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oop essay I have tried to sort OOP's advantages. English For Class 10! Enjoy. Advantages of OOP. Object-Oriented Programming has the following advantages over conventional approaches: OOP provides a clear modular structure for in cold blood, programs which makes it good for defining abstract datatypes where implementation details are hidden and the unit has a clearly defined interface. OOP makes it easy to maintain and english for class, modify existing code as new objects can be created with small differences to existing ones. OOP provides a good framework for websites, code libraries where supplied software components can be easily adapted and english essays for class 10, modified by the programmer. This is particularly useful for developing graphical user interfaces.
Concepts of developed countries help developing countries essay OOP: Objects Classes Data Abstraction and Encapsulation Inheritance Polymorphism. Objects are the essays 10 basic run-time entities in an object-oriented system. Programming problem is analyzed in terms of cover letter for engineering objects and nature of communication between them. When a program is executed, objects interact with each other by sending messages. Different objects can also interact with each other without knowing the details of their data or code. A class is a collection of objects of similar type.
Once a class is defined, any number of objects can be created which belong to that class. Data Abstraction and Encapsulation. Abstraction refers to the act of english for class representing essential features without including the background details or explanations. Essay! Classes use the concept of abstraction and are defined as a list of abstract attributes. Storing data and functions in a single unit (class) is english for class 10, encapsulation.
Data cannot be accessible to the outside world and only those functions which are stored in the class can access it. Inheritance is the process by which objects can acquire the properties of developed countries developing objects of other class. In OOP, inheritance provides reusability, like, adding additional features to an existing class without modifying it. Essays For Class 10! This is achieved by deriving a new class from the existing one. Purpose Essay! The new class will have combined features of both the classes.
Polymorphism means the ability to take more than one form. An operation may exhibit different behaviors in different instances. The behavior depends on the data types used in the operation. Polymorphism is extensively used in implementing Inheritance. Moritz: I started programming in Perl and then some C. I made heavy use of multi-dimensional arrays to store large amounts of data. 10! Then when I came to pak relations Python, PHP and essays, Java I really learned to like the OOP approach to programming, making it more easily to handle data, not having to developed help essay remember the structure of multidimensional arrays.
Now, I just had to think what disadvantages OOP has. What do you think? Let's distinguish two sorts of disadvantages: OO is often provided through such imperfect vehicles as C++ and Java [discuss their defects]; and OO is english essays for class, inapplicable because [explain many mismatches]. Peter Newman 24 January 2005: To me, the main problem with OO is that some implementations (eg; C++) make it way too complicated and obscure. For example, a description of OO in C++ will be loaded with terms like:- classes instances nodes inheritance operator overloading type safety encapsulation polymorphism dynamic binding constructors/destructors. What the hell is all that crap? And who cares?
And just because the useful bits seem to you to be irrelevant, doesn't make them irrelevant. However, note that I am no C++ fan. Larry Smith In all honesty and speaking as someone who used C++ professionally for internship cover letter with, years -- C++ has passed the point of essays for class 10 usefulness. I have heard people say that Ada was a language designed by a committee to prove that not all programming languages can be implemented, it is internship letter with for engineering, overly complex and difficult to understand, yet it is a model of simplicity and essays, elegance compared to C++, which in its latest incarnation also demonstrates the pristine and readable qualities of APL. Frankly, C++ should have its head cut off and its head and body buried at countries essay a crossroad with garlic in essays its mouth and a stake though its heart. That probably won't kill it, but it should slow it down somewhat. Nowadays I would never start a project in written by filipino C++ that I ever thought I'd need to finish. I'd rather do it in essays for class something simpler and essay, more portable. English Essays 10! Like assembler.
But it would be useful to identify exactly what the useful bits of OO were. On Indo Pak Relations! And thus, in what situations is an OO approach likely to be better/easier than a procedural/command-oriented approach. Many Tcl-ers think that the main characteristic of object orientation is only the parameter order in english for class 10 commands call. So they show such examples. Object orientation is much more [missing word?] (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object-oriented_programming ). At the very least, object oriented languages need inheritance, polymorphism, encapsulation, abstraction and written, objects. Larry Smith Tk is object-oriented. Tcl is not, though it could easily have been if JO had thought about it when he defined the core language. He did not, he was writing an interpreter that could be easily bolted into programs to provide extension scriptability, and Tcl is for class, still one of the most useful tools for that ever written. It was never intended to actually become a programming language in its own right. SYStems I strongly disagree, first learning Tcl helped me understand OOP better, in my opinion the most important aspects of OOP (a paradigm in which I strongly believe) are. The abstraction that everything is an essays by filipino Object (1) And that objects serve two purposes; they know things and do things (2)
And Tcl probably beats any language on aspect no. 1 and can do aspect no. Essays 10! 2. You see in Tcl everything is a command, there is not any other statement, OOP suggest that work is english, done by sending messages to objects, objects that knows things and can do things, parameter to methods are other objects, anyway, in essays for class any OOP this is not entirely true, as any OOP have syntax to create objects or do special things, Tcl doesn't even have that, every statement is a command, and cover with for engineering, all command play by the same rules, no one is special, I believe this make the abstraction stronger. As for the knowing and doing, aspect, well, set knows stuff, and puts do stuff, actually puts also knows many things, so its not really about the knowing, its about learning, as a system executes, some object are able to learn stuff, and english essays for class, modifie it are work gets done on them, so as a principle Tcl have commands like set which learn stuff, the nasty bit is that proc, the most popular command for essay, creating command dynamically doesn't create such command. English 10! But the many OO systems for still would, and they just create commands, everything is a command. So it doesn't really matter how many OO systems Tcl have, since the only interface Tcl knows, is the command, you see everything is a command!
LV And Tk's widgets have encapsulation and english essays, objects. Polymorphism is not always an accepted OO attribute requirement - the Java folk have argued over english essays, that aspect quite some years. The main difference between procedural and object oriented programming is that the functional programmer try to split function and data (data structures). But object oriented programmers think in objects that hold data and functions (methods) together in one structure. And, in essays websites fact, that's what Tk's widgets do. Because Tcl is string based it also has a kind of for class polymorphism. For example Tk: It looks like object oriented but indeed Tk does not supports inheritance (anyways Tix - try it). English Websites! So button and label have no parent class and you can not derive a new widget type directly from for class 10 button. It is quite unproductive to compare Tcl as procedural language with C++ or Java as object oriented language.
Because actually you will compare dynamic and static typed languages. On Indo! The right way is to compare Tcl with Smalltalk, Ruby, Scheme, Python, Self or Tcl object oriented extensions like XOTcl. Quite impressive is the effort to english for class 10 compare Tcl's low level API for essays written, C and english essays 10, the Java Tcl-Interpreter. The Java API is much more clear and better for understanding (http://tcljava.sourceforge.net/docs/TclJavaLib/contents.htm ) . There is for conclusion essay, example one polymorph method Interpreter.setResult() that accepts int, String, double and TclObject. Of course one can write programs without object orientation and you can write bad object oriented programs (Antipattern: Blob, Spagheti Code, Ghost class) especially if one comes from procedural programming background. Another interesting thing is that many systems written in procedural languages build their own object oriented systems for structure programs; for example Tix in Tcl or GTK in C. So object orientation is not only the languages but the way that one structures programs or thinks about english for class 10, programming (mental work).
Also many Tcl programmers use different methods (arrays, namespaces) for build their own pseudo-object oriented systems. Websites! I said pseudo because they often do not support all the object oriented characteristics and english for class, are ad hoc solutions for should developing countries, one application (reinvent the wheel). That makes it hard for analysis for another programmer. Lars H: Two quick remarks. 10! Perhaps someone wants to try refuting them? A common (but this is biased, as I base this mostly on programs I've encountered as a scientist) reason programmers choose e.g. Essays! C++ instead of C seems to be not that they want OOP, but that they want some way of 10 structuring their data. Should Developing Essay! In most cases, they could just as easily have obtained their goal by using Tcl library functions for lists! OOP (to me as a non-practitioner) seems to work very well for unary operations (methods affect or query the state of one object: their own), but what about binary operations? If some operation requires the data stored in two objects, then it seems the methods for one will need to peek into english for class the other.
Doing so destroys the encapsulation and implicit polymorphism; it becomes necessary to enumerate the cases that are supported. Thus when binary operations are common, OOP fares no better than procedural programming; perhaps even worse, as the situation is less transparent. Potrzebie, about 2: I think that one important part of OOP is to make binary operations into internship cover letter with two unary operations. A method should never have to access the variables of another type of object. You hide the data behind methods. When an oven gets a pizza put into english for class it, it shouldn't set the written baked variable of the 10 pizza to countries essay 1, but rather call the for class 10 setTemperature method of the english pizza, and english 10, that method in the pizza class makes the developed help developing essay pizza baked. For Class! Then you can put other stuff into the oven as long as they have a setTemperature method, and with inheritance, you don't need to write a separate method for all classes.
You can inherit e.g. from the thingsThatArentAffectedByTemperatureChange class or thingsThatGetBaked class. This abstraction makes it more work to write OOP, but the award is modularity. NEM 13Sept2005 : I've no idea how old these comments are, (Lars H: They date back to January 2005.) but I thought I'd reply to them anyway. Internship Letter With No Experience! With regards to point 1, I actually think that people use C++ as a way of structuring code rather than data. C does offer some reasonable ways of structuring data (structs, arrays, unions), but it offers essentially no method of organising functions.
Point 2 is really dependent on the OO system being used, e.g. CLOS and some other systems use multi-methods that can handle those sorts of essays 10 operations. Honestly, though, I don't see it as much of a problem. These discussions about OOP as a whole are less than pointless. Object oriented programming is a cluster concept, which means a whole bunch of purpose conclusion different things to different people. If we want a productive discussion, let's instead discuss individual features that have been associated with different OO models, and for class 10, see which ones make sense for Tcl programmers. I think the most important concepts associated with OOP (by no means exclusively) are: Ad-hoc polymorphism : essentially being able to specialise an operation by type. Higher-order collections : bundling up a load of functions/procedures into internship with a data structure to be passed around. Message-passing components : structuring a program as a collection of interpreters that respond to messages. You can argue about essays, these definitions, but I think these are the blood essay core useful properties that OO systems tend to have.
Tcl already supports these properties to a greater or lesser degree. Ad-hoc polymorphism is supported reasonably well by english essays 10, namespace ensembles, which are really not too different from objects. Namespaces can also be seen as higher-order data structures, although I'd prefer to use lambda terms and dicts for this. Ensembles also work ok as message-passing components, and have the advantage that most people already structure their code in terms of namespaces, so adding a [namespace ensemble create] will go a long way towards this in 8.5. Structuring code as components that respond to messages is nice in that it scales up -- those same messages can easily be sent over a network, for instance. Note that in this discussion I didn't mention encapsulation or inheritance . By encapsulation, I mean using objects to package up mutable state with operations for manipulating that state. I personally find that it is better to try and avoid using mutable state at all, if possible, and essays websites, so encapsulation is less of a concern (although still important at english for class 10 times). Written By Filipino! Inheritance is english essays for class 10, a much-abused element of for engineering OO, and one that I think I could also live without.
Overall, OO can be a useful way of essays structuring parts of english essays a program. Particularly, I think objects as message-passing components make quite a deal of sense as a means of structuring programs in the large (i.e., major components/packages). I think higher-order functions and data structures with value semantics make better sense for english for class, programming in the small. A lot of good work has gone into improving Tcl's namespace mechanisms in cover no experience 8.5, and 10, I think this is heading in the right direction. I think getting more support for functional programming techniques into Tcl would be my next aim (e.g. lambdas, maybe more support for conclusion essay, tail-recursion and higher-order functions). CMcC: Advantages : good at representing objects. Disadvantages : not good at representing non-objects. (Next week's topic: advantages and disadvantages of hammers ) KPV: Personally I find oops code can get very hard to read, even well written code. The problem is inheritance and polymorphism.
The problem with inheritance is that if you want to figure out what a given method does, you have to search up the class hierarchy until you find its definition. In a way, inheritance is worse than goto --at least with goto the destination is somewhere in your function but with inheritance it could be in essays for class 10 any number of files. In Cold Blood Essay Thesis! The problem with polymorphism means that simply finding a function with the right name is not sufficient, you have to also look at the parameters. Trying to english essays 10 read code without a good class browser is almost impossible. It IS impossible once you get into virtual functions where the developed countries should countries essay decision of which function gets called is only determined at runtime. For example, suppose you're trying to english for class figure out the following line of code obj.Write(a); . Which function is being called? Well, if you're lucky and you know what type obj is then you probably only have about 10 different versions of in cold blood thesis Write() to pick from english 10 depending upon what a is.
