form. Table 5 shows how the standard 32-bar structure finally comes out. It is important to consider the musical form not as a mechanical calculation of measures; otherwise we will misunderstand one of the interesting aspects of the Philharmonic Hall concert. The form is evidently only a scheme on which the proquest phd dissertations musicians build a musical continuum that isn't limited to essay marks for sports, the structure of a single 32-bar chorus. The convention of the 32-bar standard is completely overthrown by the Davis quintet. They pay attention to a new overarching form that takes into account the evolution of the piece from the beginning until the final notes. Proquest Phd Dissertations. What is important is not the unity of each individual chorus but that all the improvisations contribute to a coherent musical whole. The mood of Davis' improvisations is worked out by the other musicians -- especially by Coleman, who connects his solos to the last notes of the Davis' last phrase. The coherence of the new overarching form is highlighted by the internal contrasts and the segmentation of the structure. Table 5: Stella by Starlight, extension of the improvisations in the structure. In the second half of this essay I shall examine the other two pieces of the concert, All Blues and All of You, in which the i dedicate this thesis to my father structural innovations involve the use of tags and turnarounds.
All Blues (base structure: blues form, 12 measures). Tags are added between the theme exposition and at the ends of proquest every improvisation, and they can be considered a kind of interpolation within the 12-bar blues chorus. The tags are composed of elements of the introduction, almost the same one used on the original version on the 1959 LP Kind of Blue . Resume Web. The introduction consists of a 6/8 rhythm played by proquest, Tony Williams, a bass riff, a light piano ostinato, and marks for sports a saxophone obbligato. This tonic pedal allows the widening of the song's general structure. Nevertheless, the formal devlopment isn't as varied as in the cases we looked at in the first part of the essay. In the case of proquest All Blues, the 12-bar chorus represents the model for the formal construction: all of the improvisations end after an integral number of choruses; and the 12-measure structure of the piece isn't subdivided further. The standard blues form is not completely superseded, as we might have expected. All of You (base structure: A (8) - B (8) - A' (8) - C (8)).
Because of phd publication web its extraordinary way of treating the form of Cole Porter's composition, this tune deserves particular attention. This performance uses both procedures of phd dissertations structural manipulation discussed above. Points (A)-(F) discussed in the context of Group 1 are relevant, and as with All Blues, the base structure of the marks for sports piece is elaborated with turnarounds (Group 2). I won't offer detailed analyses of the points discussed for Group 1; but I'll make several quick observations apropos of (A)-(F) above: sound signals of both types A and B, which didn't appear in All Blues, are used throughout All of You; the subdivision of the proquest phd dissertations standard into sections of different meters and accompaniment sections is very complex; as a result, the essay marks for sports interplay among the musicians reaches a level rarely heard before; the standard moves through several unusual and expressive moods, and the quintet combines dramatic and dissonant sections -- often including complex polyrhythms (as in the beginning of Hancock's solo, 10:06-10:39) and relaxed moments (as when from proquest phd dissertations, Davis' trumpet come the refined notes of Porter's theme); Williams shows his surest command of pauses and space in this piece; the first essay good and evil good improvisations are irregularly extended throughout, particularly by the use of turnarounds. Consider a few examples: Davis' theme begins on a dominant pedal of Bb 11 measures long, which begins on the second measure of the A section (in the first measure we hear only the trumpet). The pedal is proquest, unusual not only in its irregular length of 11 measures but also because it is composed of a two-measure ostinato -- which means that the last repetition is cut off. This arrangement is not spontaneous but carefully prepared -- we hear the same pedal in the A section of Davis' first chorus (1:21).
Example 5 shows Carter's bass line during the papers for management pedal in relation to the obbligato of piano and drums. Example 5. Phd Dissertations. All of You, bass pedal. Another arrangement appears in the last four measures of the B section, in which the papers rhythm section plays obbligati between two Coleman choruses. I've transcribed the proquest two obbligati in the examples 6a and 6b. Example 6: All of You. (a) obbligato 1. Coleman chorus II, B section, measure 5-8 (5:46); Hancock chorus I, B section, measures 5-8 (8:31) (b) obbligato 2: Coleman chorus II, B section, measures 5-8 (6:07); Hancock chorus II, B section, measures 5-8 (9:26) Finally, we can hear an impressive chromatic movement of the bass during Davis' first chorus in the first four measures of the A section (0:54). It reappears in the A section at 8:10, after Hancock's turnaround. These devices allow the essays impact television children quintet to move freely through a standard that has a fairly rigid song form.
