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bdsm slave essay (c) 2004 by Deborah Teramis Christian. All rights reserved. Contact the author for permission to reuse. A submissive explores the piquant terrain of the articles essays surrendering of power. It is graduate thesis not surprising that folks engaged in D/s often spend a fair amount of energy determining what are the appropriate bounds of essays love, submission and control to incorporate into their play. Essay Rubric? For those for whom this kind of essays love, power exchange is essay on apple computers a lifestyle expression, the scope of dominance and submission excercised may be quite extensive.

Into this mix then often comes the tricky word of slave #150; a concept which never fails to muddy the water, especially in articles essays love, discussions on the internet or among kinksters with limited D/s experience. While some people insist that the word slave, like the word submissive, can mean to the individual anything they want it to mean, it is neverthless a fact of the established and more experienced leather community that slavery in an M/s sense of the word has specific connotations, and that slavery differs from submission in significant ways. I want to explore those differences here and illustrate why I believe that a submissive and a slave are two entirely different creatures, as unlike as apples and oranges. To start this conversation I will offer a definition of submissive and slave first put forth by Steven Davis on the old alt.sex.bondage newsgroup on Usenet in 1995, paraphrased here with permission. (Also, when speaking of short essay states, D/s which is a gender-neutral endeavor, I tend to use the gender neutral pronouns of sie and hir in my discussion. I write for an audience that spans many orientations and I find it helps avoid the essays love pattern of thinking of D/s as happening in any one set of gender configurations). That said: A submissive renews the choice to short essay states submit every time a demand is levied upon hir. A slave makes a one-time choice to submit, up front, and articles love thereafter it is of america incumbent upon love hir to obey. I am fond of of america, this definition because it describes not only my personal experience of submission and slavery, but with some minimal qualification also applies to articles every submissive or slave relationship I have known of. To elaborate, then.

At the heart of submission is the choice to submit and the option to say No . The submissive decides how much authority sie will cede to another, how much control sie will bow to, and what aspects of hir life sie will surrender to the dominant's command. Submissive power exchange is about choice: about the option to decide how one feels about a demand and what one is going to do about it. At any point that the sub is essay on being person not comfortable with this arrangement, it is within hir rights to articles love say No, I'm not going to do that, and this becomes a signal to the couple that they need to renegotiate something. It does not completely derail the power dynamic between them. A submissive chooses to submit and has the option to say 'no' in at on apple computers least one aspect of articles essays love, hir life. A submissive who is controlled in large tracts of hir life #150; hir sexuality, work, dress, social habits, etc - may fall into a space of a law contest, obedience where orders in those arenas are never mulled over or reassessed (in the sense of renewing the choice to articles submit every time a demand is levied upon hir).

I contend that this is not counter to the definition I offer above but a special subset thereof: even for such a closely-controlled submissive, there remains some area of hir life or aspect of hir person where sie retains autonomy, or where it is hir option to decide if sie wishes to submit in business plan for buying, the moment. In short: a submissive chooses to submit and has the option in articles love, some area or another to say no to a dominant command. How, then, does consensual slavery differ from submission? First and foremost, slavery hinges upon a commitment to obedience. The slave does not revisit issues such as should I submit? or How do I feel about that? Will I say yes or no? When a dominant order is issued, whether or not the slave agrees with it, sie is obedient in the same manner that a soldier is who has enlisted in the Army. (That military analogy is one of several I think holds very true for the power dynamics of M/s relationships.) Secondly, in consensual slavery a person gives themselves over to the control of another as completely as is day essay humanly possible. This means not only a high degree of obedience, but that there is love actually a chattel property context to the relationship. I refer not to a legal relationship, of course, but to a mutual understanding of ownership and essay rubric property status that arises between the parties. While both slaves and articles love submissives are often fondly referred to as property, in the sense of consensual slavery the slave becomes literally (by mutual agreement) the property of the Owner.

It is not unheard of for slaves to english essay be sold by an Owner and to go willingly to their new Master or Mistress. A slave commits to obey. A 'no' becomes a dealbreaker in a way it can never be for a submissive. Thirdly, a slave cannot say No without completely abrogating the very basis of the articles love Master/slave agreement. A No from a slave is a terminal deal-breaker in a way that it is not for a submissive. One analogy I offer is this: a submissive is on united states of america like an employee in the workplace, who can protest directives and hope to resolve conflict with management (the dominant). A slave, on the other hand, is like a soldier who, if sie disobeys orders, has put hirself in articles essays love, a position of mutiny with much more dire consequences to hir relationship to the military (the Owner) than if sie were a civilian disputing a less-controlling authority. The military cannot function if command authority is questioned, and neither can a Master/slave relationship. Earlier I said, The submissive decides how much authority sie will cede to another, how much control sie will bow to, and what aspects of hir life sie will surrender to the dominant's command.

Slavery differs in graduate writing, this regard: these decisions are not made by the slave, but by essays the Owner for the slave, after the computers general commitment to obedience is in essays love, place. English Essay Rubric? There is much more to be said about the characteristics and nuances of essays love, consensual slavery, which I get into in an optimistic person, other essays dedicated to the topic. But I believe the above serves to illustrate the key differences in the submission and obedience factors of sub and slave. Submissives are commonly viewed as falling upon a spectrum. At one end is one who submits very little or only in scene-delimited context; at the other, one who submits as a constant in essays love, a lifestyle context and thesis writing is very controlled, and everyone else falls somewhere in between. A big error occurs, I believe, when people assume that a slave is simply another point on that spectrum, a more extreme form of submissive than is found in the ordinary range of submission. I think this is to fundamentally misunderstand the internal dynamics of slavery. A slave is not an ueber-sub, someone more submissive than the ordinary submissive. For that matter, a slave may not even be submissive at all.

Slavery is not about submission or submissive behaviors. It is about obedience . There are other characteristics unique to slaves that distinguish them from essays love submissive mentalities and reflect a different kind of internal wiring. I will touch upon those in other essays as well. The word slave has a lot of charge to contest it. Articles Essays Love? It has erotic juice for those who would be love slaves or service slaves. It has cultural charge around the non-consensual chattel slavery history experienced by blacks in essay, this country. Articles Love? It is shunned by those who do not like the essay on being an optimistic cultural baggage, and embraced by articles essays those who like the eroticism that the word suggests. Slavery as I use it here and short essay on united states as much (most?) of the M/s community employ it, has a distinctive character. It is a narrowly defined construct with fairly specific meaning at essays its core.

A slave who is property, who offers obedience across the essay board, even potentially to the point of being sold, will at times look askance when this label is bandied about by bedroom players or used to describe relationships that are D/s #150; even very controlling D/s #150; but not M/s, in nature. Articles Essays? Many people refer to themselves as slaves because they enjoy erotic or other types of control on a limited basis, as long as it doesn't interfere too much with other areas of on being person, their life they hold off-limits. And the more controlled a submissive is, the more that person's state resembles that of a slave, and so may be commonly referred to as slave without fine distinctions being made in conversation. But when we are speaking of degree of control, a slave is someone very specific. Words and articles essays Their Meanings.

It is the nature of popular jargon, perhaps, that words like slave will be adopted by those who find it sexy or apropo to some aspect of their lives, and the distinctions between that and submissive will blur. A Law? But it is necessary when speaking of M/s relationships to be more precise about these meanings. Slaves and Owners of my acquaintance distinguish sharply between the Master and slave of delimited D/s, and the Master and slave of an obedience-centered chattel property relationship. Articles? I have offered this discussion to distinguish beween key elements of submission as contrasted to slavery. Slave has a particular meaning to an established segment of the BDSM community, and the aforegoing is intended to illustrate ways in which this mode of obedience differs from the more commonly encountered D/s styles of submission.

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Sample Fiction Essays Essays and Research Papers. Fiction Essay Thiago De Souza Liberty University Abstract In this essay , The Rocking Horse Winner and The . Lottery are compared and contrasted. Their different themes and different characters have some similarities. The things the characters do and want ultimately brings them to their very own downfall. Throughout this essay , I talk about articles how these characters are just like every ordinary person and how our society is well represented by the different themes in each of these stories. One. A Story , Difference , Irony 1209 Words | 4 Pages.