If you're unlucky and obj can be of several types, then you got a lot of work cut out for you. Two other oops features that can get really hard to developed countries developing read are operator overloading (fortunately it's rarely used), and class properties that look like simple variable assignment but are really complex function calls. My very first exposure to english essays for class oops programming was as an intern at Sun Labs (just downstairs from the tcl team) where my job was to instrument C++ kernel code to by filipino determine where time was being spent. Kernel programming is hard enough, but the real bear was just trying to read the well-written but deeply inherited code. Understanding OO code is another task than understanding procedural code.
I think it is one of the english for class biggest problems for OO beginners. OO allows one to should help developing think abstractly. (to disregard unnecessary details) If you see obj.Write(a) you must only know that the obj is written. How the method works is english, not interesting in this moment. In OO-programming, method names are not only symbols but should also tell something about the method itself. The best method names are given by Smalltalk programmers. English Essays! I suppose a Smalltalker will be write writeToStdout to be more precise. You will need also good tools for browsing OO-code. Eclipse, Smalltalk IDEs, and XOTclIDE have special views to figure out the english essays for class class hierarchy, method callers and senders.
They support discovering non-linear program flow. Understanding OO-Systems means, first of all, to understand the abstractions of classes and their interfaces. At that level you do not have to delve into every method call. Indeed some facts may be better figured out at the runtime. Purpose Conclusion! Therefore debuggers in OO-Systems are normal and english essays for class, important tools not only for debugging but also for discovering the developed should help developing countries system. Smalltalk programmer will say: Let Smalltalk tell you. ET - Finding this page was like discovering that I really did see the naked emperor.
With so much evangelical fervor it's difficult to trust your own mind. KPV - well done. Anyhow, I think that objects, if designed very well, can be very useful to english essays the object's users. Essay Thesis! However, writing and maintaining these little beasts is a different animal entirely. And code alone is rarely enough to make an object reusable. A good manual entry and tutorial is a must. I would think that a truly reusable object is 10x more costly to essays write than a stand alone object. I think the english essays worst aspect is essays, that so much happens indirectly. It's been my experience that indirectness at more than one level deep is almost impossible for a normal mind to follow. Also, the temptation to use all the tricks in the bag make something like C++ a nightmare. The best example is the standard template library.
To be totally orthogonal (meaning works with everything) some of this code is the most obscure stuff I've every seen. And slow as a dog too. I never could create a list of developed countries should developing countries essay non-primitive objects, and I read a book on the subject. I gave up and crafted my own list code. WHD -- When it comes to objects, I find that encapsulation is almost always good; abstraction is almost always good; polymorphism is almost always good; inheritance is almost always confusing, and isn't needed nearly as often as people tend to think, except in C++ where it's the only way to get polymorphism. DKF: Agreed. Inheritance is only really useful when you really have a good grip on english for class, the type hierarchy. But Tcl's a typeless language. SYStems I would like to elaborate something, I do agree that Tcl is typless in the sense that it doesn't check on types, and have no recognition of the concept called types, I think (thanks to NEM) it's important to separate Tcl the language from countries should countries Tcl the command collection (tcl libraries), Tcl the essays language only parses scripts and commands, the command do all the in cold blood work, most commands if not all recognize types, it just that Tcl the language won't help them, as far as Tcl care all input for commands are strings and all output (within the script, i.e returned values) is also a string, it's the 10 command that will get picky about what the strings say or look like, a string may have to look like a number, be a var name recognized by an available set command (is this case I would prefer to call it service not command). But then one could argue that Tcl would complain if the blood essay first word (or more, NEM kinda hinted to english me that Tcls new feature ensemble allow commands to be more than one Tcl word) is not a command name, which can be argued to be a type! Lars H: Combining these two remarks, I wonder how much good is polymorphism in a typeless language?
WHD: Polymorphism is essay pak relations, usually very very good. It's just that in a language like Tcl it's trivial to get, so you don't think of it as polymorphism. Lars H: Hmm. So polymorphism is not an advantage of OOP over procedural programming in Tcl, then. English Essays! Nice to cover with no experience have that sorted out. NEM: Yes and no.
Depends on what you think polymorphism is. If it is having a single function which can operate on any data regardless of type (i.e. the function makes no assumptions about the format of what it is passed) then Tcl is good at this (for instance, it is trivial to define a polymorphic map or filter in Tcl). However, what OO allows is what is sometimes referred to english for class 10 as ad-hoc polymorphism -- having different versions of an cover with no experience for engineering identically named function to operate on different types of english for class 10 arguments. As Tcl has no notion of type that could be used to choose the appropriate function, then OO mechanisms provide a means of achieving this via dynamic dispatch. i.e. you ask one of the authors arguments (usually the first) which version to go with. The argument(s) must of essays for class course know which version to choose, and this is often done by making them into commands (+namespace). (Another way would be to add explicit type constructor patterns to each value and use something like algebraic pattern matching: slower, but quite cool). This isn't the only thing that OO extensions provide, as pointed out above, but it is a useful mechanism on occassion. Ad-hoc polymorphism is also related to sub-typing, and there is a connection with ensembles, as TOOT demonstrates.
VK I once saw quite interesting and funny related message from cover no experience Steve Fink on p5p: . But it is one of the essays things that bothers me the most about OO code. A real OO programmer, when given the task of implementing a heart, would take a real heart and essay on indo pak relations, coat a meter thick layer of plaster around it, then drill holes down to the aorta and stick tubes in essays for class 10 them. Essays Written Authors! He would tell you how great it is that you can replace the buried heart with a vacuum cleaner or a rooster without changing anything else. When you complain about the tubes sticking out of your chest and the wheelbarrow you need to english essays for class 10 push your new heart around in, he'd quickly point out that the wheelbarrow is really an advantage because you can haul around all kinds of other great things at almost no added burden. CL holds the prejudice that Aspect Oriented Programming, rather than being an advance, is best viewed merely as a remedy to some of OO's faults.
Sarnold One big problem with OOPy Tcl is that your program may leak memory. Essay On Indo Pak Relations! Of course even a simple procedural program may do that, but it is annoying. What tool could help OO programs not to leak memory? Unfortunately, making objects local variables (i.e. destroying them automatically when their handles are out of scope) isn't sufficient for the general case. (see BOOP for an example of local handles) 2005-09-12 I have worked on a project in which I first failed to operate without OO. I couldn't handle some of for class my data into arrays and purpose essay, with namespaces. English! So I decided to move to snit my buggy bad-designed app. But after having done quite the job with snit, I decided that I had to come back to non-OO style and did the in cold blood essay thesis job.
I feel now comfortable with lists and arrays. I don't know if I will have to do OO with Tcl in the future, but I would prefer not to do so, even if I admit snit, Xotcl and english 10, [megawidgets] are powerful! [Satish V Itagi, RWF India] Objects are of reference type and essay, occupy only 4 bytes space in english essays for class stack that points to huge data referred from essays memory heap and thus contribute to stop stack overflow. English! Thus OOP makes best use of very large primary memory (RAM) of today's computers ( 1 GB). Essays Websites! Execution of objects will be faster as they make best use multitasking and multiprogramming capabilities of Operating Systems like Windows. Objects in software can help simulate real life like behavior by programs. It makes your conceptualise business logic in english essays for class clear terms and code them irrespective of that part of code that interacts with user. Essays Websites! OOP makes best use of N-Tier architecture and enterprise-level application coding is made easy. SEH -- This article: Scripting Languages as a Step in Evolution of english essays Very high Level Languages nicely sums up the issues of scripting vs. object-oriented approaches IMO. I think it highlights the chief weakness of the OO approach, namely: Premature abstraction of a problem into classes is developed countries essay, similar in its long term destructive effects to english for class 10 premature optimization.
There are other quotable gems, like a restatement of Greenspun's Tenth Law: any sufficiently complicated and purpose conclusion essay, large C-based programming project usually reimplements 50 to 80% of TCL interpreter.
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English essays for junior classes
The Beauty Myth: How Images of for class Beauty Are Used against Women essay. The Beauty Myth , written in 1991 by American writer, critic and political activist Naomi Wolf, became a bestseller and was regarded by The New York Times as one of the 20 th century most important books. One of the pioneers of the liberal feminism movement, Naomi Wolf described in the book her viewing of the women’s role in modern society and how females are oppressed with beauty impositions in essay pak relations the modern society. She expressed her ideas in essays for class 10 six following sections: work, culture, religion, sex, hunger, and violence. Naomi Wolf exposes beauty myth as an organized political construct that is originated by the man-dominated society in order to counteract the feminist movement. Naomi Wolf claims that all the beauty standards that are vigorously promoted by the modern mass media and different fashion and body care industries are aimed to manipulate women’s consciousness by making them feel less-worth and by transferring their attention from the serious issues to the obsession with their physical appearance. It must be said that the book was written more than twenty years ago. Although lots of should help countries essay points implied in the book are relevant to the current situation, many things have changed since 1991. Regarding this, the author may sometimes sound quite radical or uncompromising and essays, some issues she exposes may seem to be inaccurate or a bit exaggerated.
Women’s and men’s roles in the social and political life have always been classified. Essays Written By Filipino Authors? Since very childhood, girls and boys get general notions about behavior, clothing style and even occupation choice that are appropriate for their gender. During the for class 10 socialization period children also get ideas about the gender-based roles. They use their parents and surrounding as role models of the behavior they are expected to perform. The traditions and other social influences are a significant factor that directs which occupations and pak relations, lifestyle may be chosen by representatives of each gender. For example, since the childhood boys are encouraged to study technology and take up different active sports when girls are cheered to perform more passive activities like piano playing or studying literature. For a long time women have been referred to as the weak gender.
It was related to their physical strength as well as to the intellectual capacities of women. That is essays, why they had limited access to formal education and politics. English? Females were supposed to give birth to children and english essays for class 10, perform different house holding activities, while men were intended to do physically tough work. Such qualities as passivity and domesticity were regarded as the most significant and honorable ones in any woman in the past. Women were also regarded to be more sensitive and emotionally vulnerable, that is why a man was regarded as a protector.
The change of the general concept of letter a society led to the gender roles shifting. During the last decades Western women exercise the same rights as men, specifically, they have a right to vote and to participate in politics. Women also get a possibility to try themselves in such fields as medicine, law, education and economics that were totally or partly inaccessible for english 10, them before. However, men are still viewed more powerful and strong and therefore more suitable to cover no experience perform a role of english for class 10 a leader. Under scrutiny it appears that the vast majority of should help developing countries politicians and top managers are represented by males. It is mostly caused by the remnants of gender prejudices and stereotypes that were common for a men-dominated society. Due to having more physical strength, man is believed to be an inborn leader, while woman is supposed to obey to him.
It can be observed on different levels of society, for example, in essays 10 a family unit or in a governmental structure. In a modern Western society, family and house holding duties and responsibilities are usually shared by both partners and are not assigned only to a woman. But still, such routine and repetitive activities as cleaning, laundry, cooking are performed mostly by females. Women now take part in important decision making process and on indo, family problems are usually solved in essays for class a way of finding a consensus and taking into consideration both partners’ points of view. Men participate more in cover for engineering the process of children breeding, though women take the largest part of responsibilities related to child care. Emancipation and industrialization brought to women more opportunities. Nevertheless, Naomi Wolf claims that despite equal professional opportunities, women still do not feel free nowadays because of the beauty impositions and different kinds of prejudices concerning female gender. Such impositions are a great challenge to the woman’s personal development and professional recognition.
It cannot be denied that every woman in the working or political world is judged not only by her qualifications, work skills and professional competence, but also by her physical appearance. Beautiful women may not be perceived seriously, while women that are regarded unattractive may be discriminated. Besides, pretty women are more likely to be sexually harassed in their workplace, and are often seen not as victims but as provocateurs. In spite of the fact that today women are protected by essays 10 law against any kind of websites discrimination that is essays for class, based on a gender factor or physical appearance, different gender-based constructs may become serious obstacles for females. According to Naomi Wolf, after the female liberation movement had demolished traditional notions about the family unit and especially women’s role in the society, new requirements that demanded high standards of physical appearance were imposed on women. Recently, beauty impositions have replaced convictions related to domesticity, motherhood and passivity.
And the image of an ideal housewife was replaced by the image of a skinny beauty queen. Developed Countries Should Developing Countries? Beauty myth incorporates inevitably into everyday life as endlessly produced “beautiful” images of how really beautiful women should look may be seen in advertisements, films and magazines. The author believes that such vigorous beauty propaganda is a reaction of man-dominated society on the feminist movement as it threatened to destabilize the institutions on which the patriarchal society was based. She says that all these impositions are used as an english for class effective device of women’s consciousness manipulation by making females obsessed with their physical appearance and preventing them from taking part in internship cover letter for engineering the social and political life of the for class 10 country. She regards a beauty myth as a “newly invented” gender-based form of oppression and refers it to the unrealistic and unnatural beauty standards that are imposed on women nowadays. Naomi Wolf states that Western women became obsessed with their physical appearance, age and clothes under the authors pressure of the for class 10 mass media, which dictates to websites women since their childhood how they should look. It is english for class, hard to disagree with the point that the abundance of such images may affect badly women’s self-esteem and distorts the women’s perception of themselves. Many women are prone to comparing themselves with the images of top models they see on the screen or in the magazines. As a result, females may feel depressed and less worth as they believe they are unbeautiful or different because their bodies and skin are not so perfect.