A revolutionary structure. Consider an proquest phd dissertations, especially novel device in the quintet's interpretation of All of You: in the last two measures of the C section, a harmonic substitution for services web, the tonic chord allows a turnaround of four chords in the last four measures of the proquest phd dissertations base structure. Table 7. All of nietzsche first essay and evil and bad You, (a) tonic chord; (b) turnaround, II-V-I substitution. Typically, the proquest improvisation ends in the turnaround after the second chorus, but in Davis' last improvisation he enters the turnaround after only research papers one chorus. How do the musicians know when a soloist gets to the turnaround when the phd dissertations number of measures isn't fixed? The soloists use the sound signal device already discussed to let the others know when they are leaving the turnaround and the end of their improvisation. All of them play a signal phrase at the end of their improvisations. This phrase is a free paraphrase of the last measure of the melody of the theme -- what remains of the latter is only the papers rhythmic design and the resolution of the VII to the tonic (I):
Example 7: All of You. (a) signal phrase; (b) original melody. This appeal to phd dissertations, the melody is made in almost the thesis to my father same way by Davis, Coleman, and phd dissertations Hancock. The soloists (and Carter and Williams) take Davis' signal phrase as a reference and use it without significant variations. Table 8. All of You, relation between chorus and turnarounds. The signal phrase. Davis used the signal phrase as a mean to indicate the services end of the improvisation in a turnaround as early as the proquest phd dissertations mid-1950s. For example, in If I Were a Bell, the opening piece of the 1956 Prestige album Relaxin' with the first good and evil good and bad Miles Davis Quintet , this technique is used to enter and exit from phd dissertations, a turnaround, the tag of the last chorus. If we compare the original version of All of You (from the 1956 Columbia LP 'Round About Midnight ), we hear the same signal phrase as in the 1964 Philharmonic Hall concert. In the original version, the essays impact television phrase marks the end of an improvisation based on a turnaround of proquest undetermined length.
This comparison suggests two conclusions. First, that what seems to be a spontaneous sound signal improvised at the moment of the concert is essay and evil, really the result of a long development of a technique of arrangement born almost ten years earlier. Davis used this phrase for a long time and in proquest, different group settings. Second, this device allows for orderly formal articulation that complements rather than constrains the free creativity Davis sought in his group playing. In fact, two different factors coexist in Davis' interpretation of All of You: great care for web, the formal aspect strictly conceived, and yet, at the same time, widespread use of procedures allowing a free and extemporaneous treatment of the form (e.g. in the turnarounds ad lib within the 32-bar chorus structure).
The signal phrase as it appears in the 1956 version was a device to proquest phd dissertations, mark off a limited number of turnarounds that widened and adorned the last chorus, and was used by the soloist as a short tag to conclude his improvisation. Phd Publication Resume Web. It was less important within the interpretation of the standard in comparison than the previous choruses. In the 1964 version, however, the turnarounds have a completely different role to play. For consider: the extension of the proquest turnarounds covers 60% of the phd publication services whole execution; as a result they are very important in the architecture of All of You (table 9); the ingenuity of the proquest soloists is made evident in the turnarounds: Davis showcases his improvisation by including 28 turnarounds, and Hancock's solo shows a generous use of the sequences; at the end of the song Davis plays the theme on the harmonic progression of the nietzsche first essay good turnaround and not on proquest phd dissertations, the harmonic progression of the 32-bar chorus! Turnaround as a form. To follow up this study we would have to compare the function of the turnaround in this version of All of You with Miles' use of it in the 1950s. By 1964, it is essay marks, no longer a device to decorate a musical form -- it has become the musical form itself.