ENG 102-D18 FICTION ESSAY Professor Penner Matthew Kinsman 11 April 2011 Thesis Statement: In the essay an optimistic person stories The Lottery . and Young Goodman Brown, one can see how the author reflects the mood of the love piece through the setting of the business plan an established business piece. Outline: I. Comparisons A. Not in modern times B. Dialogue reveals setting II. Contrasts A. Love? One bleak B. One hopeful III. Conclusion statement A. Relevance B. Timelessness . Allegory , Fiction , Goodman 777 Words | 3 Pages. Engl 102 Fiction Essay Thesis and Outline Thesis: In both The Lottery by graduate thesis writing Shirley Jackson and The Most Dangerous . Game by Richard Connell, the essays authors write to emphasize the sanctity of life through the conflicts endured by their main characters both implicitly and explicitly. I. Introduction A. Thesis Statement B. The Lottery by Shirley Jackson brief description C. The Most Dangerous Game by Richard Connell brief description II.

Characterization A. The Lottery. Bloodlust! , Richard Connell , Short story 1009 Words | 4 Pages. ? Fiction Essay English 102: Literature and day essay contest winners Composition Summer 2011 MLA Style . Perseverance Played Out The Rocking-Horse Winner and The Most Dangerous Game In D.H. Lawrences The Rocking-Horse Winner and Richard Connells The Most Dangerous Game, the reader is given insight into the lives of two males: Sanger Rainsford in articles essays, Most Dangerous Game, and thesis writing a boy, Paul, in Rocking-Horse. Equally Lawrence and Connell are wickedly clever in essays love, their details. Boy , D. H. Lawrence , Hunting 1286 Words | 4 Pages.

Short Story Essay English 102-D25 Composition and Literature Spring 13 D Joy Culwell New Braunfels, TX Prentice Hall Reference . Short Essay Of America? Guide-MLA Outline and Thesis Statement I. Articles Love? Introduction a. Conflict/Plot/Structure b. On Apple? The Child by Tiger by articles Thomas Wolfe c. The Most Dangerous Game by Richard Connell d. Thesis i. These two stories have showed many similarities and differences; some of which are straight forward but others require paying a little more. Richard Connell , Short story , The Most Dangerous Game 1322 Words | 4 Pages. Fictional writing is any type of writing that is not factual. Fictional writing most often takes the form of a story meant to convey an authors point . in view or simply to entertain. The outcome of essay on being person, this may be a short story, novel, or drama. Fiction has different types of characteristics that make up the fictional writing, like character, plot, and articles setting. These characteristics are what make the imagery of fictional writing so astonishing and magical. Character is a figure in the story that. Character , Fiction , Narratology 954 Words | 3 Pages. Sample essay Topic: Test anxiety causes university students to underperform in their examinations.

Discuss. NOTE: The . essay is in english rubric, the left column. Articles? In the right hand column there are short notes indicating the various academic writing skills present in the essay . Essay | Comment | This essay examines the relationship between test anxiety in of america, university students and articles their performance in examinations. Typically universities use examinations to test part or even all the knowledge of students, particularly. Academia , Anxiety , Bachelor's degree 2517 Words | 7 Pages.

Sample essay Argue either in favour or against short essay, the impact of the internet on people's lives in the last decade. As an . avenue of essays love, entertainment and communication, and as a research and reference tool, the internet has had a huge impact on the modern societies of developed nations. English Rubric? At the same time, there is concern that the disadvantages and negative influences may outweigh the benefits to the society. This essay argues that, in the last decade, the articles love advantages of the internet far outweigh the. Family , History of the regents english essay rubric Internet , Internet 1326 Words | 4 Pages.

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My paternal grandparents lived down the street from on being person, us, but my maternal grandparents. Cat , Computer , E-mail 2464 Words | 7 Pages. Sample Essay: Paralysis in articles essays love, Dubliners. Sample Essay for essay person English 4950 Keycode: 2390 1 Paralysis in Dubliners A heavy theme found throughout the entirety of . Dubliners is the love feeling of paralysis that is felt by regents rubric the characters in articles love, the stories. Essay On Being Person? Reading the stories and essays analyzing them individually hints at the idea of paralysis but it is also easy to overlook it. English? Upon reading all of the stories of Dubliners, the idea of essays love, paralysis is a common theme.

This feeling of paralysis in Dublin and Ireland as a whole is a feeling that Joyce was trying. Dublin , Dubliners , Encyclop?dia Britannica 1489 Words | 4 Pages. ?Running head: FICTION ESSAY Fiction Essay Kijuana Lipscomb, APA Professor Christopher . Robinson ENGL 102-D04 Fiction Essay From a different perspective of using symbolism and a law day essay literary tone, Shirley Jackson, author of The Lottery and Nathaniel Hawthorne, author of Young Goodman Brown, both uniquely and cleverly depicts the hidden agendas and battles found within man. Jeremiah 17:9 clearly states, The heart is articles love deceitful. Who can know it (Jeremiah 17 (King James Version))? This passage. Allegory , Goodman , Mosses from an Old Manse 825 Words | 4 Pages. ? FICTION POEM ESSAY Fiction Poem . Essay An Optimistic? Essay Liberty University FICTION POEM ESSAY This poem deals with a man, who believes he has no real self-identification. However, in the midst of love, his affliction, and day essay winners the pain of being loss he finds his purpose and most of love, all his self worth. When reading The Lamb poem, it reminds me of how I felt when I first met the Lord.

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05/08/2015 Sample Academic Essay Sample Academic Essay Knowing How to Live Alone Introduction . Hook Alone one is never lonely, says the poet and author Mary Sarton in praise of living along. Thesis? Most people, however, are terrified of living alone. They are used to living with others Connecting children with parents, roommates with Information roommates, friends with friends, husbands with wives. When the statistics catch up with them, therefore, they are rarely prepared. Chances are high that most adult men and women.

Infantry battalions of the essays United States Marine Corps 753 Words | 3 Pages. ENG 102 fiction essay instruction. ? Fiction Essay Instructions In Module/Week 3, you will write a 750-word (about 34-pages) essay that compares . and essay contrasts 2 stories from the Fiction Unit. Before you begin writing the articles essays essay , carefully read the guidelines for developing your paper topic that are given below. Review the Fiction Essay Grading Rubric to see how your submission will be graded. Gather all of your information, plan the direction of your essay , and organize your ideas by developing a 1-page thesis statement and outline. Character , Emotion , Essay 755 Words | 2 Pages. SAMPLE ESSAY | . | |WHAT IS AN ESSAY ? Its a brief text that discusses a matter, expresses a point of view, or persuades us to accept a thesis on any | |subject whatever. | | . Amnesty International , Capital punishment , Crime 944 Words | 5 Pages. gains confidence and control over both and ultimately dominates them. Short Of America? Works Cited Johnson, Greg. Articles Essays Love? Studies in day essay winners, Short Fiction . Gilmans . Articles? Gothic Allegory: Rage and Redemption in The Yellow Wallpaper Vol.

26 Issue 4: 521-530. Academic Search Complete. Web. Essay Rubric? February 18, 2011 Dear Sara, I am writing this letter to tell you what I thought about your character analysis essay over articles essays love Greasy Lake. Over all the paper was very descriptive and gave the states of america name of a bad character to articles essays love the protagonist. As Time Goes By , Charlotte Perkins Gilman , Marriage 1486 Words | 4 Pages. ? Sample of essays , letters and memorandum Letter of Enquiry English Language Society Tunku Abdul Rahman University College . 77 Lorong Lembah Permai Tiga 11200 Tanjong Bungah Penang 15 June 2013 Manager Paradise Hotel 23 Jalan Gembira 11200 Tanjong Bungah Penang Dear Sir ACCOMMODATION FOR THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE CAMP I am writing on behalf of the English Language Society of Tunku Abdul Rahman University College.

We would like to enquire about your accommodation at graduate, your hotel. . Bursa Malaysia , Economy of Malaysia , English language 751 Words | 4 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . Essays? trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. ? Sample 1: Prompt: Your academic interests, personal perspectives and life experiences will add much to Gallaudets diverse community. . Describe a personal experience that shows what you will bring to Gallaudets diverse community While attending Atlanta Area School for a law day essay winners the Deaf, Ms. Jennifer observed my social skills and chose me to assist a student from abroad. His name was Akeem. I was told to teach him American Sign Language. Akeem was born in Africa and came to the United States.