She also claims that beauty myth purposes to divide women and break links between generations by developed countries help essay making them compete with each other. Sex propaganda and using women sexuality as an effective marketing technique are other issues described in the book. Images of pretty slim-figured girls are widely used in the advertising industry and mass media in order to strike attention of the audience. It also motivates women to for class buy things via making them feel unbeautiful and outmoded and therefore forcing them to essay buy cosmetic products and fashion items that would improve their look. Women are also persuaded by the advertisements that beauty is a key to good life and 10, success. Females, especially the purpose ones that suffer from lack of confidence and low self-esteem, are prone to succumb to such type of message and believe they may change their whole life just by changing their appearance. We can observe how the revaluation of the women’s role in the society caused the english for class transformation of the advertisement concepts. When a woman dedicated herself to essays websites the house holding activities and essays 10, was mostly regarded as a housewife, industries were oriented on purpose essay, the producing and promoting different items for house management. Right after women got equal rights with men and various possibilities to english approve themselves in cover with different professional domains, companies and advertisements started promoting different beauty products and english essays, services.
Thanks to beauty myth propaganda, numerous cosmetic companies, fashion industries, surgery clinics, and other beauty services and essays written by filipino authors, companies are making million-dollar business. Naomi Wolf rejects the gender-based belief about the male polygamy and female monogamy by using Darwin’s and essays for class, other scientists’ investigations. She mentions some matriarchal Goddess religions where women were leaders, held all the political and economic power and used to have more than one partner. The convictions about the female monogamy originated from the fact that female are more prone than men to building a strong emotional bond with one partner. The author also rejects the idea of modern society system that is based on the sexual selection. Still, it is difficult to object the fact that physical appearance and age counts more for women than for man.
In the modern society men are mostly judged by essay on indo their financial status and for class, professional achievements, while women are evaluated by blood thesis their beauty. That is why couples where a girl is much younger than a man are quite common for english, our society. In the chapter about hunger Naomi Wolf describes the adverse effects that the essay beauty obsession may have on women’s health. Apart from essays for class, psychological disorders, it may also cause physical problems. Needless to say, in essay an ill-inspired attempt to have a perfect look, many women resort to such radical actions as surgery and diets that are harmful to english essays 10 their health and result in eating disorders, fear of gaining weight, and anorexic and bulimic conditions. “Terror of aging” has become one more popular tendency in the advertising and cosmetic production industry. Consequently, many women have started being afraid of aging as they are convinced that becoming elder they are less attractive. Under pressure of propaganda of eternal youth women come to different methods like surgery, cosmetic products in order to prevent natural process of aging. It must be said that young generation is the most vulnerable category of population as their consciousness is not stable yet, that is why young girls are prone to exurb all the information they get from mass media. In Cold Blood Thesis? It is well-known that teenage girls usually suffer from low self-esteem and lack of confidence during the period of transition from english for class, a little girl to a woman. At this age their bodies are transforming and they need time to authors get used to for class it.
Young girls often challenge themselves with different diets in order to lose weight and become as slim as girls from the TV advertisements. It often results in anorexic and bulimic conditions, which may have serious consequences for any girl’s health in general and for her future fertility abilities in particular. In The Beauty Myth Naomi Wolf is trying to prove that today’s beauty standards are just culturally imposed physical standards that have neither historical nor biological background. Wolf’s rejection of the idea of universal and purpose essay, changeless beauty concept is quite reasonable. Essays 10? There are numerous evidences that beauty standards have changed throughout the centuries so that the websites notions about beauty and english essays 10, ugliness differ due to english essays various nations or tribes. For Class? The author reasonably compares beauty to the currency system. Cover Letter With For Engineering? It fluctuates similarly to changing patterns of the gold standard, which depends on different political and economical factors.
The author compares modern beauty impositions with medieval German device of torture called Iron Maiden to english for class demonstrate how all these beauty concepts and by filipino authors, impositions are used nowadays to immobilize women. She claims that modern women are forced out to keep to the unique requirements of how to look and what to wear regardless their physical peculiarities and personal preferences. However, it must be said that nowadays the new concept of natural beauty is for class, promoted that persuade women to love them as they are. Besides, there exist different styles of outfits and looks which are oriented on different types of women. Developed Should Countries? Modern women have more freedom in choosing which clothes or hairstyle to english for class 10 wear regarding their physical appearance peculiarities and their tastes.
To conclude, gender-based roles became more flexible during the last decades. Written Authors? Consequently, women got more opportunities to participate actively in the social and political life of society. Essays 10? However, Naomi Wolf believes that all that feminism brought to women is now challenged by the new concept of beauty myth. In spite of proclaimed equal rights and recognition of the women’s intelligence and power, females are subject to rising beauty demands. According to the author, the english essays websites beauty myth was generated by the men-dominated society in order to weaken females physically and mentally and to reduce their participation in the political and economical world. Although the beauty myth existed in english 10 the society before, the one that is promoted in modern time is internship for engineering, much more powerful and frustrating.
The idea that all these beauty impositions have created some kind of pressure on english, women in modern society is sound, however, it is debatable whether it is a well-organized and written, intentional political construct aimed to immobilize women or not. Wolf’s anger is directed against english essays for class 10 companies and purpose, industries that are promoting feminine insecurity, which is fair and understandable given the fact that beauty obsession may have some adverse effects for both mental and psychological health.
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English essays for junior classes
A Guide for Solving Your Lab Math Problems. Math is an important part of lab life, from making solutions to calculating protein concentrations, and miscalculations can cause mayhem for your experiments. Therefore it is essays 10, important that your math is right, or you could spend weeks trying to figure out what’s going wrong in countries help countries your experiments. I was hopeless at remembering how to essays do even simple calculations, so I kept a cheat sheet in the back of my lab book that I referred to on a regular basis. I want to make your life easier too, and that’s why I’ve put together some of the key (in my opinion) calculations important for a molecular biologist. The routine chore that everyone avoids until absolutely necessary. There are three key equations that you will need in order to make up simple solutions. 1. Calculating moles. If you need to by filipino make up a solution where you know the desired concentration (molarity) and volume then you first need to calculate the number of moles in that solution.
The calculation for for class 10, this is simple: That is: moles = Molarity (concentration in molar) x volume ( in blood essay litres) 2. Once you’ve got the english for class, moles you can then work out the mass required using the following equation: Where: mass (in grams) = moles x molecular weight ( in g mol -1 ). 3. The two above equations will enable you to make solutions from scratch but what if you want to make a solution where you already have a stock solution of a higher concentration? Diluting stock solutions is really simple and can be achieve using the following calculation: V 1 =Volume of stock solution required. Letter With For Engineering. C 1 =Concentration of stock solution. V 2 =Volume of final solution. C 2 =Concentration of final solution. So in for class 10 the case where we need to find the internship no experience for engineering, volume required from for class 10, our stock solution we rearrange the equation so that: The units aren’t important except that the volumes and concentrations must be in the same units. Calculating concentrations of developed help essay DNA or RNA. The simplest way to calculate DNA or RNA concentration is using a spectrophotometer. For a 1 cm path length (this is the width of the cuvette – most cuvettes have a standard width of english 10 1 cm) dsDNA at a concentration of 50 µg/mL and RNA at should help developing countries essay a concentration of 40 µg/mL has an optical density of 1 at 260nm.
This means by essays for class 10, measuring the optical density of a solution of DNA or RNA at 260nm we can determine the concentration in our sample using the following calculations: ds DNA concentration (in µg/mL) = 50 x OD 260 x dilution factor. RNA concentration (in µg/mL) = 40 x OD 260 x dilution factor. The dilution factor is the dilution of the solution measured compared to the ‘stock’ solution of your DNA. It’s a good idea to dilute your DNA for measuring the OD for several reasons; firstly so you don’t use up all of your stock; secondly DNA can be quite viscous at high concentrations which can introduce pipetting errors and written, finally you want to aim for essays for class, a OD between 0.1 and 1 in order to get the most accurate quantitation (this is the linear range for most spectrophotometers). As 260nm is in the UV spectrum you need to use a specialised UV cuvette. As much as we all like to feel like perfectionists in essays websites the lab, solutions of DNA and RNA contain contaminants that can affect the optical density at 260nm. English Essays For Class. Therefore it’s a good idea to test the purpose, purity of your DNA and for class, RNA by measuring for contaminants. The main contaminant of internship letter no experience extracted DNA and RNA is proteins, which also absorb at 280nm. To check for the presence of contaminating proteins in your sample simply measure the OD at 280 nm and calculate the ratio of essays for class OD 260 /OD 280 . Pure DNA should have a ratio of. 2 while pure RNA should have a ratio of.
There are other contaminates which can also be measured at different optical densities to determine how pure your sample is, but proteins tend to be the main culprits. Sometimes it’s easy to forget how many picograms are in a gram so it is handy to developed countries should essay have a simple reference to check just to make sure. English Essays 10. The easiest way to remember, is letter with no experience for engineering, that the difference between most units is 10 3 ; or just check out the handy table below: So in essays for class order to convert picograms to grams you need to multiply by should help developing countries, 10 -12 . For an 10, optimal ligation reaction you want a 1:1 ratio of insert to vector, although alternative ratios can be tested (such as 1:3, and 3:1). To calculate the amount of essay on indo pak relations insert required for a 1:1 ratio use the following equation: (kb insert / kb vector) x ng of vector = ng insert required. Calculating cell concentration using a haemocytometer. Seeding cells at the correct density is important for consistency of experiments as well as to maintain a healthy stock of cells. Calculating cell concentration is simple with the use of a haemocytometer. Simply apply the cell solution to the haemocytometer and count the number of cell in a 1mm x 1mm square (made up of 5?5 small squares).
Then use the following calculation: number of cells x dilution factor x 10 4 = Cells per mL. I would usually use a dilution of 1:1 with trypan blue (a vital stain that will stain any dead cells blue), but you can alter this depending on how concentrated your sample is. You want to count roughly between 40 and 70 cells in order to english essays 10 get an accurate reading. For a quick reference guide download and written, print out my simple cheat sheet here to ensure all the necessary calculations are easy at hand. HI, if I have v1=1ug x 10ul/500ug/ml wht will my final si unit be for the answer? sorry I#8217;m just slow in remembering simple maths protocols. Thanks a lot for the above information much helpful.
Thank you for summarizing the essays for class 10, important calculations. Could you also add the calculation to websites determine the english essays for class, number of molecules in a sample of DNA (plasmid and PCR)? I also noticed a typo in the article above under #8220;Calculating cell concentration using a haemocytometer#8221;. I think that the should help developing essay, formula should read 10^4, where as you have it as 10^-4.
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ezra maize resume Forum Class for english essays for class 10, July 18, 2004. SHORT COMMENTARY ON EZRA. The First Return and Rebuilding under Zerubbabel (chaps. 1-6)
These chapters, besides telling the history of the period, must also have encouraged Ezra's original readers in their temple worship. As they read about the rebuilding process they would have been made aware of the great personal sacrifices the Jews had made in constructing the temple. This would have encouraged them to participate more fully in the temple activities and to be closely related to God as were some of their forefathers. A. The proclamation of Cyrus (1:1-4) 1:1. Developed Countries Help? Cyrus, the king of the extensive Persian realm (see the english map The Persian Empire), drafted a proclamation that allowed the Israelites to return to their land and rebuild their temple. Cyrus made the proclamation in developed should help countries his first year (538 B.C.).
This was the first year of his reign over Babylon, but he had been king over other territories for more than 20 years. Essays For Class? He had been in power since 559 when he became the king of Anshan. Then he became king of Medo-Persia about 550 B.C. He conquered Babylon in October 539, and became the king of Babylon, a title of honor denoting the highest position in the civilized world. As is evidenced from Cyrus' attitude concerning the God of Israel (whom he did not worship) he was not a true believer in Yahweh. Essay? Cyrus' concern was to establish strong buffer states around his empire which would be loyal to him.
Also by having his subject peoples resettled in their own countries he hoped to have the english essays gods in various parts of his empire praying for him to his gods Bel and Nebo. The famous Cyrus Cylinder (538 B.C.), which records his capture of english essays websites Babylon and essays for class 10 his program of repatriating his subject peoples in their homelands, includes this statement: May all the thesis gods whom I have resettled in english their sacred cities daily ask Bel and Nebo for purpose, a long life for me. The fulfilling of Jeremiah's words (Jer. 29:10; cf. Jer.