The 32-measure structure of the song form becomes only proquest a frame that contains the turnaround harmonic progression. The disintegration of the thesis to my standard is complete. We are at the end of the journey during which we saw simple popular songs becoming examples of sublime musical art. Of the original pieces, after the disintegration and recomposition, only the magic atmosphere still remains, extraordinary sensations for careful listeners. If you have any suggestions, question, or comments, please send e-mail to proquest, me at this address. This essay was published (in Italian) in the jazz journal Musica Jazz : Volume 53, no. 8/9 (August-September 1997), pp. 52-55; Volume 53, no. 10 (October 1997), pp.
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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and proquest phd dissertations trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into i dedicate thesis to my father one place. Proquest Phd Dissertations? Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of essay marks for sports your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for proquest, the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of i dedicate thesis to my your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs.
Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in phd dissertations, and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for editorial, different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the proquest, Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in essays impact television, the digital age, before you scroll down on proquest phd dissertations a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and i dedicate thesis to my accomplishments are visible on phd dissertations the top third of your resume. This top section is this to my father, what the hiring manager is going to proquest, see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out research, these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. Phd Dissertations? In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the phd publication resume, rest of your resume stellar.
There are lots of different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the proquest, bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and essay important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do.
If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out phd dissertations, how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the i dedicate this father, most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the proquest, ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design?
Keep it simple. This To My? Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Phd Dissertations? Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and essay marks for sports leaving a healthy amount of white space on proquest phd dissertations the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and essay and evil good and bad the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the proquest, sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully.
If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and for management whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to proquest phd dissertations, put in the time, creativity, and essays impact television design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. Proquest? You don’t need to i dedicate thesis to my, include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is proquest phd dissertations, that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on research papers for management each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible.
These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to phd dissertations, look stunning? There’s no shame in children, getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is proquest phd dissertations, arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. This To My Father? Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of proquest phd dissertations your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance.
If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the editorial service, narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. Proquest Phd Dissertations? No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. Research Papers? No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to proquest phd dissertations, get through them. Check out thesis to my, these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to proquest phd dissertations, throw in tons of this to my father industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the proquest phd dissertations, first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in editorial service, your bullet points.
How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the phd dissertations, hiring manager to and bad, picture the level of proquest phd dissertations work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to phd publication web, adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and proquest add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by impact, hiring you.
If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on proquest a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Essays Impact Television Children? Think about proquest how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. This Thesis Father? Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the proquest, same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the essay good, result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume.
So, if you’ve participated in phd dissertations, a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on essay marks which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include?
Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Proquest? Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and nietzsche essay good and bad relevant to proquest, you getting the job than where you went to college.
25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is essay, more specific to proquest phd dissertations, the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Research Papers For Management? Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it.
If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to phd dissertations, showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and resume your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to proquest phd dissertations, get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to thesis, add a section that lists out all the proquest phd dissertations, relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is essays impact children, expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own.
Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for proquest, skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on editorial your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on proquest a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it.
32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for essay for sports, your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Phd Dissertations? Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for editorial service, having the company’s top sales record four quarters in phd dissertations, a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker?
Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and essays children Other Sticky Resume Situations. Proquest Phd Dissertations? If you stayed at essays impact television a (non-temporary) job for proquest phd dissertations, only a matter of essay marks for sports months, consider eliminating it from proquest your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for research papers for management, leaving next to proquest phd dissertations, each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an editorial service issue. Re-entering the proquest phd dissertations, workforce after a long hiatus?
This is the perfect opportunity for service, a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Proquest? Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for services web, killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in proquest, gaps on nietzsche good your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it).
While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of proquest phd dissertations your resume seriously. 39. Essays? Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). Proquest? It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. Research? And don’t rely on spell check and proquest grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for this to my, you (or get some tips from an proquest phd dissertations editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the i dedicate to my, hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. Phd Dissertations? To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in i dedicate this thesis, both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to proquest, save your resume and send it off?
Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in.
When your resume is updated on essay marks a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to proquest phd dissertations, keep this document in phd publication resume web, tip-top shape. Phd Dissertations? Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the impact, standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com.
Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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essays of elias Norbert Elias: On the proquest Monopoly Mechanism. By Frank W. Elwell. There is editorial, a parallel structural process at work that, beginning in the Middle Ages, led to the formation of states and the eventual monopoly of these states over the means of violence and taxation. The rise of the state brings about phd dissertations, a dramatic change in social structure that has far reaching consequences upon social life. Before the web state, the individual had to be constantly fearful of proquest phd dissertations physical attack, destruction, or confiscation of research papers property. With the establishment of a stable monopoly of force and taxation, life becomes more predictable for the individual, more amenable to planning, deferred gratification, and rational conduct. Elias believes that it is the rise of the monetary economy that gives kings and princes a gradually growing advantage in their struggles to wrest power from petty feudal lords. And this gradual centralization, bringing more and more territory, wealth, and power to an increasing absolutist monarchy, eventually transforms the West, bringing about the rise of civilization (188).
Under feudal conditions, the upper class consisted of independent warrior knights on their own estates who owed but loose allegiance to any central authority. In the phd dissertations course of time, these independent warriors situated on manors and estates gradually lost their independence and were reduced to dependent courtiers. That this was a structural process and not the result of historical accident is attested to by the fact that it occurs across Europe at research papers for management, roughly the same time; that we speak of the “age of absolutism” (188). Proquest Phd Dissertations! Nor is it a coincidence, Elias says, that it roughly parallels the nietzsche and evil civilization process itself, which was closely “linked to the formation of the hierarchical social order with the absolute ruler and, more broadly, his court at its head” (188). Proquest! For the formation of the absolutist court demanded a change in the behavior, drives, and resume services web emotions of former warrior nobility; to retain standing, successful nobility had to civilize their behavior to come into line with their dependence on the central ruler.
How did this increased constraint and dependence come about? How was an proquest phd dissertations, upper class of relatively independent warriors or knights supplanted by a more or less pacified upper class of courtiers? Why was the influence of the estates progressively reduced in the course of the Middle Ages and the early modern period, and why, sooner or later, was the dictatorial “absolute” rule of a single figure, and with it the compulsion of courtly etiquette, the pacification of large or smaller territories from marks a single centre, established for a greater or lesser period of time in all the countries of Europe? The sociogenesis [social origin] of absolutism indeed occupies a key position in the overall process of civilization. The civilizing of conduct and the corresponding transformation of the structure of mental and proquest phd dissertations emotional life cannot be understood without tracing the process of state-formation, and within it the advancing centralization of society which first found particularly visible expression in research papers for management, the absolutist form of rule (191). Like a true Weberian, Elias believes that there are a number of factors behind the rise of the state. First and proquest foremost, he believes the rise of the money economy at the expense of barter is the most important factor.
This weakened the marks for sports feudal lords who existed on proquest phd dissertations, fixed rents, and strengthened the middle class merchants and artisans who produced and research traded wealth as well as the central ruler whose tax system gave him a share in the growing economy (192). A second structural change that favors centralization concerns changes in military power. Under feudalism, you will recall, vassals (including the nobility) were obligated to give the central ruler military service in return for their estates. As the economy grew, central rulers had funds to raise, equip, and maintain armies, growing less and less dependent upon phd dissertations the services of their feudal warriors (192). At the same time, there were changes in military techniques that changed the character of children warfare and further devalued the services of the nobility. These techniques included the development of mass infantry which again was advantageous to the central ruler (192-193). The nobility, Elias reports, lost their monopoly on weapons and proquest soldiering, and this monopoly passed into the hands of a single ruler (193). In addition to these structural developments that promoted the rise of the nietzsche first essay good good state, there is one other that Elias believes is important enough to describe in some detail. This is the rise of the phd dissertations bourgeois classes. The wealth and power of these classes was also dependent upon the rise of the money economy.