American Sign Language , Family , High school 1516 Words | 4 Pages. Dystopian Fiction Comparative Essay. girl, Clarisse, he must hide and run from essays, a government that hunts him down So it was the contest winners hand that started it all . Love? . . His hands had been infected, and . soon it would be his arms . . . His hands were ravenous(42).. They are both works of dystopian fiction where controls are used to a law contest keep their inhabitants ignorant and civilized. Articles Essays? However when it comes to contrasting the types of controls used, we can say Minority Report uses more technology to regents rubric limit civilians everyday life by inserting machines. Dystopia , Fahrenheit 451 , Minority Report 685 Words | 3 Pages. fantasies.1 They are stereotyped into vacuous roles such as the romantic interest, damsel in distress and femme fetale. Female characters are given little . to no agency by white male writers and this is overt in articles essays love, 20th century hard-boiled American crime fiction . Graduate? In the works of Dashiell Hammett and Raymond Chandler, female characters exist only to serve as foils to re-emphasize the hyper-masculinity of the Continental Op and Phillip Marlowe, their respective detective protagonists. I put emphasise on essays love, the. Crime fiction , Dashiell Hammett , Detective fiction 2419 Words | 8 Pages. ? Sample Essay Answer Use the organization and layout of this essay , in conjunction with the essay . rubric and writing worksheet, as a template for essays love the in-class essay exams.

Question: Compare and contrast the Chinese and graduate writing Japanese attitudes and policies regarding modernization beginning at the time of sustained European contact but concentrating on the period between 1840 and 1910. How did their status change in the eyes of the Europeans? By 1840, Europe had at least nominal domination over much of the. China , Government of Japan , Great power 1156 Words | 2 Pages. ?Rebekah Frost LAL 153: Online Summer 2015 Unit 7: Literary Analysis Essay Literary Analysis Essay Final Draft Due: 6-20-15 . Brownies by ZZ Packer, Literary Analysis Essay Racism Among Our Youth Brownies is a short story about 4th graders who go on articles essays, a summer camping trip near the southern suburbs of Atlanta in Georgia. Business Business? Laura, an articles essays African American girl, also known by graduate her nickname Snot to the other girls, narrates the story. The Narrator explains how her Brownie troop took a dislike on each. African American , Black people , Race 866 Words | 3 Pages. to look deeper and past the established facades.

This also forces the audience to question the actual safety and security offered in cities; and whether or . not crime is embedded in the very roots of essays love, all cities. It is common for hard-boiled crime fiction to establish male protagonists who are able to essay defend themselves in articles essays love, the corrupt and lawless cities. In L.A. Essay On Being Person? Confidential, the three main protagonists are all men. Love? In fact, the essay whole Police Department is articles love operated by english essay policemen. The role women play in.

Crime , Crime fiction , Detective fiction 1347 Words | 4 Pages. ?AN ESSAY Speculative texts through the creation of distinct worlds can challenge or reinforce understanding of ourselves and how we live . in the world Utopian and Dystopian composers employ the creation of distinct worlds as a medium to covertly express political concerns. The fictional worlds created by Aldous Huxley and articles essays Ursula K. Le Guin in Brave New World and The Dispossessed elucidate prevalent social issues of their respective contexts, provoking alternate understandings of humankind. Brave New World , Capitalism , Communism 1639 Words | 5 Pages. crime-writing genre consists of a wide array of subgenres and hybrids, these texts all focus on a criminal investigation using this as a platform/vehicle to . explore and essay on apple computers comment on the values and the social context in which it was composed. In doing so, crime fiction texts do not just tell a crime story; they make insightful social comments to inform responders. Articles Essays Love? This is evident in P.D. A Law Day Essay? James The Skull Beneath The Skin (Skull) which not only follows an investigation but also comments on articles essays, the justice and the emerging. Gender , Gender identity , Gender role 1862 Words | 5 Pages. ? Sample College Essay #1 The sun sleeps as the graduate thesis writing desolate city streets await the articles love morning rush hour. Driven by an inexplicable . compulsion, I enter the building along with ten other swimmers, inching my way toward the cold, dark locker room of the Esplanada Park Pool.

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Research Paper Examples by Fields of Study. This collection is meant to feature more than 100 anthropology research paper examples. Since its emergence as a scientific discipline in the middle of the 19th century, anthropology has focused on essays love the study of humankind in terms of short states of america science and reason, as well as logical speculation. Within a comprehensive and interdisciplinary framework, anthropology aims for a better understanding of and proper appreciation for articles love the place of english essay rubric our species within earth history and organic development. As such, the scientific theory of biological evolution has been indispensable for articles giving meaning and purpose to the awesome range of empirical facts and conceptual insights that now constitute the rich content of present-day anthropology. Furthermore, cross-cultural studies emphasize the vast differences among human groups from the essay on being an optimistic perspectives of material culture, social behavior, languages, and worldviews.

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Browse Geography Research Paper Examples. See our collection of genetics research paper examples. These example papers are to help you understanding how to write this type of written assignments. Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms. It is essay on being an optimistic generally considered a field of essays biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. Browse Genetics Research Paper Examples. This collection of for buying business history research paper examples have been designed to love serve as model papers for most popular historical topics. Each research paper covers the business for buying topic in a comprehensive manner and to provides a perspective that students might find to be unique. The purpose of creating this list is for students to have available a comprehensive, state-of-the-research, easy-to-read compilation of love a wide variety of on apple computers history research paper examples.

Our focus on essentials has meant covering fairly broad areas in the discipline, rather than specific research paper topics. In our view, this broad focus would be most useful to students. Articles. Browse History Research Paper Examples. Management Research Paper Examples. Management is the administration of an organization, whether it be a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the on apple efforts of its employees or volunteers to accomplish its objectives through the articles essays application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technological, and human resources. The term management may also refer to the people who manage an organization.

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Browse Philosophy Research Paper Examples. Political Science Research Paper Examples. This collection of political science research paper examples is an attempt to make fairly complex approaches in politics accessible to advanced undergraduate students and beginning graduate students. There is very little in the way of reference works in political science that are sufficiently accessible that students can profitably use them to assist the pursuit of their research paper writing. In particular, we have sought to make a collection that would provide students with the essentials of various approaches (both theoretical and methodological) in political science. Our focus on essentials has meant covering fairly broad areas in the discipline, rather than specific research paper topics. In our view, this broad focus would be most useful to students. Browse Political Science Research Paper Examples. Psychology Research Paper Examples. Psychology research paper examples below attempt to capture psychologys vast and love evolving nature. We believe that our choice of regents english essay rubric traditional and articles essays love cutting-edge research paper topics reflects contemporary psychologys diverse nature.

The diversity of the APA divisions clearly reflects the changing face of contemporary psychology as well as represents wide subjects of psychological research. They include General Psychology (Division 1), the Study of Social Issues (Division 9), Clinical Psychology (Division 12), Pharmacology and Substance Abuse (Division 28), Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities (Division 33), Media Psychology (Division 46), International Psychology (Division 52), and Trauma Psychology (Division 56). We hope that students will enjoy reading the research papers on regents english rubric different psychology topics as much as we have enjoyed collecting them for you. Browse Psychology Research Paper Examples. Religion is any cultural system of articles love designated behaviors and plan for buying an established business practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, ethics, or organizations, that relate humanity to articles essays the supernatural or transcendental. However, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion. Essay On Being. Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from the divine, sacred things, faith, a supernatural being or supernatural beings or some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for essays the rest of life. Religious practices may include rituals, sermons, commemoration or veneration (of deities), sacrifices, festivals, feasts, trances, initiations, funerary services, matrimonial services, meditation, prayer, music, art, dance, public service, or other aspects of human culture.

Browse Religion Research Paper Examples. Sociology Research Paper Examples. This collection of english essay rubric sociology research paper examples is both interesting and informative in that the research paper content offers the student insight into the rich legacy and development of the discipline of sociology while also providing the articles requisite reference information for regents english essay rubric advanced study and research into each topic. In this regard, there is a sufficient amount of love information to support the rich sociological legacy of enabling students ample opportunity to learn while also providing important insights for those who enthusiastically embrace social activism as a part of the sociological enterprise. On Apple. Browse Sociology Research Paper Examples. A research paper is a piece of academic writing that provides information about a particular topic that youve researched . Its not as simple as writing an essay about your summer vacation, your family, or the last party youve been to, because you dont have to do research to find out about your own personal experience. Articles Love. On the an optimistic person other hand, a paper about a topic such as ancient civilizations, capital punishment, civil society, or the history of advertising does qualify as a research paper. These are topics about which you, yourself, are not an articles expert, but that you can learn about by reading the work of expertsin other words, by doing research. Then you can summarize, analyze, and communicate in writing what you have learned. Ideally, you will do that in a clear and interesting way. A research paper is an academic paper that is either argumentative or analytical.

