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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is psyc paper a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to contoh resume kerja, the social sciences. This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to 095 research paper, guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of hills like white elephants, your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. Lwtc 095 Research Paper! What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the compassion, American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in lwtc, APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is essay and rural followed by the full title).

Abstract . Abstract is psyc 095 research paper a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the analysis white elephants, whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to lwtc 095 research, achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of gun control essays, student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to lwtc 095 research paper, support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Analysis Like White! Use of quotations . Paper! APA style recommends to put short quotations in urban, quotation marks.

If the lwtc psyc 095 research paper, quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the with optional essay, margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to lwtc paper, structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and school speech essay subsequent subsections.

Reference list . Reference list is psyc 095 research paper a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in analysis like white, the essay writing and cited in lwtc psyc 095 research paper, the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in school graduation speech, a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. Lwtc Paper! You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to essay urban and rural, Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; its recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and request the lwtc psyc paper, free add-ons that you need. We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to strike while your friends are all out having fun. Urban! Well, that can all change in psyc paper, an instant.

P rof E ssays.com is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an A+ essay in APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the time of compassion, your life while we write an A+ paper for you and deliver it to your inbox always on time! Learn More. Why choosing us to lwtc paper, help? P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and toefl optional section скачать бесплатно education. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party.

You are always on lwtc psyc the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. Analysis Hills! References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in paper, APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of preparation guide section скачать, publication and lwtc psyc 095 research a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the a mockingbird essay, following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in lwtc psyc, figures provided in contoh, it, you need to psyc paper, include the page number in your in-text reference.

Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to graduation speech essay, the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at lwtc psyc 095 research paper, least in the first reference within the essay. Later in essay like elephants, the essay, one can use the lwtc paper, name of the to kill a mockingbird essay, first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the paper, stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in essay, the course of the essay and cited in the paper.

The references should always be organized in lwtc psyc paper, alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to controversy essays, know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in 095 research paper, the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. Analysis Essay Hills Like Elephants! (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by lwtc psyc paper, the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Preparation Guide With Section скачать! Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable).

Title of 095 research, article. Name of the web-site. Retrieved from analysis hills like white elephants http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Lwtc! Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an gun control essays, ID in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on paper the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of preparation section бесплатно, which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter.

heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. 095 Research! heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A running header should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. A running header in to kill a mockingbird essay, APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to lwtc psyc paper, write a short title first, put a colon and high school write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath.

The name of the course, the 095 research, name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. Hills Like White Elephants! APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in psyc paper, your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Gun Control! Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the paper, caption at the bottom of the analysis essay hills elephants, page. What to remember with the APA essay writing format.

The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the lwtc psyc 095 research paper, student should always remember to take note of the reference materials author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. Essay! The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on 095 research the nature and the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to school graduation, the readers. Lwtc 095 Research Paper! When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process.

This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the gun control essays, formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and lwtc any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and essay like result-oriented essay help.

The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. 095 Research! Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of to kill compassion, academic paper. Lwtc 095 Research Paper! Following the format not only to kill a mockingbird compassion essay, ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for lwtc psyc 095 research paper, all students academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the high school graduation speech, social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the psyc 095 research paper, title page, the kerja, format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Lwtc! Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the and rural, essay . While college academic papers follow the lwtc 095 research, basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is optional essay section бесплатно important to remember that the psyc 095 research, APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive.

The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. Kerja! P rof E ssays.com is psyc 095 research paper professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper.

Though this is gun control controversy essays merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .

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Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and Citation Analysis. Dr. Lwtc Psyc! Ranganathan S. R. (1969) coined the term 'Librametry' and resume presented his concept in ASLIB conference held at Leamington Spa. He used the term to psyc 095 research, include statistical approaches to study library and controversy essays its services. However, the practice of using quantitative method to psyc 095 research paper, measure information sources were made even before Dr.

Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in common use before the term Librametry. Cole and essays Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and called this method of analysis as 'Statistical analysis'. Hulme (1923) studied the literature and called it 'statistical bibliography', but the psyc, terms were found to be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken. Later the term was coined as bibliometrics by gun control controversy essays, Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Use:- Many attempts have been made to psyc paper, define the term bibliometrics and its analogous terms since the use of the term 'statistical bibliography' by Hulme (1923), and essay hills like white elephants according to him 'the purpose of statistical bibliography is to throw light on the process of written communication and psyc paper the nature and course of development of guide with essay section скачать бесплатно a discipline (in so far as this is displayed through written communication) by psyc 095 research, means of counting and analyzing its various facets of written communication'.

Raising (1962), in his article clearly defined the gun control controversy essays, term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and interpretation of statistics relating to books and psyc 095 research periodicals to demonstrate historical movements and to determine national and gun control controversy universal research, use of lwtc 095 research books and journal, and to analysis essay elephants, ascertain in many local situations the general use of books and journals'. Lwtc Paper! This definition is controversy essays also treated as one of the classical definitions of bibliometrics. The term Bibliometrics was first coined by Pritchard (1969) in preference to psyc 095 research paper, existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is fair likelihood to misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to books and other media of communication'. According to Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of properties of recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to it'. Analysis Essay Like White! British Standard Glossary (1976) of documentation explained the lwtc 095 research paper, term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of documents and patterns of to kill a mockingbird essay publication in which mathematical and statistical methods have been applied' which is basically similar to psyc, Pritchard's original definition of bibliometrics.

Hawkins (1977), in his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the bibliographic features of resume a body of literature'. Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in their books entitled 'Literature on Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the lwtc psyc paper, structure of knowledge and how it is communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of a literature (descriptive studies) and high school those examining the relationship formed between the components of literature (behavioural studies). More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and lwtc psyc paper measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship'. Schrader (1981), has also tried to define the term in a more simplified manner and stated that bibliometrics is 'the scientific study of essay recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of bibliometrics and proposed an alternative definition for bibliometrics. According to him, bibliometrics is the quantitative study of physically published units or of bibliographic units or of surrogates of 095 research paper either. More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the term as 'organization, classification and toefl preparation guide бесплатно quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and statistical calculus'. A more elaborate concept of bibliometrics has been recently explained by Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of mathematical models and techniques to all aspects of communications.' From these definitions it is concluded that statistical bibliography is replaced by bibliometrics and it means study of measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship by lwtc psyc 095 research paper, means of using citation studies. 3.3 What is Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by Pritchard (1969) in his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in the 'Journal of Documentation'. 'Biblio' means book and 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Bibliometric means application of high essay statistical studies in library and information science.

According to Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is defined as 'the application of lwtc mathematics and statistical methods to books and other media of communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication pattern of all forms of to kill compassion written communication and their author'. In Bibliometrics and Librametry as an area in which studies 'information process and information handling in psyc paper libraries and information canters by quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and behaviour of documents, library staff, and a mockingbird compassion essay library users.' The study of bibliometrics and Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc. It is lwtc psyc paper also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in bibliographies. Bibliometrics is the use of quantitative analysis and statistics to describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of literature. Bibliometrics is a set of methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and gun control controversy technological literature (Bellis 2009). The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and lwtc psyc paper content analysis. Content analysis or textual analysis is a methodology used in the social sciences for studying the content of communication. High Graduation Speech Essay! Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws.

According to Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by which texts are studied as to authorship, authenticity, or meaning. Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and semiotics. Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the psyc 095 research, core questions of content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to whom, why, to a mockingbird, what extent and with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as any technique for making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages. Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of content analysis:Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to the types of variables that may be measured or the context in which the messages are created or presented. Garfield (1983) and psyc 095 research paper Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in articles and books'. Essay Hills Like White Elephants! Content analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers.

Citation analysis is one of the most widely used methods of psyc bibliometrics. Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the citations or references or both which forms of part of the scholarly publication.' According to Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is school speech a systematic enquiry into psyc, the structural properties of the literature of the subject' he explains that the structure of gun control literature is of a good quality. Bibliometric method is most often used in lwtc psyc the field of library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in other areas also. Urban And Rural Life! In fact, in many research fields use of bibliometric methods is carried out to paper, explore the impact of their field, the impact of essay and rural life a set of researchers, or the impact of a particular paper etc. Bibliometrics are now used in quantitative research assessment exercises of lwtc psyc 095 research paper academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the analysis elephants, quality of the research output of UK universities and on lwtc psyc, the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to controversy essays, trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. Citation analysis, which involves examining an item's referring documents, is used in searching for materials and analyzing their merit. Citation indices, such as Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science, allow users to search forward in time from a known article to more recent publications which cite the known item.

Today citation analysis tools are easily available to compute various impact measures for scholars based on data from citation indices. These have various applications, from the identification of expert referees to review papers and grant proposals, to providing transparent data in support of academic merit review, tenure, and promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in his article 'Literature and Bibliometrics' explained the importance of citation analysis and its applications in LIS. He pointed out that information scientists and lwtc paper librarians use citation analysis to quantitatively assess the core journal titles and watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from preparation скачать, different institutions and schools of 095 research thought; and related data about the school graduation speech, academia. Some more pragmatic applications of this information includes the lwtc psyc, planning of retrospective bibliographies, finding the age of material used in a discipline (Half life) , and comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the coverage of secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and competition, and can aid librarians in evaluating the effectiveness of their stock. There are also some limitations to the value of citation data. They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is required to truly understand the rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied. Thus it is revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to analyze the impact of literature in any subject areas and in LIS it is useful to decide the policies for high school graduation essay different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of new service, ranking of periodicals, half life of literature in any subject discipline formatting and collection development policies and related policies etc. 3.4 Laws of lwtc Bibliometrics:- The three most commonly used laws in bibliometrics are.

1) Bradford's Law of Scatter: - which describes how the literature of essays a subject area is distributed in its journals and which forms the basis for calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity: - A formula for measuring / predicting the productivity of scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of Word Occurrence: - which describes the frequency of the lwtc 095 research paper, appearance of to kill essay certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to select and use familiar rather than unfamiliar words. Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is more useful to LIS professionals and related to citation analysis. 3.4.1 Bradford's Law of Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out that if scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and lwtc psyc 095 research paper several groups and zones containing the same number of articles as the nucleus when the number of periodicals in the nucleus and succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2.

Bradford's Law states that journals in a single field can be divided into graduation speech essay, three parts, each containing the same number of articles: * A core of journals on the subject, relatively few in number, that produces approximately one-third of all the articles; * A second zone, containing the same number of articles as the first, but a greater number of journals, and. * A third zone, containing the psyc paper, same number of articles as the second, but a still greater number of journals. The mathematical relationship of the number of journals core to the first zone is a constant n and to the second zone the relationship is n. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of geophysics, covering 326 journals in the field. He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and 258 contained 404 articles. So it took 9 journals to contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of toefl preparation essay section 9, or 45, to produce the next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to produce the lwtc 095 research paper, last third.

Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to librarians in determining the number of essay urban life core journals in any given field. Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is still commonly used as a general rule of thumb. 3.4.2 What is Citation:- Citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source). Psyc 095 Research! More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g.

Newell84) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for preparation with optional essay section скачать the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears. 095 Research Paper! Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources and to allow the reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is Reference:- Reference is school graduation speech essay derived from Middle English referren, from Middle French rfrer, from lwtc, Latin referre, to carry back, formed from the prefix re- and ferre, to bear. A large number of words derived from this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the basic meaning of the original Latin as a point, place or source of origin. A referee is the provider of this source of origin, and a referent is the possessor of the source of origin, whether it is knowledge, matter or energy. Because of its meaning, the word reference is essays used in every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of lwtc paper meaning particular to the contexts in which it is preparation guide with optional essay section бесплатно used.

References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of 095 research paper defining references within the scope of the various fields that require an origin, point of departure, or an original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from kerja, some observers, as in cryptography. Citations are measured to find the different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in LIS. An essential part of lwtc research papers, particularly in science is the list of references indicating towards prior publications. Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is embedded in the literature of the subject'. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the acknowledgement that one document gives to another; a citation is the acknowledgement that one document receives from another'. Analysis Essay Hills! Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' From these statements of stalwarts it is paper very clear that citation has an importance while publishing scientific or research communications. Controversy Essays! It is must to cite the author from which data is used.

The research activity built on citing papers and using previous knowledge. The use of citation and its study reveals many concepts useful for developing libraries properly. Citation analysis is the area of bibliometrics which deals with the study of their relationships which might be useful for bridging research. Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for citing and psyc paper quoting references in research study as under. 1. Giving homage to pioneers. 2. Giving credit for related works (Homage to Press.)

3. Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Providing background reading. 5. Gun Control! Correcting one's own work. 6. Paper! Correcting the work of others. 7. Criticizing previous work and adding quality and innovation. 8. Substantiating claims.

9. Alerting to forthcoming work. 10. Providing leads to poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11. Toefl Guide Optional Essay Section бесплатно! Authenticating data and classes of lwtc psyc 095 research fact-physical constants etc. 12. Identifying original publications in guide optional essay which an psyc paper idea or concept was discussed. 13. Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14. Disclaiming work or ideas of essay urban others. Paper! (Negative Claims)

15. Disputing priority claims of others. (Negative Homage) Apart from gun control controversy, these points references appended in the research study is valid indicator of its significance. The facts stated in lwtc psyc the research needs to be supported by earlier citations (studies) and there is always a relation between citing theses or book or an article indicating similarity of the research. 3.4.4 Importance of Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an important role in research. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is embedded in the subject of literature, as a reference (citation) which is analysis essay acknowledgement for the use of information by the another author who cites in his writing. The relation of cited and citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the paper, whole of the high school graduation, citing document.' Citation analysis is the area dealing with the bibliometrics and deals with study of relationship of cited and citing document and such studies are essential to track the scholarly development in any subject field. 3.5 Citation Analysis:- When one author cites another author, a relationship is established.

Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links. Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries. Citations both from and to lwtc paper, a certain document may be studied. One very common use of citation analysis is to determine the impact of a single author on a given field by counting the number of times the author has been cited by others. One possible drawback of this approach is that authors may be citing the single author in a negative context (saying that the author doesn't know what s/he's talking about (Osareh 1996).

3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:- Co-citation coupling is a method used to establish a subject similarity between two documents. If papers A and B are both cited by paper C, they may be said to be related to toefl preparation guide optional section, one another, even though they don't directly cite each other. Lwtc Psyc Paper! If papers A and B are both cited by many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. The more papers they are cited by, the analysis like white, stronger their relationship is. 3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:-

Bibliographic coupling operates on a similar principle, but in a way it is the mirror image of co-citation coupling. Lwtc Psyc! Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the same articles, so that if papers A and B both cite paper C, they may be said to be related, even though they don't directly cite each other. The more papers they both cite, the analysis hills like white, stronger their relationship is. 3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:- Historically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. The bibliometric research uses various methods of citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work. The Bibliometric studies are conducted to identify the peers, social change and the core journal, etc. Lwtc Psyc 095 Research! indexing and analysis hills like white elephants Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in case of automated system, comparative assessment of the secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of retrospective bibliographic and library Management.

Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to map information needs, to develop aims and make decisions about priorities. Knowledge about the structure of a subject field and about the psyc 095 research paper, information resources used in contoh the field is needed for planning the collection. Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and co-citation analysis can be used to map the knowledge structure and the use of literature. Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and information provision. Psyc! A working indexing language, which reflects the modern terminology, is needed to preparation guide essay section скачать, organise the collection. Knowledge about the important themes in a field gives a base for developing the terminology. These themes are based on the knowledge structure received by bibliometric methods. Collection Evaluation is lwtc 095 research paper analysis and preparation guide with section бесплатно assessment of the collection according to its aim and functions. Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the scattering of articles to journals and 095 research analysis of the obsolescence of literature are used for this purpose.

Application of bibliometric research identified by Wallace (1989), indicated that the use is for developing libraries. - Improving the bibliographic control of literature. - Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the spread of gun control controversy ideas and growth of a literature. - Improving the efficiency of information handling services. - Predicting publishing trends and psyc 095 research needs. - Describing patterns of book use by patrons. - Developing and evaluating library collections. 3.7 Strengths of Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and have a quantitative base.

The method helps analysis status and strength is in: ' Methods are objective and repeatable. ' Results have a wide range of potential practical value. ' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in data that are collected unobtrusively, from the published record, and can be easily replicated by analysis essay hills, others. 3.7.1 Limitations of bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the study are observed by. Results are only valid to extent that citations are assumed to psyc 095 research, represent significant link between citing and cited documents. ' Technical issues related to data obtained from citation indexes and and rural life bibliographies. ' Variations and misspelling of author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of non-English publications.

3.8 Application of lwtc psyc 095 research Bradford's Law in Library and Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is used to solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in any libraries. The basic concept is to resume kerja, conduct Bradford analyses of journals i.e. to sort the journals in Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to the core and which does not. Lwtc 095 Research Paper! Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in this field; 2. Gun Control Controversy! List the sources (usually journals) that publish the 095 research paper, articles (or items) in rank order beginning with the contoh kerja, source that produces the most items;

3. While retaining the order of the sources, divide this list into groups (or zones) so that the number of items produced by each group of sources is about the lwtc paper, same. The 'most obvious potentials' of Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the core. ' The law of diminishing returns. ' Calculation of cost based on various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals. Bradford's law is used to solve practical problems related to information seeking and essay and rural life retrieval. An automatic option for sorting the output from online searches of journal literature, which he argued would help online users. 'Computerized sorting of lwtc paper hits by the journals in which they appear, and then of journals, high to low, by the number of hits appearing in each'. Special libraries and information officers make good use of data generated using bibliometric techniques in selecting and maintaining collections of the most needed serials. Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and citation analysis have contributed to the effective operation of special libraries' From the various studies it is analysed major thrust areas of research in Library and Information Science are using application of a mockingbird essay bibliometrics and lwtc psyc the reasons are: 1. Identify the quantum and contoh kerja structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period.

2. Examine the growth literature output in psyc paper a subject during a period of time. 3. Identify the source and controversy essays country-wise distribution of research literature in a particular subject. 4. Compare and measure the lwtc paper, growth rate of literature on a particular subject in various countries. 5. Analyze the authorship pattern of literature on a particular subject published from various countries. 6. Analyze the degree of single versus multiple author publication and study the trend in contoh resume kerja authorship pattern. 7. Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on the frequency distribution of authorship productivity. 8. Track the development of psyc paper research literature on a particular subject and its language of publication during the graduation speech, period of coverage and lwtc paper analyze the trend in the language of publication.

9. Study the language of the publication in the context of quantum of pages. 10. Study the contoh, frequency distribution of applications in the context of country-wise breakdown. 11. Analyze quantitatively the annual literature output on a specific subject. 12. Identify the variety of research publication on psyc paper, a particular subject. 13. Analyze the trend among the various types of publication. The recent developments and methods used and developed the techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:-

The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to articles published in science and social science journals. Essay White! It is frequently used as a proxy for psyc 095 research paper the relative importance of a journal within its field. In case of high graduation journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those of lower ones. The impact factor was devised by psyc paper, Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of Thomson Reuters. Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and high school graduation speech listed in . In a given year, the impact factor of a journal is the lwtc, average number of citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in 2006 and analysis essay white elephants 2007 received 3 citations each on average in 2008.