There was constant tension between the traditional nobility and these classes. While the tensions and conflicts varied between societies and over editorial service, time, centralized rulers quickly learned to exploit these tensions and interest groups, supporting one for a time and then the other, to neutralize and prevent either from gaining too much power and becoming a true rival to the ruler and the absolute state (194). Finally, there were several developments in phd dissertations, technology that also promoted centralization and the rise of the state. Services! These technological changes included the slow development of firearms that gave massed infantry advantage over a few nobles fighting on horseback (192); advances in bureaucratic organization that enabled efficient rule (239); and advances in communication and transportation which allowed centralized authority to effectively rule over phd dissertations, ever larger areas (238-239). Another way of looking at these technological and structural factors that promoted the rise of the state is to editorial service, look at them as factors that change the balance between the forces of centralization and decentralization. Phd Dissertations! The rise of the monetary economy promotes centralization by i dedicate this thesis to my replacing land ownership as the dominant form of wealth. As long as land is wealth, processes of centralization and decentralization (feudalization) alternate: military competition among small estates in proquest phd dissertations, a given region for dominance (more land, wealth, and editorial service power), eventual supremacy by one lord who then dominates many warriors, and then a wave of proquest decentralization as that lord and his descendants allocate estates to their supporters and this thesis warriors to start the proquest phd dissertations process anew (313). The rise of a monetary economy, and the creation of good and evil and bad wealth from manufacture and trade, breaks this cycle. The development of proquest phd dissertations firearms and mass armies, bureaucracy, transportation, and communication has a similar effect on the forces of centralization versus decentralization, allowing kingdoms and states to grow ever larger and more powerful. This is the heart of Elias’s theory—the engine of social change that has been operating throughout history but has been finally unleashed by this change in the balance of forces between centralization and decentralization: the monopoly mechanism.
The Monopoly Mechanism. In attempting to grasp the general monopoly mechanism, readers should keep in phd publication resume services web, mind the discussion of state formation appearing above, or, alternatively, the formation of economic monopolies under capitalism. As previously stated, with the evolution of phd dissertations modernity, the nietzsche and evil and bad nation state has achieved a monopoly on the tax monies and the use of force within a given area—in fact the modern state can be defined as just such a monopoly over a given area (268). The formation of the state with its monopoly on force makes possible restricted economic competition within its area of proquest control, which makes the operation of the monopoly mechanism among economic units inevitable (277; 303-304). Though the editorial service resulting competition is constrained and excludes the use of force, the mechanism itself works the same. The mechanism of phd dissertations monopoly, according to Elias, operates whenever there are a number of social units of roughly equal social power competing for scarce resources—usually, Elias adds, the means of production. In such a competitive situation, it is resume web, inevitable that there will eventually be winners and losers. The winners will then dominate more of these resources and continue to compete with other units that have won their struggles; the losers will be eliminated from the competition, eventually becoming dependent upon the ever-decreasing number of victors. Eventually as the struggle continues, there will be single winner or unit upon which all are dependent, a system of free competition will have been replaced by a monopoly which then allocates all opportunities and resources (269). Now, Elias continues, in the course of this movement, the monopoly mechanism transforms relatively independent social positions into highly dependent positions—free knights and warriors into courtiers, or independent merchants into employees [or in the case of Wal-Mart, associates] (270). In this process, the personality and affect structure of these people—their emotions, drives, attitudes, and beliefs—are also transformed.  The attitudes, emotions, beliefs, skills, and proquest phd dissertations drives that make a knight successful in medieval society are far different from those of for sports a courtier.
Rather than physical strength and combat skills, his success is now dependent upon resources and phd dissertations opportunities to be dispensed from the prince; he must now practice restraint, and subordinate his own desires and needs to his lords’. “The means of struggle have been refined or sublimated. The restraint of the affects imposed on the individual by his dependence on the monopoly ruler has increased” (274). The civilizing process has been advanced. And this is true for those who dominate as well as those who have become dependent (270). I Dedicate Thesis To My Father! For the proquest phd dissertations monopoly mechanism does not stop here. It is not the case that the monopoly evolves to a point of research for management absolute rule by a single unit or individual and all change then ceases to operate. As the number of dependent individuals rises, their power vis--vis the monopolist increases.
This occurs both because of phd dissertations their sheer numbers and because the monopolist must employ people to i dedicate thesis, help fully exploit their monopoly position. “The more comprehensive the monopolized power potential, the larger the web of functionaries administering it and the greater the division of labour among them; in short, the more people on whose work or function the monopoly is in proquest, any way dependent, the more strongly does this whole field controlled by the monopolist assert its own weight and research its own inner regularities” (270-271). As the monopoly continues to develop over the centuries, there is proquest phd dissertations, a concurrent increase in the division of labor and the monopolist comes to essay, coordinate the actions of proquest many functionaries; he becomes almost as dependent on these other functionaries as they are on him. For Management! Over time, resources are increasingly distributed on a more egalitarian basis to these functionaries—first, say, to administrators, then to lower strata functionaries of the organization. The private monopoly becomes one that serves a far broader social stratum (271). And this movement, Elias claims, “…is nothing other than a function of social interdependence” (273). Proquest Phd Dissertations! A monopoly with a high division of labor, he believes, will inevitably move toward a state of equilibrium in which income and advantages from the editorial monopoly will have to be distributed on a more equitable basis than to just those at the top—even to the “advantage” of the whole figuration. Again, this is true of the proquest state as well as economic monopolies; Elias does not detail any possible limits to the process.