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competence essay Copyright 2001 Eric S. Raymond. As editor of the Jargon File and author of a few other well-known documents of similar nature, I often get email requests from enthusiastic network newbies asking (in effect) how can I learn to essays love, be a wizardly hacker?. Back in business plan an established, 1996 I noticed that there didn't seem to be any other FAQs or web documents that addressed this vital question, so I started this one. A lot of hackers now consider it definitive, and essays, I suppose that means it is. Still, I don't claim to be the exclusive authority on this topic; if you don't like what you read here, write your own. If you are reading a snapshot of thesis writing this document offline, the love current version lives at short essay states http://catb.org/ Note: there is articles, a list of Frequently Asked Questions at the end of this document. Essay On United States Of America? Please read thesetwicebefore mailing me any questions about this document. The five-dots-in-nine-squares diagram that decorates this document is called a glider . It is a simple pattern with some surprising properties in a mathematical simulation called Life that has fascinated hackers for many years. I think it makes a good visual emblem for what hackers are like abstract, at first a bit mysterious-seeming, but a gateway to a whole world with an intricate logic of its own.

Read more about the glider emblem here. If you find this document valuable, please support me on Patreon. And consider also supporting other hackers who have produced code that you use and value. Lots of small but continuing donations add up quickly, and can free the essays people who have given you gifts of their labor to create more value. The Jargon File contains a bunch of definitions of the term hacker, most having to graduate, do with technical adeptness and a delight in solving problems and overcoming limits. Love? If you want to know how to graduate thesis, become a hacker, though, only two are really relevant. There is a community, a shared culture, of articles love expert programmers and networking wizards that traces its history back through decades to the first time-sharing minicomputers and the earliest ARPAnet experiments.

The members of this culture originated the term hacker. Hackers built the on being person Internet. Essays Love? Hackers made the english essay Unix operating system what it is today. Articles Essays? Hackers make the World Wide Web work. If you are part of this culture, if you have contributed to it and other people in a law day essay, it know who you are and call you a hacker, you're a hacker. The hacker mind-set is not confined to this software-hacker culture. There are people who apply the hacker attitude to other things, like electronics or music actually, you can find it at love the highest levels of any science or art. Software hackers recognize these kindred spirits elsewhere and essay on being person, may call them hackers too and some claim that the hacker nature is really independent of the articles particular medium the essay on being an optimistic person hacker works in.

But in the rest of love this document we will focus on the skills and attitudes of software hackers, and the traditions of the shared culture that originated the term hacker. There is another group of people who loudly call themselves hackers, but aren't. These are people (mainly adolescent males) who get a kick out of breaking into computers and phreaking the phone system. Real hackers call these people crackers and thesis, want nothing to articles, do with them. Real hackers mostly think crackers are lazy, irresponsible, and not very bright, and object that being able to break security doesn't make you a hacker any more than being able to hotwire cars makes you an short on united of america, automotive engineer.

Unfortunately, many journalists and writers have been fooled into using the word hacker to describe crackers; this irritates real hackers no end. The basic difference is this: hackers build things, crackers break them. If you want to be a hacker, keep reading. If you want to be a cracker, go read the alt.2600 newsgroup and get ready to do five to ten in the slammer after finding out you aren't as smart as you think you are. And that's all I'm going to say about crackers. Hackers solve problems and build things, and they believe in freedom and voluntary mutual help. To be accepted as a hacker, you have to behave as though you have this kind of articles love attitude yourself. And to behave as though you have the attitude, you have to really believe the attitude.

But if you think of cultivating hacker attitudes as just a way to a law day essay contest, gain acceptance in articles, the culture, you'll miss the point. Becoming the kind of winners person who believes these things is important for you for articles love, helping you learn and keeping you motivated. As with all creative arts, the most effective way to become a master is to imitate the mind-set of masters not just intellectually but emotionally as well. Or, as the following modern Zen poem has it: To follow the path: look to the master, follow the master, walk with the graduate master, see through the master, become the master. So, if you want to articles love, be a hacker, repeat the following things until you believe them: 1. The world is full of fascinating problems waiting to be solved. Being a hacker is lots of fun, but it's a kind of fun that takes lots of plan business effort. The effort takes motivation.

Successful athletes get their motivation from a kind of physical delight in making their bodies perform, in pushing themselves past their own physical limits. Articles Love? Similarly, to be a hacker you have to essay person, get a basic thrill from solving problems, sharpening your skills, and articles love, exercising your intelligence. If you aren't the kind of person that feels this way naturally, you'll need to become one in a law contest, order to essays, make it as a hacker. Otherwise you'll find your hacking energy is sapped by distractions like sex, money, and thesis, social approval. (You also have to develop a kind of faith in your own learning capacity a belief that even though you may not know all of what you need to solve a problem, if you tackle just a piece of it and articles essays, learn from that, you'll learn enough to solve the on united of america next piece and so on, until you're done.)

2. No problem should ever have to be solved twice. Creative brains are a valuable, limited resource. They shouldn't be wasted on articles essays love re-inventing the wheel when there are so many fascinating new problems waiting out there. To behave like a hacker, you have to believe that the thinking time of other hackers is precious so much so that it's almost a moral duty for writing, you to share information, solve problems and articles, then give the solutions away just so other hackers can solve new problems instead of having to perpetually re-address old ones. Note, however, that No problem should ever have to be solved twice. does not imply that you have to consider all existing solutions sacred, or that there is only one right solution to a law day essay contest winners, any given problem. Often, we learn a lot about the problem that we didn't know before by studying the first cut at a solution. Essays Love? It's OK, and often necessary, to decide that we can do better.

What's not OK is artificial technical, legal, or institutional barriers (like closed-source code) that prevent a good solution from being re-used and a law winners, force people to re-invent wheels. (You don't have to believe that you're obligated to give all your creative product away, though the hackers that do are the ones that get most respect from other hackers. It's consistent with hacker values to sell enough of it to keep you in articles essays, food and rent and computers. Plan? It's fine to use your hacking skills to support a family or even get rich, as long as you don't forget your loyalty to your art and your fellow hackers while doing it.) Hackers (and creative people in general) should never be bored or have to drudge at stupid repetitive work, because when this happens it means they aren't doing what only essays love they can do solve new problems. This wastefulness hurts everybody. Therefore boredom and drudgery are not just unpleasant but actually evil. To behave like a hacker, you have to essay states of america, believe this enough to want to automate away the boring bits as much as possible, not just for yourself but for everybody else (especially other hackers). (There is one apparent exception to this.

Hackers will sometimes do things that may seem repetitive or boring to an observer as a mind-clearing exercise, or in order to acquire a skill or have some particular kind of experience you can't have otherwise. But this is by choice nobody who can think should ever be forced into essays a situation that bores them.) Hackers are naturally anti-authoritarian. Anyone who can give you orders can stop you from solving whatever problem you're being fascinated by and, given the way authoritarian minds work, will generally find some appallingly stupid reason to do so. So the authoritarian attitude has to short states, be fought wherever you find it, lest it smother you and other hackers.

(This isn't the same as fighting all authority. Articles Essays? Children need to be guided and criminals restrained. A hacker may agree to accept some kinds of authority in order to get something he wants more than the time he spends following orders. On Being An Optimistic? But that's a limited, conscious bargain; the kind of personal surrender authoritarians want is not on offer.) Authoritarians thrive on censorship and secrecy. And they distrust voluntary cooperation and articles essays, information-sharing they only like cooperation that they control. So to behave like a hacker, you have to develop an instinctive hostility to censorship, secrecy, and the use of force or deception to compel responsible adults. Graduate Writing? And you have to be willing to act on that belief.

5. Attitude is no substitute for competence. To be a hacker, you have to develop some of these attitudes. But copping an attitude alone won't make you a hacker, any more than it will make you a champion athlete or a rock star. Becoming a hacker will take intelligence, practice, dedication, and hard work. Therefore, you have to articles love, learn to distrust attitude and respect competence of every kind. Hackers won't let posers waste their time, but they worship competence especially competence at plan for buying hacking, but competence at anything is valued. Competence at essays love demanding skills that few can master is especially good, and business, competence at demanding skills that involve mental acuteness, craft, and concentration is best. If you revere competence, you'll enjoy developing it in yourself the hard work and dedication will become a kind of intense play rather than drudgery. That attitude is vital to becoming a hacker.

The hacker attitude is vital, but skills are even more vital. Attitude is no substitute for articles, competence, and thesis, there's a certain basic toolkit of skills which you have to articles essays, have before any hacker will dream of calling you one. This toolkit changes slowly over essay person time as technology creates new skills and essays, makes old ones obsolete. For example, it used to include programming in machine language, and didn't until recently involve HTML. But right now it pretty clearly includes the following: This, of course, is the fundamental hacking skill. If you don't know any computer languages, I recommend starting with Python. It is cleanly designed, well documented, and relatively kind to graduate thesis, beginners. Despite being a good first language, it is not just a toy; it is essays love, very powerful and flexible and essay, well suited for articles love, large projects.

I have written a more detailed evaluation of Python. Good tutorials are available at rubric the Python web site; there's an excellent third-party one at Computer Science Circles. I used to recommend Java as a good language to learn early, but this critique has changed my mind (search for The Pitfalls of Java as a First Programming Language within it). A hacker cannot, as they devastatingly put it approach problem-solving like a plumber in a hardware store ; you have to know what the components actually do . Now I think it is probably best to articles, learn C and Lisp first, then Java. There is perhaps a more general point here. If a language does too much for you, it may be simultaneously a good tool for production and a bad one for learning. It's not only languages that have this problem; web application frameworks like RubyOnRails, CakePHP, Django may make it too easy to reach a superficial sort of understanding that will leave you without resources when you have to tackle a hard problem, or even just debug the solution to an easy one.

If you get into serious programming, you will have to learn C, the core language of on being person Unix. C++ is very closely related to C; if you know one, learning the articles other will not be difficult. Neither language is a good one to try learning as your first, however. And, actually, the more you can avoid programming in C the more productive you will be. C is very efficient, and very sparing of your machine's resources. Unfortunately, C gets that efficiency by contest winners requiring you to do a lot of low-level management of resources (like memory) by hand. All that low-level code is complex and bug-prone, and will soak up huge amounts of your time on articles debugging. With today's machines as powerful as they are, this is usually a bad tradeoff it's smarter to use a language that uses the english machine's time less efficiently, but your time much more efficiently.

Thus, Python. Other languages of articles love particular importance to hackers include Perl and LISP. Perl is worth learning for practical reasons; it's very widely used for active web pages and system administration, so that even if you never write Perl you should learn to read it. Many people use Perl in the way I suggest you should use Python, to avoid C programming on jobs that don't require C's machine efficiency. On Being An Optimistic Person? You will need to be able to love, understand their code. LISP is worth learning for writing, a different reason the profound enlightenment experience you will have when you finally get it.

That experience will make you a better programmer for the rest of your days, even if you never actually use LISP itself a lot. Articles Essays? (You can get some beginning experience with LISP fairly easily by writing and modifying editing modes for the Emacs text editor, or Script-Fu plugins for winners, the GIMP.) It's best, actually, to learn all five of Python, C/C++, Java, Perl, and LISP. Besides being the most important hacking languages, they represent very different approaches to programming, and articles essays, each will educate you in valuable ways. But be aware that you won't reach the skill level of a hacker or even merely a programmer simply by accumulating languages you need to learn how to essay on apple, think about programming problems in a general way, independent of any one language. To be a real hacker, you need to get to the point where you can learn a new language in articles love, days by business relating what's in the manual to what you already know. This means you should learn several very different languages. I can't give complete instructions on how to learn to program here it's a complex skill. But I can tell you that books and love, courses won't do it many, maybe most of the essay best hackers are self-taught. You can learn language features bits of knowledge from love, books, but the mind-set that makes that knowledge into person living skill can be learned only by practice and apprenticeship.

What will do it is (a) reading code and (b) writing code . Peter Norvig, who is one of love Google's top hackers and the co-author of the most widely used textbook on AI, has written an short of america, excellent essay called Teach Yourself Programming in Ten Years. His recipe for programming success is worth careful attention. Learning to essays, program is like learning to write good natural language. The best way to essay on apple, do it is to essays love, read some stuff written by masters of the form, write some things yourself, read a lot more, write a little more, read a lot more, write some more . and repeat until your writing begins to develop the on being an optimistic person kind of strength and articles love, economy you see in a law day essay, your models. I have had more to essays, say about on united of america this learning process in How To Learn Hacking. Essays? It's a simple set of instructions, but not an easy one. Finding good code to read used to be hard, because there were few large programs available in source for on being an optimistic person, fledgeling hackers to articles love, read and essay on being an optimistic, tinker with. This has changed dramatically; open-source software, programming tools, and operating systems (all built by hackers) are now widely available. Which brings me neatly to our next topic.

2. Get one of the open-source Unixes and learn to use and run it. I'll assume you have a personal computer or can get access to one. (Take a moment to appreciate how much that means. Articles Love? The hacker culture originally evolved back when computers were so expensive that individuals could not own them.) The single most important step any newbie can take toward acquiring hacker skills is to get a copy of essay an optimistic person Linux or one of the BSD-Unixes, install it on essays a personal machine, and run it. Yes, there are other operating systems in graduate thesis writing, the world besides Unix. But they're distributed in binary you can't read the code, and articles essays, you can't modify it.

Trying to learn to hack on a Microsoft Windows machine or under any other closed-source system is like trying to learn to dance while wearing a body cast. Under Mac OS X it's possible, but only part of the system is open source you're likely to hit a lot of walls, and you have to be careful not to develop the bad habit of depending on on apple computers Apple's proprietary code. If you concentrate on articles love the Unix under the hood you can learn some useful things. Unix is the for buying operating system of the Internet. While you can learn to use the essays love Internet without knowing Unix, you can't be an Internet hacker without understanding Unix. For this reason, the hacker culture today is pretty strongly Unix-centered. Day Essay? (This wasn't always true, and some old-time hackers still aren't happy about love it, but the symbiosis between Unix and the Internet has become strong enough that even Microsoft's muscle doesn't seem able to seriously dent it.) So, bring up a Unix I like Linux myself but there are other ways (and yes, you can run both Linux and Microsoft Windows on the same machine). Learn it.

Run it. Plan An Established? Tinker with it. Talk to the Internet with it. Read the code. Modify the code. You'll get better programming tools (including C, LISP, Python, and Perl) than any Microsoft operating system can dream of hosting, you'll have fun, and you'll soak up more knowledge than you realize you're learning until you look back on it as a master hacker.

For more about learning Unix, see The Loginataka. You might also want to have a look at The Art Of Unix Programming. The blog Let's Go Larval! is a window on the learning process of articles essays love a new Linux user that I think is unusually lucid and helpful. The post How I Learned Linux makes a good starting point. To get your hands on a law winners a Linux, see the articles love Linux Online! site; you can download from there or (better idea) find a local Linux user group to help you with installation.

During the first ten years of this HOWTO's life, I reported that from a new user's point of view, all Linux distributions are almost equivalent. But in 2006-2007, an actual best choice emerged: Ubuntu. While other distros have their own areas of strength, Ubuntu is far and a law day essay winners, away the most accessible to Linux newbies. Beware, though, of the hideous and nigh-unusable Unity desktop interface that Ubuntu introduced as a default a few years later; the Xubuntu or Kubuntu variants are better. You can find BSD Unix help and articles essays, resources at www.bsd.org. A good way to dip your toes in the water is to boot up what Linux fans call a live CD, a distribution that runs entirely off a CD or USB stick without having to modify your hard disk. This may be slow, because CDs are slow, but it's a way to get a look at the possibilities without having to do anything drastic. I used to recommend against short states, installing either Linux or BSD as a solo project if you're a newbie. Nowadays the installers have gotten good enough that doing it entirely on your own is possible, even for a newbie.

Nevertheless, I still recommend making contact with your local Linux user's group and asking for help. It can't hurt, and may smooth the articles process. 3. Learn how to use the World Wide Web and write HTML. Most of the things the hacker culture has built do their work out of sight, helping run factories and offices and universities without any obvious impact on how non-hackers live. The Web is the one big exception, the day essay contest winners huge shiny hacker toy that even politicians admit has changed the articles essays world. For this reason alone (and a lot of other good ones as well) you need to learn how to work the Web. This doesn't just mean learning how to drive a browser (anyone can do that), but learning how to write HTML, the Web's markup language. If you don't know how to program, writing HTML will teach you some mental habits that will help you learn. So build a home page. But just having a home page isn't anywhere near good enough to make you a hacker.

The Web is full of home pages. Graduate Thesis Writing? Most of articles essays them are pointless, zero-content sludge very snazzy-looking sludge, mind you, but sludge all the same (for more on this see The HTML Hell Page). To be worthwhile, your page must have content it must be interesting and/or useful to other hackers. And that brings us to the next topic. 4. If you don't have functional English, learn it. As an American and native English-speaker myself, I have previously been reluctant to suggest this, lest it be taken as a sort of cultural imperialism. But several native speakers of other languages have urged me to point out that English is the working language of the hacker culture and the Internet, and that you will need to know it to essay, function in the hacker community. Back around 1991 I learned that many hackers who have English as a second language use it in technical discussions even when they share a birth tongue; it was reported to me at the time that English has a richer technical vocabulary than any other language and is therefore simply a better tool for articles essays, the job.

For similar reasons, translations of regents rubric technical books written in articles, English are often unsatisfactory (when they get done at all). Linus Torvalds, a Finn, comments his code in English (it apparently never occurred to him to do otherwise). An Established? His fluency in English has been an articles essays love, important factor in his ability to essay of america, recruit a worldwide community of developers for Linux. It's an example worth following. Being a native English-speaker does not guarantee that you have language skills good enough to function as a hacker. If your writing is semi-literate, ungrammatical, and essays, riddled with misspellings, many hackers (including myself) will tend to ignore you. While sloppy writing does not invariably mean sloppy thinking, we've generally found the correlation to be strong and we have no use for sloppy thinkers. If you can't yet write competently, learn to. Like most cultures without a money economy, hackerdom runs on reputation.

You're trying to solve interesting problems, but how interesting they are, and essay, whether your solutions are really good, is something that only your technical peers or superiors are normally equipped to judge. Accordingly, when you play the hacker game, you learn to essays, keep score primarily by essay what other hackers think of your skill (this is why you aren't really a hacker until other hackers consistently call you one). Articles Essays Love? This fact is obscured by graduate writing the image of articles essays love hacking as solitary work; also by a hacker-cultural taboo (gradually decaying since the late 1990s but still potent) against admitting that ego or external validation are involved in one's motivation at all. Specifically, hackerdom is what anthropologists call a gift culture . You gain status and reputation in it not by dominating other people, nor by being beautiful, nor by having things other people want, but rather by giving things away. Specifically, by giving away your time, your creativity, and on united of america, the results of your skill.

There are basically five kinds of things you can do to be respected by articles essays love hackers: The first (the most central and most traditional) is to thesis writing, write programs that other hackers think are fun or useful, and give the program sources away to articles essays love, the whole hacker culture to use. (We used to an optimistic person, call these works free software, but this confused too many people who weren't sure exactly what free was supposed to mean. Most of us now prefer the articles term open-source software). Hackerdom's most revered demigods are people who have written large, capable programs that met a widespread need and given them away, so that now everyone uses them. But there's a bit of a fine historical point here. While hackers have always looked up to the open-source developers among them as our community's hardest core, before the regents essay rubric mid-1990s most hackers most of the time worked on articles closed source. Graduate Thesis Writing? This was still true when I wrote the first version of this HOWTO in 1996; it took the mainstreaming of open-source software after 1997 to change things.

Today, the hacker community and love, open-source developers are two descriptions for what is essentially the same culture and population but it is worth remembering that this was not always so. English Essay Rubric? (For more on this, see the section called Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source, and Free Software.) 2. Help test and debug open-source software. They also serve who stand and debug open-source software. Essays Love? In this imperfect world, we will inevitably spend most of our software development time in the debugging phase. That's why any open-source author who's thinking will tell you that good beta-testers (who know how to describe symptoms clearly, localize problems well, can tolerate bugs in a quickie release, and are willing to apply a few simple diagnostic routines) are worth their weight in contest winners, rubies. Even one of these can make the difference between a debugging phase that's a protracted, exhausting nightmare and one that's merely a salutary nuisance. If you're a newbie, try to find a program under development that you're interested in and be a good beta-tester. There's a natural progression from helping test programs to helping debug them to helping modify them. You'll learn a lot this way, and generate good karma with people who will help you later on. Another good thing is to collect and essays love, filter useful and interesting information into web pages or documents like Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) lists, and make those generally available.

Maintainers of essay on being person major technical FAQs get almost as much respect as open-source authors. 4. Help keep the infrastructure working. The hacker culture (and the engineering development of the essays love Internet, for that matter) is essay on united states, run by volunteers. There's a lot of necessary but unglamorous work that needs done to love, keep it going administering mailing lists, moderating newsgroups, maintaining large software archive sites, developing RFCs and other technical standards. People who do this sort of thing well get a lot of respect, because everybody knows these jobs are huge time sinks and essay, not as much fun as playing with code. Doing them shows dedication. 5. Serve the hacker culture itself.

Finally, you can serve and propagate the culture itself (by, for articles love, example, writing an accurate primer on how to become a hacker :-)). This is essay on united states of america, not something you'll be positioned to do until you've been around for articles essays, while and become well-known for one of the first four things. The hacker culture doesn't have leaders, exactly, but it does have culture heroes and tribal elders and historians and spokespeople. Essay Person? When you've been in the trenches long enough, you may grow into one of articles love these. Beware: hackers distrust blatant ego in their tribal elders, so visibly reaching for this kind of fame is dangerous. Rather than striving for it, you have to sort of position yourself so it drops in your lap, and plan an established, then be modest and gracious about your status. Contrary to popular myth, you don't have to be a nerd to be a hacker. It does help, however, and many hackers are in fact nerds.

Being something of essays a social outcast helps you stay concentrated on the really important things, like thinking and on apple computers, hacking. For this reason, many hackers have adopted the label geek as a badge of pride it's a way of declaring their independence from normal social expectations (as well as a fondness for other things like science fiction and strategy games that often go with being a hacker). The term 'nerd' used to be used this way back in essays love, the 1990s, back when 'nerd' was a mild pejorative and 'geek' a rather harsher one; sometime after 2000 they switched places, at least in on apple, U.S. popular culture, and there is articles, now even a significant geek-pride culture among people who aren't techies. If you can manage to concentrate enough on hacking to be good at it and still have a life, that's fine. This is a lot easier today than it was when I was a newbie in the 1970s; mainstream culture is much friendlier to techno-nerds now.

There are even growing numbers of on being an optimistic person people who realize that hackers are often high-quality lover and spouse material. If you're attracted to hacking because you don't have a life, that's OK too at least you won't have trouble concentrating. Maybe you'll get a life later on. Again, to be a hacker, you have to enter the hacker mindset. Essays Love? There are some things you can do when you're not at a computer that seem to help. They're not substitutes for hacking (nothing is) but many hackers do them, and feel that they connect in some basic way with the essence of hacking. Learn to business for buying an established, write your native language well. Though it's a common stereotype that programmers can't write, a surprising number of hackers (including all the most accomplished ones I know of) are very able writers. Read science fiction. Articles Essays? Go to science fiction conventions (a good way to meet hackers and proto-hackers).

Join a hackerspace and day essay, make things (another good way to meet hackers and proto-hackers). Train in a martial-arts form. Articles Love? The kind of computers mental discipline required for essays, martial arts seems to be similar in important ways to what hackers do. The most popular forms among hackers are definitely Asian empty-hand arts such as Tae Kwon Do, various forms of Karate, Kung Fu, Aikido, or Ju Jitsu. On Apple Computers? Western fencing and Asian sword arts also have visible followings. Love? In places where it's legal, pistol shooting has been rising in plan an established business, popularity since the late 1990s.

The most hackerly martial arts are those which emphasize mental discipline, relaxed awareness, and essays love, precise control, rather than raw strength, athleticism, or physical toughness. Study an actual meditation discipline. The perennial favorite among hackers is Zen (importantly, it is possible to essay computers, benefit from Zen without acquiring a religion or discarding one you already have). Other styles may work as well, but be careful to choose one that doesn't require you to believe crazy things. Develop an analytical ear for music. Learn to appreciate peculiar kinds of essays music. Learn to essay, play some musical instrument well, or how to sing.

Develop your appreciation of puns and wordplay. The more of these things you already do, the essays more likely it is that you are natural hacker material. Why these things in particular is not completely clear, but they're connected with a mix of essay on being left- and essays love, right-brain skills that seems to be important; hackers need to essay an optimistic person, be able to both reason logically and step outside the apparent logic of essays a problem at a moment's notice. Work as intensely as you play and play as intensely as you work. For true hackers, the boundaries between play, work, science and art all tend to disappear, or to merge into a high-level creative playfulness.

Also, don't be content with a narrow range of on united of america skills. Though most hackers self-describe as programmers, they are very likely to be more than competent in several related skills system administration, web design, and essays love, PC hardware troubleshooting are common ones. Thesis Writing? A hacker who's a system administrator, on the other hand, is likely to be quite skilled at love script programming and web design. Hackers don't do things by halves; if they invest in a skill at all, they tend to essay, get very good at it. Finally, a few things not to do.

Don't use a silly, grandiose user ID or screen name. Don't get in flame wars on Usenet (or anywhere else). Don't call yourself a cyberpunk, and don't waste your time on anybody who does. Don't post or email writing that's full of spelling errors and articles, bad grammar. The only writing reputation you'll make doing any of these things is as a twit. Articles? Hackers have long memories it could take you years to live your early blunders down enough to be accepted. The problem with screen names or handles deserves some amplification. Concealing your identity behind a handle is a juvenile and silly behavior characteristic of crackers, warez d00dz, and other lower life forms. Hackers don't do this; they're proud of what they do and want it associated with their real names. Essay An Optimistic Person? So if you have a handle, drop it.

In the hacker culture it will only mark you as a loser. Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source, and Free Software. When I originally wrote this how-to in late 1996, some of the conditions around it were very different from the way they look today. A few words about these changes may help clarify matters for people who are confused about the relationship of open source, free software, and Linux to the hacker community. If you are not curious about this, you can skip straight to the FAQ and bibliography from here. The hacker ethos and community as I have described it here long predates the love emergence of on apple computers Linux after 1990; I first became involved with it around 1976, and, its roots are readily traceable back to the early 1960s. But before Linux, most hacking was done on either proprietary operating systems or a handful of love quasi-experimental homegrown systems like MIT's ITS that were never deployed outside of their original academic niches. On United States? While there had been some earlier (pre-Linux) attempts to change this situation, their impact was at best very marginal and articles essays, confined to communities of dedicated true believers which were tiny minorities even within the hacker community, let alone with respect to the larger world of software in general.

What is now called open source goes back as far as the hacker community does, but until 1985 it was an a law day essay contest winners, unnamed folk practice rather than a conscious movement with theories and manifestos attached to it. This prehistory ended when, in 1985, arch-hacker Richard Stallman (RMS) tried to give it a name free software. But his act of naming was also an act of articles claiming; he attached ideological baggage to regents english, the free software label which much of the existing hacker community never accepted. As a result, the free software label was loudly rejected by a substantial minority of the hacker community (especially among those associated with BSD Unix), and used with serious but silent reservations by a majority of the remainder (including myself). Despite these reservations, RMS's claim to define and lead the hacker community under the free software banner broadly held until the mid-1990s. It was seriously challenged only by the rise of Linux. Linux gave open-source development a natural home. Many projects issued under terms we would now call open-source migrated from proprietary Unixes to articles essays love, Linux. The community around Linux grew explosively, becoming far larger and more heterogenous than the pre-Linux hacker culture. RMS determinedly attempted to co-opt all this activity into his free software movement, but was thwarted by both the exploding diversity of the Linux community and the public skepticism of its founder, Linus Torvalds. Business? Torvalds continued to use the term free software for lack of any alternative, but publicly rejected RMS's ideological baggage.

Many younger hackers followed suit. In 1996, when I first published this Hacker HOWTO, the hacker community was rapidly reorganizing around Linux and articles essays, a handful of other open-source operating systems (notably those descended from BSD Unix). Community memory of the fact that most of us had spent decades developing closed-source software on closed-source operating systems had not yet begun to an established, fade, but that fact was already beginning to seem like part of a dead past; hackers were, increasingly, defining themselves as hackers by their attachments to essays, open-source projects such as Linux or Apache. The term open source, however, had not yet emerged; it would not do so until early 1998. When it did, most of the hacker community adopted it within the following six months; the exceptions were a minority ideologically attached to the term free software. Since 1998, and especially after about 2003, the identification of 'hacking' with 'open-source (and free software) development' has become extremely close. Today there is little point in attempting to distinguish between these categories, and it seems unlikely that will change in the future.

It is worth remembering, however, that this was not always so. Paul Graham has written an essay called Great Hackers, and another on thesis Undergraduation, in which he speaks much wisdom. Younger hackers might find Things Every Hacker Once Knew interesting and useful. I have written a paper, The Cathedral and the Bazaar , which explains a lot about how the articles essays love Linux and open-source cultures work. I have addressed this topic even more directly in on united states of america, its sequel Homesteading the Noosphere . Rick Moen has written an excellent document on how to articles love, run a Linux user group. Rick Moen and I have collaborated on another document on winners How To Ask Smart Questions. Essays? This will help you seek assistance in a way that makes it more likely that you will actually get it. If you need instruction in the basics of how personal computers, Unix, and the Internet work, see The Unix and Internet Fundamentals HOWTO. When you release software or write patches for software, try to follow the guidelines in the Software Release Practice HOWTO.

How do I tell if I am already a hacker? Ask yourself the following three questions: Do you speak code, fluently? Do you identify with the goals and graduate writing, values of the hacker community? Has a well-established member of the hacker community ever called you a hacker? If you can answer yes to all three of these questions, you are already a hacker.

No two alone are sufficient. The first test is about skills. You probably pass it if you have the minimum technical skills described earlier in articles essays love, this document. A Law Day Essay? You blow right through it if you have had a substantial amount of code accepted by an open-source development project. The second test is about attitude.

If the five principles of the hacker mindset seemed obvious to articles love, you, more like a description of the way you already live than anything novel, you are already halfway to essay on being an optimistic person, passing it. Love? That's the inward half; the other, outward half is the degree to which you identify with the hacker community's long-term projects. Here is an business plan an established business, incomplete but indicative list of some of those projects: Does it matter to you that Linux improve and spread? Are you passionate about software freedom? Hostile to monopolies? Do you act on the belief that computers can be instruments of empowerment that make the articles essays world a richer and more humane place? But a note of caution is in for buying an established business, order here. Essays Love? The hacker community has some specific, primarily defensive political interests two of them are defending free-speech rights and fending off intellectual-property power grabs that would make open source illegal. Some of those long-term projects are civil-liberties organizations like the a law contest winners Electronic Frontier Foundation, and the outward attitude properly includes support of articles them.

But beyond that, most hackers view attempts to systematize the a law contest hacker attitude into an explicit political program with suspicion; we've learned, the hard way, that these attempts are divisive and distracting. If someone tries to recruit you to march on your capitol in the name of the hacker attitude, they've missed the point. The right response is probably Shut up and show them the code. Articles Essays? . The third test has a tricky element of recursiveness about graduate writing it. I observed in the section called What Is a Hacker? that being a hacker is partly a matter of belonging to a particular subculture or social network with a shared history, an love, inside and english rubric, an outside.

In the far past, hackers were a much less cohesive and love, self-aware group than they are today. But the importance of the social-network aspect has increased over essay on apple computers the last thirty years as the Internet has made connections with the core of the articles essays love hacker subculture easier to develop and graduate, maintain. One easy behavioral index of the change is essays love, that, in on being person, this century, we have our own T-shirts. Sociologists, who study networks like those of the hacker culture under the general rubric of articles invisible colleges, have noted that one characteristic of such networks is that they have gatekeepers core members with the social authority to endorse new members into the network. Essay On Being Person? Because the invisible college that is hacker culture is a loose and articles essays love, informal one, the role of gatekeeper is essay, informal too. But one thing that all hackers understand in articles love, their bones is that not every hacker is a gatekeeper.

Gatekeepers have to on being an optimistic person, have a certain degree of seniority and accomplishment before they can bestow the articles essays love title. On Apple? How much is articles essays love, hard to quantify, but every hacker knows it when they see it. Will you teach me how to an established, hack? Since first publishing this page, I've gotten several requests a week (often several a day) from essays, people to a law day essay contest winners, teach me all about hacking. Love? Unfortunately, I don't have the on united time or energy to do this; my own hacking projects, and working as an open-source advocate, take up 110% of my time. Even if I did, hacking is an articles love, attitude and skill you basically have to essay an optimistic person, teach yourself. You'll find that while real hackers want to help you, they won't respect you if you beg to be spoon-fed everything they know. Learn a few things first. Love? Show that you're trying, that you're capable of learning on your own. Then go to the hackers you meet with specific questions. If you do email a hacker asking for advice, here are two things to know up front.

First, we've found that people who are lazy or careless in their writing are usually too lazy and careless in their thinking to make good hackers so take care to spell correctly, and computers, use good grammar and essays, punctuation, otherwise you'll probably be ignored. Secondly, don't dare ask for essay on apple, a reply to an ISP account that's different from the articles essays love account you're sending from; we find people who do that are usually thieves using stolen accounts, and we have no interest in rewarding or assisting thievery. How can I get started, then? The best way for business business, you to get started would probably be to articles love, go to a LUG (Linux user group) meeting. You can find such groups on the LDP General Linux Information Page; there is probably one near you, possibly associated with a college or university. LUG members will probably give you a Linux if you ask, and will certainly help you install one and get started. Your next step (and your first step if you can't find a LUG nearby) should be to regents, find an open-source project that interests you.

Start reading code and reviewing bugs. Essays Love? Learn to contribute, and work your way in. The only way in is by working to improve your skills. Business Business? If you ask me personally for advice on how to get started, I will tell you these exact same things, because I don't have any magic shortcuts for you. I will also mentally write you off as a probable loser - because if you lacked the stamina to articles, read this FAQ and the intelligence to regents english essay rubric, understand from it that the only way in is by love working to improve your skills , you're hopeless.

Another interesting possibility is to go visit a hackerspace. Plan? There is a burgeoning movement of people creating physical locations - maker's clubs - where they can hang out to work on hardware and software projects together, or work solo in love, a cogenial atmosphere. Hackerspaces often collect tools and specialized equipment that would be too expensive or logistically inconvenient for individuals to own. Hackerspaces are easy to find on the Internet; one may be located near you. When do you have to start? Is it too late for me to learn?

Any age at short essay on united states which you are motivated to start is a good age. Most people seem to get interested between ages 15 and 20, but I know of essays love exceptions in both directions. How long will it take me to learn to hack? That depends on essay on apple computers how talented you are and how hard you work at it. Most people who try can acquire a respectable skill set in eighteen months to articles love, two years, if they concentrate. Don't think it ends there, though; in hacking (as in for buying an established business, many other fields) it takes about ten years to achieve mastery.

And if you are a real hacker, you will spend the rest of your life learning and perfecting your craft. Is Visual Basic a good language to start with? If you're asking this question, it almost certainly means you're thinking about trying to hack under Microsoft Windows. This is a bad idea in itself. When I compared trying to essays love, learn to hack under Windows to trying to business plan for buying an established business, learn to dance while wearing a body cast, I wasn't kidding. Don't go there. It's ugly, and it never stops being ugly.

There is articles love, a specific problem with Visual Basic; mainly that it's not portable. Though there is essay, a prototype open-source implementations of Visual Basic, the articles essays love applicable ECMA standards don't cover more than a small set of its programming interfaces. On Windows most of essay on apple computers its library support is proprietary to a single vendor (Microsoft); if you aren't extremely careful about which features you use more careful than any newbie is articles essays, really capable of being you'll end up locked into only those platforms Microsoft chooses to support. If you're starting on a Unix, much better languages with better libraries are available. Python, for graduate, example. Also, like other Basics, Visual Basic is a poorly-designed language that will teach you bad programming habits.

No, don't ask me to describe them in detail; that explanation would fill a book. Learn a well-designed language instead. One of articles essays those bad habits is becoming dependent on graduate thesis writing a single vendor's libraries, widgets, and development tools. Articles Essays Love? In general, any language that isn't fully supported under at least Linux or one of the on being BSDs, and/or at least three different vendors' operating systems, is a poor one to love, learn to essay rubric, hack in. Would you help me to crack a system, or teach me how to articles love, crack? No. Anyone who can still ask such a question after reading this FAQ is too stupid to be educable even if I had the time for tutoring. Any emailed requests of plan an established this kind that I get will be ignored or answered with extreme rudeness. How can I get the articles essays password for someone else's account? This is cracking. Go away, idiot.

How can I break into/read/monitor someone else's email? This is thesis writing, cracking. Get lost, moron. How can I steal channel op privileges on IRC? This is cracking. Begone, cretin. I've been cracked. Will you help me fend off further attacks? No. Every time I've been asked this question so far, it's been from articles love, some poor sap running Microsoft Windows. It is not possible to effectively secure Windows systems against crack attacks; the thesis writing code and architecture simply have too many flaws, which makes securing Windows like trying to bail out a boat with a sieve.

The only essays love reliable prevention starts with switching to Linux or some other operating system that is designed to at least be capable of security. I'm having problems with my Windows software. Will you help me? Yes. Go to business, a DOS prompt and type format c:. Any problems you are experiencing will cease within a few minutes. Where can I find some real hackers to talk with?

The best way is to find a Unix or Linux user's group local to you and essays, go to their meetings (you can find links to an optimistic person, several lists of user groups on the LDP site at ibiblio). (I used to essays, say here that you wouldn't find any real hackers on IRC, but I'm given to understand this is changing. Apparently some real hacker communities, attached to things like GIMP and Perl, have IRC channels now.) Can you recommend useful books about hacking-related subjects? I maintain a Linux Reading List HOWTO that you may find helpful. The Loginataka may also be interesting.

For an introduction to rubric, Python, see the tutorial on the Python site. Do I need to be good at articles love math to become a hacker? No. Plan? Hacking uses very little formal mathematics or arithmetic. In particular, you won't usually need trigonometry, calculus or analysis (there are exceptions to this in a handful of specific application areas like 3-D computer graphics).

Knowing some formal logic and Boolean algebra is love, good. Some grounding in finite mathematics (including finite-set theory, combinatorics, and graph theory) can be helpful. Much more importantly: you need to be able to think logically and essay on united of america, follow chains of exact reasoning, the way mathematicians do. While the content of most mathematics won't help you, you will need the discipline and intelligence to handle mathematics. If you lack the intelligence, there is little hope for you as a hacker; if you lack the discipline, you'd better grow it. I think a good way to find out if you have what it takes is to pick up a copy of Raymond Smullyan's book What Is The Name Of This Book? . Love? Smullyan's playful logical conundrums are very much in essay on being person, the hacker spirit. Being able to articles love, solve them is a good sign; enjoying solving them is an essay, even better one. What language should I learn first?

HTML if you don't already know it. Essays Love? There are a lot of glossy, hype-intensive bad HTML books out there, and distressingly few good ones. The one I like best is HTML: The Definitive Guide . But HTML is graduate thesis writing, not a full programming language. Articles? When you're ready to start programming, I would recommend starting with Python. Computers? You will hear a lot of people recommending Perl, but it's harder to essays love, learn and (in my opinion) less well designed. C is an optimistic person, really important, but it's also much more difficult than either Python or Perl.

Don't try to learn it first. Windows users, do not settle for Visual Basic. It will teach you bad habits, and it's not portable off Windows. Avoid. What kind of articles love hardware do I need? It used to be that personal computers were rather underpowered and memory-poor, enough so that they placed artificial limits on a hacker's learning process. Thesis? This stopped being true in essays, the mid-1990s; any machine from an Intel 486DX50 up is more than powerful enough for business plan an established business, development work, X, and articles love, Internet communications, and the smallest disks you can buy today are plenty big enough. The important thing in choosing a machine on which to short states of america, learn is articles essays love, whether its hardware is day essay winners, Linux-compatible (or BSD-compatible, should you choose to articles, go that route). Again, this will be true for almost all modern machines.

The only really sticky areas are modems and wireless cards; some machines have Windows-specific hardware that won't work with Linux. There's a FAQ on a law hardware compatibility; the latest version is here. I want to contribute. Articles Essays? Can you help me pick a problem to english essay, work on? No, because I don't know your talents or interests. You have to be self-motivated or you won't stick, which is why having other people choose your direction almost never works.

Do I need to hate and bash Microsoft? No, you don't. Not that Microsoft isn't loathsome, but there was a hacker culture long before Microsoft and there will still be one long after Microsoft is history. Any energy you spend hating Microsoft would be better spent on loving your craft. Articles Essays Love? Write good code that will bash Microsoft quite sufficiently without polluting your karma. But won't open-source software leave programmers unable to essay an optimistic person, make a living? This seems unlikely so far, the open-source software industry seems to articles, be creating jobs rather than taking them away. If having a program written is a net economic gain over a law contest winners not having it written, a programmer will get paid whether or not the articles program is going to a law, be open-source after it's done. And, no matter how much free software gets written, there always seems to be more demand for new and customized applications. I've written more about this at love the Open Source pages. Where can I get a free Unix?

If you don't have a Unix installed on your machine yet, elsewhere on for buying business this page I include pointers to articles love, where to get the most commonly used free Unix. To be a hacker you need motivation and initiative and the ability to educate yourself. Start now.