The 2008 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the 2008 publications have been processed by lwtc psyc paper, the indexing agency. A = the number of times articles published in 2006 and essay 2007 were cited by indexed journals during 2008. B = the total number of citable items published by that journal in 2006 and 2007. (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is used by many libraries as a tool for selecting Journals for subscription, similarly researcher try to lwtc 095 research, contribute in using it journals for credits. Contoh Resume! New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an impact factor after two years of indexing; in this case, the citations to the year prior to Volume 1, and lwtc psyc the number of a mockingbird essay articles published in the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values. Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the first volume will not get an psyc paper impact factor until they have been indexed for a mockingbird compassion three years. Annuals and lwtc psyc 095 research other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in essay urban and rural life a particular year, affecting the count. The impact factor relates to a specific time period; it is possible to calculate it for any desired period, and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor.

The JCR shows rankings of journals by psyc 095 research paper, impact factor, by discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. The terminology used later and becomes popular is Infometrics which covers: The h-index is an index that attempts to measure both the high graduation essay, productivity and impact of the published work of a scientist or scholar. The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. The index can also be applied to the productivity and lwtc paper impact of a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. The index was suggested by toefl preparation guide optional section бесплатно, Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and lwtc is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools.

Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and the Web of school Knowledge provide automated calculators. Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the h-index based on Google Scholar entries. In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of scholars to keep track of their own citations and also produces a h-index and an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the 095 research, I10 index indicates the number of academic papers an author has written that have at least ten citations from others. It was introduced in July 2011 by to kill compassion essay, Google as part of their work on Google scholar. A search engine dedicated to psyc 095 research, academic and related papers. Each database is likely to produce a study different h for the same scholar, because of different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of Science but the toefl with optional essay скачать бесплатно, smaller citation collections tend to be more accurate. Lwtc 095 Research! In addition, specific databases, such as the controversy essays, Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for lwtc 095 research paper researchers working in High Energy Physics. Infometrics is the study of quantitative aspects of information. This includes the production, dissemination and to kill a mockingbird use of all forms of psyc 095 research information, regardless of its form or origin. As such, infometrics encompasses the fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is similar to webometrics, but broadens its definition to include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of recorded information.

Scientometrics and webometrics are the latest methods. Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the development of resume science and of the mechanism of scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in lwtc psyc which the development of science and of the guide with optional бесплатно, mechanism of scientific research is studied by means of (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to 095 research paper, the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. ' Includes the gun control essays, Journal of Research Communication Studies. Scientometrics is concerned with the quantitative features and characteristics of science and scientific research. Emphasis is 095 research paper placed on investigations in which the development and mechanism of toefl preparation essay скачать бесплатно science are studied by statistical mathematical methods.

The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and lwtc paper preliminary reports, and review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. Due to its fully interdisciplinary character, the journal is indispensable to research workers and research administrators. It provides valuable assistance to librarians and documentalists in central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories. Scientometrics includes the Journal of essay like white Research Communication Studies. Consequently its aims and scope cover that of the psyc 095 research, latter, namely, to bring the results of graduation such investigations together in one place. Bibliometrics and scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and science in general, respectively. In practice, much of the work that falls under this header involves various types of citation analysis, which looks at how scholars cite one another in lwtc 095 research paper publications. This data can show quite a bit about networks of scholars and scholarly communication, links between scholars, and the development of areas of knowledge over time.

Bibliometrics are also one of the resume, key ways of measuring the impact of psyc 095 research paper scholarly publications. Contoh Resume Kerja! If an article is published in a journal with a high impact factor, which is determined in part by the number of citations to articles within a particular journal, this raises the publishing profile of the author. The number of citations to that article over time is psyc 095 research paper also a key measure of the productivity and the impact of that scholar. These techniques are very well developed for traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for preparation with section бесплатно new types of psyc paper outputs, including data sets, websites, and digitized collections. For items such as these, when researchers have used the materials to support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to them to essay, cite the material. Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for how to cite a database, for instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in a way to identify its digital location, or that cites the original item, whether or not the researcher actually consulted it.

3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):- The concept of lwtc psyc 095 research paper webometrics is based on bibliometrics, because like the bibliometrics study, one can measure the different quantitative aspect of the web in webometrics study. Secondly it is based on optional essay бесплатно, Infometrics. The Infometrics study is such type of study, which measures the quantitative aspect of any type of information and through webometrics study one can get the information about web (web site). That's why the above phrase is used. The science of webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to measure the World Wide Web to get knowledge about the lwtc 095 research, number and types of hyperlinks, structure of the contoh kerja, World Wide Web and usage patterns. According to psyc, Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the definition of webometrics is the study of the quantitative aspects of the construction and use of information resources, structures and technologies on the Web drawing on bibliometric and Infometrics approaches. The term webometrics was first coined by Almind and Ingwersen (1997).

A second definition of webometrics has also been introduced as the study of web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to toefl guide optional essay section, one field of lwtc psyc 095 research paper study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the development of applied methods for use in the wider social sciences. The purpose of this alternative definition was to help and publicize appropriate methods outside the information science discipline rather than to replace the original definition within information science. Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and web mining. One relatively straightforward measure is the Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by Ingwersen (1998). The WIF measure may be defined as the number of web pages in analysis hills like white elephants a web site receiving links from other web sites, divided by the number of lwtc 095 research web pages published in the site that are accessible to the crawler.

However the use of WIF has been disregarded due to the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of these variables. Other similar indicators using size of the institution instead of toefl preparation with essay section скачать бесплатно number of web pages have been proved more useful. There is one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by the Spanish National Research Council that is devoted entirely to this discipline. Cyber metrics is a branch of knowledge which employs mathematical and statistical techniques of lwtc 095 research quantity web sites or their components and concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and gun control use examines the authenticity of content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the efficiency of cyber information services and systems, services and products and assesses the impact of cyber age on society. Citations in scholarly works are used to establish links to lwtc psyc 095 research, other works. It is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics and studies reference to and from documents Gooden (2001). The benefit of bibliometrics and citation analysis is expressed by Van Raan (2003), which is reinforced by the studies (Lal and Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of research enquiry to toefl guide with section скачать, evaluate a library collection. Citation analysis reveals interesting information about knowledge producers in terms their information seeking behaviour and usage of various information sources.

It can highlight the familiarity, awareness and usage of knowledge producers regarding the online and print information sources. Citation analysis examines the frequency, patterns and graphs of citations in articles and books (Garfield, 1983). Lwtc Psyc! This chapter satisfy the objective set for the study i.e. 'To study the significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'. This chapter elaborates the detailed study of citations, reference, need of and rural life citation study and psyc 095 research laws etc. ' Aksnes, D.W. (2006), Citation rates and perceptions of scientific contribution. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and essays Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009). Bibliometrics and lwtc psyc 095 research paper citation analysis: from the Science citation index to Cybermetrics.

Scarecrow Press, p.417. ISBN 0-8108-6713-3. Located at http://books.google.com/books/about/Bibliometrics_and_citation_analysis.html?id=ma4YjaKyM9cC accessed on 23.08.2011. ' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the literature of sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in the Concept of Subject Royal School of Library and Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark @db.dk. ' Bradford, S.C.

Sources of information on specific subjects. Essay Hills Elephants! Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86. ' British Standards Institution. British standards of documentation terms. BSI; London; 1976, p.7. ' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to bibliometrics, journal of the American society for information science, 38, p.127-129.

' Cole, F J and Eales Nellie B (1917), the lwtc, history of comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the practice of social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9. ' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to high graduation speech essay, Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000).

A heuristic study of the first-citation distribution. Lwtc 095 Research Paper! Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. A. Toefl Guide Optional Section! (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319'343. ' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on some concepts in the curriculum of social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. ISSN 1818-4952. ' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and lwtc psyc paper application in science, Technology and analysis essay elephants Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. Lwtc Paper! (1983). Citation Indexing - Its Theory and contoh kerja Application in Science, Technology and Humanities.

Philadelphia: ISI Press. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. accessed on 12.04.2011. ' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and 095 research paper Humanities Philadelphia's Press. ' Gooden, A.M. (2001). Citation analysis of chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study.

Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at essay urban and rural http://www.istl.org/01-fall/refereed.html accessed on 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to all, Google. Located at http//en.wikipedia.ogr/wiki/I10-index accessed on 03.09.2011. ' Hawkins D T (1977), Unconventional uses of on-line information retrieval system on line British metric studies. Journal of American society for information science, 28(1), p.13-18. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of psyc paper bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. A Mockingbird Essay! 3, p.149'167. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009).

The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for paper England, Located at http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to bibliography bibliometrics and citation indexing, 4, p.241-273. ' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of bibliometrics an dictation indexing and analysis, Royal institute of Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden. Located at http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on 25.08.2012.

' Hulme, E.W. (1923), Statistical Bibliography in Relation to the Growth of toefl optional essay section скачать бесплатно Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the doctoral dissertation in library and information science accepted by the universities in Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. 88. (Ph. D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Research in plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis. Psyc 095 Research Paper! Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525. ' Lotka A J (1926), the frequency distribution of scientific productivity, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 16 (12), p.317-323. ' Malin M V (1968), the science citation index: A new concept in Indexing, Library trends, Vol.

16, p. 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in indexing, Library Trends, Vol. 16, p.376. ' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in to kill library planning, Library Trends 24(30). ' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of publications and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337. ' Narin, Francis and et.

Al. (1976), evaluative bibliometrics: the use of publication and citation analysis in paper the evaluation of scientific activity, Cherry Hill, New Jercy, Computer Horizon Inc. p.334-337. ' Neuendorf, Kimberly A. (2002), the Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978), Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.28-29. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978). Literature and preparation guide with essay скачать Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.12-28. ' Ole R. Psyc 095 Research! Holsti (1969(, Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. Controversy! Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. Lwtc Psyc Paper! 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of Librarianship, London. ' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in the health sciences, Bulletin the medical library Association, 50, p.450-461. ' Ranganathan S. R. (1969) Librametry and to kill a mockingbird its scope. DRTC Seminar (7) paper DA Bangalore: DRTC, ISI and lwtc psyc Sarada Ranganathan Endowment of Library Science. Contoh Resume! Reprinted in lwtc psyc paper : JISSI : The International Journal of Scientometrics and Infometrics; Vol.1, No.1 (1995), p.15-21. (ISSN-0971-6696) ' Rubin, Richard (2010). Foundations of library and information science (3rd ed.). New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55570-690-6.

Accessed at http://books.google.com/books?id=Pk1TSAAACAAJ accessed on urban and rural life, 09.02.2012. ' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of Library and paper Information Science, FINLAND. ' Schrader, Alvin M. (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172. ' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and essay urban its application in information science and psyc paper libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256. ' Swapna Kumar Patra and Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and Information science Research in India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of Library and Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223.

' Van Raan, A.F.J. (2003). The use of controversy bibliometric analysis in research performance assessment and monitoring of interdisciplinary scientific developments. Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of library and information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the social dimension of science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. K. (1949) 'Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages.

4.1 Introduction 104. 4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107. 4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in India 108. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of Education 110. 4.8 First Course of Library Science in India (Certificate, Diploma and Training Courses) 112. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113. 4.10 Degree Courses 114.

4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS 115. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India 115. 4.14 Specialization 116. 4.15 Syllabus 116.

4.16 ICT as an Integral Part 116. 4,17 Practical Exposure 117. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119. 4.21 Research Trend in lwtc Indian Universities 128. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Higher education in each country has its own unique form of system and varies from streams or branches of knowledge. Higher education is imparted by universities and in colleges having equal facilities.

Academics in higher education plays an important role in making the society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is a specific subject discipline which support in all educational branches through library systems. Schools of library science provide useful professional education universally and develop library and information professionals to toefl preparation essay section, manage the libraries efficiently. The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and managerial skills through the psyc 095 research paper, LIS education. Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview: Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out it in his study that the main theme in LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for public libraries and as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for school libraries.

There is no formal education system for academic and special libraries. In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. were more focused. Wilson (2012), in his article 'Fifty years of LIS education' in USA and conducted a survey of research productivity and LIS educators during the period 1959-2008. Author narrated the progress of high LIS education in 095 research paper USA and to kill stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to syllabus and examination conducted by library associations and similar status was also in lwtc psyc 095 research paper Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and information association (ALIA) was taking care of the education system.. Latter LIS education moved to higher education institute since 1980. Chu (2006) in his paper 'Curricula of preparation with optional essay section бесплатно LIS programs in the USA: A content analysis' in which the syllabi was reviewed by author from 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in USA.

This study brought to the notice that more elective courses offered in LIS education in USA, while number of core requirement is reduced to few. Author has also pointed that 10% of the LIS courses in USA are designed in such a way to deal will emerging subject and latest development in the field of LIS. Thus subjects covered in lwtc 095 research paper the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and information sources services, management, research in LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. As indicated by author in USA education system is giving more emphasis on elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and to kill a mockingbird compassion essay services, technical services etc. to manage latest situation. Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour. - Digital publishing etc. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India:- LIS education in India is completing a century of its existence during the period progress have been achieved in developing LIS education to tune with current practices. Lwtc Psyc! Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for libraries, national policy for library etc. Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and upgraded of LIS education in like white India.

The progress from psyc, certificate courses to research level through regular and to kill a mockingbird compassion distance mode took leading developing education in India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in education and higher education around the globe. Every country worth its name and has developed a system of education and psyc 095 research paper infrastructure to educate its people, and India is no exception. There has been a fast growth in institution of high school speech essay higher education since the dawn of twentieth century and more particularly, after India attained independence in 1947. The new India started its development program to achieve the new educational, cultural and economic objectives at the national level. Such developments at these institutions contributed to the development of more libraries, which in turn had to accept new responsibilities to meet society's changing needs and demands. Libraries are recognized to play an important role in education, scientific research and social-economic development of 095 research paper a country. This envisages the need for professionally qualified personnel to manage and run the resume kerja, libraries and information centres effectively and efficiently.

In order to feed the growing number of paper libraries, more trained library professionals were needed. For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and library science developed into a distinct field of specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and practices that were deemed sufficient to meet the growing dimensions of library services. Handling of toefl guide with essay section бесплатно recorded knowledge in modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of collecting, organizing and promoting the use of reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. These activities, no doubt, assist in defining the spectrum of studies for librarianship. Lwtc 095 Research Paper! The basic tenet of LIS education is to provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to cover all aspects of professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of librarianship. LIS education aims at providing trained manpower to manage different types of libraries, information and documentation centres which, over a period of time have undergone changes in terms of needs, functions, types and range of services offered as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the services. Research in library and information science in India is not deep rooted.

In the beginning it was in the form of a trial and error method. It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of library science who lifted trail librarianship to the level of a science with the formulation of laws of library science, and establishment library schools and research centres. He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and postulates. Ranganathan cut new grounds and blazed new practices in library and a mockingbird essay information science initially by solo research. This is evidence from the published literature that Ranganathan era's is characterized by psyc 095 research paper, a period of toefl optional essay section скачать intellectual contribution to the library and lwtc psyc 095 research paper information science, particularly library classification.

The root of the high school speech, library and information science research in India were off shoots from the country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of Library and Information Science, University of Delhi) instituted by Dr S R Ranganathan a day of library science profession in psyc India in 1946. The first research degree in the library and information science in the country and even in the commonwealth countries was awarded by the University of Delhi in 1957 to essay like elephants, D B Krishna Rao for his thesis 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the supervision of Dr. S R Ranganathan. 4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in the history of education for librarianship began in the mid-1800s as librarians around the world recognized that systematic education and training were required so that proper order could be brought to paper, the collections that had been growing in all libraries. The need for toefl optional скачать бесплатно professionally qualified personnel to manage these libraries effectively and efficiently was duly recognized during the first half of the present and consequently, the library education programme had been started at several places much before Independence. The history of the education of library science in psyc India may be traced far back as the year of 1911 with the starting of contoh resume a short term training programme in library science in the Baroda State, under the patronage of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda, who, impressed by the splendid work done by public libraries in paper the West, secured the services of an American librarian Mr. W. A. Borden as Director of the State Library Department. Mr. Bordon had been a pupil of gun control essays Mr.

Melvil Dewey, who established the first library school in the Columbia College, New York in 1887. In 1915, another student of Dewey, Mr. A Dickenson, the lwtc psyc 095 research, then librarian of Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for working librarians. Before Independence, only five universities namely the resume, Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in library science. Library education was given a new status and design by Professor S. R. Psyc 095 Research Paper! Ranganathan in 1920, when the first systematic programme in library education was started under the auspices of the Madras Library Association in collaboration with the Madras University. This library school was subsequently taken over by analysis essay like white, the Madras University in 1931 and in 1937 the course was converted into Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in lwtc psyc 095 research paper Library Science. This was the first diploma programme in Library Science in essay and rural life India. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full-fledged Department of Library Science just before independence in 1946, and started admitting students to the PG Diploma in 1947. In 1951, the diploma was changed to Master in Library Science (M.Lib.Sc).

Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and lwtc psyc paper Vikram University. Since 1960s, the number of LIS departments has continued to increase. After Independence the stimulus for the growth and development of libraries and library science education has come from the progress in and extension of education, scientific research and programmes of essay urban life socio-economic development which started in 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. As a result of these developments, Library and Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of study and research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in the country. The Baroda and Nagpur universities started training course in library science in 1956 and the Vikram University in 1957. 4.5 Present scenario of LIS Education in India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and developed into a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject. LIS courses at bachelors, masters and psyc research level are being impacted by different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in different levels. The list is shown in appendix. Apart from these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and information science education.

Worth mentioning is the two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS) imparted by Documentation Research and Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is equivalent to Mater degree of Library and Information Science (LIS). In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education. The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and Information Science. With the to kill, realization of the importance of higher education and lwtc psyc paper research, research in Library education is not lagging behind like other disciplines. To Kill A Mockingbird Compassion! The University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Indian Council of paper Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to research activity in library and information science by awarding scholarships to research and doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education:- The goal of a mockingbird compassion library and information science education is the preparation of lwtc 095 research paper personnel for the task of successful performance at high graduation speech different levels of competence in different types of 095 research libraries with an high graduation speech insight into the role of these libraries in a fast changing society. It should impart a thorough grounding in the intellectual foundations of the profession and psyc 095 research paper competence in the technical and preparation бесплатно technological skills required for their day-to-day practice in different positions. In other words, education for lwtc psyc 095 research paper library and information science should be both knowledge and theory oriented task or practice oriented. The two aspects of theory and practice blend harmoniously in a sound programme of library and urban life information science education because on lwtc paper, this aspects LIS education depend the effectiveness and success of the programme. In achieving this objective the methods of teaching and resume kerja evaluation employed are as important as the quality of the faculty.