Restricted conflict and competition over the distribution of resources within the first essay monopoly occurs. Sometimes the process is reversed for a time, but the long-term process is toward an equitable distribution of resources for all (273-274). This can be seen, Elias says, with the state and its passage from the proquest phd dissertations rule of absolute monarchs to democracy, as well as the evolution of single-owner economic concerns and their passage to service, corporate structures which allocate their resources now to numerous groups of stockholders, corporate officers, administrators, employed professionals, and eventually to skilled and unskilled workers. Within a monopoly, distribution changes from proquest a private affair in essays, which the vast majority of resources of the figuration go to the monopolist, into a public monopoly in which resources are allocated to the figuration as a whole. This can only reach its full development, Elias adds, in societies with a high division of labor (276). Elias details some change in the institutions by which the civilizing process is accomplished. The civilizing process first occurs through the pressure of those of upper class rank on their contemporaries and then on their inferiors. In this stage, the rules of basic conduct were often written in etiquette books or repeated in aphorisms and doggerel, becoming a more or less conscious part of court society.
The rules of conduct were transmitted from above to the classes below. With the rise of the middle classes, this courtly behavior lost some of its force, and some of the behavior patterns of the proquest phd dissertations bourgeoisie (particularly those involving money and sex) were merged with courtly behavior codes to become the new standard (440). As the middle and industrial classes gained ascendancy, the services civilization process was accomplished through gradual changes in the socialization of youth that would instill a sense of personal shame and embarrassment regarding socially proscribed behavior (116-117). It is not until this second stage, when the family becomes the dominant institution responsible for civilizing the child, that such rules of conduct are internalized at an early age, often thought of (if at all) as “second nature.” But it is not the case that the socialization process itself was changed, Elias states. The family was and proquest remained the primary socialization agent for children, and the supervision of youth became no more rigorous as we approach modern times. Nietzsche First! Nor has the process itself been reconstituted along rational or more deliberative lines. It is still accomplished in the same haphazard manner, where the socially patterned habits and proquest phd dissertations rules of the parents passed early on to the children, with only slight modification over the generations (159). But through the years, the civilized rules and first essay good and bad behaviors instilled through the socialization of children incrementally changed to proquest, incorporate the new civilized standards of behavior, as well as the feelings of shame, embarrassment, satisfaction, and pleasure associated with these standards (109). Elias seems to be is ignoring the role of the school here. Phd Publication Resume Services Web! Arising in the Middle Ages, mass education has increasingly expanded its role in the socialization process, now including sex education, nutrition, driver education, and a host of attitudes and behaviors that used to be the exclusive province of the family.
As the family is a very conservative institution highly resistant to change, and the schools are very responsive to government regulation as well as other formal institutions that make up the structure of any society, one would expect the civilizing process to advance rapidly as schools took over more and proquest more of the to my socialization function. Elias remarks that because the civilizing process is now accomplished through childhood socialization, a large gulf now exists between the behavior of adults and children. Phd Dissertations! This gulf did not exist in medieval times. Phd Publication Resume Web! He points out that even though they were economically and socially dependent upon adults, children’s habits, dress, emotional life, and behavior were far closer to adult standards (and adult standards closer to the child’s). Further, adults did not attempt to protect children from the ways of the world to the same degree. In keeping with the state of the civilizing process itself, sex, violence, and intimacy were more freely expressed and thus more open for children to see (147-148). Consequently, as the proquest phd dissertations civilizing process changes social structures, it becomes internalized in individuals through consequent socialization, and there is a growing gap between the behavior and affects (emotions) of adults and children through time, and there is an increasing segregation and a lengthening of childhood as well. Recognition of these changes is critical in understanding earlier personality structure as well as those in our own time (148).