25:11-12) was totally God's doing. 10? Seventy years of conclusion essay Jewish captivity in Babylon were about to end. The first deportation of Jews to Babylon was in 605 B.C. Cyrus' decree in 538 was 67 years later. By the time the people returned and for class built the altar in 536, 70 years were almost up. The edict came about because the LORD moved the heart of Cyrus. The Hebrew words translated moved the heart (also trans. stirred [up] the spirit) were a favorite expression of essays biblical writers in the post-exilic period (Ezra 1:5; 1 Chron. 5:26; 2 Chron. 21:16, aroused; 36:22; Jer.
51:11; Hag. 1:14). This shows the sovereign hand of God behind the events of history. 1:2-3. Cyrus said that Yahweh, the God of english for class heaven, had appointed him to build a temple. . . at blood thesis Jerusalem. Part of this decree is recorded in 2 Chronicles 36:23. Essays For Class 10? Also the decree was filed in Ecbatana, where Darius I found it about 520-518 B.C. (Ezra 6:1-5). God had promised the Jewish remnant that He would raise up Cyrus as His servant to restore the written by filipino authors fortunes of His people (Isa. 44:28; 45:1, 13). Under the Holy Spirit's guidance, the essays for class Prophet Isaiah referred to Cyrus by essays written authors name about 150 years before the king made his decree.
Josephus wrote that Cyrus was shown the prophecy in Isaiah 44:28 and wanted to fulfill it (The Antiquities of the Jews 11.1.1). The God of heaven is a title of God used 9 times in Ezra (1:2; 5:11-12; 6:9-10; 7:12, 21. 23 (twice--more than in any other Bible book--and 10 times in other exilic and post-exilic books (2 Chron. 36:23; Neh. 1:4-5; 2:4, 20; Dan. 2:18-19, 28, 37. 44). Elsewhere in the Old Testament that phrase occurs only four times (Gen. 24:3. 7; Ps.
136:26; Jonah 1:9). English Essays For Class? It points to God's sovereignty. He is the One who made heaven (Gen. 14:19, 22; 2 Chron. 2:12; Ps. 115:15), who is in heaven (Deut. 4:39; 1 Kings 8:30, 39, 43, 49; Eccl. 5:2), and who reigns from His throne in essay heaven (lsa. 66:1).
Though Cyrus was a monarch over an extensive empire, Yahweh is far greater for He rules from heaven. The emphasis in Ezra 1:2-3 on the temple sets the tone for this and other post-exilic books. The temple was of utmost importance in the life of the english for class people of Israel. Without the temple there could be no sacrificial system, which was the nation's lifeblood in its relationship to God. The God of heaven (v.
2) is also the God of Israel who Cyrus said was in Jerusalem. 1:4. Cyrus' edict also instructed the english essays returnees' neighbors in Persia to give them the essays 10 equivalent of money (silver and developed help gold), material goods. English For Class 10? . . livestock, and freewill offerings (cf. v. 6). The freewill offerings were for the temple and the other gifts were for the people themselves. Essays Written By Filipino? This is reminiscent of the Exodus from Egypt when God miraculously took the nation out of bondage and had the english essays 10 Egyptians aid them with gifts of silver, gold, and clothing (Ex. 3:22; 11:2; 12:35). Now God was effecting a new Exodus, again bringing His people who had been in bondage back into the land of promise, much as He had done under Moses and Joshua. The people had been in bondage to Babylon because of their failure to keep their covenantal obligations, which Moses had given them during the first Exodus. Written By Filipino? Once more God was miraculously working in the life of the nation.
B. The reaction of the Israelites (1:5-11) 1:5-11. The religious leaders (priests and english essays for class 10 Levites) along with the heads of the two tribes Judah and Benjamin) that had been taken into exile by the Babylonians spearheaded the return to thesis, Israel to rebuild the temple, the house of the LORD. The Jews who returned totaled 49,897 (2:64-65). The neighbors of the returnees obeyed the king's decree by contributing to english essays for class 10, the effort (1:6). Even Cyrus contributed to the return by giving back the articles belonging to the temple of the LORD. These were the dishes. . . pans. . . bowls, and other articles (vv.
9- 10) Nebuchadnezzar had taken from the Jerusalem temple in 605 B.C. (Dan. 1 :2), in 597 B.C. (2 Kings 24: 13), and in 586 B.C. English Essays? (2 Kings 25:14-15; Jer. 27:16; 52:18-19; cf. For Class? Ezra 5:14; 6:5; Dan. 5:2-3) and placed in a temple in Babylon, perhaps the Esagila temple built in honor of the god Marduk. Mithredath is a Persian name, and the word for treasurer ( gizbar ) is also Persian. In Ezra 1:9-10 the articles total 2,499 but in verse 11 the total number of gold and internship letter with no experience silver items was 5,400.
Why the english for class difference? Surely Ezra would not be so foolish as to in cold essay, make a major mistake such as that when he so carefully wrote the rest of the book under the Holy Spirit's inspiration. Even if one were to essays for class, assume (as do many critics) that a redactor brought together in verses 9-11 two variant traditions, it would seem likely that Ezra would try to reconcile them in some way. It seems better to suppose Ezra first listed some of the items, perhaps the bigger and more valuable ones (vv. Letter With No Experience For Engineering? 9-10), then referred to the total number of items both the larger and more valuable and the smaller and less significant (v. 11). Another problem pertains to Sheshbazzar (v.
11), who was called the prince of Judah (v. 8). Three views about his identity are suggested: (I) Some feel that Sheshbazzar was a Persian name for Zerubbabel. Both are said to have laid the foundation of the english essays for class 10 temple (3:8-10; 5:16). Zerubbabel, which means begotten in Babel, was a grandson of Jehoiachin (I Chron. 3:17-19), who had been deported to Babylon but had been released from confinement (2 Kings 25:27-30). Conclusion? Zerubbabel's relationship to for class 10, Jehoiachin would explain the title the prince of Judah. However, it would seem strange that Zerubbabel would have a second pagan name rather than having one name that reflected Yahweh worship (Sheshbazzar being a pagan deity). If Zerubbabel and Sheshbazzar were two names of the same person, it is strange that he was never again referred to by the name Sheshbazzar except in Ezra 5:15-16.
(2) A second view is that this man was a Jew who was appointed governor by Cyrus but who died shortly after arriving in essays written Palestine and was replaced by Zerubbabel. English 10? Though plausible, no solid evidence exists for conclusion essay, this view. (3) A third view is that Sheshbazzar was the Shenazzar in 1 Chronicles 3:17, and therefore was Zerubbabel's uncle. (4) A fourth view is that Sheshbazzar was a Persian official who was sent to oversee the use of the king's money and to make Sure the king's wishes were carried out. It has been suggested that because Sheshbazzar was a Persian official the returnees later referred to him (Ezra 5:15-16) to Support their claim of legitimacy for their building project. (See comments on essays 10 5:13-16.)
C. The list of people who returned (chap. 2) I. THE LIST RECORDED (2:1-63) 2:1-63. The list is developed countries developing countries divided into english for class several parts. All of the purpose people of the province (i.e., of Judah) returned to their hometowns (v. Essays For Class 10? 1).
Ezra first recorded the 11 civil and religious leaders who were prominent (v. 2). Jeshua was the high priest (3:2); his name is spelled Joshua in the Books of Haggai and Zechariah. He was a grandson of Seraiah (cf. 1 Chron. 6:14 with Hag. On Indo Pak Relations? 1:1), a priest whom Nebuchadnezzar killed at Riblah (2 Kings 25:18-21). The Nehemiah in Ezra 2:2 was not the Nehemiah who returned to Jerusalem more than 90 years later, 444 B.C. Nor was the Mordecai here Esther's cousin (Es. 2:5-7), who lived in Susa about english essays for class 10 60 years after the Jews' first return. Nehemiah 7:7 records 12 names rather than 11 (cf.
Ezra 2:2). (Three names have different spellings. In verse 2 Seraiah, Reelaiah, and Rehum are probably the same persons as Azariah, Raamiah, and Nehum, respectively, in Neh. 7:7.) Nahamani's name, not in Ezra's list, may have been dropped out by an early scribal error in the copying of the original manuscripts. It is essays written authors likely that 12 men would have originally been listed as symbolic heads of the 12-tribe nation (cf. 12 male goats offered for the 12 tribes of Israel, Ezra 6:17). Then Ezra listed people by their 18 families and clans, totaling 15,604 (2:3-20). Next came a listing of inhabitants (totaling 8,540) from 21 towns and villages (vv.
21-35). Then the priests (4,289 of them) were listed (vv. English Essays 10? 36-39), followed by 341 Levites which included singers and gatekeepers (vv. 40-42). The temple servants (vv. 43-54) and descendants of the royal servants (vv. 55-58) totaled 392. The 652 returnees who could not clearly trace their ancestry (vv. 59-63) were listed last. The priests who could not delineate their genealogies were not allowed by the governor ( tirsata , a Persian term, possibly a reference to Sheshbazzar [cf. comments on 1:8] or to Zerubbabel) to eat. . . the most sacred food till a priest was ministering with the Urim and Thummim. The Urim and Thummim were parts of the high priest's breastplate, probably two stones used in Some way in determining God's will (cf.
Ex. Essay? 28:30; Lev. 8:8; Num. 27:21; Deut. 33:8; Sam. 28:6; Neh. 7:65).
Though such a list of names and locations seems unnecessary to essays for class, some modern readers, it would have been of great encouragement to the original readers as they saw their own families and essay on indo towns represented. 2. THE TOTAL NUMBERS GIVEN (2:64-67) 2:64-67. When added together the essays 10 numbers in verses 2-42, 58, and 60 which list the returnees come to 29,829 (including the 11 prominent men listed in v. 2). However, the total in verses 64-65--the whole company--is 49,897. The larger number may include women and essays children.
It may also include Jews from the english 10 10 Northern tribes who might have joined the remnant of the two Southern tribes of Judah and Benjamin (cf. 1:5). It may also have included the priests who could not delineate their genealogies (2:61-62). Ezra's grand total of 49,897 is very close to developed should help developing, Nehemiah's total of 49,942 (Neh. 7:66-67). Nehemiah's extra 45 people are in the singers (Ezra had 200 but Nehemiah referred to 245). This may have been a scribal error, an error not in the original manuscripts but in the numerous copyings of the text in its transmission. For Class 10? A scribe, in copying Nehemiah 7:67, may have inadvertently picked up the 245 in verse 68, in reference to developed help developing countries, mules, and inserted that number for the 200 singers. This kind of error may also account for several variations in the other numbers in these lists. (For further discussion see the comments on Neh. 7. Even the animals were counted--a total of 8,136, most of them donkeys, commonly used for riding (Ezra 2:66-67). The journey from Babylon to Israel was about 900 miles and took about four months (cf.
7:8-9), but Ezra did not state how long the essays for class return trip took. His focus was not on the people's hardships but on their task of rebuilding the temple. 3. THE RESTORATION BEGUN (2:68-70) 2:68-69. By Filipino Authors? When the returnees arrived back in Palestine at the house of the LORD (i.e., at its location site) they gave of their possessions according to their ability. English Essays For Class? They gave large amounts of money and material to blood, begin the temple building project. The list of precious metals and materials differs from the corresponding list in Nehemiah 7:70-72. Ezra's 61,000 drachmas (darics) of gold are 41,000 in Nehemiah. Ezra recorded 5,000 minas of silver while Nehemiah referred to 4,200. Ezra mentioned 100 priestly garments whereas Nehemiah recorded 597.
These differences were probably early scribal errors. 2:70. The people then settled in their ancestors' towns and villages. D. English Essays? The rebuilding of the temple (3:1-6:15) 1. THE ALTAR AND THE FOUNDATION REBUILT (CHAP. 3) 3:1-2. The first task facing the people was the rebuilding of the altar of burnt offering, directly east of where the temple building itself would be located. This was essential for reestablishing the sacrificial system which set these people apart as a nation and which was used by God as a means for countries should help developing, atoning for their sins.
The seventh month may refer to the seventh month after the people left Babylon or to the seventh month after they arrived in Jerusalem. This was in September-October (see the chart Calendar in Israel near Ex. 12). In years past, the seventh month had been a great month religiously for Israel. Three religious festivals were held in the seventh month: the english essays Feast of Trumpets on the 1st day (Lev. 23:23-25), the Day of Atonement on the 10th day (Lev. 23:26-32), and the Feast of Tabernacles on websites days 15-21 (Lev. 23:33-36, 39-43; Num. 29:12-39; cf. Ezra 3:4). The words: The people assembled as one man, suggest they all agreed that the building project must begin.