The main objectives of LIS profession are to provide training for building up leadership qualities among the LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of 095 research information storage, transfer and retrieval of information help to acquire necessary skills in handling information, accessing and application of electronic resources, tools and essay urban and rural life media; and help to know the latest developments in the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the basic aims of lwtc psyc paper library and toefl guide with essay скачать information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of various sources of information, necessary to psyc 095 research, give traditional and modern library services. ' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of Education:- Out of the 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and one year Masters Degree in Library and Information Science at the postgraduate level. Thirteen of these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in Library Science. These programme further leads to M.Phil. and PhD levels. The levels of LIS education in India are discussed as follows in brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in Library Science (C/D. Gun Control Controversy Essays! Lib. Sc.):-

Many polytechnic colleges, schools and Library Associations impart the low level of library science courses in India having duration of six months to one year. The basic qualification for these courses is 10+2. This course prepares students for lwtc 095 research paper low level professional positions in libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc. 1.7.2 Bachelor of resume Library and Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is lwtc psyc 095 research a one-year post graduate degree course. The basic eligibility is a three years degree from any discipline. This course prepares students for junior professional positions at all types of libraries and they perform technical libraries. 1.7.3 Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS):- In the controversy essays, early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners.

But, gradually the tasks performed by librarians became more complex and more dependent on technology. As a result, the study of library science has moved from the work-setting to professional schools in Universities. The first ever library school was started by Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University). In 1889 the programme moved to 095 research, the New York State Library in Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of Dewey's training programme and the publication of Training for Library Service, a book by the economist Charles Williamson in 1923, led other universities, institutes of technology, and large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programmes in library science. Master of Library and Information Science is imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in some universities while in high speech essay some, it is conducted as a two years integrated course. Many universities which offered one year BLISc and MLISc courses are now switching to two years integrated MLIS course in the line of other masters degree courses.

The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course. This course trains persons for senior professional position in libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (Now know as Master of Science in Information Science). Lwtc Psyc 095 Research! The National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Documentation (AID) after graduation.

The course offered by the DRTC and NISCAIR have upper age on the courses as offered by the university departments in essay urban and rural terms of ICT syllabus and intake of the enrolments. 1.7.5 Master of Philosophy in Library and Information Science (M.Phil):- In Library and Information Science prepares a student for further advanced research in LIS. The basic eligibility for admission for this programme is minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by the UGC. With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for superior position, many students are opting for lwtc paper M.Phil. Courses to better equip them for urban and rural better positions and develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of Philosophy of Library and Information Science:- This is an advanced level of research programme being offered after the completion of MLISc or M.Phil.

The general aim of a research degree, whether M.Phil. or Ph.D. is to provide training in doing research as well as to develop in the candidate a critical and analytical process of thinking with the purpose that they would be able to provide leadership in psyc 095 research the profession. They would also be able to contoh resume, help librarians and information scientists to develop techniques and skills required to meet their requirements of the fast changing society. They should be able to identify the needs, set objectives, identify and analyze the problems and find appropriate solutions. They would also be in a position to participate in the planning, organization and implementation of programmes at lwtc psyc various levels. 1.8 First Course of Library Science in India(Certificate, Diploma and Training courses):- In India the existence of in service training was initiated by John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Calcutta from 1901-06, as mentioned in some reports. School Graduation! In subsequent years, the training programme was opened to the staff of other libraries and even those interested in librarianship who deals with books and lwtc other documents. 1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of Baroda state called the American librarian Mr.

William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of Melvil Dewey to create a cadre of men for the newly established libraries in essay urban life the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the first training school in library education in India. In 1913, another training class for working librarians of town libraries was started. These classes continued even after the departure of Borden. 1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the lwtc 095 research paper, Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from USA. He started the second educational course of three month duration in library science in the year 1915.

This happens to be the first university course in India. Mr. With Essay Section! Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the Librarian of Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916. 1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting 'training classes for the library workers' at Vijayawada in 1920. Psyc 095 Research Paper! The classes covered a module on running adult education classes in addition to library technique. 1.8.4 Mysore State:- In 1920, a course for the training of librarians was conducted at Bangalore under the 'program of essays library development' initiated by the then Dewan of Mysore Mr. M. Lwtc Psyc 095 Research Paper! Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:-

A summer school for college librarians and lecturers in charge of college libraries in resume Madras was held in 1928 and repeated in 1930. The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929. Then in lwtc psyc 1931, University of Madras took up the training course of MALA in essay urban and rural life 1931 and started offering the course on 095 research, a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:- Andhra University started a certificate course in 1935, which was letter abandoned. 1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:- The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of its librarian Mr.

K. M. Asudulah in 1935. It was a full time regular Diploma course in librarianship at the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata). Toefl With скачать! It continued till 1946. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in place of the certificate course of three month duration. This was the psyc, first P G Diploma in library science in India. The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was the essay, Banaras Hindu University in 1942. University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to Banaras Hindu University in 1943.

A training course for the staff working in various government organizations was started in 1953. This course was recognized as equivalent to the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib. Science Course for the first time in the country. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full fledged Department of Library Science in 1946. It also instituted the 095 research paper, first post diploma degree course in 1948. Guide With Optional Essay скачать! In 1949, the structure was changed. The programme of Master of Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to Bachelor of paper Library Science. In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University.

In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to B.Lib.Sc. Degree course. By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the recommendation of Review Committee Report of UGC in introducing different degree courses. The Government Polytechnique for women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Preparation Essay Section скачать бесплатно! Previously DRTC courses were of 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme. INSDOC conducted a short term course for Asian Documentalists in 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in Documentation and Reprography leading to 'Associateship in Documentation and Reprography'.

In 1977, the programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'. On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). At present, it is conducting 'Courses in Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on the training of professionals for special and industrial libraries and information centres. Their course contents are biased toward information science and technology. 095 Research Paper! The programme of these two institutes are class apart from other similar programmes offered by various institutes. In India advanced professional education has remained attached to resume kerja, universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in library science to train paraprofessionals. At present, about 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses. Out of these, M. 095 Research Paper! Lib. I. Sc. course is being offered by more than 75 universities.

4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in kerja LIS:- In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in Library and Information Science and thus becomes the paper, first university to launch such course in LIS domain. Essay Like White! The entry qualification for this course was set at Higher Secondary (10+2) in Arts / Science or Commerce. Launching of this course will force the learners to choose the LIS by choice and not by chance. It will again help the students to 095 research paper, grasp and understand the contents for LIS in a better and exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in essay and rural life India:- Only few departments and associations now provide Certificate Courses in Library and Information Science (CLIS) and psyc paper Diploma in Library and toefl with optional section бесплатно Information Science (DLIS). Lwtc Psyc 095 Research! The others provide BLISc and MLISc courses. In most of the universities, the prerequisite for admission into a mockingbird, the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library and Information Science is 10+2+3 years of education from any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The majority of the universities generally conduct two separate courses for paper the Bachelor's degree followed by analysis hills like elephants, the Master of Library and psyc 095 research paper Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of four semester duration.

The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and introduced five years integrated course in toefl guide with optional section скачать LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in most schools of library and information science have the opportunity to develop at least some degree of specialization. Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of library, such as a course in medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship. In simple, there are many different courses available in LIS. It makes the professionals available to work at all levels of library irrespective of type, structure and function. The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to time recommended the broader outlines of courses of Library and lwtc paper Information Science. The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and other higher bodies now give emphasis to semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than marks-based system.

Every university being autonomous is analysis like elephants free to frame its own course of studies, and syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. Programmes typically offer courses in the history of books and librarianship to give students a background in the profession's past. It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the psyc 095 research paper, acquired library materials, reference), and management of the collection (preservation conservation of documents). It also includes contents related to scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part:- Technology is entering in a very big way in every sector and in LIS where it has been used extensively to store and urban and rural retrieve information in different forms and structures. This new dimension is reflected in the course structure of almost all universities that provides courses in LIS. The courses include topics that impart new skill in lwtc psyc paper organizing web resources, and providing web-based services.

4.17 Practical Exposure:- All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting to only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:- All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners. But they are able to accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the universities, students desire to study the LIS has to toefl preparation guide optional essay section скачать, go through a very competitive entrance examination for psyc 095 research admission.

4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:- LIS is a professional course and so it has the limitations of any other professional courses. The non-inclusion of Library and Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of LIS and a mockingbird compassion essay low level of awareness among the general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:- The LIS research briefly means the collection and analysis of original data on a problem of librarianship, done within the library school according to scientific and scholarly standard. Research in this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalists, etc. The aim of research in LIS, like any other discipline is to lwtc psyc, contribute towards the advancement of subject and contribution to the existing knowledge. 4.19.1 Dr. S. R. Ranganathan's Effort:-

The era of LIS research in India started with S. R. Ranganathans efforts. He performed individual research for several years. His works that lead to some of the fundamental and essay theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for five decades. His idea of classification and psyc cataloguing becomes the area of graduation speech research in lwtc psyc 095 research different library schools all over the world. The library and academic community of high school speech essay those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in LIS. Some of lwtc 095 research his worth notable contributions are.

a) Five laws of library science. b) Colon Classification. c) Prolegomena to library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and toefl preparation guide optional essay its facets. f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to lwtc 095 research, reflect in two programs. 4.19.2 M. Phil Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- University of Delhi was the school graduation essay, first to introduce M. Phil programme in Library and Information Science in lwtc psyc 1980. Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme. The duration of M. Toefl With Optional бесплатно! Phil programme in almost all universities in this country is one year. 4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- The credit for introducing the doctoral degree programme in library science in India goes to Dr.

S. R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started PhD program in Delhi University in 1958. The university offered first doctoral degree in Library science to D. B. Krishan Rao for his 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the guidance of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan. Lwtc Psyc 095 Research Paper! In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. Today more than 125 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Since its inception, it has been carrying out research studies on contoh resume, documentation and related areas. iii) Library Associations:-

The contribution of psyc paper library association of India towards research activities is a mockingbird essay negligible but they restrict their activities in the field of publication of journals, organization of seminars, conferences and workshop, etc. for making ground to do research in psyc 095 research LIS. IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of LIS Research in India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is promoting LIS research by awarding different kinds of hills like white elephants fellowships to lwtc psyc paper, the students. Gun Control Essays! Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:- In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Dr. B. 095 Research! B. Shukla. It claimed to be the first such degree in library science all over the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of different countries to analyse the trends in LIS research at and rural global scenario and record the lwtc 095 research paper, research trends in LIS research at global level based on contoh, the analysis.

The different national studies in research were conducted by these two authors as an assignment of IFLA project during 1997-1998 and 095 research paper compared national and international trends in LIS research and recorded the development in research. The countries covered in the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. The analytical study conducted and results reported by essay urban, IFLA provided a descriptive account of research conducted in various prominent countries of the world. The author's analysis on the research activity and broad subject in which prominent research covered during the period 1965-1995 indicated that the major focus in LIS research at International level was concentrated mainly of the following topics. 1. Information storage and retrieval (87) 2. Library and information services (77) 3. Information seeking behavior (8)

4. Lwtc Psyc! Other LIS topics (25) Thus out of 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and ISB were in prominent areas. Though these are common during the to kill compassion, period the psyc 095 research, trend was almost similar in other countries also. European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in toefl preparation guide essay library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and retrieval where as in UK the same situation was reported. In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in universities. Information science research took leading position in European countries. The research trends in Australia reflected in psyc paper LIS services, information seeking and history were more prominent (74). In China principals in LIS , LIS services, information industry were the major research areas, were more considered but library and information services area was more popular. The most popular sub topics on which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in China were : ' Library management and administration. In China during the period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and 1991 onward developing stage and information service, library education were the prominent areas.

A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. also reflected European trends in LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in research concentration at broad information topics. It was found that research at international level had orientation towards solving information problems. In LIS many authors reviewed the research methods used by LIS scholars for essay conducting effective research and noticed that the among the different methods in psyc paper which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and pointed out the research trends and informed that research output was low initially and increased latter after establishment of library association which setup research committee 1946 and from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research. Since the establishment of toefl with essay скачать British Library 1994 the growth in research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and retrieval become more popular topics. From the above global study it is noticed that LIS research progress was slow and different topics were grouped in to three areas based in traditional practices and since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of libraries, Publishing and book industries.

2. Library and information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and seeking behavior, User education. 3. 095 Research Paper! Information storage and retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Information seeking behavior: Methods of information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and structures, Methods of graduation communication. At the end of 2001 centre for information research at university of central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in LIS domain. They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and recorded potential gaps in LIS research activities. The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and colleges, government libraries etc. the paper, survey was focused on core areas in LIS. The centre reported that in contoh LIS research domain may be local regional, national and international have a practice or academic focus. Hayns et. al (2000), pointed out that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the major types of research. Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to psyc 095 research, theoretical investigation and speech helps in understanding principals of information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications.

Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. Lwtc! Action research covers findings solutions to problems at work places worked of different services in 1984 Stewert felt that research area in LIS. This covers resources and services, new technologies, management of change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. thus the prominent areas in LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and access to knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in toefl preparation with optional скачать above areas using different research methods for conducting research in LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and lwtc 095 research experimental research, bibliographic methods etc. The data collection techniques used by researcher while conducting the study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and secondary analysis. In UK research conducted mainly in the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in which analysed research articles published in 39 core journals published during the period 1950-1975 from LIS to a mockingbird compassion, find out the lwtc psyc, publishing trends in the stream. Author analysed about 900 journals articles and high school graduation essay recorded the research trends. Similar study was also performed by lwtc, Atkins (1988) and he analysed subject trends in LIS research carried out analysis hills like, during the period 1975-1984 using questionnaire.

The purpose of the author in conducting this study was to psyc, find past, present and future trends in LIS research. Atkins in his study presented a table indicating popularity of the subject in which research articles were publish and gun control essays these were treated as a base to conduct LIS research. The areas isolated by him are : 1. Library management. 2. Information retrieval. 5. Public library. 6. Library automation. 7. Library history. 8. Library finance. 9. Collection development. 10. Lwtc Psyc 095 Research! Information services.

15. Citation studies. 16. Special libraries. 17. Research libraries. 18. Library education. 19. University library. 20. Library building. 21. Guide скачать бесплатно! Special collection. 22. 095 Research Paper! National library. 23. Library security.

The author opined that in developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and to kill compassion essay since 1980 emphasis was given on lwtc psyc 095 research paper, latest trends related topics which were in currency like databases, ICT applications. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and WLN gave more attention towards research in the advanced topics and modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by the researcher. Essays! 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and lwtc 095 research paper reported more studies as compared to other topics in LIS, due to resume, its applications in the field to manage libraries and provide better services to users and uses in lwtc paper library at its highest potential. Mcnicol and Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and prognosis' conducted a survey of research in LIS covering the essays, period in two parts 1997-2002 and 2002-2005. The comparative analysis of the study leads to find out lwtc psyc 095 research paper, trends in research in LIS. This study highlighted LIS research landscape to white elephants, identify trends and analysis as well as the gaps in psyc research. Slewart (1984) in his study prepared a research agenda and indicated few research areas in LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Resources utility and user and preparation guide optional section services requirement. 2. New technologies.

3. Management change. 4. Psyc 095 Research Paper! Library services. 7. Retraining staff. 8. Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on hills, the following research topics and psyc 095 research paper also opined that there is a need to work on the current development to resume kerja, get the quicker solution . 1. Library principals. 2. Identify trends.

3. New user needs. 4. New type of services. Pluse and lwtc psyc Prythech (1996), studied and analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and identified few prospective areas like: 1. Operational management. 2. Standards and benchmarking. 3. Use of internet.

5. Staffing pattern. Few authors pointed out areas of research conducted in urban and rural UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and reported few of the prominent areas considered more in developed countries are: 1. Information retrieval. 2. Information skill. 4. Professional development. 7. LIS education. 8. User development. 9. Electronic services. Thus research conducted in psyc 095 research paper developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and to kill a mockingbird it was highest since 2001. Further while indicating future research development themes for research activities suggested were,

1. Lwtc Paper! Electronic information. 2. Information policy. 3. Multimedia policy. 4. Controversy! LIS education. 5. Business information.

Electronic resources and information services based on digital media is the need of the time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Impact of digital resources. 2. Digital library development. 3. ICT and school library. 4. Use of electronic resources. 5. Community building. 6. Controlled vocabulary.

7. Information searching. 10. Lwtc Paper! Semantic web and controlled terminologies. The editorial of library and information science research (1997), in essay urban and rural life which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by Burke and others and focused the areas in LIS research before 1997 and psyc paper next bilinear were also highlighted. Information seeking and information retrieval, storage and preservation technology, information quality was covered more. The opinion of editorial board covers the major topics like economics, manage rising cost of journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and its impact on to kill a mockingbird compassion essay, libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to application of information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the major core areas to be looked in to 2000 onwards. Samdani (2011), in 095 research paper his article narrated the status of doctoral research in LIS in Pakistan and appended the views indicating the LIS research was started in 1967 from university of Karachi. In Pakistan seven universities and one private university is controversy essays offering doctoral research programme in lwtc 095 research LIS. During 1967-1971 only five candidates admitted for research program and only one i.e.

M A H Chishti completed his thesis and kerja awarded degree in lwtc 095 research paper 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'. In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Nasim Fatima under the guidance of school Dr. Jamil Jalibi from university of Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and lwtc standardization of Urdu manuscripts'. The third degree awarded to Munira Ansari in 2005 entitled 'Information needs and information seeking behaviour of the media practitioners in Pakistan'. The fourth degree awarded to Shamshad Ahmed in to kill compassion 2009 for entitled 'A study of library and archival record in directorate of Sindh archives Karachi'. The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and their topics are information generating and handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and information science education curriculum, reference and information sources etc. It is review that university of Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and psyc 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in 1971. First degree awarded in 2004 and second degree awarded in 2005.

The topics were funding model in library and gun control essays collection management in libraries, at present till 2009, three students have submitted the lwtc psyc paper, thesis. In university of Sindh research programme started in 2001 first degree awarded in high graduation essay 2005 and presently four students have registered for lwtc psyc ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in 1986 and first degree awarded in 1991 for university library and presently three students have registered for PhD ongoing research program. High Speech Essay! From university of Balochistan only one candidate having registered in 2003. University of Peshawar, Urdu university of Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at initial stage. It is thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in 095 research paper LIS were awarded during 1964-2010. Toefl Guide With Optional Essay Section скачать бесплатно! From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in 46 years duration, almost single degree in a twice year. During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and this is the real contribution of Pakistan. The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. as compared Indian progress is excellent. Miwa (2011), in his article trends in Japanese LIS education is highlighted in which more trace was given on LIS education to maintain quality.

The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. it has also same educational pattern followed in India i.e. any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in LIS, master degree and doctoral in LIS. In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc. The review of LIS research in different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is covering latest trends in the profession. From the 095 research paper, review of India the same picture is reported except the ICT and technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in Indian Universities: The research activity in Indian universities is gathering momentum as there is a greater demand for the research in the discipline. During the recent past, quite a number of research activities have been carried out in the universities and research institutions in various parts of the world. Graduation! In India, due to the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and their active support, many students are caring out M. Phil. and PhD degrees. Paper! During pre-independence, there were only few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the research output increased drastically in every field. In India about 125 universities and research institutions are offering PhD programs in LIS.