Individuals have not developed in the same manner through history; the editorial service socialization process varies across societies and through time (153-154). Postman picks up on this theme from proquest Elias and cites his work approvingly. Unlike Elias, however, Postman attributes the increasing gulf between adults and children since Medieval society to the spread of literacy, thus enabling adults to keep secrets from children—sexuality, violence, human deprivation—until they are old enough to master complex literacy skills. He also believes that television and nietzsche good other forms of graphic media are increasingly closing this gap (and consequently changing what it is to be an adult as well). As we approach modernity, more and proquest phd dissertations more of the civilizing process is given over to early childhood socialization. Consequently, children have to essays television, internalize the complex standards of behavior within a very short period of time. Their drives and proquest urges must be channeled into the socially approved forms of expression; their behavior molded, shame and revulsion associated with their ability to uphold these standards (as well as the ability of impact children those around them) and made part of the self. “In this the parents are only the (often inadequate) instruments, the primary agents of conditioning; through them and thousands of other instruments it is always society as a whole, the entire figuration of human beings, that exerts its pressure on the new generation, forming them more or less perfectly” (119). Proquest! It is service, through this process that the distance between the behavior of adults and proquest children is increased, to the point that “only children were still allowed…to behave as adults did in the Middle Ages” (124). The primary mechanism for molding the child is fear. As the source of essays impact fears within a society change, so changes the code of phd dissertations conduct demanded of its members (441-442). The dominant fear in Western societies was of one person for another.
As the state gains a monopoly on physical violence, this fear diminishes and “indirect or internalized fears increase proportionately” (442). Not only does the type of fear change, Elias claims, but also the essay frequency, oscillation, and intensity of that fear. Here as everywhere, the structure of fears and anxieties is nothing other than the psychological counterpart of the constraints which people exert on one another through the intertwining of their activities. Proquest! Fears form one of the channels—and one of the most important—through which the structure of society is transmitted to individual psychological functions. The driving force underlying the change in drive economy, in the structure of editorial service fears and anxieties, is a very specific change in the social constraints acting on the individual, a specific transformation of the whole web of relationships, above all the organization of force (442). Again, these fears are not inborn; they are determined by the social structure and the individual’s role within that structure, by the web of relationships in proquest phd dissertations, which the individual is entwined. As the social structure changes, social constraints change as does the individual. These fears are instilled within the child during the socialization process. They are indispensable in guiding human behavior; they are indispensable in becoming human.
Once instilled in childhood they are internalized and function automatically (442-443). Children come into this thesis to my father, the world as malleable, and their personalities and behaviors are molded through fear to conform with prevailing social standards. “And human-made fears and anxieties from within or without finally hold even the adult in their power. Shame, fear of war and fear of God, guilt, fear of punishment or of loss of social prestige, man’s fear of himself, of being overcome by his own affective impulses, all these are directly or indirectly induced in a person by other people. Proquest! Their strength, their form and the role they play in the individual’s personality depend on the structure of his society and his or her fate within it” (443). The civilizing process is ongoing, the direction set by state formation, economic concentration, and the consequent division of labor. With the formation of the state, a monopoly on essay, violence and taxation is gained, thus setting the proquest phd dissertations stage for economic competition free from raw aggression and confiscation. Economic competition, of editorial course, leads to concentration and eventual monopoly, causing the masses to become dependent upon huge organizations for their livelihoods, and the skills, attitudes, and behavior needed to become successful become refined and restrained.
Economic and political monopoly leads to the growth in the division of labor and a greater dependence of individuals upon one another. “As more and more people must attune their conduct to that of proquest others, the web of action must be organized more and more strictly and accurately, if each individual action is to fulfill its social function. Individuals are compelled to regulate their conduct in an increasingly differentiated, more even and more stable manner” (367). For this reason, social control becomes internalized, surrounded by shame and fear (367-368). Services Web! The structural changes of political and economic concentration combine to cause a comprehensive change in the character of the men and women who inhabit the society, a change in proquest, drive structure and affect, a change in the whole personality. The competition among states and economic units within states continues to fuel the monopoly mechanism, with the division of labor a consequence of organizational growth. Essays Television Children! Elias is emphatic that one cannot reduce the process to “economic” or “political” motivation alone.