The men who headed up the english essays constructing of the altar were Jeshua, the religious leader (a descendant of english Aaron), and Zerubbabel, the civil leader (a descendant of David), along with fellow priests (other descendants of Aaron) and associates (other descendants of essays David). They built the altar so that they could offer sacrifices in accordance with what was written in the Law of Moses. It was imperative that the returnees would come back to help developing, the Mosaic Covenant. Because their forefathers had left the covenant, the english for class 10 nation had been driven into Captivity. The former exiles did not want to make that same mistake. 3:3-6.
Even though the conclusion essay returnees had fear of the peoples around them, foreigners who had been deported by the Assyrian Empire into Palestine, they built the altar, and offered burnt offerings on it (cf. Lev. 1; 6:8-13), starting on the first day of the, . . month (Ezra 3:6). These were the english 10 first sacrifices made there in 50 years--since 586 B.C. Written Authors? when the temple was torn down. Other sacrifices were offered in connection with all the appointed feasts, including, for example, the Feast of Tabernacles on days 15-21 of that seventh month (cf. Lev. 23:33-36,39-43; Num.
29:12-39). English Essays For Class? The sacrifices showed that the in cold essay thesis people wanted to english for class, be responsive to the Law of God. 3:7-9. There was a period of preparation for building the temple foundation for the work did not begin till the pak relations second month of the second year after their arrival (May-June 536. exactly 70 years after the. first deportation in 605). Why this delay of seven months after the altar was built? Because they had to get organized and secure the building materials. The wood (cedar logs) came from 10, Lebanon. shipped along the coast to Joppa and then carried overland to Jerusalem (see the map The Persian Empire near 1:1).
Lebanon was well known for its cedar forests and conclusion essay its fine woodworkers. For the english essays for class 10 first temple. 430 years earlier (in 966 B.C.), Solomon had received much of his building materials (cedar, pine, and algum logs) and craftsmen from Lebanon (I Kings 5:1-10,18; 2 Chron. 2:1-16). Solomon began his project in the second month (May-June; I Kings 6:1), the same month this rebuilding began under Zerubbabel. Since Tyre and in cold blood essay Sidon in Lebanon were under the Persian Empire. Cyrus had to authorize this transaction (cf. Ezra 6:3-4), in which the logs, as in Solomon's time. Essays For Class 10? were paid for by money. . . food. . . drink. and oil. Zerubbabel appointed the Levites as supervisors of the construction project.
Centuries earlier Levites were involved in conclusion essay the tabernacle construction (Ex. 38:21) and in caring for and transporting it (Num. 1:50-51; 3:21-37). Now they were involved in the temple construction. Three Levite groups of supervisors were mentioned (Ezra 3:9)--Jeshua and english essays his family, Kadmiel (cf.
2:40) and his family, and the family of Henadad. 3:10-11. Written? Nothing is mentioned about the actual process of 10 laying the temple foundation or the length of time involved. This is letter because the focus was on the results of this project on that community of people who had braved the rugged conditions. They were following the command of Cyrus but, more importantly. they were following the essays for class 10 command of pak relations their God with whom they were in covenant. As the foundation. . . For Class? was laid the written by filipino people were careful to follow in the traditions of english essays for class 10 their forefathers who had been rightly related to God under the Mosaic Covenant. As the priests. . . and the Levites led the dedication service for the temple's foundations, they did the things that were prescribed by David. The order followed was the same as when David brought the ark to Jerusalem. At that time priests blew trumpets and Asaph sounded cymbals (I Chron.
16:5-6). Here the priests blew trumpets and sons (descendants) of Asaph played the cymbals. The order was also similar to the time when the ark was brought to the temple in Solomon's day (2 Chron. 5:12-13), when Asaph and others played cymbals, harps, and lyres; and the priests blew trumpets. Developed Countries Developing Countries Essay? In this rebuilding service the priests and Levites sang, He is english essays 10 good; His love to Israel endures forever, words almost identical to the song of praise in essay thesis 2 Chronicles 5:13 (cf. Ps. 136:1). This song of praise is highly significant for by it the 10 religious leaders were acknowledging that Yahweh had again established His loving protection over the nation. The word love ( hesed ) is God's covenantal loyal love which exists forever with His people Israel. Countries Should Countries? Now that the temple worship was being reestablished, the people again recognized the essays for class 10 commitment of God's unending covenantal love. 3:12-13.
In contrast with the joy many people experienced on that occasion, a few of the blood thesis older priests and Levites and family heads, who had seen the former temple (destroyed 50 years earlier in 586 B.C.) were discouraged. Perhaps they contrasted the english essays for class 10 roughness of the current project with the grandeur of the Solomonic temple. Sixteen years later (in 520 B.C.) the same emotion of pak relations discouragement again hit the builders of the temple (Hag. 2:1-9). The two sounds, the joy and the weeping (from sadness), mingled together and were so loud that they were heard far away. 2. THE REBUILDING OPPOSED (4:1-6:12) Ezra did not record all the events in those 21 years (from 536) till the english 10 temple was finished (in 515). That is because he was making a theological point that the temple of the Lord was completed despite opposition that might have stopped any other project.
The temple was the basis for the post-exilic community's fellowship with God. Not till the temple was built could the people really live in accord with the covenant. Ezra's account of this interim period differs in tone from Haggai's account of opposition (from 520 to 518). Ezra did not dwell on the sinful condition of the people as they lived in the land as did Haggai (Hag. I). Ezra's account focused on external pressures from the surrounding peoples, whereas Haggai focused on the internal attitudes of the people who valued material possessions above spiritual things (Hag. 1:4.
6). a. Attempts of essay on indo enemies to stop the english building (4:1-5) 4:1-2. The enemies used two methods of opposition to essay, try to keep the temple from being built. First they offered to help in the construction process, thereby hoping to infiltrate the ranks and sidetrack the building project. When that did not work, they frightened the builders (perhaps with threats on their lives) and even hired counselors to english essays for class 10, frustrate them (vv. 4-5).
The enemies of Judah and Benjamin refer to the people living in Palestine since the time of the fall of the Northern Kingdom in 722 B.C. The Assyrian Empire, which conquered the 10 Northern tribes, deported some of the help developing countries essay people away to Assyria and brought in english 10 other peoples to intermarry (2 Kings 17:23-24). This tactic prevented strong nationalistic uprisings in the conquered lands. The enemies (called the internship letter with for engineering peoples around them, Ezra 4:4) were the descendants of these mixed peoples and the forefathers of the New Testament Samaritans. These people in Ezra's day claimed that they worshiped the same God, that is, Yahweh, the God of Israel. But they had a synergistic form of worship; they worshiped both Yahweh and others (2 Kings 17:29, 32, 34, 41). Essays 10? Therefore their statement (Ezra 4:2) was not fully accurate and thesis was apparently made to mislead the leadership of the english essays for class returned band. Cover No Experience? Esarhaddon, king of Assyria, who brought us here, was the english for class Assyrian mono arch who aggressively pursued the policy of partial deportation and to whose reign these enemies could trace their ancestry in Palestine. Esarhaddon, a son of in cold Sennacherib, ruled from english 10, 681 to 669 B.C.
Some people, however, had been displaced into Samaria earlier by the Assyrian kings Sargon II (722-705) and Sennacherib (705-705). Judah and Benjamin's enemies were also appealing on purpose the basis of the fact that they, like the Jews, were a displaced people, having been brought in from the outside. In a sense they were downplaying the nation of Israel's roots in the land. 4:3-5. The response by the govern. mental side (Zerubbabel) and the religious side (Jeshua) was decisive and immediate. They had two reasons for not wanting to be sidetracked by this offer of help. First, the temple was for the LORD the God of Israel, who was not the god these people worshiped.
Second, they had been commissioned by King Cyrus himself to for class 10, undertake the english building project and therefore had every right to carry it out on their own. This rebuff brought on the second form of opposition. As already stated, the enemies tried to discourage the english 10 workers and make them afraid, This policy of internship no experience for engineering harassment continued on english essays for class 10 till the reign of developed countries should help developing countries essay Darius, king of Persia, who ruled from 521 to 486. It was during his reign, in 515, that the temple was completed. The account of the building program under Darius is resumed in Ezra 4:24 after a parenthesis in verses 623. b. Parenthetical letters (4:6-23) These letters to and from Artaxerxes are out of essays 10 place chronologically, but they follow here logically to show that the opposition Ezra had begun to essays by filipino, describe (vv. 1-5) continued on for many years--to 485 B.C., the year Xerxes began to reign (v. 6) and on into the days of Artaxerxes (464-424). Artaxerxes was the king who was reigning during the events recorded in chapters 7-10. For the names and dates of the Persian kings in essays the post-exilic period, see the chart.
Thus the letters may have been written at the time of Ezra's return (458 B.C.). Therefore the letters were written nearly 80 years later than the account into which they were placed. Ezra was not being deceptive by placing the letters here in his book since he clearly dated them by the ruler under which they were written. Anyone familiar with the countries should help developing essay history of that part of the world at that time (as were the inhabitants of for class 10 Israel when the Book of Ezra was written) would have clearly seen what Ezra was logically doing. 4:6. Opposition continued during the time of Xerxes, Xerxes, also known as Ahasuerus in the Book of essays authors Esther, ruled from 485 to 465.
Ezra recorded nothing of the nature or results of the essays for class accusation except that it apparently kept the Israelites from working on conclusion building projects. For Class 10? This verbal opposition in Xerxes' reign is mentioned nowhere else in the Bible. This verse sets the stage for the following letter which was written in the reign of Persia's next king. 4:7. Blood Essay Thesis? Opposition against the Jews was strong during the time of Artaxerxes. English? The focus of the in cold narrative is on essays 10 two letters written during his reign (464-424). Because the enemies' letter and the king's reply brought the work on the city walls and foundations to a halt, it seems logical that the letter was written before the return of Nehemiah, for under Nehemiah the building projects resumed and were completed. Though the letter was composed by people who spoke a northwest Semitic dialect (like Hebrew) it was written in the Aramaic language (the trade language of the day).
It was in square Aramaic script rather than in the slanted Hebrew type of script or in should help developing cuneiform signs. Ezra 4:8-6:18 and 7:12-26 are in Aramaic. Perhaps Bishlam, Mithredath, and Tabeel were men from essays 10, Samaria. 4:8-10, Rehum the commanding officer and Shimshai the secretary were probably Persians who were persuaded to write the letter. In their introduction Rehum and Shimshai tried to point out to King Artaxerxes that the participants in pak relations this opposition were from various parts of the world. Their complaint was not merely from a single isolated group. Judges and officials from various parts of the Persian Empire and people who had been deported to Samaria under the reign of the Assyrian King Ashurbanipal 200 years earlier were opposed to english for class, the work. In Cold Blood Essay? Ashurbanipal (669-626) continued the deporting done by his father Esarhaddon (4:2). 4:11-16. The writers of the essays 10 letter (cf. This is essays websites a copy of the letter, v. For Class 10? 23; 5:6; 7:11) identified with the Persian king by noting that they were his servants.
The letter itself is recorded in 4:12-16. The opponents noted that the Jews were restoring the walls and repairing the foundations, Their opposition was obviously not against the rebuilding of the temple, for it had been completed in 515 B.C. The. opposition was against an attempt to begin rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem which the english essays websites opponents called that rebellious and wicked city (cf. vv. 15, 19). The apparent reason for the complaint was that if the city was allowed to be fortified, then Jerusalem and the territory which Jerusalem would control would no longer pay taxes or tribute money to the crown. This would dishonor the king. Therefore the complainers felt it was their patriotic duty to tell the king what was happening so that he could search the records and see that Jerusalem was a rebellious city, which is english essays for class 10 why it was destroyed. The letter added that if the city of Jerusalem was fortified then the Jews would take back all the territory they had previously occupied and the Persian king would have no territory left in Trans-Euphrates.
They claimed he would lose a huge portion of his empire. 4:17-23. In his reply the king actually strengthened the position of the Israelites by leaving open the possibility that their work might resume later by his permission. This, of course, did happen under the leadership of Nehemiah. The king did search the archives and found that Jerusalem had been powerful at one time. What an encouragement this must have been to Ezra's original readers to recall the years of David and Solomon and to know that even a pagan king acknowledged the sovereignty of their empire centered at Jerusalem. The king commanded that the building projects stop. . . until I so order, This was the same king who later (444 B.C.) changed this edict and allowed Nehemiah to return and rebuild the walls of on indo Jerusalem (Neh. 2:1.9). However, the immediate result was a forced cessation of the building activity because the enemies used force to essays for class 10, back up a legal document from the Persian king.
c. The result of the opposition (4:24) 4:24. The narrative now picks up where it left off after verse 5 (vv. Blood Thesis? 6-23 are a lengthy parenthesis). English Essays? The result of the opposition during Cyrus' reign was that work on the temple was suspended until the second year of. . . Darius (520 B.C.), some 18 years after the people had returned to the 'and for the purpose of rebuilding the house of God.
d. The continuation of the work (5:1-6:12) This section informs the readers of certain historical events under the reign of Darius. and also helps its readers understand that the essay on indo temple rebuilding was sovereignly ordained by God and carried out for class, through pagan rulers, this time Darius I (521-486). 5:1-2. The work on the temple had been stopped (4:1-5, 24), from 535 to 520 B.C. Now under the influence of two important prophets, Haggai and Zechariah, it was resumed. The preaching of these two men is recorded in the biblical books bearing their respective names. Haggai prophesied from August to December 520 B.C., and Zechariah prophesied for two years beginning in October-November 520. Purpose Conclusion Essay? They were helping by exhorting and encouraging (cf. 6:14; Hag. 1:8; 2:4; Zech. 4:7-9).
They were vitally concerned with the building of the temple because they realized that their nation could never fulfill the obligations of the Mosaic Covenant till the temple worship was reinstated. Both of english these prophets placed the blame for the hard times the nation experienced during this period on the people's lack of in cold blood obedience in not rebuilding the temple. Essays 10? However, Ezra did not deal with that question in his book. He stressed the purpose conclusion essay outside opposition which was also a factor in essays slowing the work. The building process itself was spearheaded by Zerubbabel and Jeshua, the evil and religious leaders. respectively. 5:3-5. But as soon as the work was resumed, another effort (cf. 4:1-5) was made to stop it.
Israel's leaders came into direct conflict with the duly established local authorities who were responsible to the Persian crown. In a Babylonian record dated 502 B.C. the name Tattenai and his office as governor of Trans-Euphrates are mentioned. Syria-Palestine was under him. an area including but much larger than Israel. Shethar-Bozenai was probably an assistant to essays, Tattenai. It would have been Tattenai's responsibility, on hearing of english essays this building activity in his territory, to investigate it. Major political unrest was seething at essays by filipino authors the beginning of Darius' reign. Possibly Tattenai thought the temple-building project in Jerusalem would grow into english essays for class a full-scale rebellion against the empire.
God's promise/threat (Deut. 28) He said that the people would be taken into captivity if they did not live according to the covenant He instituted with them as they were ready to enter the land of promise. Not only was Nebuchadnezzar involved in the fall of Jerusalem; God Himself was responsible! Nebuchadnezzar was merely an agent of God's anger on His people (cf. My servant Nebuchadnezzar in Jer. 25:9; 27:6; 43:10)--an anger which was designed to purify the nation so that some would return to the land as a believing remnant. Essay? The Exile did not mean that Yahweh was defeated by Nebuchadnezzar's gods. The group of officials asked Zerubbabel and Jeshua who authorized the project (the word structure is essays 10 lit., wooden structure), and asked for the names of the people responsible for it (cf. 5:9-10). But despite this challenge, the work did not stop because the eye of their God was watching Over them (cf. Conclusion? God. . . was over them, v. 1).
Occurring frequently in Ezra and Nehemiah are the essays 10 words the cover with hand of the LORD was on him and similar expressions (Ezra 7:6, 9, 28; 8:18, 22, 31; Neh. 2:8, 18), God was providentially caring for them (by His eye) and english for class 10 blessing them (by His hand). Clearly God was at work in spite of this opposition because through it the project was eventually given help. 5:6-10. Ezra recorded the letter (cf. This is a copy of the letter; 4:11, 23; 7:11) Tattenai sent to King Darius about the building activity going on in Jerusalem (5:7-16). Purpose Essay? Tattenai began his letter by noting that work was being done on the temple of the great God in Jerusalem. This does not mean that Tattenai believed Yahweh of Israel was the supreme God.
Most likely he meant that the God to whom the Jews were building the temple was the major God of the area. In the ancient Near East there was a highly developed belief in local deities. Tattenai noted that large stones and timbers (cf. 6:4; 1 Kings 6:36) were being used in the work and that the Jews were working with diligence and were making rapid progress, He added that he had asked who authorized the work (cf. Ezra 5:3) and that he had asked for the names of those who were leading the building program (cf. v. 4). 5:11-12. Tattenai's letter then included the for class 10 Jews' answers to his questions (vv. 11-16), Zerubbabel and Jeshua called themselves servants of the God of heaven and earth, not servants of Persia' For comments on conclusion essay the title the God of heaven see 1:2. The true God, Yahweh, was superior to english essays, Darius' god, Ahura Mazda, whom Darius called the god of heaven.
Years earlier Israel had a great king, Solomon, and had had a beautiful temple. Developed Countries Should Countries? It was a prominent structure in the ancient world, But because of sin (our lathers angered the God of heaven), God I handed them over to Nebuchadnezzar, . The Jews knew why the temple was destroyed and the people deported. 5:13-17. In response to Tattenai Zerubbabel and Jeshua stated that Cyrus had allowed a remnant to return to Jerusalem to rebuild the temple and even gave them articles which had been taken from Solomon's temple (cf. 1:2-4, 7-11). The letter-writers also recounted the fact that Cyrus gave Sheshbazzar the task of carrying out the king's command--to return the 10 articles and to build another temple in the city. Sheshbazzar was mentioned to show Tattenai that the building program was legal.
Thus it seems likely that Sheshbazzar was a Persian official whose name carried some weight with Tattenai (cf. comments on 1:8 on several views of essay Sheshbazzar's identity). Are Sheshbazzar and Zerubbabel the same person? Many think so because Sheshbazzar laid the temple foundations, and so did Zerubbabel (3:8-10). However, this is not absolute proof that the two men were identical. Sheshbazzar could have been responsible, as the english for class 10 king's representative, to see that the work was begun, and essays written authors Zerubbabel the Jewish leader who completed the task. Tattenai and the officials asked that the english essays for class 10 king research the records in essays written by filipino authors Babylon (cf. 6:1-2) to find out if what the Jews had said about a decree from Cyrus was true. That such records were carefully kept is attested by archeology. 6:1.5.
Tattenai had requested that Babylon's archives be searched for the document (5:17) but it was not found there. Instead the scroll (of papyrus or leather) was found in. . . Ecbatana (modern Hamadan), 300 miles northeast of Babylon and capital of essays for class 10 Media (6: 1-2). The scroll was in Ecbatana, because that is where Cyrus had spent the summer of 538, when he issued the decree, This Ecbatana record was an official minute with three details that the verbal and written proclamation (1:1-4) apparently did not contain: (1) The temple was to be 90 feet high and 90 feet wide, with three courses of large stones and one of timbers (cf. 5:8; 1 Kings 6:36). (2) The project was to be financed by funds from the royal treasury, This shows the purpose conclusion earnestness of Cyrus' repatriation program. (3) The returned gold and silver articles were to be put in their places in the temple. 6:6-12. King Darius then gave three instructions to Tattenai and his associates: (1) He told them to leave the Jews alone and not interfere with the building of the temple (vv. 6-7).
The words stay away from there were a common Aramaic legal statement. This was to be in accord with the edict of the great King Cyrus. Essays 10? (2) Tax money was to be used to help finance the project and animals were to be supplied daily so that sacrifices could be made at the altar of the new temple along with food items for the offerings (vv. 8-10). Written By Filipino? Flour (from wheat), salt, and oil were to be used in the grain offerings (Lev. 2:1-2, 7, 13), and wine for english essays, drink offerings (Lev. 23:13) on feast days. (3) Anyone who disobeyed the purpose essay edict was to suffer a horrible fate (Ezra 6:11-12). English? He was to be impaled on a beam taken from his own house, and his house was to be demolished.
Execution by impaling was practiced in the Assyrian and Persian Empires. In Cold Blood Essay? Darius wanted no disturbance in this part of his vast kingdom. The pagan king acknowledged that God had caused His name to dwell at essays Jerusalem. Darius probably thought of essay Yahweh as a local deity (cf. comments on 5:6-10), whereas Ezra, in recording that statement, knew of the covenantal significance in Yahweh's name dwelling in for class Jerusalem. Blood Thesis? So Tattenai's inquiry backfired. Instead of stopping the english for class 10 temple work, he had to let it proceed and even had to help pay for it out of his revenues! Darius' curse on anyone who would destroy the . temple was fulfilled in: (a) Antiochus . Epiphanes, who desecrated it in 167 B.C., and died insane three years later; (b) Herod the blood essay Great (37-4 B.C.), who added extensively to the temple to glorify himself. and who had domestic trouble and died of disease; and for class 10 (c) the purpose conclusion essay Romans, who destroyed the temple in A.D. 70, and later had their empire destroyed. 3. THE TEMPLE COMPLETED (6:13-15) 6:13-15, Tattenai, to essays 10, his credit, carried. . . out the instructions of Darius, and did so with diligence (cf. Internship Letter No Experience For Engineering? with diligence in 5:8; 6:12; 7:21, 23). The work was done by the Jewish elders who were encouraged by the preaching of the Prophets Haggai and Zechariah (cf.
5:1). Ezra noted that the ultimate decree for the building of the essays temple was from God Himself. God worked through the thesis commands of the pagan Persian kings, Cyrus, Darius, and for class 10 Artaxerxes, Workers, prophets, kings, and internship letter with God were all involved. Artaxerxes had nothing to do with building the temple; apparently his name was added to round out the account, for english, he had decreed the building of Jerusalem's walls (Neh. 2:1, 8). Pak Relations? He also helped provide for sacrifices at the temple (Ezra 7:12-17). Some have suggested that Artaxerxes' name may have been added by an early scribe but there is for class 10 no textual evidence of that.
Actually in the Hebrew the words the temple are not in 6:14, It reads literally, They finished their building, thus speaking in general terms of the total reconstruction of Jerusalem under the decrees of the three kings, But verse 15 specifically mentions the temple. The temple was completed in Adar (February-March) of 515--21 years alter the work started in 536, and 4.5 years after Haggai began his prophesying. This was 70.5, years alter the temple had been destroyed on August 12, 586. E. The dedication of the temple and the celebration of the Passover (6:16-22) I. THE TEMPLE DEDICATED (6:16-18) 6:16-18. After the temple was finished, it was then dedicated. The comparatively small number of animals sacrificed (100 bulls, 200 rams, 400 male lambs, and 12 male goats) contrasted sharply with the tremendous amount sacrificed by Solomon at the dedication of the first temple (22,000 cattle and 120,000 sheep and goats; 1 Kings 8:63).
This points up the comparative poverty of the post-exilic community. The 12 goats for the sin offering show that the post-exilic community still envisioned a united Israel consisting of all 12 tribes even though only 2 had survived with any strength. The leaders of the sacrificial system--the priests and the Levites--were installed, , , according to , , . the Book of Moses, that is, according to that portion of the Law in which the legal system is purpose described--in parts of Leviticus and Numbers (Lev. 8; Num. 3:5-10; 8:5-14). One of the english motifs of Ezra, Nehemiah, and 1 and 2 Chronicles is purpose that the post-exilic community was under the english 10 leadership 'of godly men who were steeped in essay the Scriptures and attempted to do everything according to the Law.
This shows that they had learned from the english essays 10 Exile that God's people suffer if they do not live up to their covenantal obligations. 2. THE PASSOVER CELEBRATED (6:19-22) 6:19-21. Beginning with verse 19 the text is again in Hebrew (4:8-6:18 are in thesis Aramaic). On the essays 14th day of the first month (April 515 B.C.) the Passover was celebrated, The temple had been completed in the 12th month (Adar; v. In Cold Essay? 15) and fittingly, in essays the very next month, the Passover was re-inaugurated. Essays By Filipino Authors? This was the first time in 70 years that the people partook of this feast which commemorated their forefathers' release from Egyptian bondage (cf. Ex. 10? 12:1-14; Lev. 23:5). The Israelite returnees ate the Passover with all who had separated themselves from the unclean practices of their Gentile neighbors. This second group might have been: (a) Gentiles living in essays by filipino authors Judah (cf.
Num. 10? 9:14), or more likely (b) Jews who had remained in the land and had defiled themselves by practices that went against the Law, and then repented of english websites those sins, thereby separating themselves. 6:22. Essays 10? The seven-day Feast of Unleavened Bread was on days 15-21 of the first month, immediately after the Passover (cf. Lev. English Websites? 23:6-8). The reference to Darius as the king of Assyria is not an anachronism (though the Assyrian Empire had ended in 609 B.C.) for the Persian Empire included what was once Assyria.
Perhaps this title was a grim reminder that Assyria's harsh tactics were now ended, She was the for class 10 first to deport Israelites from countries essay, their land; but now a contingent of Jews was settled back in 10 their land. This eight-day celebration (the Passover, Ezra 6:19, and the seven-day Feast of Unleavened Bread, v. 22), 900 years after the first Passover, signaled the end of the Exile for a remnant of the nation was once again back in fellowship with Yahweh. Since the temple worship was restored, it was important for people who wanted to internship cover with for engineering, be in fellowship with God and live according to the covenantal obligations to be in the place where the sacrificial system was being practiced. The people had seen firsthand that God works through history, for He had caused pagan kings to issue decrees which let them return to the land of english essays 10 promise (much as He had caused Egypt's Pharaoh to release Israel). The original readers of letter for engineering Ezra's book would rejoice in english that fact and would be encouraged to participate fully in the temple worship, which had been reestablished at such great cost. II. The Second Return and Reform under Ezra (chaps. 7-10) These chapters describe a second return of exiles from Babylon, this time under Ezra in english 458 B.C. (7:7). Here Ezra often wrote in the first person (I and we): Ezra, a priest who knew the Scriptures, knew the importance of english essays having the people back where the sacrificial system was being practiced. A. The return to the land (chaps, 7-8) The emphasis in these chapters is on the character of countries Ezra, which sets the scene for chapters 9 and 10 where sin is uncovered in the post-exilic community.
Ezra is english presented as a man who was strongly motivated by english essays websites the Law of God. I. THE INTRODUCTION OF EZRA (7:1-10) The events which transpire in this section of the narrative occurred during the reign of english for class Artaxerxes who was introduced earlier in the book (4:8-23; 6:14). The return occurred in the king's seventh year, which was 458 B.C. 7:1-5. After these things points to a gap of 57 years since the essay on indo events at essays for class 10 the end of chapter 6. The temple was completed in 515 B.C. in the reign of Darius I. Alter Darius' death in 486 his Son Xerxes ruled for 20 years (485-465). Pak Relations? Since Xerxes was the Ahasuerus mentioned in the Book of Esther, the events of english that book occurred between Ezra 6 and 7. Then Xerxes' son Artaxerxes ruled from 464 to 424. From 515 to pak relations, 458 (Artaxerxes' seventh year, 7:7) was 57 years.
Ezra's lineage is traced back to Aaron, the first priest. For Class 10? This list is letter with for engineering abbreviated, for it does not name every generation. Between Azariah and Meraioth (v. 3) six names appear in the genealogy in 1 Chronicles 6:7-10 (cf. comments there). Since Seraiah was the high priest when Jerusalem fell in 586 (2 Kings 25:18), Ezra may have been his great-grandson.
Because of his priestly ancestry, Ezra, like the priests, had authority to teach (cf. Lev. 10:11; Ezra 7:10). 7:6. Ezra. . . was a teacher well-versed in the Law of Moses, The word teacher translates soper , a broad word that means, a recorder, scribe, secretary, or writer (e.g.. 2 Sam. English For Class? 8:17; Es. 3:12; 8:9; Ps. 45:1). The word also referred to a learned man who could read and write (e.g., Jehudi in Jer. 36:23) and a learned man who could teach what he read in God's Law.
Ezra was called a teacher ( soper ) four times (Ezra 7:6, 1112,21; cf. v. 25). And he was called Ezra the scribe six times in Nehemiah (8:1, 4, 9, 13; 12:26, 36). Well versed translates mohir , which is rendered skillful in on indo Psalm 45:1. Ezra had the blessing of the pagan King Artaxerxes as well as the english for class 10 blessing of the covenant God of Israel. A few years later Nehemiah had an official position before the king (Neh. 1:11), but Ezra held no such position. It is cover no experience for engineering enough for the author to note that he was a teacher who was well versed in the Law. English Essays For Class 10? That was to be his major function in life.
Because of the king's favor Ezra was promised that he could have whatever he wanted. Rather than ask for something personal. Ezra used the monarch's favor to essay, advance the for class 10 cause of God and His people. For the first of eight times in the Books of essay Ezra and Nehemiah, mention is made of God's hand being on Ezra and Nehemiah (Ezra 7:6, 9, 28; 8:18, 22, 31; Neh. 2:8, 18). 7:7-10. Essays 10? Not much is said here about the trip from Babylon to in cold blood essay thesis, Jerusalem or the essays for class 10 preparations for in cold blood thesis, it. These few verses are a summary of the journey that is detailed in the rest of for class 10 chapter 7 and in chapter 8. Returning with Ezra were groups of people corresponding to the groups in Zerubbabel's return (chap.
2). The trip back to the land took exactly four months, from the first to the fifth months, from Nisan I (March-April) to Ab I (July-August). The good hand of . . . God was on purpose essay Ezra because he devoted himself to the study and observance of the 10 Law of the LORD, and to on indo, teaching it. Devoted himself is literally, set his heart firmly (cf. 2 Chron. 19:3; 30:19), which gives the idea that Ezra was inwardly determined. English Essays? His determination was directed toward doing three things: studying God's Law, obeying it, and written teaching it to essays 10, others-an inviolable order for a successful ministry! 2. THE CIRCUMSTANCES PROMPTING THE RETURN (7:11-28) 7:11-12. Websites? Artaxerxes wrote a letter (cf.
This is a copy of the letter; 4:11, 23; 5:6) to Ezra that allowed Ezra and others to return to for class, Israel. (On Ezra as a teacher see comments on 7:6.) No reason for the decree was given. It can be surmised that Ezra had asked for permission to essays written, take a group back and that this decree was the official granting of his request. The decree was sent to Ezra personally. 7:13-26. English Essays For Class 10? Artaxerxes listed certain freedoms the in cold essay people were to have as they journeyed to and lived in Israel.
He gave them permission to go to Jerusalem (v. 13). He gave them silver and for class 10 gold to developed countries should help developing countries, take with them and he allowed them to get more in Babylon (vv. 15-16, 20). He said that they could offer sacrifices on the altar at the temple (v.
17). They were also given freedom to make their own decisions (v. 18). Essays 10? They could take back the utensils of internship cover letter worship for the temple (vv. 19-20). Essays 10? (Apparently not all of them had been carried back with Zerubbabel; cf. 1:7-11.) They could have whatever else they needed for essay, the temple up to a certain limit (7:21-22). The wheat, oil, and salt were for use in the grain offerings (cf.
6:9; Lev. 2:1-2, 7, 13), and the wine was for drink offerings (cf. Ezra 6:9; Lev. 12:13). As noted in the NIV margin, the amounts were enormous: 100 talents (3.5. tons) of silver, 100 cors (600 bushels) of wheat, 100 baths (600 gallons) of wine, 100 baths of olive oil, and for class salt without limit- The priests and Levites were not to be taxed (Ezra 7:24). In return for granting these privileges the king was to receive some benefits from the expedition. He wanted to avoid uprisings or feelings of anger against him (v.
23) and to have order in that part of his empire (vv. 25-26). Ezra was responsible to administer justice to all the people of the area, that is, to all who knew the laws of his God--the Jewish people. Ezra also was to administer the judicial system by handing out punishment to any who would not obey (v. 26). 7:27-28. Ezra's response to the king's decree shows what kind of authors man he was. He praised the LORD for what was being done under him. 10? By calling Yahweh the God of internship cover for engineering our fathers he linked himself with the godly line that had been concerned with proper sacrificial worship.
He also noted that God had given this idea to the king (put it into the king's heart). Ezra added that the english essays purpose of all this was to bring honor to the house of the LORD, The privileges granted by Artaxerxes were for God's glory, not Ezra's. Essays Authors? Ezra also said that God's good favor was shown to him in front of all the king's pagan advisers and officials, Good favor translates hesed , God's covenantal love for His people. (That Heb. word is rendered love in 3:11, in english 10 each verse in Ps. 136, and elsewhere.) It refers to more than love; it means covenantal love, love borne out of loyalty to a Commitment. Because Ezra saw that God was working through him (the hand of the LORD my God was on me. cf. Ezra 7:6, 9; 8:18, 22, 31), he began the task of selecting people to make the difficult trip.
This probably was difficult and must have involved much personal contact and persuasion. But he was successful in enlisting leading men. . . to go with him. 3. THE LIST OF THE RETURNEES (8:-14) 8:1-14. This list consists of the major men (family heads) who returned as well as the numbers of those who accompanied them. Most of the people listed were related to the families who had returned previously under Zerubbabel (537 B.C.) 79 years earlier (chap.
2). Many of the family names in 8:3c-14 are mentioned in 2:3-15. Gershom was a descendant of Phinehas, son of Aaron's third son Eleazar (Ex. English Websites? 6:25), and Daniel was descended from Ithamar, Aaron's fourth son (Ex. 6:23). The total number of men who returned was 1,514 including 18 heads of families and 1,496 other men. With the 258 Levites assembled later (Ezra 8:15-20) the number came to 1,772. With women and children, the group may have totaled between 4,000 and 5,000. Even so, this group was much smaller than the english essays near-50,000 on the first return (2:64-65).
4. THE DETAILS OF THE JOURNEY AND ARRIVAL (8:15-36) a. Levites recruited for the journey (8:15-20) 8:15. Levites were to function as teachers of the Law (cf. Lev. 10:11; Deut. 33:10). Therefore they were to have an extremely important role in the reestablished community. The people desperately needed to understand the importance of the Law as they laced their situation as returnees from exile. The Levites would have a difficult time in the new land for they were to be involved in the disciplined ministry of english essays websites temple service.
Perhaps that is why none were present when Ezra and his group were ready to depart from the canal of Ahava (cf. Ezra 8:21. 31), whose location is unknown. This canal may have been a tributary of the Euphrates River. Even Zerubbabel had comparatively few Levites on his return (733 [2:40-58), less than 1.5% of the 49,897 [2:64-65]). 8:16-17.
Therefore Ezra sent 9 leaders and 2 men of learning to secure some Levites and temple servants from the man Iddo. Ezra told the messengers what to say, which seems to indicate that this was a delicate task which needed to have some weight behind the message. The 11 messengers were sent to Casiphia, whose location is english essays for class no longer known. 8:18-20. The men were able to secure 38 Levites from english essays, two families--18 from Sherebiah's family and 20 from Jeshaiah's relatives--as well as 220 . . . temple servants. Essays For Class 10? Only then was Ezra ready to start on the important journey.
Without the Levite teachers of the Law and people to serve at the temple all would be lost and the trip futile. b. Preparations made for written by filipino authors, the journey (8:21-30) 8:21-23. First, spiritual preparation was made for the journey. Ezra was concerned with matters pertaining to God's people. So Ezra proclaimed a fast in preparation for the journey.
He wanted the for class assembled group thereby to humble themselves before . . . God in order to ask Him for a safe journey for essays written by filipino, themselves, their children, and their possessions. Being humble before God shows one's spiritual dependence, his acknowledgment that God is in total control. Ezra did not. want to ask for military protection (soldiers and horsemen) because he had already publicly announced that God would take care of the people as they returned. In contrast, Nehemiah readily accepted a military escort on his way back to the land (Neh. 2:9). 8:24-27. Next, physical preparation was made for the journey. Ezra divided the english essays silver. . . gold, and cover no experience articles among 24 of the english 10 key men in the group. These items were gilts for the temple, given by Persian officials and by non-returning Israelites. They included 25 tons of silver, silver articles weighing 3.75, tons, 3.75 tons of gold, 20 bowls of gold that weighed about cover letter no experience 19 pounds, and two expensive bronze objects.
All this would be valued at many millions of dollars today. No wonder Ezra was concerned about the people's safety (v. 21). 8:28-30. Ezra charged these key men with the essays responsibility of getting the precious metals and valuables back to Jerusalem safely. In his charge he said that these material possessions were Consecrated to the LORD and that the silver and essay gold were freely given by God's people.
He emphasized the need for guarding the money and articles carefully by noting that they would all be weighed on arrival to be sure none had disappeared. The priests and Levites accepted the responsibility of taking the metals and utensils to for class 10, Jerusalem. c. Essays By Filipino? The people journeyed and arrived (8:31-36) 8:31-34. Only a few statements were made about the journey and the arrival. The group left Babylon on the 1st day of the essays for class 10 first month (7:9) and they left the Ahava Canal on the 12th of the english essays websites same month. Since they were at the canal three days (8:15), the for class 10 site of their canal encampment was about nine days' travel from authors, Babylon, perhaps 100-130 miles away. For Class? The total journey was about 900 miles and must have been difficult for a group without a military escort.
However, Ezra was content merely to relate that the hand of Our God was on should developing countries essay us (cf. 7:6, 9, 28; 8:18, 22) and that the Lord granted the essays for class returnees protection. On arriving in Jerusalem, after a three-day rest, everything was turned over to essays by filipino authors, the priests and Levites and weighed (vv. Essays For Class 10? 33-34). Internship Cover With? Several of these temple officials are also mentioned in the Book of Nehemiah: Meremoth (Neh. Essays 10? 3:4, 21), Jozabad (Neh. Websites? 11:16), and Binnui (Neh.
3:24). 8:35-36. Then the exiles offered sacrifices to english essays for class, God. The four kinds of animals--bulls (apparently one for each tribe of Israel), rams. Essay Thesis? lambs, and goats--were the same as those offered at the temple dedication (6:17), but now the number was smaller. A copy of the king's edict was given to english, the surrounding officials (royal satraps and help countries essay governors), who were to carry out his wishes under Ezra's leadership.
This caused the surrounding peoples to assist the Jewish post-exilic community. The section ends in an interesting climax--God's good hand was so evident on essays for class His people that even surrounding peoples helped them in the sacrificial system, the means of fellowship with God. B. The reform in the land (chaps. 9-10) In contrast with the english essays high point of God's blessing on the people at english for class the end of the previous section (8:36), this section opens with a statement about the severe sin into which the people of the post-exilic community had fallen. Developed Should Developing Essay? The reason the people were back in the land was so that they would be able to worship God according to the ways of their forefathers under the Law.
However, when the people returned to the land they still had a tendency to wander away from the words of God that had been written by Moses. I. The People's Sin Of Intermarriage Reported (9:1-4) 9:1-2. Essays For Class 10? Ezra's return had a profound effect on the people of essay on indo Israel. The man who was devoted to the accurate teaching of the Law became the focal point of a major reform. This occurred less than five months after his arrival (cf.
7:9 with 10:9). The leaders came to me suggests that these were men who had previously returned to the land under Zerubbabel and had established themselves as leaders and had looked into the problem. Ezra's return may have pricked their consciences as they reflected on essays 10 the Law of God. Internship For Engineering? They realized that something had to english essays 10, be done about the situation if the nation was to enjoy fellowship with the Lord. Outward sacrifice was fine, but only if it was accompanied by conclusion an inward conformity to the Word of God (Hosea 6:6; Micah 6:6-8). The Jewish leaders reported to Ezra that Some Israelites had been involved with their pagan neighbors' detestable practices (cf.
Ezra 9:11, 14) which meant they had married Gentiles. One of God's major prohibitions was that His people were not to marry outside the community of believers (Ex. 34:11-16; Deut. 7:1-4). This was not because of racial difference, for the peoples of the english essays for class 10 surrounding areas were of the with same Semitic race.
The reason was strictly religious. If God's people married outside Israel they would be tempted (as was Solomon; I Kings 11:3-5) to get caught up in pagan idolatrous worship. Intermarrying with people who did not worship Yahweh was symptomatic of the way the people forsook other aspects of God's Law. If they would break this aspect of the Law in the most intimate of human relationships then they would probably also break the Law in other less intimate human relationships. The peoples listed in english for class 10 Ezra 9:1 were many of in cold those God had warned about centuries before (Deut. 7:1), as well as the surrounding nations of Ammon, Moab, and Egypt. Unfortunately some religious and civil leaders had been in the forefront of this evil practice. 9:3-4. Essays For Class? Ezra's response was typical of the response of godly people in should countries essay the Old Testament when they found out about sin. Tearing his tunic and cloak was a sign of mourning (cf.
Num. 14:6; Josh. 7:6; Es. 4:1; Job 1:20), and pulling hair from his head and english for class 10 beard was a sign of unusual grief or of intense anger (Isa. 22:12). He was appalled because of the people's sin (Ezra 9:3; cf. v. 4). Ezra knew that it was for just this sort of sin that his nation had gone into captivity (cf. v. 7).
Perhaps he was afraid they would go into captivity again (cf. v. 8). 2. On Indo Pak Relations? EZRA'S PRAYER TO GOD (9:5-15) Ezra's prayer reveals much about him. He identified with the nation in english for class 10 their sin even though he himself was innocent of the offense (cf. Dan. 9:5-6, 8-11, 13, 15-16). Ezra understood that the nation stood together under the essays written authors covenant and that this breach of responsibility, especially since it had been led by leaders of the nation, could jeopardize the entire nation before God. 9:5. The evening sacrifice was around 3 P.M. English For Class? Ezra's physical position (on his knees with his hands spread out to the LORD) showed that he was throwing himself on the mercy of God.
Ezra knew that the essay on indo pak relations nation was guilty (vv. 6-7; cf. vv. English? 13, 15) so he assumed a position of begging before the english essays websites Lord. There was no excuse for the people's actions. Ezra's prayer was made at essays for class the temple with weeping (10:1). 9:6-7. Ezra confessed the continuing problem of sin among the people of the nation. He reacted to the sin with embarrassment, using terms such as ashamed and essays authors disgraced.
He felt embarrassed because it was for guilt like this that the nation had gone into captivity in the first place at the hand of foreign kings (viz., Sargon II and Nebuchadnezzar). The Captivity was to be a method of purifying the people and reestablishing a close relationship between them and God. Apparently the Exile had not accomplished its purpose because of the people's tendency to stray from their covenantal obligations. Like a flood their sins, Ezra said, had engulfed them for their sins were higher than their heads. 9:8-9. Ezra acknowledged the grace of God in allowing the essays for class people to return to the land. He reminded God and himself that it was the Lord's graciousness that allowed the kings of Persia to grant the Jews freedom to return to the land of promise to rebuild the temple. But now they were back in bondage--bondage to sin. 9:10-12. Ezra then confessed the men's present sin of intermarriage.
Ezra asked, What can we say after this? By this question he was acknowledging that the nation had no excuse before God (cf. v. 6). Essays Written Authors? No explanation was given for the leaders' disobedience. They had broken God's commands to remain pure before Him, and to separate from the corruption and detestable practices (cf. vv. 1, 14) in the land. They had directly disobeyed the for class 10 clear Word of God.
Foreign marriages contaminated Israel, fostered the foreigners' prosperity, weakened Israel spiritually, and decreased her opportunity to enjoy the land's crops. 9:13-14. The conclusion Ezra reached was that God would be totally just in destroying them in His anger so that no remnant would be left (el. remnant' in vv. 8, 13, 15). They deserved even greater punishment than God was giving them (cf. v. 6). Essays? In a nutshell, Ezra was describing the position of all mankind before God. As people disobey the Word of God they stand under His wrath in their guilt (cf. guilt in vv. 6-7, 13, 15; cf. English Essays 10? John 16:8; James 2:10). 9:15.
Ezra's prayer included no specific request; he simply threw himself on God's mercy. By this he concluded his prayer in essays the same way he began. Essays? He acknowledged that no one in the entire community was worthy to stand before the righteous God. In his prayer Ezra affirmed several attributes of in cold blood essay thesis God: grace (v. 8), kindness (v. 9), anger (v. 14), and righteousness (v. 15). Ezra was asking God to be merciful on the basis of His loyal love for the nation. 3. 10? THE PEOPLE'S CONFESSION OF SIN (CHAP.
10) As already noted, the leaders were sensitive to the fact that there was a problem (9:1-2). Now other concerned Israelites joined Ezra in his grief. a. The people acknowledged their sin (10:1-4) 10:1-4. Many people acknowledged that something had to be done about the situation. Apparently this sin had gone on and had been tolerated for some time. Developed Countries Should Help Countries Essay? Children were born to some of essays for class those who had intermarried (vv. 3, 44).
No doubt some devout Jews were grieved because of this sin in developed should help the community. Perhaps they were afraid to speak up or had tried and were rebuffed. In any case, now that some of the leaders were joining Ezra in bemoaning the sin, these righteous people joined in the mourning and essays for class 10 began to demand that something be done. A large crowd of Israelites gathered with Ezra and wept bitterly. One man, Shecaniah, spoke for all the people who were weeping. Countries Essay? He acknowledged the unfaithfulness of the nation but he felt that there was still hope for Israel. Essays 10? He suggested that the people covenant before. . . God to divorce the essay foreign women and send them away along with the children they had borne. This was to be done according to the Law. Shecaniah promised Ezra that the people would stand behind him in such a decision. Shecaniah was calling on english the nation to do something distasteful and difficult, something that could cause bitter division between family members and friends.
However, he appealed on the basis of the Law of God which was supposed to countries should help essay, be the people's rule of life. The Law also was a safeguard for this situation, for an Israelite could marry a woman from outside the nation if she had become Jewish in faith. Perhaps that is why each marriage was investigated thoroughly (vv. Essays? 16-19)--to see if any women had become Jewish proselytes. Though divorce was not the on indo pak relations norm, it may have been preferable in this situation because the mixed marriages, if continued, would lead the nation away from true worship of Yahweh. For Class 10? Eventually they would destroy the nation. On the other hand some Bible students believe this plan was not in accord with God's desires (cf. Mal.
2:16). Do two wrongs make one right? Perhaps Ezra wrongly followed Shecaniah's advice in requiring these divorces. However, no specific support for english essays, this view is indicated in Ezra 10. b. The people took an oath (10:5-8) 10:5-8. The people's sincerity in their confession and repentance was shown by the fact that they took an oath before God.
Taking an oath was not a light matter; it bound the oath-taker to do what he had promised. If he did not, he would be punished. Ezra withdrew to fast and mourn by himself. Essays For Class? Jehohanan was the same as Johanan (Neh. 12:23). He was the grandson of Eliashab (Neh. 12:10-11), who was the high priest (Neh.
13:28). Hence, son of Eliashab (Ezra 10:6) means grandson of Eliashab (son in Heb. often means a grandson or even a later descendant). A proclamation was sent out to all the exiles to assemble in Jerusalem. Anyone who did not come would lose his property and would be expelled from the assembly of the exiles. In effect such a person would no longer have any legal rights. Purpose Conclusion? Ezra had this authority to essays for class, send out a proclamation with threat of punishment, because of the edict of the king (cf.
7:26). c. The people gathered at the temple (10:9-15) 10:9-11. The square to the east of the conclusion essay temple could accommodate thousands of people. The temple area was always the center of action in the Book of Ezra. On the english essays for class appointed day (three days after the proclamation, in November-December 457) as the people were gathering, a rainstorm was in progress. This was the rainy season (v. 13). However, because of the oath (v.
5) and because of the threat of punishment the meeting went on as scheduled. The people were distressed out of internship cover letter with fear of God's wrath and over concern about their families being separated. As Ezra addressed the group, he cited their sin of for class 10 unfaithfulness, pronounced their guilt, and challenged them to acknowledge their sin and letter with for engineering do something about it by becoming separate from their foreign wives. 10:12-15. The people responded that they agreed, but that the matter would take some time because of the large number of people involved and because of the rain. (In fact, it took three months, vv. 16-17.) Someone suggested that each man who had married a foreign woman should make an english essays for class 10 appointment with the elders and judges of his hometown so that the matter could be settled locally. This was a good suggestion because the elders and judges of each town would know the individuals involved. They would know whether the women involved were worshipers of the Lord or were still involved in pagan worship.
Four leaders opposed the plan, though it is not clear why. Perhaps they wanted to take care of the matter right away; or perhaps they did not want to take care of it at all. At least one of them, Meshullam, was guilty (v. 29). d. The marriages examined (10:16-17) 10:16-17. In just 11 days the examining' began (cf. vv. 9, 16).
It took three . . Cover With No Experience? months for all the marriages to be examined, from the first day of the 10th month (December-January 457) to the first day of the 1st month of the for class next year (March-April 456). Obviously the problem was widespread and could not be settled in no experience a day (v. English Essays For Class 10? 13). Each case was judged individually so that justice would be done. By this action the community was not saying that divorce was good. It was a matter of following God's Law about the need for religious purity in developed help developing the nation (Ex. 34:11-16; Deut. 7:1-4). Ezra wrote nothing about what happened to essays 10, these foreign women or their children. Presumably they returned to their pagan countries.
e. The offenders listed (10:18-44) 10:18-44. Ezra concluded his account by listing the offenders in the foreign marriages. Involved in this serious sin were 17 priests (vv. 18-22) and 10 Levites including a singer and countries should help 3 gatekeepers (vv. 23-24), and 84 others from around the english essays for class nation (vv. 25-43). As the leaders had said (9:1), some priests and Levites were guilty. Developed Countries Should Essay? The guilty priests each offered a ram. . . For Class 10? as a guilt offering in accord with Leviticus 5:14-15. English Websites? The family names in Ezra 10:25-43 correspond closely to those in 2:3-20.
Some of these had children by these marriages (10:44). Essays For Class 10? This was a grievous separation from God's covenant. Unfortunately the people would again slip into the same kind of sin only one generation later (Neh. 13:23-28). The narrative ends abruptly at this point. Websites? The message of the book is complete.
In order for the people to be back in fellowship with the Lord it was absolutely necessary for them to essays for class 10, have proper temple worship (Ezra 1-6) and to live according to God's Word (chaps. 7-10). ( Bible Knowledge Commentary , Walvoord and Zuck)