Many researchers made an effort to collect data from different universities and analyzed it to a mockingbird, fix the research productivity of the various universities in India (Chandrashekara 2009). The credit for the formal institution of the lwtc psyc 095 research paper, doctoral degree program in library science in India goes undeniably to Dr. S.R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at the University of Delhi. The University of Delhi awarded the first de jure degree in library science in 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on contoh resume kerja, 'faceted classification for agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010). Doctoral research remained in psyc 095 research the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to Delhi in 1955. In 1960s and 1970s some doctorates in analysis hills like white elephants library related topics were earned by library professionals under the guidance and supervision of faculties belonging to the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and the like. Lwtc Psyc Paper! The purpose of reviving and furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by J. S. Sharma (1924'1993), the then university librarian and head of the toefl guide optional essay section бесплатно, library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh.

Under his guidance, the second de jure (de jure means devoting something and someone) Ph.D. in library science was awarded in 1977 after a gap of two decades. Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and enthusiasm and lwtc 095 research doctoral research raised since 1980s and gradual improvement in facilities paved ways for India to maintain its third world leadership in contoh resume library research and library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the lack of psyc paper facilities or adherence to standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010). Chandrashekara (2009) collected the a mockingbird essay, data from various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in lwtc psyc 095 research Indian universities from 1957 to 2008 in LIS discipline and analyzed in proper manner in his paper. His results indicated that during the period 1957 to 2008 about toefl preparation with optional section бесплатно 802 theses were submitted and awarded the degrees to the researchers. From his analysis it is lwtc psyc 095 research very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on a mockingbird, an average degree awarded per lwtc paper, year were 36 and from 1957 to 1990 only essays 8 per annum average degrees were awarded. The drastic change is reported since 2003 onwards and on an average 43 degrees were awarded per year in Indian universities. Even author had grouped decennial growth of psyc 095 research research degrees awarded in essays Indian universities. The trends resulted from the data presentation indicated that the real growth starts from 1980 to 2008 and during 1950 to 1979 only 15 degrees were awarded. The analysis of lwtc psyc 095 research paper degrees awarded in different states and arranging them the top 10 states in India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and other states contribution is (141). The analysis made by Chandrashekara and Ramashesh (2009) regarding the research conducted in India during the period 1957-2008 and found that research activity in Karnataka state is urban and rural leading and lwtc Maharashtra is ranked at and rural life 4th position.

The library and information science deals with all aspects of information and knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and conservation of documents and so on. The library and information science closely related to all other subjects. It forms its own foundation by taking the help of some other subjects. Dr. Psyc 095 Research! S. R. Analysis Essay Hills White! Ranganathan is a pioneer in lwtc psyc the field of Library and Information Science in the world and India in particular.

He contributed in almost all aspects of the library science. Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in to kill a mockingbird Library and Information and its related subjects. It ranges from certificate course to PhD. The research trends indicated the growth at global level and 095 research paper also in India. This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and research trends in LIS and preparation guide with essay compare it with current developments in lwtc LIS'. This chapter summarizes the progress in LIS education, LIS research at global and national level. ' Asundi, A Y and Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and Information Science Education in India: International perspective with special reference to Developing Countries. DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology Vol. 27(2) March, p.5-11. ' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in library and information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and information science education, Accessed at http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on analysis essay hills elephants, 14.04.2012.

' Burke R M and others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and information science research, Vol. 19(3), p. 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and information science research literature in psyc paper Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the university librarians association of Sri Lanka, Vol. 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and analysis essay white elephants Information Science Research in India. Asia Pacific Conference on LIS education and practice, p.530-537. ' Gupta, D K and Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of Library and Information Studies. Vol.

57(Dec), p.333-338. ' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and research area for developing countries. 5th International CALIBER. Lwtc 095 Research Paper! Punjab University Chandigarh. 8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and P. Vakkari. 1993. The evolution of graduation speech library and information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of journal articles. Information Processing and Management, 29(1): 129-144. ' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and information science education in lwtc psyc India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of library and information technology, Vol. 30(5), Sept., p 67-73.

' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in library and information science in India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. (1997). The nature of UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from a bibliometric study. IFLA General Conference in Copenhagen, 1997. Library Theory and Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on 12.06.2012. ' McNicol; Sarah and Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and Information Research News 26(83), pp. 10-16. ' Miwa M et. al. (2011), Global LIS: An effort to describe trends in Japanese LIS education for global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on Library information education and practice 2011. ' Naukri24 (2012), Library and information science education in India, Accessed at http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on 14.04.2012.

' Peritz (1981), the methods of library science research: some results from a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. 251-268. ' Pluse, John M., and compassion Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on Research in Public Libraries, British Library Research and Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC. ' Rath, P (2010) Information and communication technology - Application in lwtc 095 research higher education with special reference to north Eastern region. Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. 166-175. ' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and high school speech essay information science research in Australia 1985-1994. Psyc Paper! A content analysis of with essay section скачать research articles in the Australian Academic and Research Libraries 26, p. 163-170.

' Rochester Maxine K and Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and information science research: A comparison of national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr. Lwtc Psyc 095 Research Paper! 82. ' Samdani R A and gun control essays Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in psyc paper LIS by Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and analysis essay hills like practice, accessed on http://inillibunl.edu/lpp accessed at 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and possible research models for UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. 43(4), p 7-26. ' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and Miva M (2006) Survey on faculty of Library and Information Science education in 095 research Japan, Graduate school of library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of controversy us is lwtc 095 research paper qualified to a high level in life our area of 095 research expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in high your email box, in as little as 3 hours.

This Science essay was submitted to us by psyc 095 research paper, a student in urban and rural order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/science/bibliometrics-citation-citation-analysis.php [03-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on lwtc 095 research paper, our website then please click on the link below to request removal:

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The Photo Essay: Give it Your Best Shot. Photo by Leslie Fisher. Monday we started talking about psyc photo essays. Contoh Resume. We began by looking at lwtc psyc 095 research, SoundSlides, a great product to use to help you produce engaging photo stories. In fact, Mondays post marked the beginning of a giveaway that will last throughout this week and culminate on Friday with some lucky person getting a licensed copy of essay hills white, SoundSlides Plus. So, today I want to 095 research talk more about the actual essay itself.

I think we all know by now that the word photography means writing with light. But just because someone has a tool to write with doesnt mean they know how to write. For that matter, just because someone gets published doesnt mean they know how to hills white elephants write. Lwtc 095 Research Paper. We all know theres plenty of pretty bad books out there. But I digress. We were talking about the photo essay. The photo essay is really not that much different than any other kind of written essay or story.

A photo essay should really have a simple but clearly defined flow with a clearly defined beginning middle and contoh, end. The object is to lwtc psyc 095 research paper take a limited number of photos, say 5 to 35 images, and to tell a story with them. A Mockingbird Essay. Those images must take the viewer and unfold something akin to a plot line before them, all in psyc 095 research, a period of 3 or 4 minutes. What I hope to do in this post is to give you a list of the to kill compassion, important elements of a photo essay. Lwtc. Sort of a shot list.

Some people use different names than I give them, but the concept is the same. Not all Photo Stories Are Created Equal. There are different types of photo essays. Some deal with a linear event that unfolds over a given time frame. A Mockingbird Compassion Essay. This might be a race or trip that the photographer covers from start to the finish. A great example of this is the psyc paper, essay Kingsleys Crossing. And Rural Life. There are also stories that deal with a focused topics, like a Blind Wine Taster , A Corner Druggist or my essay on the Last Hat Maker. 095 Research Paper. Other essays might deal with event, like Thaipusam. Whatever the guide with optional section скачать бесплатно, type of photo essays are doing, it will still need to psyc 095 research paper be filled with photos that work together to tell the story. One thing I tell class that I teach is that each photo must be good enough to with optional essay stand by itself.

You cant have a photo essay with a few really great images and the balance be filled with mediocrity, it just doesnt work that way. Each shot should be good enough to be viewed separately, so that the lwtc paper, essay as a whole is excellent. High School Graduation. But each image has it place in lwtc psyc paper, the story. Below we will talk about what that place is. Before going into the different types of shots needed in an essay, I want to talk about the essay itself and how to prep for it.

One of the things I see frequently among students who are trying their hand at creating a photo story, is they create it as they go. To Kill A Mockingbird Compassion Essay. They go out shooting throughout the lwtc paper, day and essay life, then as theyre out they try to think of a topic. Thats going about psyc it backwards. To Kill A Mockingbird. The best thing you could do would be to walk around the city or subject youre interested in photographing, all the while keeping the camera in the camera bag and just observe. Psyc 095 Research. Keep your eyeballs peeled, as my dear ole daddy used to say. See if you can see a theme or story emerge.

Spend time with people talk to high school graduation speech essay him here whats important to them and a story might just bubbled to the surface. Psyc Paper. This is not to say a story cant be an resume kerja, assignment. In fact, thats the way most photojournalist work. Lwtc Psyc 095 Research. Theyre given an assignment and told to cover it photographically. Either way, you have to speech understand what it is youre shooting before you put the camera to your face and that take time and observation. Another helpful way to approach an essay is to create a shot list. Paper. Using the high graduation, type of shots listed below, think through ideas and concepts that you want to grab photographically. Psyc Paper. After spending time with the hills like, Cheese Man of Kashmir, I knew there were several shots I had to get. Psyc 095 Research. One was a Detail shot of milking poured, another was of gun control controversy, Medium shot of Chris working with his Gujjar associates.

If you can, create a shot list before you go out it can be a huge help. But dont limit yourself to the list. Better to have too many shots than not enough. (As a bonus for you, I have link every photographic example below to the original New York Times essay. Enjoy!) This shot is psyc 095 research paper sometimes called a lead shot. And Rural. Its the shot grabs you or hook you and draws you into the essay. Sometimes its the first shot of the essay.

Other times it appears somewhere inside the photo essay, but is used as the essays cover or thumbnail image. It is and image that is often very creative and lwtc psyc 095 research, leaves the viewer wanting information about the topic. The literary equivalent to preparation section бесплатно a Hook shot is the first few words that grab you in a novel. Remember this sentence? The great fish moved silently through the psyc, night water, propelled by short sweeps of its crescent tail. Peter Benchly, Jaws. Those first few words grabbed readers and sucked them in and they where hooked. The Hook shot should do the same. A Withering Harvest in Florida Photo: Chip Litherland for The New York Times. The establishing shot does pretty much what it sounds like it does. It lays the visual context for the story. It is often a wide shot that shows the setting or the environment where the story takes place or the character lives or works.

The shot often is the very first shot of the essay. If its not the first it will be included in one of the a mockingbird essay, first few shots. The literary equivalent of this is usually found on lwtc psyc 095 research paper, the first page of the novel. Urban And Rural Life. It is when the author paints a written description of where things are taking place. It was a dark and stormy night Cairo Aglow at Ramadan Photo: Shawn Baldwin for The New York Times. At this point in the story theres momentum building up. The medium shot serves to inform the viewer who are the lwtc psyc 095 research paper, characters and what they are doing. The shot should include both the contoh resume, subject and its surrounding. Psyc 095 Research Paper. If your story has people in it, and often the shot will have two or three people and all interacting in some way. You might have an gun control, individual working with some equipment or doing some job.

But the 095 research, image should be wide enough to see the environment. Its not a detail shot. The Resurgence of the Hazaras Photo: Adam Ferguson for The New York Times. As the name implies the shot has to do with the details. These shots add flavor to gun control controversy the story, almost as the lwtc 095 research, spices does to high school graduation speech soup.

It is the detail shot that that creates intimacy with the lwtc psyc, viewer. Can you imagine a story where characters walk through nondescript hallways and streets? It would leave readers without any sense of time or place. And so it is essay hills like with a detail shot in a photo essay, it gives our viewers a sense of lwtc psyc paper, place. A detail shot anchors the story. High-Speed Connections Photo: Laura Pedrick for The New York Tim. Often a tight portrait or head shot, but can also be tight environmental portrait. This shot gives a face to your characters. High Graduation. It make the story personal to someone. Psyc 095 Research. Even if your character is hills like white elephants not a human, a portrait can be important. Lets say youre doing a story on a racehorse.

He would still want a portrait of the horse. In South Africa, a Resurfacing of Violence Photo: Robin Hammond for The New York Times. Others have called this the Exchange Shot. I like that title as well. Psyc Paper. But I use the word gesture because I feel like its more than just an exchange.

It can be someone shooting basketballs or running. But, as the term exchange shot implies, often times it is interaction between two subjects in essays, the story. Theres usually movement involved in some sort of interchange between the subjects. By having this shot in the essay we keep the essay from becoming a series of portraits. The gesture shot allows us to experience life within the essay. A Yooper in the Abortion Fight Photo: Sally Ryan for The New York Times. Except for 095 research paper, the establishing shot which should always come at the first of the photo essay, the only other shot that has a definite place within the essay is this one. The closure, as the name implies, it is the parting shot.

It draws things to an end. Gun Control. Its the ride off into the sunset photo. This shot provides resolution for the story and puts it to bed. Remembering Hardware Photo: Ruth Fremson/The New York Times. Contrary to what some people teach, a photo essay does not have to have every one of these shots. It should have most but there are no rules . You can have an effective photo essay without a detail shot or a gesture shot. I personally think the more of psyc, these you have, the compassion, chances you have at better telling the story in a compelling manner.

But the lwtc 095 research, goal is the story not the process. So feel free to go on break the high speech, rules. Think through a storyline, take this list with you and go out and shoot. Trust me, you get better every time you do it. Matt is a Malaysia based humanitarian and travel photographer. Well known as a photographer and international workshop instructor, Matts images have been used by business and organizations around the psyc, globe. Hills Like. Matt also on the design board for Think Tank Photo, a camera bag manufacturer. 095 Research Paper. In 2013 Matt founded the On Field Media Project to train the a mockingbird essay, staff of non-profits to use appropriate technology to produce timely as well as quality images. Lightroom 2.2 now available w/ update for 5D MKII. December 16, 2008.

Thanks for this post, Matt. There is so much useful information here and I was especially encouraged to see you to speak to things that I've been learning lately. As Ray K. mentioned in his tweet, this is a very timely post. Thank you Sabrina. I am glad you found it helpful. Lwtc Psyc 095 Research Paper. It's basic, but stuff we can over look at times. Great article. I never realize some of the the segments of an preparation with optional essay скачать, essay exist. Thanks Matt It makes sense and is useful.

nice article, thanks for sharing your ideas! looking forward to psyc 095 research paper see more useful stuff Matt, thanks for such a great post. I am having to re-learn the to kill a mockingbird, basic tenets of story-telling as I start to form ideas for photographic projects. Lwtc Psyc 095 Research Paper. Yours was such a timely post as I have a road trip coming up starting on Memorial Day weekend that will have plenty of opportunities for stories. I just wanted to mention also that at its most basic any story, visual or written, should have a defined begging, middle and end an arc. How about a follow up post with example? Great article, it nicely summarizes and defines all the elements of photo essay.

Matt, this is a fantastic post. Really useful advice! this is analysis essay hills like white elephants really a very interesting post! Thank you! Not sure I know what you would like. Lwtc Psyc 095 Research Paper. I thought I gave you examples though out the post. Essay Urban Life. You can find most of my essays and some from people I have coached HERE.

I am glad this post scratched an itch. Yes, this is what I meant- I wanted to look through some examples of lwtc 095 research, photo essays. The examples you give are great, but they don't form a single project (at least I don't see connection between them). Contoh. I wanted to see how the lwtc 095 research paper, pieces form the finished essay. Thanks. This is a very good website ! Well done (: I hope to see more websites like this in the future THANK YOU SO MUCH. Come on! this is useless! What the hell, i think i have actually lost intelligence reading this thing.

I could probably have a more imformative conversation with my three year old cousin. At least he could make something more interesting. This is absolute rubbish. Hmm, Jack and Joel your comments sounds a little like Spam. So what was the issue you had with this post? Excellent presentation. Essays. Concise and psyc 095 research, informative and providing much food for thought. i like this post.. Toefl Guide Optional Essay. i often read your post but not leaving any comment, may start from psyc paper today i will leave a comment on to kill a mockingbird compassion, every blog i read. http://www.essayslodge.com/ thats way I will leave a comment here, thank you for this article once more. I agree with all of the points keep up the good work. Great article, and I totally agree with all . http://www.thesismania.com/

G8 article i really like it keep up the good work im waiting for you next article. http://www.complete-essay.com/ Thank you Matt, I really enjoyed this article, as well as your site in general! Keep up the good work helping us young photographers. #128578; Excellent and to the point article. Precisely what I was looking forThank you very much Matt for helping us, young Padawans Great information thanks for sharing this with us.In fact in all posts of this blog their is something to learn.

Preliminary Research Writing | Analyzing Collected Material your work is very good and i appreciate your work and lwtc psyc 095 research, hopping for some more informative posts. Again thanks. very helpful site. i like this very much! will visit this again, soon. thank you! This article was very helpful and informational for my research.Thank you!.. I have read several just right stuff here. Definitely worth bookmarking for revisiting.

I surprise how much effort you put to make this sort of wonderful informative site. May I just say what a relief to find an individual who genuinely. understands what theyre talking about on the web. You actually know how to a mockingbird essay bring an issue to 095 research paper light and make it important. A lot more people have to read this and understand this side of the analysis essay like elephants, story. I cant believe you are not more popular because. you certainly have the gift. 16 Unmissable Travel Photography Resources for lwtc 095 research paper, Photographers - [. ] Allens article is one of the best I have come across about improving your travel photos. Controversy Essays. The Photo Essay Modesta aproximacion al storytelling | Deepwildphoto - [. Psyc 095 Research. ] EOS 5D MkII y con un objetivo Canon 24-70 f/2,8 L. Os dejo algunos enlaces relacionados como este post de 13 recursos online para fotografia de viajes - [. ] Brandon: The Photo Essay: los ensayos fotograficos son una forma ideal para pensar nuestra fotografia de viajes, cada vez [. ] Blog Prompt #5: Image analysis | Composing Digital Media: DIY Archives - [] Drawing upon the readings for gun control essays, this week (Top 10 Photography Composition Rules and lwtc psyc, The Photo Essay: Give It Your Best Shot), Blog Prompt #4: Image Analysis | ComposeDigital: The Citizen Archive - [] analysis.

Drawing upon the readings for this week (Top 10 Photography Composition Rules and essay, The Photo Essay: Give It Your Best Assignment 5: shooting plan | Rob Townsend - [] http://www.hebervega.com/2010/02/09/inside-photo-essay/ accessed 28th February 2014 2. http://www.thedigitaltrekker.com/2010/05/the-photo-essay-give-it-your-best-shot/ accessed 28th February 2014 3. Lwtc Psyc. http://photophilanthropy.org/award/photo-essay-tips/ [] Research constructing a successful narrative picture essay | My OCA Learning Log - [] http://www.thedigitaltrekker.com/2010/05/the-photo-essay-give-it-your-best-shot/ [accessed 01 April 2014] [] Resources Narrative and Illustration | The Art of Photography - [] Thedigitaltrekker [] Review: Mindshift Gear PhotoCross 13. Tips, Tricks Gear Suggestions for the Traveling Photographer. Download Your Free eBook Now. Join our mailing list to contoh receive this ebook and the latest news and updates from me.

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7 Reasons This Is An Excellent Resume For Someone Making A Career Change. Writing a resume can be a daunting task. Lwtc Psyc Paper? And if you're changing careers or industries, it's even more challenging. When you're attempting to change careers, you're often going up against many other candidates who possess a more traditional (and regularly accepted) work history for the role or industry you're targeting, says Amanda Augustine, a career expert at TheLadders, an online job-matching service for life, professionals. But a standout resume will help you get noticed when you might otherwise be passed over. . In order to create an eye-catching resume that'll help you stand out from the competition, you'll have to look at all your experience and accolades in paper a different light, she says. Analysis Like? You must evaluate your experience, education, and lwtc professional development and skills to determine what's considered important for your new career, and then you'll have to gun control essays re-position or re-brand yourself. . To do this, you'll need to become well versed in psyc your target industry's terminology so you can express your previous experience and skills in terms that your new audience will understand and school speech appreciate, Augustine explains. That can take a lot of effort on the part of the job seeker; it may even require you to speak with people who work in your target field which you should be doing anyway to learn which of your skills are transferable and most prized. She says when you have a well-crafted document and psyc an advocate in your corner, you're much more likely to succeed with your career transition. To get a clearer picture of what makes a resume stand out, we asked Augustine to create a sample of an excellent one for a professional changing careers. Essay? . While your resume may look different depending on the job or industry you're targeting, the one below from someone hoping to lwtc psyc 095 research transition from preparation optional essay section скачать бесплатно HR to sales should serve as a useful guide: Skye Gould/Business Insider. What makes this an lwtc paper, excellent resume for to kill a mockingbird compassion essay, someone transitioning careers or industries?

Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. The job seeker's new career objective is clear. . Lwtc? If you want to change careers, it's best to have your new job goal well-defined, as this will dictate how you reposition your experience and gun control which qualifications you decide to highlight in your new resume, Augustine says. . 2. This resume focuses on the skills, achievements, and qualifications that are most relevant to the job seeker's new career track. . While HR and sales may not seem like similar career tracks, many of the skills leveraged by recruiters can be transferable to a sales or marketing career, she explains. It's important to identify which of lwtc your skill sets are valuable to another field, and in essays what capacity. I can rattle off a list of common skills that are easily transferable to psyc 095 research paper a variety industries and guide optional section бесплатно functions problem-solving, strategic thinking, strong written or oral communication, people management, innovation, negotiation, etc. but it gets trickier when you're considering a switch from a very specialized role to a completely different field. Lwtc Psyc? In these cases, talk to people who work in the industries that interest you. Once they have a good understanding of your background and strengths, they'll be able to provide insight into which roles in their field might be relevant to you. Essay Hills Like White? 3. This resume sells what the job seeker has to offer. . Hazel is a technical recruiter seeking a position selling recruiting software to corporations, so her extensive knowledge of the recruitment process and her experience using and training others on various social recruiting platforms and applicant tracking systems work is emphasized in lwtc psyc 095 research her professional summary and highlighted throughout the preparation guide with optional section скачать бесплатно rest of her resume. 4. The job seeker's experience is repackaged into terms that her target prospective employers will understand. . Lwtc 095 Research Paper? Wherever possible, this job seeker's experience was translated into contoh kerja sales terminology, says Augustine. For example, the terms 'clients' or 'internal clients' were used to describe the lwtc paper hiring managers. Candidates were turned into guide with section бесплатно prospects or potential leads. In her list of core competencies, 'Hazel' used sales keywords such as 'lifecycle management' and 'pipeline management,' leaving out the terms that would make these competencies recruiter-specific (i.e. Lwtc Paper? 'recruitment process lifecycle' and gun control controversy 'candidate pipeline'). Psyc 095 Research? . Every field has its own acronyms and terminology.

It's your job to figure out how to translate your experience and past successes into terms that resonate with your new target audience. Gun Control Controversy Essays? Subscribe to industry-specific publications, conduct informational interviews, and start attending events that are relevant to your target field to gain this insight, and update your resume accordingly. 5. This resume is concise and only includes relevant information. . Psyc 095 Research? Even though the job seeker has over six years of experience and a mockingbird compassion has worked in at least three positions, her resume is only one page long. Her earlier positions only contain small blurbs about her work with a couple achievements highlighted, Augustine notes. Rather than listing out a laundry list of your skills and lwtc paper experience, carefully select the accomplishments and gun control responsibilities that will support your current career objectives. 6. The job seeker's major contributions and achievements are quantified . . Include numbers whenever possible, whether you're describing the size of your budget, the number of events you helped organize, or the number of people you managed, to demonstrate your value to the employer.

7. The job seeker included non-work related skills and activities. Lwtc 095 Research? . Hazel listed her membership in Toastmasters, since employers value good communication skills in their sales employees. Showcase any memberships to professional associations, volunteer work, internships, or other extracurricular activities that allowed you to either leverage relevant skills or exposed you to your target field or industry, Augustine says.. SEE ALSO: This Is An Ideal Resume For A Mid-Level Employee. NOW WATCH: 7 smart questions to ask at the end of every job interview. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru.

7 Reasons This Is An Excellent Resume For Someone Making A Career Change.

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essay on realism art HOWARD DAVID JOHNSON'S COMPLETE ESSAYS ON HISTORY, MYTH, REALISTIC ART. Personal Opinion Essays on HISTORY, MYTH, MORALITY, ART yesterday and today by the artist. ( These essays are never meant to offend, but to spur thought and democratic debate in a spirit of fun. ) Those who are enamored of practice without science are like a pilot who goes into a ship without rudder or compass and never has any certainty where he is going. Practice should always be based upon a sound knowledge of theory, of which perspective is the guide and psyc 095 research paper, gateway, and without it nothing can be done well in any kind of painting. Click on the topic that interests you or stay here to read them all . Art and Technology: From the Camera to controversy the Computer.

A brief overview of the shifting cultural attitudes toward Realistic Art in the last 150 years. Essay #8 by psyc, Howard David Johnson. The first decade of the 21 st Century has seen a grass-roots counter-revolution in the art world which has overthrown the stranglehold elitist proponents of like white Abstract expressionism gained on academia, the media and the art world at large in the early 20 th Century. Realistic Art was declared obsolete and irrelevant at the beginning of the 095 research paper 20 th Century due to the easy chronicling of persons, places, and events by the Camera - in urban and rural life spite of this new technology empowering the greatest era in Realistic Art history. The Modern Day Artist refused to die and began to explore realms of the lwtc psyc heart and mind the camera could not record.

The proponents of Abstract Expressionism gained control of life elite art collectors markets followed by lwtc 095 research paper, academic institutions and the media leading to the abandonment of centuries of classical teaching methods and traditions in our universities. Compassion. Even the best realistic art was later denounced and ridiculed as the dismissive and often even hostile Art establishment created elitist scorn for Realistic Art in general. This created a disconnect with the general population who could not relate to the tenets of Abstract Expressionism. The advent of the internet broke the absolute domination of the opinions of the Abstract School on media and academia and opened the lwtc 095 research floodgates of artistic expression and free opinions. Free at a mockingbird, last from institutionalized condemnation, more and paper, more artists began to choose realistic treatments and a tidal wave of speech essay fabulous new realistic art has been created in paper every conceivable visual art media for museums, galleries, books, movies, and video games.

As the camera became commercially available in the early 19 th Century it became clear that the visual artist was no longer an indispensable member of society. Just about anyone could point and shoot this device at persons, places, and things and get very fast and very realistic results. Resentment from thousands of years of artists social and urban life, political influence fueled the notion that visual artists should be declared obsolete. The adoption of the camera as an artists tool and the advent of an 095 research paper era of glorious and unprecedented realism in painting did not stop the to kill compassion movement to lwtc 095 research paper crush the political and essay hills white elephants, social influence of the artist. Great realistic artists like Pablo Picasso and others like Vincent Van Gogh courageously answered this challenge by exploring concepts that could not be photographed with brilliant and visionary works. It was from these honest and ingenious notions that the schools and sub-schools of 095 research Abstract Art developed. The freshness and innovation of controversy essays this movement took the art world and academia by 095 research, storm. The excitement of defining the tenets and the delight of bewildering the masses gave rise to high school graduation speech an elite class of critics who could control the lucrative art collectors market with obfuscation and intellectual snobbery. This wealthy art collectors market gave credence to Abstract Expressionisms high art status and the advice of well placed critics became extremely valuable and they formed an alliance with like-minded academics. Lwtc 095 Research. As time passed, this trendy movement whose concepts were so hard to argue with gained control of the establishment and gun control controversy, elitism took root. It was not long before traditional painting methods were not taught in universities any more as realistic art was no longer considered Real Art and tenets like; Art must be ugly, Art must be new Art must be obscure, and The best Art is offensive took hold in schools and printed media.

Not satisfied with control over 095 research, the most lucrative galleries, collectors markets and academia, these elitists moved from dismissive to openly hostile attitudes toward those who still loved and created realistic art. The merciless and unprovoked rebukes of great realistic artists like Norman Rockwell, N.C. Wyeth and so many others are well documented in 20 th century histories. Thats not Real Art and why do you waste your talent on Mere Illustration were some of the nicer comments. Illustrators in the 20 th century wore these rebukes like badges of honor, like black eyes gained from standing up to schoolyard bullies, knowing in their hearts what they were doing was worthwhile and the narrow minded views of their critics were not the only valid opinions. By the end of the high school speech 20 th century, the long apprenticeship tradition was broken and classical realistic art methods were lost forever. The Shock Art movement in lwtc psyc 095 research paper the 1990s carried the tenets to new extremes as ART became a dirty word. Contoh Resume. U.S.

Government Endowments for the Arts were discontinued. Lwtc 095 Research Paper. Abstract Art had become the norm with its obfuscated themes and was then itself considered irrelevant and academically worthless. Art programs were then removed from countless public school curriculums to make time for standardized test preparation. There is no way that mandating more math, requiring more reading, or scheduling more science will replace what we have lost as a culture. At the contoh resume turn of the 21 st Century the Abstract Expressionists had been in control for generations with a thought control blockade in books, newspapers, radio, television and schools. Anyone who disagreed with them was told they were too stupid to understand Real Art and theirs was the psyc 095 research only voice to be heard. What had begun so beautifully and essay, sincerely was hijacked and violated until it became a byword for vulgarity. Then came the internet and lwtc 095 research, the realistic artists, long silenced began to express their views. It was like the essay life boy who cried: The Emperor has no clothes! This revelation spread like wildfire through the lwtc paper cultural consciousness.

Suddenly, it was no longer a disgrace to hold something other than those narrow views. Galleries on the internet showcased generations of repressed artists realistic works in a tidal wave art history calls: the Realistic Revolt. Of course, Abstract Art still flourishes today especially on college campuses, but the high school speech narrow views of 095 research paper its most fanatical proponents are no longer cruelly dominant. The Realistic Revolt has brought the return of respectability to urban and rural illustration and realistic landscape and portraiture. When I see the works of todays vast multitude of realistic artists coming from a thousand different directions at once, tears come to my eyes, for I have worn the title illustrator as a badge of psyc honor for decades and am deeply moved to have lived to preparation guide essay section скачать see new developments in art and technology drive the visual arts to levels of quality beyond my wildest dreams. Lwtc Psyc Paper. I predict 3D and digital media will grow more and more realistic until photos seem noticeably inferior. The internet has not only opened the resume kerja floodgates for artistic expression, but employment and untold artists are earning a living shattering the Starving Artist stereotype so engrained in our cultural consciousness.

The beginning of the 20 th century saw technology threatening the survival of the professional artist and psyc 095 research, the end of it saw the unbridled tenets of Abstract Expressionism like Art must be offensive threatening the controversy very existence of art as a part of 095 research paper our culture, the modern day artist has once again refused to die and has embraced technology to create a rebirth of compassion realism that Art critics, collectors, academics and psyc 095 research paper, everyday folk can all embrace and celebrate in ways I once feared had been lost to us forever. Howard David Johnson (2012) Painting, in art, the action of laying color on a surface, or the representation of objects by this means. Considered one of the fine arts Painting. noun. A Mockingbird Compassion. 1.) The act or employment of laying on colors or paints. 2.) The art of lwtc psyc paper forming figures or objects in colors on contoh kerja canvas or any other surface, or the art of representing to the eye by psyc paper, means of figures and preparation essay section, colors any object; the work of an illustrator or painter. Paper. 3.) A picture; a likeness or resemblance in shape or colors. 4.) Colors laid on. 5.) Delineation that raises a vivid image in the mind; as in word painting.

Webster's Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language. THE MORE THINGS CHANGE, THE MORE THEY STAY THE SAME. A Brief essay dealing with attitudes toward Traditional Realistic Paintings, Pastels, Colored Pencils and today's Digital Art Media. Did you know the Greek word Photography means Painting with Light? Today with the advent of computers it truly lives up to it's name. Due to developments in Art and Technology, combined with a general lack of public education, I contend that a broader definition of painting is needed than that which is found in common usage. In addition to his mastery of traditional realistic art media, Howard David Johnson now combines drawing, painting, photography, and digital media with more than thirty years of experience in these fields to analysis hills like elephants create his Realistic Art Numrique in 21st century paintings and pictures.

Announcing Art Numrique -an exciting merger of traditional visual art and cutting edge technology. a new art form for lwtc 095 research, the twenty- first century. Resume. Art Numrique is not limited to realistic art but also offers limitless horizons for everything from cartoons to abstractions. It is the lwtc psyc 095 research most dramatic development in guide optional section the visual arts since the Renaissance. In the words of psyc 095 research paper Al Jolson in the movie world's first talking picture You ain't seen nothin' yet! Snobbism in the arts is nothing new. Some people will tell you that oils are the only valid medium for realistic paintings. To Kill Compassion. That Colored Pencil, Digital, and other Realistic Painting and psyc, Drawing Media are not valid for real art. Young artists, Don't let them bother you.

Their forerunners used to condemn Pastels before they gained acceptance and called them crayons when Johann Alexander Thiele (1685-1752) invented them. Mercilessly disrespectful art critics of the time could not stop the Experimentalists no matter how viciously they attacked and derided them. Crayon-painting as it was called in England was practiced early on by persecuted pioneers in Switzerland and school speech essay, many other nations. What a debt we owe to these master artists who refused to knuckle under to the pressure of those short-sighted critics during those historic and experimental times. It took until 1870 with the lwtc paper founding of the high Societe` Des Pastellistes in France that respect came at last to lwtc psyc 095 research paper these heroic immortal visual artists. In England the liberation of the analysis essay hills white Pastellists from slight regard and undeserved disrespect came with the first exhibition of The Pastel Society at the Grosvenor Gallery in 1880.

Pastel Painters like Mary Cassat and others from America and other nations forever silenced the lwtc snobs with their masterworks and gained recognition at long last for Thiele's invention as a valid art medium. I am persuaded that history will repeat itself. Like Pastels, I believe these wonderful new colored pencils and even Digital Realistic Art Media will one day receive the recognition they deserve as powerful mediums of artistic expression just as pastel paintings did. What is contoh resume kerja your definition of art? Have you thought about it?

Consider dancing. it can be a little skip in the step or rise to the level of the incomparable Russian Ballet. Did you know that just the materials alone for a single oil painting cost up to a thousand dollars these days? Even paying the artist less than minimum wage no one but the super rich can afford them anymore. Something's got to give. Realistic paintings in oil have been highly prized for centuries and the appeal and following of realistic art is undiminished to this day. Lwtc Psyc 095 Research Paper. Oil paintings featuring Abstract Art and Realistic Art are generally the most treasured form of all the visual art media and with good reason. Kerja. But snobbish art critics favoring abstract art have declared that realistic paintings, or illustrations are not art for a century. With so many representationalist paintings by so many immortal master artists hanging in the Louvre, the Hermitage, and the British Museum and lwtc paper, others I think the disrespect for realistic illustrators that dominated the 20th century is essays academically ridiculous as well as vain and intolerant, insisting theirs is the lwtc psyc paper only valid opinion. What is your definition of Art? I believe almost any form of human expression can be raised to to kill compassion essay the level of high art especially visual art and paper, Realistic illustration. By my own definition of art, which is: anything that makes you feel or think most abstract paintings are not real art to me personally , because abstract paintings usually neither make me feel or think, usually focusing obsessively on technique and avoiding any coherent content.

I usually draw a complete blank mentally and emotionally when I look at them. In 1979 the toefl guide бесплатно Houston Metropolitan Museum of Art displayed a triptych of 3 giant paintings they paid fifty thousand dollars for- three blank white canvasses entitled untitled. Then there was The incredible new artistic Genius with an I.Q. of lwtc 095 research 62 . And Rural. Coco the chimpanzee with his gala New York art exhibition. an lwtc paper elaborate prank played on the Snobbish American Art critics about a generation ago by to kill a mockingbird, research scientists in the field of primatology. Imagine how upset they were when he created one of psyc 095 research paper his ingenious masterpieces right before their eyes. ( My Source for analysis essay like elephants, this is the Time Life Science Library volume entitled The Primates. ) Art education has been almost completely removed from American Schools as a result of generations of lwtc psyc this kind of a mockingbird essay fabulous nonsense contributing to America's cultural illiteracy crisis. Now, the works of Leonardo Da Vinci, Michaelangelo, and other notables are being removed from 095 research paper, school libraries. After generations of controversy essays this, most American college graduates today cannot name even one living visual artist, abstract or realistic. There is lwtc psyc paper no way that mandating more math, requiring more reading, or scheduling more science will replace what we have lost as a culture.

But how do all these new Art media fit in with formal definitions of hills like white Art? Art ( noun ) [ Middle English, from Old French, from paper, Latin ars (stem art-). ] 1. Human effort to imitate, supplement, alter, or counteract the work of nature. Analysis Hills. 2. The conscious production or arrangement of sounds, colors, forms, movements, or other elements in a manner that affects the sense of beauty; specifically, the production of the beautiful in a graphic or plastic medium. 3. The product of these activities; human works of beauty, collectively. Lwtc Psyc 095 Research Paper. 4. High quality of conception or execution, as found in works of beauty; aesthetic value. 5. Any field or category of art, such as painting, music, ballet, or literature. 6. A non-scientific branch of learning; one of the liberal arts. 7. a. A system of principles and methods employed in the performances of a set of activities: the art of building. Essay White. b. A trade or craft that applies such a system of principles and methods: pursuing the baker's art.

8. A specific skill in adept performance, conceived as requiring the exercise of intuitive faculties that cannot be learned solely by study: the 095 research paper art of writing letters. 9. a. Controversy Essays. Usually plural. Psyc 095 Research. Artful devices; stratagems; tricks. b. Essay White Elephants. Artfulness; contrivance; cunning. Lwtc Psyc 095 Research Paper. 10. In printing: Illustrative material as distinguished from text. The American Heritage College Dictionary of the English Language. Special note: 21st century professional art critics are not repeating these mistakes of kerja history and are blessing and encouraging artists working in all styles and 095 research, mediums, even including digital media. A Mockingbird Compassion Essay. To them I say: Bravo! If only our world leaders could learn from the mistakes of the past as you have. Realistic Art : The Rebirth of Realism in the 21st Century.

More thoughts on realistic art yesterday and today by 095 research paper, the artist. Art History has entered a new era with the birth of Art Numrique, or digital art media in the 21st century. Artists never stop exploring with mediums. Artists have been developing techniques, experimenting with different tools since at least twenty- five thousand years ago, when the first artist picked up a charred stick and scratched a picture out on the wall of his cave. You'd think everything would have been tried by now, but it hasn't. Exploring new mediums this very day is just as exciting, just as full of freshness and newness as it ever was. The rebirth of realism was fueled by the advent of the digital era. School Graduation Essay. Now, for the first time in almost two centuries, an artist or illustrator could earn a decent living again with his realistic art.

This is historic. Realistic art is not going to go away, especially now that photography has truly merged with traditional realistic visual art. Photography comes from the Greek words meaning painting with light. Now with the advent of digital media the psyc capability of realistic art has become almost limitless, truly, painting with light. High School Graduation. The merger of all the world's art forms to realize the potential of motion pictures has come now to still realistic art media. This website for example, combines music, prose, poetry, photography and traditional realistic art media to create an experience beyond merely looking at realistic paintings. The twenty- first century is 095 research paper already seeing a new renaissance in the arts because of the world wide web. There has never been anything like it. Abstract art, computer art, photographic art, and realistic art are continuing to urban and rural be separate schools of art but are also blending to create exciting new horizons.

Although Digital art does offer completely new horizons to the artist in the 21st century it does not mean the end of our time honored art traditions. Psyc 095 Research Paper. Instead, it offers additional ways to high graduation keep these traditions and schools of psyc thought fresh and alive. More Personal Opinion Essays - on History, Myth, and Art by the artist. As a professional Illustrator I am called upon to essay life illustrate Legends of History and Mythology, Fact and Fantasy, the Sacred and lwtc paper, the Profane. In as much as I have endeavored to analysis like white elephants sort them out accordingly, it has become one of the more fascinating challenges I have ever faced. A brief essay by H. D. Johnson. As a professional Illustrator I am called upon to illustrate Legends of History and Mythology, Fact and Fantasy, the Sacred and the Profane.

In as much as I have endeavored to sort them out accordingly, it has become one of the more fascinating challenges I have ever faced. As I am ever mentioning, the advances of science are constantly giving us a clearer view of the past even causing Mythology to become History as in the case of the lwtc psyc paper Trojan Wars, the legendary Helen of resume kerja Troy, and lwtc psyc paper, the Trojan Horse. The archaeological excavations of Troy may prove the existence of the resume city of Troy and the Trojan War. Lwtc. They in no way make The Iliad a history book however, because of the un-provable spiritual and religious occurrences in the narrative. This sorting out of myth and resume, legend from lwtc psyc 095 research, history is no less difficult today because of their intertwining influences on one another. Consider as a more recent example of this problem, 20th century American President Theodore Roosevelt. He lives in contoh kerja history because of his heroic charge up San Juan hill with his legendary roughriders. When this story was printed in William Randolph Hearst's newspapers it catapulted him to fame and ushered him into the White House as a glorious American War Hero.

Everyone has seen the paintings and lwtc psyc paper, statues of Teddy Roosevelt and his roughriders dressed in khaki, mounted on horseback and charging fearlessly forward waving their swords. In reality, it was a group of Heroic African American Buffalo Soldiers who took San Juan Hill in spite of their heavy casualties. They did not wear khaki. They were not mounted on and rural life horseback, but were foot soldiers in the same dark blue uniforms of the U.S. cavalry as worn during the Indian Wars. Roosevelt's group actually took a nearby Hill against lwtc psyc 095 research paper light resistance but Hearst said that would not sell newspapers so he created an American Myth. So as we see, here is life something taught to children in schools as history is just not true at all, but yet, this myth shaped the true history of the world in the 20th century and beyond. If Teddy Roosevelt had not been elected president, neither would his nephew, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who provided very real and crucial leadership during the Great Depression and the Second World War. Lwtc Psyc Paper. Neither would Theodore Roosevelt have built the Panama Canal or established the conservation of our natural resources. So here we see Modern Myth not only influencing, but creating History. In reality, I perceive Theodore Roosevelt was a much greater president than history gives him credit for. Although it is true his kindness created the Teddy Bear, He really was also fit and trim, vigorous and preparation essay скачать, active, and a very tough president in his foreign policies.

He was instrumental in America's emergence as a world power. It is also true that he came from the upper upper class - old money in New York with a background of great wealth and limitless luxury and chose to psyc paper be an outdoorsman, a cowboy, and essay life, soldier. When he was given office, he embraced the concept of being a good Shepherd , of lwtc psyc 095 research paper seeking justice for all Americans - for analysis essay hills, this he was called a traitor to his class. Actually, he is the savior of his class. In my estimation, it is psyc 095 research paper President Theodore Roosevelt who is most responsible for the end of the then imminent threat of communist revolution or takeover in America. Throughout the early 20th century Socialist Revolutions were sweeping across the globe. Conditions for the workers in America were appalling. To Kill Compassion Essay. Child Labor, dangerous working conditions, ungodly long hours, degradation, and shockingly low pay.

When Karl Marx wrote his Communist Manifesto he never dreamed of an affluent MIDDLE class. A middle class that is psyc paper comfortable and savoring, life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness is not going to rise up in murderous anger and Storm the Bastille. What Global Communism could not contend with was America's happy and life, prosperous middle class. Theodore Roosevelt practically invented America's affluent middle class and eliminated the threat of Communist revolution in paper America. Although he was well loved, he was also hated and caught tremendous heat from the wealthy elite for sharing a small portion of their wealth with the common man. He saved them from a Second American Revolution by customizing capitalism to a kinder, gentler form than the horrors of the late 19th century.

Like General Winfield Scott, who won The American Civil War before it started, he defeated his foes with an idea. If the Robber Barons had had their way, their greed could well have caused America to fall to communism. Today, we have a new generation of robber barons but no Teddy to stand up for the little guys. I feel the true history about toefl guide optional essay бесплатно American President Theodore Roosevelt is lwtc psyc 095 research paper more amazing than the gun control controversy essays myth, but they are interwoven and inseparable, without the one, we would not have the other. Lwtc Psyc 095 Research Paper. He was both a glorious and a tragic figure. As a leader and graduation, as a man I believe he is badly underestimated. Lwtc Psyc 095 Research Paper. It was only when his beloved son, nicknamed Quinnykins died fighting in preparation guide with optional essay скачать World War One that he finally saw through all the myths and glamour to see the awful truth about war face on. He never got over his guilt for glorifying war to his son. We could all learn a lot from his experiences. War costs money. trillions of 095 research dollars.

War takes human lives. millions of analysis essay hills them! War makes children old, breaks parent's hearts, kills morale. Lwtc Psyc 095 Research. War destroys cities, art treasures, civilization! The first world war alone cost thirty million lives and 4 trillion dollars when adjusted to the buying power of modern U.S. Essay Urban And Rural Life. dollars. With the money at the time we could have built a three bedroom two bath house furnished with fine hardwood furniture on five acres of quality land for every family in The United States, Canada, Australia, England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, France, Belgium, Germany and 095 research, Russia. There would have been enough left to build and stock a first class library and a proper university in every town of 20,000 people or more. Out of the balance we could pay the salaries for life of 125,000 teachers and 125,000 nurses. The remaining balance could have bought 1919 Belgium and France and everything in them. I see History as an endless waltz. Three beats over and over.

War, Peace, and Revolution. Analysis Essay Hills Like White Elephants. Three beats over and over in an endless cycle of death, destruction, and regeneration. An Endless Waltz. and those who do not learn the lessons of history are doomed to psyc dance this deadly waltz and pay this Frightful price for analysis essay hills elephants, War. As modern technology such as jet aircraft and thermonuclear missles make the world smaller more dangerous everyday, tolerating each other's racial, social, religious differences living together in peace has now become key to the continued survival of mankind through the 21st century. H. D. Johnson worked as a scientific research consultant for 095 research paper, the University of Texas at San Antonio through the a mockingbird compassion 1970's under the guidance of top Texas Scientists illustrating reconstructions of Paleontology and Anthropology, oddly enough, he then worked under the guidance of the world's foremost Biblical Scholars for the Center for Judeo-Christian Studies. The two dramatically different experiences back to back caused him to wonder.

W ith respect to its great contributions to society, I think it is important to make a case that science is really affecting society more like a religion now than a field of study or a resource base of useful information. Many everyday people do not understand it at all and accept ALL its teachings on lwtc psyc paper faith. Science is supposed to be a tool and a path of study for the benefit of mankind and it is. I love Science and greatly appreciate it's benefits. I feel strongly that many scientists are heroes and deserve honorable mention and some truly deserve places of great honor in the hallowed halls of resume history. Breakthroughs in medical science are saving lives everyday in ways undreamed of 095 research paper just to name only one of so many valuable fields. Unfortunately some scientists have also been criminals or have brought things into the world we all know about that we would have been better off without such as thermonuclear weapons and pollution. School Speech Essay. I believe it has also become things it should never have become.

I shall briefly try to explain what I have seen that has made me feel that science is really affecting society more like a religion now than a field of psyc paper study. The major criticism of science with regards to The Bible has been that it requires a leap of faith to believe that GOD created the world, yet Science also has several leaps of faith of it's own. The Big Bang theory cannot be proven as world renowned cosmologist Steven Hawking has stated and, if it cannot be proven - believing in it - in resume kerja Hawking's own words requires a Leap of Faith . Until a theory is proven in a lab or in the field, it is lwtc psyc Philosophy, not Physics. EVOLUTION IS NOT A LAW OF SCIENCE. Darwin's Theory of Evolution was proposed in analysis white elephants 1859 and lwtc psyc 095 research paper, almost a hundred and essay hills, fifty years later it has still never achieved the status of lwtc a Law of Science . Gun Control Controversy. This is 095 research paper because of the Missing Link. Analysis Hills Elephants. There is no proof of a link between man and lwtc psyc 095 research paper, ape, hence the term The missing link. Contoh Resume Kerja. This blind faith in Evolution has been taught with religious dogmatism in the public schools for paper, generations and is still merely a theory . The Theory of Evolution, not the Law of toefl preparation guide with optional essay section Evolution is a mere UNPROVEN hypothesis, which the dictionary defines as a mere assumption or guess or a proposition, or a group of 095 research proposals, offered as an explanation for the occurrence of some specified group of phenomena. Yet this mere assumption or guess is to kill essay taught to children in public schools and young adults in colleges as if it HAD been proven beyond any doubt.

It was once a Law of Science that the atom was the irreducible particle of matter. At Alamogordo, New Mexico in 1945 the atom was split and the atomic bomb explosion in the desert blasted that Law of Science out of lwtc psyc 095 research paper existence. Now, if a Law of Science is so unreliable, I ask you, why is a mere theory like Evolution regarded so highly? Simple. It is about political control, not about speech truth. In 1912 A.D. a respectable geologist named Arthur S. Woodward and lwtc 095 research, a lawyer named Charles Dawson offered their new fossil discovery to the London Geological Society . Speech Essay. The artifacts included a thick portion of a human skull, a fragment of an ape-like jaw, some animal remains and some primitive stone tools. These items found in southern England in a place called Piltdown were estimated to be 500,000 years old. For 40 years the lwtc 095 research remains were accepted by the academic community as an important part of our evolutionary development. Piltdown Man was declared genuine and called the missing link between apes and to kill a mockingbird, man by important scientists of the time. Because of this newfound proof men of God were openly ridiculed as ignorant and paper, improperly educated.

Piltdown man was debunked four decades later by chemical tests proving the jaw and skull were not the to kill a mockingbird compassion essay same age, nor very old. It was a DELIBERATE fake. Paper. The bones had been chemically treated and thoroughly stained to make them appear prehistoric. Recognizable anatomical features were broken off and gun control essays, filed down. Why did this fraud by lawyer Charles Dawson fool the experts? For many reasons, but it was never seriously questioned because the scientists of the time were delighted by the way it validated their evolutionist beliefs.

For more details of the debunking read: The Piltdown Forgery by J.S. Weiner, the classic account of the most famous and psyc 095 research, successful hoax in science. The new and revised 2002 edition is commonly available. Today, the term Piltdown is a term of ridicule, used to label fraudulent research, but the impact on the lives of billions of resume kerja trusting people has had powerful political implications to this day. The prover proves what the thinker thinks and prejudice and psyc 095 research paper, political power seem more important than the truth or the consistent practice of the analysis essay white scientific method. Lwtc. If truth were important to them, they would use the scientific method when criticizing The Bible but they do not.

The scientific method requires going to the source. Yet for these famous disparagements they use the King James version instead of the original Hebrew. Translated in 1611 by non-Christian King James of urban life England for political reasons the K.J.V. is one of the Colossal monuments of English Prose. The King James Translation is not at paper, all accurate enough to use as the sole source for the defense of the Biblical Text. Consider this example: One of the to kill a mockingbird compassion greatest conflicts between Science and the Bible is the teaching that the world was created in six solar days of 24 hours each. The word yom in the source, the original Hebrew text, which was translated as Solar Day had 56 other choices. Modern English has more than 60,000 words.

Biblical Hebrew had 3,000. The average English vocabulary has 6,000. My favorite choice of the 095 research paper 56 other options: an unimaginably long but complete period of time harmonizes with science perfectly. Another choice is: time itself. So as we can see, going to the source and using the essay urban life Scientific Method brings very different results than not going to the source. Getting past this, the order in which life appeared was identical to the theory of evolution's claims in the Book of Genesis, leaving us to discuss the stars, the next main source of conflict between Science and psyc 095 research paper, the Bible. The Hebrew text says a swaddling band around the Earth dissolved, revealing the stars. The Prover proves what the thinker thinks. Here's a fun thought - What if GOD is in control of evolution? What if it's his hobby? What if there is essay and rural really no conflict between Science and paper, Religion?

The scientists cannot disprove the existence of a mockingbird compassion essay GOD any more than they can prove the Big Bang happened. Albert Einstein saw no conflict between science and religion. Like Galileo, Newton and other immortal greats of science before him, Einstein believed in GOD. Therefore, I present to you this idea: Modern Scientific beliefs are based upon a leap of faith in the big bang theory. It has become a belief system based on paper faith and therefore another form of gun control essays religion. Psyc 095 Research Paper. Scientists, like priests can explain their beliefs but the everyday people accept it all on faith. Scientists and doctors are the priests of this new religion, getting angry and crying heresy when anyone respectfully disagrees with them.

I once had one of preparation with my supervisors in the UT anthropology department explain to lwtc paper me for three hours on to kill a research expedition in mathematical terms how something could have ALWAYS existed, needing no beginning point. When we agreed that the math was good he then made a COLOSSAL leap of psyc faith, saying This proves the Universe has always existed and there is resume no GOD. In one second I countered; I could just as easily jump to the conclusion that this proves the existence of an eternal GOD. Lwtc Psyc. It is this jumping to conclusions or as Steven Hawking put it; making leaps of faith. that infuses philosophy with their physics. Then there is the infusion of politics; a perfect example is. The Myth of Carbon 14 dating: Educated people know that carbon 14 dating is totally irrelevant to the theory of to kill a mockingbird essay evolution.

Scientists never state that carbon 14 dating offers proof for the theory of evolution. Lwtc 095 Research Paper. Ignorant evolutionists, however, believe carbon 14 dating proves the theory of evolution, and stubbornly make that claim based on to kill compassion essay faith in what they were told in lwtc psyc 095 research our learning institutions. Hills. They were DELIBERATELY lied t o to gain POLITICAL POWER. I will explain; Carbon 14 dating is ONLY reliable for five thousand years as even its creator himself admitted in 1972. Carbon 14 or Radiocarbon Dating was first devised in 1949 by Dr. Lwtc 095 Research. Willard Libby. It is based on the rate of decay of carbon 14 or its half-life of 5730 years. This method offers reliable dates up to 5,000 years ago, but its results require correction since Dr.

Libby's belief that the levels of carbon-14 in the atmosphere were identical through the urban life ages has long since been disproved. Volcanoes and floods for example skew the results to the point where guesswork or leaps of faith are required even in dating organic material from historic times. Dr. Libby once expressed his shock when he found that radio carbon dates for human artifacts extended back only 5000 years and older dates were found to lwtc psyc be unreliable. [W.F.Libby, `Radiocarbon Dating', (Chicago, 1952), pp. 4-9] [CRSQ, 1972, 9:3, p. 157] By this time tens of thousands of toefl preparation guide with essay бесплатно C-14 dates had been published from psyc, tests in laboratories around the resume world. The textbooks and curriculums have yet to be revised. Instead, a MYTH is being taught in our schools. There are exciting new methods but wild guesses about the amount of psyc 095 research paper Carbon 14 in the atmosphere do not PROVE anything. Believers in GOD are called foolish and ignorant on essay hills like white elephants the political strength of this deliberate lie that Carbon 14 dating proves evolution. The gross disrespect and intolerance I have seen of certain members of the scientific and academic communities and their disciples toward anyone who disagrees with them is just as arrogant and abusive as racial, sexual, religious, or any other kind of prejudice. Here's a great example: Around 1910 in educated circles it was considered a mark of ignorance to believe the Biblical record.

There was little scientific evidence available then to support the Bible's claims and academic circles decided that was the end of the matter and as the decades moved on, the scientific and academic communities stubbornly ignored tidal waves of new SCIENTIFIC evidence. One excellent example is in what the Bible says about Abraham. In the early 20th century experts in the field of archaeology insisted that no civilization even existed in UR of the Chaldeans when the Bible records that Abraham lived there. On the basis that no evidence was currently available they declared Abraham a mythical character. 20th century evidence however has proven beyond any question the existence of an advanced civilization in UR of the Chaldeans during the 21st and 20th centuries B.C.-That was Abraham's day! Abraham's historicity is also confirmed by lwtc psyc 095 research, ancient inscriptions that bear the names of almost very town mentioned in Ch. 12-14 of Genesis and one even has his father's name. Archeological discoveries also show these towns were in existence until about 2,000 B.C.- but not later!

No longer can the Bible's critics get away with accusing us of being naive or foolish today when we believe what the gun control controversy essays Bible says about Abraham like they used to in the 20th century. This is critical to the belief systems of the world's great monotheistic religions Islam, Judaism and Christianity who all claim ascendancy from 095 research, Abraham. Why isn't this commonly taught in schools? Many scientific professionals openly abuse the authority of their positions to push their personal beliefs and ignore the to kill a mockingbird compassion essay confirmed scientific data to hold on to political power. Other Biblical confirmations from modern Archaeology include: Date and 095 research paper, manner of Jericho's fall, The exodus from Egypt, Major characters from the book of high graduation speech essay Daniel and many others. The SCIENTIFIC proof is all there waiting for you if you take the time to 095 research paper look it up.

Certain scientists and academics like to act like they know everything about the origins of the Earth. They don't. Many of our long taught ideas about planetary science have recently been proven completely wrong. Gun Control Controversy. Did you know that The Gas Giants on the outside of our solar system and the surface of the Planet Venus are DRASTICALLY different than what I was authoritatively taught about them as a boy in school? If they can't even tell us reliably how the 095 research paper solar system is today how can we rely on their ideas about its distant unobservable origins?

Yet even in the face of constantly changing SCIENTIFIC evidence most scientists are prone to UTTER DOGMATISM about their belief system. Science is supposed to be the sum of the best knowledge we have at the time - incomplete but always learning, always growing- but sometimes making serious mistakes. Why admit things were COMPLETELY wrong about planetary science within the a mockingbird essay solar system but NEVER MENTION the discovery of the unreliability of Carbon 14 dating or the discovery of archaeological evidence of Abraham being a historical figure? Simple. 095 Research. There is no danger to the foundation of the gun control essays belief system of this new religion or it's social and political power base. Mankind's only hope for continued survival on paper this planet is to learn to tolerate each others differences and live in peace with one another and in harmony with the environment. We're all in the same boat.

I do not believe that scientists should be exempt from urban life, this challenge to be tolerant, since they created the psyc 095 research very things that could well destroy us, such as thermonuclear weapons pollution. We all have a lot of work to do if we are to survive. Gun Control Controversy. I write this in paper defense of my faith and of the faiths of others which have been disparaged by these attacks on the sacred writings of the essay urban and rural world's great religions. If we're going to have a better world we're going to need both better leaders and better citizens. I personally believe that any belief in a higher power that must be answered to makes us better citizens than if we believed that we are the ultimate life form in the Universe. Sensuality, Violence, Morality, and their relationships with the Arts in 21st century American Society.

A case for the sacredness, purity, and beauty of the human form. A brief personal opinion essay by the artist. In our 21st century western society the disparity between the moral attitudes toward images and actions is paper amazing to me and I will examine in this article just how unfair they really have become and graduation, how political correctness is destroying our cultural heritage. In history, the Classical or Greco-Roman school of art is distinguished by the notion that the human form is the ultimate arena for paper, artistic expression. Unclothed figures were very common in Classical art and their culture was very comfortable with it in general. Toefl Optional Essay Section скачать. The Victorians in contrast have always stood out in my mind for their extreme prudishness and puritanicalism. They invented the tablecloth to lwtc 095 research paper prevent men from looking at a table's legs because they feared a table leg might make men think dirty thoughts. In spite of this, 19th century Victorian Art did allow some unclothed figures in contoh resume statues and lwtc psyc paper, paintings within certain bounds.

One of the principal attractions of fairy paintings for the Mid-Victorians was that they made possible highly realistic and erotic pictures of unclad females that would have otherwise been inadmissible. In the 20th century the toefl guide with optional section скачать бесплатно sensual revolution eliminated all of these traditional boundaries. I can see how the radical transformation of society by the total liberation of the subconscious was a bit too much for most people. In 21st century America however, the sight of a healthy partially unclad woman is taboo even as an innocent or religious depiction in the visual arts. I find this very interesting considering they way American society is so comfortable with violence- even children viewing extreme violence and gore on television and in motion pictures. It's terrible- disembowelments, exploding heads with splattering blood and psyc, guts, cut off arms and legs are deemed just fine for prime time children's viewing. But not to worry- the urban and rural profanity has been edited out. It seems too arbitrary to me. If the human body is torn apart or cut to pieces it is all right. Psyc Paper. Desecration of the essays human body is lwtc 095 research embraced or tolerated while appreciation or adoration even in art, is essays condemned. Psyc. I think the human form is sacred.

The average American child sees 20,000 violent deaths on television alone by the age of 10. I find it interesting that America feels that while tolerating and resume, even embracing extreme violence and greed that we are outraged at lwtc psyc, the sight of a beautiful young woman and compassion, the healthy uncovered female human body is a dirty, filthy thing to be ashamed of. I disagree. Since the source for this stigma about images of women is supposed to be the influence on psyc paper our society's laws by the sacred writings of the resume Judeo-Christians, I present to you the idea that this is not what these actually teach and they are also being treated as arbitrarily as a buffet line and will use illustrations. This attitude comes from Jesus' saying: If a man even look at a woman to lwtc 095 research paper lust after her, he has already committed adultery in his heart. By this same standard, just thinking about robbing the poor and the elderly is a sin, but in our society the act is considered a good business move. Don't misunderstand me, he taught that his commandment was to love one another, and basically that if you did that the ceremonial law was fulfilled. A more positive approach; if you love someone you won't murder them, falsely accuse them, etc., etc., If your heart is full of covetousness for controversy, a woman, a car or anything it is likely you will transgress this law in practice. Cheating, stealing, torture, and even murder in actual practice are taken in stride by our society, but seeing a woman's left bosom exposed is an outrage.

If the Ten Commandments are the standard we're going by as they say- Children are diligently taught to dishonor their parents on every family television show. It is taboo now- yes, it is actually considered wrong to portray a good father in American movies and television with only the rarest of exceptions. What is so terribly wrong about a portrayal of lwtc psyc a good dad? To me, this is an outrage. Stealing the essay life retirements of thousands of citizens who have worked hard all their lives is a good business move. What about thou shalt not murder? (Interestingly, it doesn't say#148; kill in lwtc psyc 095 research the original Hebrew text, but murder . ) I won't dwell on war here, but In Nazi Germany, six million people- Jews, Christians, and politicals were secretly murdered in the death camps, but in modern America, more than forty million baby boys and girls have been publicly murdered by willing citizens in abortion clinics and we call that a #147;choice. If history called that the Holocaust, how will history judge us?

Judeo-Christian morality, and that's what we're talking about here as the contoh most influential source of America's laws, ONLY justifies killing in self-defense. The child in the womb is defenseless. Again, I find this astonishing that we as a society can tolerate or even embrace such horrific and gruesome acts and then make such a big issue out of mild nudity in a painting or statue. Our society treats sacred writings like a buffet line choosing what is politically expedient to their cause and ignoring the lwtc psyc 095 research paper rest. I ONLY bring these up as an examples of the disparity between society's acceptance or tolerance of these violent and gruesome things I've mentioned to contrast them to the intolerance of the sight of a peaceful woman#146;s uncovered bosom celebrated for it's natural beauty in an innocent setting through the visual arts. Why is the sight of a naked man's chest considered to be decent and not a woman's? I think there is hills elephants a disparity here too in our attitude toward images. If the sight of lwtc psyc 095 research a woman's chest is an contoh resume outrage why is a man's permissible in ANY situation?

I am told certain works of Leonardo Da Vinci are pornographic now because of a nipple but I see romance novel covers in the grocery store with photos of naked men climbing in bedroom windows to commit adultery-why are those considered acceptable? If images are wrong because there is a chance a man might think of sex, why are romance novels written glorifying vile acts of sexual betrayal for NO OTHER REASON but dirty thoughts acceptable? Why are sleazy soap operas on television available to children day and night on broadcast television with sexually explicit scenes glorifying adultery acceptable? The answer is simple- its double standard. As a man, I believe that women are the brightest and loveliest of all of GOD's creations. 095 Research Paper. The sight of a healthy young partially uncovered girl on television even for a split second is considered a CRISIS and we hear public outrage? Implying the human body itself is filthy; Think about a mockingbird it.

Since the basis of this sight of a healthy human body taboo is lwtc psyc 095 research paper supposed to high graduation speech essay be of Judeo-Christian religious origin, I want to debunk this outrageous doctrine that the human body is filthy. In the Bible's first book, Genesis, it says, they were naked and were not ashamed and it teaches us that men and women were made in the image of GOD. To follow this line of reasoning, GOD would also have to be filthy. Case closed. I don't think what I perceive to be the psyc 095 research crowning achievement of GOD's creation, the woman - is high speech filthy, but is instead pure and beautiful. What I believe to psyc 095 research paper be GOD's greatest creation is considered filthy, and analysis essay hills like white elephants, not people's minds?

These outrageous boundaries chosen by our society are so poorly thought out that Michelangelo's statue of David is now deemed pornography and psyc 095 research, books with such immortal works of art are being removed from our public school libraries because of gun control controversy politically correct activists. I'm not suggesting that we remove these boundaries again like in the 1970's, Heaven forbid! Only that these newest ones are ill conceived and badly placed and I would personally prefer to psyc return to the traditional ones and preparation guide with section, avoid all these extremes. Copyright Law and the Visual Arts in the Computer Age. An introduction to the Millennial Copyright Act for Artists. A brief essay on 21st century legal boundaries, guidelines, and western art traditions by the artist. Our shared cultural heritage, great works of art, literature, music and drama, cinema, folk tales and fairy tales are all drawn upon again and again by the creators of new works. These works in lwtc psyc 095 research the public domain are both a catalyst and a wellspring for creativity and innovation. Since the public domain is speech essay a treasure trove of psyc 095 research information and resources to be used by future generations, many advocates are concerned that its stagnation through lawsuits will make it more and more difficult for future generations to find creative inspiration. All art is ultimately some form of analysis essay hills elephants imitation, even if you are an 095 research expressionist painter imitating an abstract vision in essay and rural life your own mind.

These new visual art creations of lwtc psyc paper mine take their inspiration in part from the realistic paintings of the old masters just as The Lord of the to kill Rings comes from psyc, The Ring of the analysis essay hills like white Nibelung and European folklore and West Side Story came from Romeo and Juliet, which was in turn inspired by Antony and Cleopatra. Much as Rubens copied Titian, I copy Waterhouse and so on. Over the last 300 years, ideas about female beauty have drastically changed and lwtc psyc 095 research, this has caused many of the most wonderful paintings of the old masters to seem 'ugly' to youthful modern audiences. For example, in the days of Peter Paul Rubens, being forty to sixty pounds over-weight was considered not only essay attractive, but was a status symbol. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder and psyc 095 research, tastes have clearly changed. I feel many classic themes need to be redone to preserve interest and appeal for future generations. This has happened many times before as artists like Aesop, The Brothers Grimm and Walt Disney have appropriated, modified, and re-defined elements of our culture to preserve it for gun control essays, future generations. The legality of psyc 095 research such use today depends on whether or not the source is protected by copyright law. You can draw or paint Shakespeare's fairies for example and publish them without permission but not more modern intellectual properties like characters from Star Wars or Mickey Mouse who holds the oldest copyright dating from 1928. Our shared cultural heritage, great works of art, literature, music and drama, cinema, folk tales and fairy tales are all drawn upon again and again by kerja, the creators of new works. Psyc Paper. These works in the public domain are both a catalyst and a wellspring for gun control controversy essays, creativity and lwtc 095 research, innovation.

Even though all my Realistic Paintings are legally new works and protected under copyright law their inspiration sometimes comes in life part from works in lwtc paper the public domain. The public domain is a space where intellectual property protection ( copyright ) does not apply. When copyrights and patents expire, innovations and creative works fall into the public domain. They may then be used by anyone without permission and without the payment of a licensing fee. My sources have been transformed so much in the creation of these new works of art that they would not violate an existing copyright even if they were so protected. High School Graduation. Publicly owned national parks are also considered by many to be public domain lands. Because of the psyc 095 research recent extensions of the terms of both copyrights and patents, and the privatization of lands and other resources owned by guide essay section скачать, the Federal Government, little is lwtc now entering the gun control controversy essays public domain. Look for new litigation and another time extension when Disney Corporation's Mickey Mouse copyright is due to expire in 2023. Where would Walt Disney be without the lwtc 095 research paper Brothers Grimm, Hans Christian Anderson, or Victor Hugo? Where would Aaron Copeland have been without American folk music? Thomas Nast's Santa Claus without traditional images of Father Christmas?

Picasso without African art? These are artists who made names for themselves and even fortunes through Public Domain appropriation, one and all. Some people are actually outraged that there are some intellectual properties that corporations do not own. They feel appropriation is only appropriate if a corporation does it. Corporations created by public domain appropriation, now are the most powerful force on Earth trying to put a stop to new things entering the urban and rural life public domain forever through lawsuits. The public domain is a space where intellectual property protection ( copyright ) does not apply.

It was set up by our founding fathers, who felt creativity needed to be rewarded on a personal level for a time, and when copyrights and patents expired, innovations and creative works would fall into the public domain. Since the public domain is a treasure trove of information and resources to be used by future generations, many advocates are concerned that its stagnation will make it more and 095 research, more difficult for future generations to find creative inspiration. This is least likely to high school graduation hurt the motion picture companies who produce new works in house granting themselves permission, but the music industry which brings in psyc 095 research artists and school graduation speech, new songs from the outside is being hit very hard already. If a new song release resembles an old one, now there is litigation. Visual Art Tradition and etiquette suggest the most influential pieced borrowed from the public domain should be mentioned at exhibits; these original new pieces Shown in my exhibits take their inspiration in lwtc psyc paper part from the paintings of toefl preparation with essay section скачать Waterhouse, Alma-Tadema, Moreau, Bouguereau, Leighton, Ingres, Moore, Parrish, Rackham and others.

They showcase some of my favorite models. As a student of fine art, copying is a great way to learn and create fine art, but as a professional illustrator things are very different. Works done by artists out of personal motivation belong to the artist who created them, and lwtc 095 research paper, they can sell licenses for divers forms of publication. The law is clear and simple regarding illustrations done for controversy, gainful employment. They are called work-for-hire under the law, and the rights to such works envisioned by the customer and specifically commissioned and paid for belong exclusively to the customer if it is a team project like a video game or motion picture and the artist must specifically ask permission to paper ever legally use their own work themselves. When the artist is the sole creator of the project as in book and high speech, magazine illustration for example, the artist retains the benefits of ownership unless they specifically sign them away.

My art is divided into two distinct groups; personal work partially copying the 095 research paper old masters and analysis essay like white elephants, professional illustration applying these lessons to create totally original works. I start more often with a specific written request. This is the exact OPPOSITE approach to creating a picture from copying something that's there. Research comes first. In the case of paper my illustration of the Spartan Warriors, there were no accurate sources in the public domain to copy correct Greek armor and weapons in combat poses from. Mostly I found images of effeminate men, wearing nothing but a robe over the shoulder and the wrong helmets.

Finding history books at the library with the accurate helmets, shield designs, weapons, and contoh resume kerja, armor was essential to get an accurate depiction of a Greek Hoplite. All the library had were stiff museum poses of anything, but I hit the research jackpot with some very simplistic flat line drawings of great authentic Greek shield designs. All the elements must be found, gathered and assembled to psyc 095 research paper create the toefl preparation with optional essay скачать бесплатно dramatic action scene the client wanted. Next comes the lwtc psyc paper layout. This is where the mathematics and geometric design come into urban and rural life the creative process. My wife, Virginia took a picture of psyc 095 research paper me nearly twenty years ago on a carpentry project with the heroic Jack Kirby like pose I was looking for mixed with the texture and high essay, feel of lwtc a Frank Frazetta or Norman Rockwell painting. Naturally, in these cases I go to great lengths to make sure that my work looks nothing whatsoever like it's various inspirations and sources except in flavor and contoh resume kerja, spirit.

Of course, the characteristic old master's painting feel to the background most of my illustrations have was requested, and the picture was to lwtc psyc paper have the urban life flavor of a Howard Pyle painting. With regards to use of lwtc psyc paper mechanical aids to create art: Did you know the old masters often traced? Leonardo Da Vinci used Camera Obscura which is a lens and a mirror set at analysis essay white elephants, an angle with parchment over it to trace onto. Michelangelo used a similar technique. The use of lwtc psyc Photography as a mechanical aid to resume kerja oil paintings and other forms of psyc paper realistic art came right away. This is not surprising since artists had been tracing from Camera Obscura for thousands of years. A Mockingbird Compassion. Famous Myths; Leonardo Da Vinci (1452- 1519 ) is often credited with the lwtc paper invention of Camera Obscura because he used it for his masterworks during the Renaissance and mentioned it in gun control controversy his notebooks, but this is simply not true. Similarly, Americans are credited with the camera, but it is also not true. Unlike the camera, the inventor and time of invention of Camera Obscura are unknown. Perhaps a crude form of it was known to the ancient Greeks, but there is no evidence for this. The mathematical precision and perfect anatomy of Greek art combined with their passionate love of science and mathematics is enough for many scholars.

The earliest description of Camera Obscura occurs in the great optical treatise of the Islamic scientist Al-Hazen who died at Cairo, Egypt in A.D. 1098. His Opticae Thesaurus ( Book of optics ) was rendered into Latin sometime during the 12th or 13th century. Al- Hazen honestly declares that he himself did not discover it, so we know it had to have come earlier. Think that makes it too quick and easy?

You'll find once you've finally got that outline done right you're a long, long, way from being finished in 095 research paper any medium. Toefl With Optional Essay. if these men who set the standard for realistic excellence used them, why shouldn't those who come after them be permitted? Simple, because this is one of the most carefully guarded secrets of the old masters and most people don't know very much about art history. When asked why I usually work from lwtc psyc, photos I like to a mockingbird re-tell Norman Rockwell's story about having to psyc 095 research paint a chicken: He set it up on a stump in a barn and goes to painting. The chicken moves it's head. He moves it back.

The chicken jumps down. He puts it back. He goes to paint. now the chicken decides to make a break for it. he chases it down clucking and essay urban, screaming and paper, puts it back. Now it knows he's going to have it for dinner and it goes completely berserk. The next day, he came in and set the chicken back, snapped it's picture, I have built up an gun control controversy essays enormous library of original 35 mm source photos for use in my realistic art. For decades I have been seeking out the most beautiful models and sometimes even their boyfriends and relatives, bringing them in for sessions into my photography studio.

The law with regards to copy rights on psyc paper analog photographs was simple - if you owned the negative you owned the rights. And Rural. This new instant copyright without filing law is lwtc 095 research very nice for photographers and artists working with their own photos, but not so good for free-hand drawings from the imagination and other non-photographic based forms of drawing and painting like cartoons. This is the main reason I use my own photographs. Using a strategy employed by J. W. Waterhouse, my wistful and graceful female models cannot be underestimated in their contribution to the stunning beauty and the potential for lasting appeal of my work. I am always make sure to both overpay them for their time and also the rights. I always get a written contract with the exception of my dearest friends and closest family who are always making cameo appearances. The models get amenities and services including portraits, portfolio photo sessions, photographic reprints and enlargements, leather presentation cases, webmaster services, original art, and reprints of their appearances in my drawings and paintings as well as above scale cash payments at the time of the shoot. With regards to using copyrighted material as a reference- When you have to paint a wombat you can't fake it- you need a picture! The law understands this and automatically grants provision - within reasonable limits; when using copyrighted sources the gun control source image must be so transformed in overall appearance in the translation as not to be what the law calls confusingly similar. If it's newer than 1928 you can bet it's probably copyrighted - they had to renew exactly 26 years later in those days or it would pass into the public domain, so it might not be copyrighted if it wasn't a big moneymaker.

Always be sure to check in these cases. If it's newer than 1999 under the psyc 095 research millennial copyright act the law says it is automatically copyrighted without even filing. Compassion. However, this new law is lwtc 095 research very tricky in it's wording because you must have already have filed with the copyright office in advance if you ever need to take legal action. Contoh Resume Kerja. They say it is copyrighted, but you cannot sue if it is not registered with the United States Library of Congress Office of Copyright. Because of this instant copyright without filing clause, there is a serious danger of lwtc psyc paper artists being made legally helpless and analysis essay, left open to being cheated out of their work. From an artist's standpoint, this is lwtc psyc 095 research a huge improvement over the original 14 year copyright term.

When properly interpreted and acted upon, by filing works with the United States Library of Congress Office of Copyright, these laws are GREAT for compassion essay, contemporary artists and their estates, who will hold rights for seventy years after the artist's death. The Constitutional Provision Respecting Copyright. The Congress shall have power. To promote the progress of Science and the useful arts, by securing for lwtc 095 research, limited times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive right to their respective Writings and Discoveries. United States Constitution Article I Section 8. ( This essay is not meant to take the place of expert legal council, but to introduce people to the basic concepts. ) On Art and Technology: When Seeing is analysis essay hills like elephants Not Believing. An essay dealing with mechanical aids to visual art from Camera Obscura to Computers. When the camera was finally made commercially available in the 1830's it exploded on the world scene and sent shockwaves through the art world as history had never seen before. Visual artists all over the world were suddenly put out of lwtc psyc 095 research work and resentment and outrage followed. A Mockingbird Essay. Suddenly much more realistic portraits could be had at a tiny fraction of the cost of a painting and delivered almost instantly. The art world would never be the same. When motion picture cameras were new, seeing was believing and human consciousness changed forever in the 20th century.

Sometimes even Terror and Panic came from the initial shock! In 1905 cinema patrons defecated and urinated in their seats as they broke each other's arms and lwtc 095 research, legs desperately fleeing for to kill compassion, their lives from lwtc psyc 095 research paper, a crowded theater to escape a train charging straight for them! . Analysis Hills. train footage filmed safely from a bridge with a camera lowered down on a rope. A modern cinema patron would not even feel uncomfortable. The Photograph and its manipulations have changed human consciousness and history. and will continue to do so in the future. The Camera has changed everything. The Camera of lwtc 095 research Today owes it's origin to the Camera Obscura, a light- tight box with a lens and a screen that receives an image. This device has been used by controversy essays, artists since ancient times to trace the projected image of whatever they set before it on a screen. Intrigued by the idea of producing a permanent light-formed image instead of psyc reproducing it by hand, a long line of inventors studied the problem and successively made contributions to the solution. Photography was neither discovered nor invented by any one man. It was the outcome of the essay hills elephants early observations of the psyc paper alchemists and chemists on the action of light, a subject that belongs strictly to the domain of photochemistry. Although the blackening of silver salts was known in 1565, it was not until 1727, when Johann Heinrich Shulze of Germany used a mixture of silver nitrate and chalk under stenciled letters, that it was definitely recognized that this darkening action was caused by light and essay urban and rural life, not by heat.

In the years that followed experiments with silver nitrate on leather and wood were successful. Lwtc. In 1817 J. Nicephore Niepce first tried photography with silver nitrate and paper. Toefl Preparation Optional. In 1826, L.J.M. Daguerre, a painter who had experimented with silver salts approached him and formed a partnership. Daguerre discovered accidentally that that the effect produced by exposing an iodized silver plate in a camera would result in an image if the plate were fumed with mercury vapor. The Daguerreotype process was a complete success. These chemical processes would be improved again and again until the advent of the digital camera we know today. The attitude that Photography was not art and was a purely mechanical process requiring no talent whatsoever was put forth with great force and hostility in psyc 095 research paper an attempt to get people to refrain from choosing it for their portraits instead of paintings.

This is a typical reaction to new technology, when Pastels were first invented they were dismissed as a child#146;s plaything rather than a viable art medium. These attacks on new technology are not limited to the arts of course. Essay Urban. When the Wright brothers were making history at Kitty hawk with the paper first manned airplane their detractors said: If man were meant to fly, he'd have been born with wings. This kind of negativity is and rural life just human nature to some kinds of people. Photography came into being through an artistic, not a scientific urge. Daguerre was an artist, a scene painter whose illusionistic diorama was a landmark in Paris long before his name was connected with photography. 095 Research Paper. Critics were merciless as usual, with scathing condemnations of the media. However, in the hands of a sensitive artist, photography quickly showed it's artistic possibilities. David Octavious Hill, a Scottish Painter invented the camera set up and the pose as we know them today in the 1840's and was the first of a mockingbird a new breed of master photographic artists. Photography was here to stay. Diverse forms of retouching techniques followed both by accident and by design and took the medium to new levels of artistic excellence.

Now, more than a century and a half later only an uneducated or blindly hateful person would say Photography is not an art form. Of course we've all seen our share of awful pictures with the heads cut off taken by amateur photographers but we've also seen the psyc paper work of studio masters like the great portrait photographers from Hollywood in preparation guide optional section бесплатно the 1930's and forties. Anyone who has tried to create such a sophisticated studio photograph realizes quickly that this is lwtc 095 research paper a very difficult art form to master even if a trained orangutan can take a bad snapshot with an instant camera made for toefl guide optional скачать бесплатно, children. The use of lwtc psyc Photography as a mechanical aid to traditional oil paintings and other forms of realistic art came right away. This is not surprising since artists had been tracing from toefl with optional скачать, Camera Obscura for thousands of years.

Famous Myths; Leonardo Da Vinci ( 1452-1519 ) is often credited with the invention of Camera Obscura because he used it for his masterworks during the Renaissance and mentioned it in lwtc 095 research his notebooks, but this is simply not true. Similarly, Americans are credited with the camera, but it is also not true. Origins: Unlike the camera, the inventor and time of invention of Camera Obscura are unknown. Perhaps a crude form of it was known to the ancient Greeks, but there is no material evidence to substantiate such a point of view. The mathematical precision and essay urban, perfect anatomy of Greek art combined with their passionate love of science and mathematics is testimony enough for lwtc, many scholars. The earliest clear description of Camera Obscura occurs in the great optical treatise of the Islamic scientist Al-Hazen who died at toefl with бесплатно, Cairo, Egypt in A.D. Psyc 095 Research Paper. 1098. Contoh Resume Kerja. His Opticae Thesaurus ( Book of optics ) was rendered into Latin sometime during the 12th or 13th century by an unknown translator.

Al- Hazen honestly declares that he himself did not discover it, so we know from this it had to lwtc have been masterminded before A.D. 1098. In the early 1600's the telescope came into school speech use and Camera Obscura spared viewers the lwtc 095 research harmful effects of gazing directly into the sun. I regret, but that we must acknowledge the fact that almost every art medium throughout the ages has been corrupted. Essay Life. In the 2nd century, the Roman emperor Hadrian had the head of his lunatic predecessor Nero removed from psyc 095 research paper, a statue and replaced by that of his favorite. Much later in 1539, Holbein painted a glamorous and flattering portrait of Anne of Cleves for Henry VIII. When the essay urban life future queen arrived in England, King Henry met the surprisingly less than dazzling and glamorous Anne. His disappointment made history. Our modern society certainly can't claim t he honor nor take the blame of being the first to manipulate art forms.

By the 21st century instead of the traditional assistants and 095 research paper, apprentices, artists employed overhead transparency projectors, opaque projectors, artographs, light tables, slide projectors, color photocopying. and suddenly, computers and controversy essays, image editing software, which brings us to some very compelling controversies regarding these modern imaging technologies and their impact on various media and further changes to human consciousness. For example: The integrity of Photography as evidence in our courts of law stood for many decades until it was shattered by the digital manipulation of photographs and new standards needed to be introduced. Websites sold peeks at 095 research paper, photos of celebrities' heads pasted onto photos of wild women in scandalous poses for a mockingbird compassion essay, all the world to see- but advertised as real celebrity pix. Lwtc Paper. Scandal rocked television and other news media when digitally altered photographs were being passed off as reliable evidence of important news stories. On a positive note, no one was threatened by how this technology enabled motion pictures to do epic things they could only dream of before. They were supposed to be make-believe images appearing real! A golden era in gun control essays special effects cinema ensued. Then, this powerful digital imaging technology, like the camera, fell into the hands of the common man through computer programs like Adobe Photoshop.

A new culture of skepticism had abandoned the age old adage; seeing is believing Photography has never told the whole truth, just parts of it. Photography is also an art form and psyc 095 research, therefore rightfully susceptible to creative alterations. In addition, the advancement of digital manipulation technology cannot be undone or halted. I believe that we must recognize that this digital technology exists on a gigantic-scale, and will never go away. Gun Control Controversy Essays. Therefore, I suggest that digitally altered photos are distinct from traditional photography, and should be treated as such. Contrasting views: anti-manipulation advocates#146; fear a negative impact of digital manipulation in a court of law, and pro-manipulation advocates say that we must wake up to the fact that for for decades pictures have not been reliable evidence in 095 research court and speech, that any good lawyer will attempt to discredit photographic evidence. In response to claims that photos should always tell the truth, the pro-manipulation camp would say that photos have never told the lwtc psyc unvarnished truth. A camera shows, and has always only shown, a fraction of essay hills elephants reality, and even then what we see is taken out of context or even fabricated. Photography from its onset has been subjected to modifications.

In 1839, the lwtc psyc 095 research paper Frenchman Louis-Jacques Daguerre patented the daguerreotype, or what could be called the first picture. Simply explained, the daguerreotype combined the usage of the camera obscura and silver iodide to produce a permanent image on a copper plate. A very exciting innovation, Daguerre boasted of it, With this technique, without any knowledge of gun control chemistry or physics, one will be able to make in a few minutes the most detailed views (Photography). Almost immediately, the daguerreotype, especially daguerreotype portraits, became immensely popular. Its popularity, of course, can be attributed to its novelty, but also because people believed the lwtc psyc 095 research daguerreotype produced a more real image than a painting. School Essay. The general attitude toward the daguerreotype was that it could create images more realistically because there was no artist to lwtc paper interpret and modify it in his own style. Opponents of Digital Manipulation insist Photography should always represent the truth, asserting Photography's first and foremost function is to portray reality. Many assume that photographs have never been manipulated, and essay, that this recent outbreak in digital technology damages the integrity of photography.

Without delay, anti-manipulation proponents demanded an end to all dishonest photography, as it severely misleads the public. Also, they view digital manipulation as a purely mechanical process, with no talent or skill involved. Furthermore, anti-manipulation proponents fear manipulated photos might acquit murderers or rapists in courts of law. The thought that photography had replaced painting abounded. As if photography needed to absolve itself from its #145;original sin#146;--of having brought about the death of painting, a movement known as pictorialism thrived around 1890-1914, the Art Nouveau period. Proponents of pictorialism primarily set out to gain the recognition of photography as an art rather than just a mechanical process. The pictorialists fashioned bizarre and paper, oddly focused images in order to prove photography was indeed a creative art. It was here that such concepts as shading and essays, enhancing during development appeared. Because of these new shadings and angles, it can be said that Art Nouveau saw the dawn of Photo manipulation.

So the 095 research paper manipulation of photography actually began early in the the 20th century. In 1982 there was outrage over with essay section скачать бесплатно, the manipulation of the Great Pyramids on the cover of National Geographic but the Genie was out of the bottle. There was no going back. 095 Research Paper. In the 1990#146;s Computer programs like Adobe Photoshop began to be available to the general public. Now, even someone with little or no talent could produce delightful works. On the other hand, sensitive artists could produce masterpieces on a scale undreamed of.

It seems clear that using this technology to willfully falsify photographs for slanderous, scandalous, or persuasive ends is morally wrong, but what about using it to toefl preparation guide essay section бесплатно create obvious unreality that looks real or Fantastical Realism in lwtc psyc paper art as in pictures of fairies or mythic creatures? What is realism? Realism in Art and literature has always meant that the artist attempts to represent persons, scenes, things, and facts as they are, life as it is. The word is used in many senses- as opposed to romanticism, to conventionalism, to gun control essays sentimentalism, to idealism and to psyc 095 research imaginative treatment. Analysis Hills. Sometimes it is a term of praise, and sometimes it is a term of derision. During the 19th and 20th centuries the use of the word realism often implied that the details brought out were of an unpleasant, sordid, obscene, or generally offensive character. Psyc Paper. Even the greatest illustrators of the day were ridiculed.

Realism is commonly applied to school graduation speech essay a 19th century school of writers and 095 research, artists; but realism, in it's prime and proper sense, is gun control controversy as old as art and literature themselves, but in the hands of it's most notorious exponents, it quickly degenerated into a connotation of the more sinister features of realism. Many 20th century contemporary realists and artists working in the Photo Realism style were trained in an educational system openly hostile or dismissive to Classical realism and psyc paper, art tradition and were only taught the tenets of Abstraction and Expressionism. As a result many of these artists are more akin to the abstract and hills elephants, expressionist schools than the Classical Realism of the ancient Greeks, which adored beauty and nature. Contemporary Realism does not embrace the math and design of the Classical school but does not frown on beauty. Psyc 095 Research. Photo Realism only strives to kerja look as much like a photograph as possible and sometimes the results are shocking or disturbing. Other times they are mundane and so ordinary as to be boring.

They often deliberately decline to select subjects from the natural, beautiful, and harmonious and more especially, depict ugly things and bring out lwtc psyc paper, details of an unsavory sort for social and political purposes. The real mission of Photo-realism is not to record everyday life like a Norman Rockwell painting, but to essay hills like elephants expose the unconscious way we look at and accept photographs. By the 20th century realism had spread to lwtc psyc paper nearly all nations- realistic elements combined with those of Impressionism, Symbolism, and other movements. Fantastic Realism on the other hand, is high school essay born of these movements and tied to them in style and technique, but prefers to psyc explore subjects that are strange or strikingly unusual rather than scenes of gun control controversy essays everyday life or objects. It is often bizarre in 095 research form, conception and appearance and urban and rural life, even wondrous in 095 research paper its beauty. Sometimes macabre and grotesque, it is rarely boring like the other forms of Realism in visual art so often are. Fantastic Realism can be completely apart from reality, yet appearing to be quite real.

It is essay urban life versatile in that it can combine with or be a part of the Classical, Contemporary or Photo-realistic schools or stand as a style unique unto itself. I combine elements from all of these schools of lwtc 095 research Realism and then take it a step further by also combining a wide variety of media from traditional oil paintings to to kill a mockingbird compassion today's cutting edge digital media in my exhibits. Naturally, the psyc darker side human nature shows itself again with condemnation of new schools of compassion essay expression, and new art media and technology. Like the 095 research photographers before them, digital artists wanted the recognition of their work as an art rather than just a mechanical process. Essay Urban Life. Unlike the snapshot camera or an abstract painting, a trained chimp or orangutan cannot do it: it takes the psyc 095 research same visionary and eye to hand skills as any traditional art media to do it well. Since the times of the ancient Greeks, Art History records a relentless quest for Realism and artistic excellence. The masters of each generation strove to perfect their craft, then passed on the torch of their accumulated knowledge and skill to the next generation.

The accomplishments and technological breakthroughs of analysis essay hills elephants one generation have often set new standards of excellence for the next. Howard David Johnson. Click on the Icons to visit the Thematic Galleries of 095 research paper Realistic Art: Including Mythology of Greece, Rome, Asia, The Norsemen, and toefl with бесплатно, more. Fairy and Dragon legends, The King Arthur Legends, The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, Paintings of Ancient Egypt and Babylon, Ancient Mystic Religious texts, History of War from The Ancient Spartans and the Trojan Horse to World War Two, The World's Great Religions, and Art Technique and design. Art Lessons, Celtic Mythology Pencil Techniques display some full size art.

T he various galleries linked to by the thumbnail icons in his web show many examples of psyc paper HDJ's Realistic Art, and are grouped by theme rather than media. There are also sample illustrations from his upcoming books on a mockingbird essay Celtic Myth and Legend and World Myth Legend. Since boyhood he has passionately copied the old masters. To create his work, he usually starts with a thematic concept followed by a rough realistic pencil sketch, then followed by his photography, often traveling to find suitable scenes and locations and then working in lwtc psyc 095 research paper his Photography studio with live models from his sketches. Urban And Rural. He then assembles a variety of elements which are realistic and original. As a boy he dedicated his life to art in lwtc psyc paper 1960. From 1965- 1999 he used xeroxes and tracings to resume kerja make his preliminary photo montages.

This is patterned after the lwtc 095 research manner used by Maxfield Parrish and other 19th century notables. Hills White. Beginning with a tracing, he then draws or paints from these complex original Computer Photo Montages. Many of these are on 095 research paper display on this web and contoh kerja, slated for future completion in a variety of traditional realistic art media. As this happens, the finished work is substituted in the exhibit. H is 095 research paper favorite medium for traditional realistic art is colored pencil because of the high speed and low expense, and gun control, people began expressing difficulty in lwtc psyc 095 research paper telling his colored pencil drawing from photographs in the early 1980's.

In the last 35 plus years he has also mastered Oils, Pastels, Acrylics, Watercolors, Inks, Scratchboard, Gouache, Photography, and most recently, the highly controversial digital media . Analysis Like White. As a commercial illustrator Johnson has not only lwtc 095 research used the computer to create art but has been involved in the development and marketing of computer imaging software for Adobe Photoshop. Working in a realistic style inspired by classic illustrators H D J is deeply rooted and analysis hills like, grounded in the Greco-Roman artistic tradition, Feeling that especially with realistic art - that the human form is the ultimate arena for lwtc paper, artistic expression. School Graduation. His lifelong dream came true when his Traditional Realistic Art was exhibited in the British Museum in London England in 1996. Lwtc 095 Research. His mixed media has also been displayed in gun control essays numerous other ones since such as the Metropolitan Museum of psyc Art. Having achieved international acclaim as a traditional visual artist he discovered digital media in 1999.

Because of his passion for realistic art and photography he elected to embrace it and joyfully be a part of this historic era in the visual arts as a 21st century realistic artist . C omputers have not diminished his love of working in traditional media. He loves to draw portraits from essay, his own photographs as well as using them to create illustrations in lwtc various media. Click on 'The Messenger' above for more on to kill H D J's other public domain sources influences he uses to lwtc psyc 095 research create his realistic art. S ince 1972 when he began his career as a scientific illustrator for the University of essay like white elephants Texas he has earned his living illustrating all kinds of books, magazines, CD covers, and lwtc psyc paper, all sorts of games, greeting cards, calendars, portraits, murals and the like with his contemporary realistic art. H D J's Realistic Art has appeared in every major bookstore chain and fantasy gaming shop in The United States and has been used in educational texts and magazines all over the world. This site features realistic paintings pictures for the twenty-first Century including some oil paintings, as well as lots of other exciting realistic art media such as colored pencil drawings, pastel paintings, acrylic paintings, gouache paintings, water color paintings, and pencil drawings, and compassion essay, also featuring studio, field, aerial photography, digital painting and lwtc paper, photo-montage and all these media mixed in an assortment of experimental combinations. Essay Urban And Rural. Working in a wide variety of psyc 095 research paper media to create his realistic art he offers his customers a host of payment and to kill a mockingbird compassion, product options. Lwtc Psyc 095 Research Paper. He delivers the rights to these custom made copyright free realistic illustrations and old fashioned customer service when he does work-for-hire.

H e accepts select commissions to guide optional essay section скачать paint custom oil paintings with down payments starting at only one thousand dollars. Other media, like colored pencils or digital are of course far less expensive. He grants permission for most educational purposes simply for lwtc psyc, asking courteously. To use his existing realistic art he offers licenses for publishing starting as low as $100.00 U S D .