Rather, monopolies of political and economic power are intertwined, sometimes explicitly coordinated, sometimes not. Elias rejects the proquest Marxist interpretation that all can be reduced to an economic infrastructure, but he does not believe it is purely political either. It is the same monopoly mechanism that is phd publication web, transforming economic and political organizations; it is the growth of these monopolies that are transforming social structures and thus social life (437). Merchants and corporations are driven to expand their enterprise both for economic gain and fear that competing firms will grow larger and phd dissertations eventually put them out of business. In the same manner, Elias claims, competing states are driven to expand their power and influence, despite the good will and papers for management yearnings for peace of phd dissertations many individuals (437). “The competitive tension between states, given the pressures which our social structure brings with it, can be resolved only after a long series of violent or non-violent trials of strength have established monopolies of force, and central organizations for larger dominions, within which many smaller ones, ‘states’, can grow together in a more balanced unit. Here, indeed, the compelling forces of social interweaving have led the transformation of Western society in i dedicate father, one and the same direction from the time of utmost feudal disintegration to the present” (438).
And it shows no sign of phd dissertations stopping in the foreseeable future. But recall, the monopoly mechanism does not stop with the establishment of the monopoly. While the monopoly begins by granting all benefits to a few based on hereditary connections, this allocation of resources creates tensions and service pressures for a more equitable redistribution of monopoly benefits. Phd Dissertations! Monopolies also bring in their wake a more refined division of labor; functionaries and professionals are needed to administer and marks coordinate the proquest phd dissertations activities. As the division of labor increases, societies become much more sensitive to these inequalities, and the functionaries become more numerous and more powerful. Tension and eventually conflict between the monopolist and children the many continue to grow. Phd Dissertations! Ultimately, these tensions can only be resolved by breaking the control of the monopolist in the name of the phd publication web many (439). And this, according to Elias, is true for both political (states) and economic monopolies. Monopoly formation will continue well into phd dissertations, the foreseeable future. States will continue to phd publication resume, engage in wars in the struggle to establish monopolies of force over ever larger areas of the phd dissertations earth (445).
The process will necessarily continue until the struggle is for the establishment of a global monopoly of force, a single world government (445-446). And then the process continues, as the struggle for state monopoly benefits shift from the arena of physical force to the more controlled and refined competition of the civilized. And the same holds true for the economic order as well. Economic monopolies will continue to enlarge and centralize; struggles for their benefits will escalate between functionaries within these organizations, as well as between the rest of society and the organization itself. Editorial! In both economic and political spheres, the monopoly mechanism is inexorable, moving toward expansion and centralization, and then toward consolidation, democracy, and equality. “What cannot be decided in advance, however, is how long the ensuing struggle will take” (439).
 Mills also makes this point regarding the phd dissertations transition of professionals and independent merchants to employees quite forcefully ( 1973, x-xiii). For a more extensive discussion of editorial Elias’s theories refer to Macro Social Theory by Frank W. Elwell. Also see Sociocultural Systems: Principles of Structure and Change to learn how his insights contribute to a more complete understanding of modern societies. Elias, N. (1968/2000). Phd Dissertations! Postscript. I Dedicate This Thesis Father! In N. Elias, The Civilizing Process (pp. 449-483).
Malden: Blackwell Publishing. Elias, N. (1939/2000). The Civilizing Process. (E. Dunning, J. Goudsblom, S. Mennel, Eds., E. Jephcott, Trans.) Malden: Blackwell Publishing. Elias, N. (1998). The Norbert Elias Reader. (J. Goudsblom, S. Mennell, Eds., E. Jephcott, R. van Krieken, J. Goudsblom, S. Mennel, Trans.) Malden: Blackwell Publishing. Elias, N. (1970/1978). What is Sociology? New York: Columbia University. Elwell, F. W. 2009.
Macrosociology: The Study of Sociocultural Systems . Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press. Elwell, F. Proquest! W. 2006. Macrosociology: Four Modern Theorists. Boulder: Paradigm Publishers. Elwell, F. W. 2013. Sociocultural Systems: Principles of Structure and Change.
Alberta: Athabasca University Press. To reference The Sociology of Norbert Elias you should use the resume services following format: