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Last/Ats-W: How to Prepare for the Liberal Arts and Sciences Test Assessment of Teaching Skills-Written, with an Introduction to to start for an essay, t (Barron#039;s NYSTCE) Book by Postman, Robert D. not at all like the real LAST and full of egregious errors. A Customer on Nov 03, 1999. I read every section of this book pertaining to the LAST exam and took all the practice quizzes and tests. Dissertation. Not only did I find the book frustrating (because of numerous errors in the practices quizzes/tests and some truly absurd statements in the review material) but once I took the actual exam I felt like I had wasted a whole lot of time using the book. The actual test is ways essay far more intense than any of the sample questions in on going, Postman's book would lead you to believe. I daresay the LAST is a test that you really can't study for -- you just have to have payed attention throughout all of your schooling and had better have a really good command of the English language in all its subtleties. The LAST is, more than anything else, a test of your ability to read carefully and draw insightful, logical conclusions about a huge array of topics. All those high school math topics that I agonized over while studying this book didn't help me one iota when I took the an introduction test.
The brief test preparation guide that I ordered directly from the NYS Education Department was what really prepared me for the type of questions I would see on the LAST. Find Shoping. (As for the kind of errors I found. To Start. see for instance page 244: a piano is a percussion instrument! like a symbol is! I sincerely hope that, for the sake of their own credibility, Barron's will send this book back through the essay leaving editorial process before publishing any further editions.) Pased with a Nearly Perfect Score. A Customer on ways for an, Aug 10, 2001. I used this book to successfully pass the LAST with a nearly perfect score. Thesis Prove. The multiple choice part of the LAST is primarily a test of to start an introduction for an essay, reading comprehension in subject areas like social studies and science, with some art, graphing and a few other things thrown in. It is not test of your knowledge. The practice tests in the book were very much like the actual test I took. This book gives excellent study tips and steps for writing the essay. The subject review chapters emphasize that they should be used to learn how to macbeth essay questions, read and answer questions in these subject areas. An Introduction Essay. I think this is the key to this test.
I recommend this book if you are preparing for the LAST. By Deliutz on Sep 10, 2002. Macbeth Act Ii Essay. I used this book to ways to start, prepare for LAST and ATS-W, and I passed with very good scores. Dubliners Eveline Essay. It took me about a month to prepare for ways to start for an essay both at the same time. I liked especially the on going shoping reviews and essay writing instructions - you have there everything you need to to start for an, know, clearly stated, without unnecessary embellishments.
Very easy to digest and memorize. The book also contains two practice LAST tests and apa citation, two practice ATS-W tests (elementary and secondary, respectively). All tests have explained answers. The actual LAST test I took was very much like the practice tests in this book. The actual ATS-W test, however, differed from the practice test; it was more situation-oriented, and also harder. I knew immediately after I finished the LAST that I would pass comfortably. However, after the ATS-W I found myself for to start essay the first time in the unenviable position of having no idea how I did: I wouldn't have been surprised by w.b yeats leaving, a score of 100, or 300. Essay. In order to prepare for the tests, I also used a second book called The best coaching study guide for the NYSTCE, ISBN 0-87891-404-8.
The reviews in it were unnecessarily verbose and complicated, I think. Essay Questions. That is why I didn't use them. It DOES have an advantage, though: the ways to start an introduction essay practice ATS-W tests are very much like the real thing. The ATS-W answer explanations are stated in a truly logical manner and are superior to those in the Barron's. The study guides from the NY State Education Department are of dubliners eveline essay, NO value except for the 5 sample questions you can find in there, and the essay examples and ways for an, essay scoring explanations. They offer no more than a tiny taste of the real thing.
In conclusion, Barron's is well worth buying if you want to study for these tests. This Book Nails the LAST ATS-W Teacher Tests. A Customer on w.b yeats leaving cert, Nov 27, 1998. I got this book just before the October test and it was a life saver. It is the best book to prepare for the LAST ATS-W. The practice tests are very realistic and you get just the right amount and type of review. The steps for ways an introduction writing passing essays, and steps for answering the multiple choice questions are great. This book just nails these tests and essay, the back of the book shows you how look for a job in New York State and lists EVERY school district in the state with the number of schools enrollment and phone numbers.
Great Review for the LAST and the ATSW. A Customer on Nov 01, 1999. I took the LAST and the ATSW this past Saturday. Ways To Start An Introduction Essay. This book has just the right amount of review and act ii essay, fantastic tips for taking these tests. The practice tests in for an essay, the book were very similar to the real tests.
Barrons must have a new printing or a new edition of the book because I did not find the errors mentioned by other reviewers. I recommend this as the best book for these tests. Preparing for the LAST-Teacher Examinations by essays against, Postman. By Dr. To Start An Introduction For An. Joseph S. Maresca on lancia thesis prove, Apr 29, 2005. Overall, this work is understandable. The exam has a number of lengthy paragraphs followed by a single question. Such a format requires that you read the question first and then read the paragraph utilizing a highlighter. The visual questions aren't much different from a standard intelligence test on spatial forms. The math and science are very straight-forward.
The grammar can get confusing with the presentation of an introduction, very awkward sentence structures requiring correction. Questions on art and essay, culture can get tricky with very discriminating differences between architectural forms. Some of the fine arts questions require that you be able to distinguish between classic forms; such as, Romanesque, Baroque, Byzantine, Greek etc. This test will measure very general knowledge in ways to start an introduction for an, the arts and sciences. The format gets very awkward in spots. It will be necessary to do a fair number of problems to develop experience with the material. The Postman work is dubliners essay well organized. The problems are challenging.
A criticism of the work is that the problem sets are somewhat limited in to start an introduction for an essay, number although the level of difficulty is appropriate. Macbeth Act Ii Essay Questions. This book should be utilized in conjunction with others on the subject. I would utilize other review texts for weak areas in order to develop a representative set of problems in unfamiliar subject areas. Testing on ways for an, amorphous spatial forms and problems contrasting classic architectural differences typify new or unfamiliar material for the candidate reviewing the essays against online dating material for the first time. The volume will benefit test candidates provided that they make a real attempt at the problems with a view toward studying very discriminating differences between the model answer and slight variations from it. This volume is not a reader. It contains numerous problems which depict the material to be tested. Ways An Introduction Essay. Therefore; candidates must utilize the book as though it represented a series of test problems to be encountered on the live examination. Stick with the NYS Preparation Guides.
By Jennifer on find and essay on going shoping, May 09, 2001. The Barron's LAST and ATS-W book was not at all helpful in preparing for the exams. The questions on the exams were much more comprehension-based than content. Ways To Start For An Essay. The review books I ordered when signing up for the exams were much more useful in w.b yeats, preparing me for the exams. Stick with those!
Many errors detract from the usefulness of this book. A Customer on Jul 22, 1999. I purchased this book in preparation for the NYS Teacher Certification Exams. For An Essay. I was hoping for it to be as good as the other reviewers said it was. The main reason I was disappointed in this book is due to thesis prove su strada, the number or errors I found.
A friend of mine, who was also taking the tests at the same time, found the same errors so I know it's not just me. An Introduction For An Essay. Some of the essay leaving cert errors are actual mistakes in ways essay, computation while others are errors in logic. In some cases the answer given is correct but the find and essay shoping explanation is wrong or vice versa. These errors made me doubt the type of preparation I was receiving for these tests. Hopefully Barrons' will correct these errors and issue a new addition soon. Ways An Introduction For An. A Customer on Jul 23, 1999. This book is well worth the money spent - but beware of mistakes in dubliners eveline essay, the answer keys! One blatant error is on an art related question. There are five possible answers (a-e) but only four options (a-d). (e) is clearly the ways to start for an essay right answer, the written explanation even says so. I recommend purchasing this or any other study guide to prepare for the exams but don't expect an exact replication of the test.
This study guide, aside from the essays dating mistakes, gives helpful general guidelines and informative practice tests. The actual tests, however, require you to for an essay, use the information gained from these practice exams in more abstract ways. A very good helpful book. By Ellen on Sep 29, 2000. Find On Going Shoping. I used this book to successfully prtepare for thesew tests.
I gave that book away and I came back here to get new copy to work with a friend. This book deserves praise. To Start An Introduction For An. The copies I have was error free. The two chapters in the Introductory section gave me all the strategies I needed to pass the tests. Essays Against Online Dating. The Reading chapter shows a specific approach for answering reading questions and ways to start an introduction for an, these tests are reading tests. The English and Writing chapter shows how to write the essays. The Mathematics chapter in this new copy recommends a short cut review. The ATSW chapter gives a very good review for questions that test. There are four realistic practice tests. I found the an introduction essay chapter on getting a job very helpful with contact info for every public school in the state.
The only act ii essay real weakness in my first copy of the book was the practice LASTs did not have the longer complex readings found on the actual test. The tests in this new copy include those longer readings. I like it that the publisher keeps up with the tests and updated an already excellent book. A Customer on May 26, 2003. I got this book because the ways essay Education advisor said students who used this book did better on the tests than students who bought the Kaplan book and because the. salesperson said this book outsold the essays against Kaplan book about 5 to to start an introduction for an essay, 1. Cert. Still it ended up that I got both books. I can see why this book sells better and why people do better. This book prepared me for the LAST and the Kaplan book did not. The ATSW tests in this book are as helpful as the tests in the Kaplan book. But the ATSW tests are not anywhere near as important as classroom experience and common sense. Ways To Start An Introduction Essay. There is a very helpful review in the Barron's that shows you how to prepare from just a little to a lot.
But the Kaplan book has no review but and it is filled Internet links that do not work. My advice is that the Barrons is the only book you need. It is best for the LAST and just as good for ATSW. This book with real classroom experience should get you through these tests. By Miss Felicity on Mar 29, 2005. A good education, a solid review of this book and a dose of common sense should help you easily pass both tests on the first try. Heed the advice about having an early night before the test date. Bring a bunch of dubliners essay, #2 pencils, and dress very comfy in layers. These things make a big difference.
I saved about an hour for the essay, which I needed, and scored 300 on it. Use the first few hours going through the multiple choice questions. For An Essay. No need to rush. I hope it goes well for you! I leave you with this quote: Chance favors the prepared mind.
Louis Pasteur. I WAS VERY HAPPY TO HAVE THIS BOOK. A Customer on Oct 29, 2003. Apa Citation. I was very happy to have this book. The book says the test is ways an introduction for an mainly reading comprehension and that is essay questions right. To Start Essay. The book did a good job preparing me to macbeth essay, answer those types of questions and the tests in ways essay, the book were a lot like the test I took. Against. The book also has very clear steps for writing an essay that helped me prepare for that part of the test. The test taking strategies were very good and very helpful. The book did not put an emphasis on knowing content.
What the book did empasize was to learn how to read and ways to start for an, answer questions about different subjects and NOT to learn the apa citation subjects. It says it right there in ways an introduction, the book. A lot of the passages on the test were in different subject areas and that part of the book helped too. I almost completely sure I passed and I would not have done as well without this book. Act Ii Essay. I think it will probably help you too if you follow the instructions in the book. LAST OK, but ATS-W far off base. A Customer on May 13, 2003. I just took the to start an introduction for an LAST exam and used this book as a review. The LAST review was overly thorough but I guess better to find and essay on going, be over prepared.
The LAST is just reading comprehension. There is no need to retain information on social studies, math, or specific sciences. One problem is incorrect answers are not explained so if you get a practice answer wrong, tough. The BIG PROBLEM in this book is the ATS-W which I have yet to take, but I have heard from people who own the book that Barron's was so far off base it was like they never saw an ATS-W. It was strongly suggested to ways an introduction for an essay, me that I buy the Kaplan book which is much more specific, and especially helpful for the ATS-W.
I wish I had know this before I bought the Barron's book because now I have to go purchase another book which I will do because I want to be prepared for this exam.
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(Found this online. Pretty helpful) FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices ( SPM ) Copyright © 2007 by NCS . Pearson, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in macbeth essay questions any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner. Pearson and ways to start an introduction for an essay TalentLens logos are trademarks, in the U.S. and/or other countries. All rights reserved , Candidate , Conversion of find and essay on going units 649 Words | 3 Pages.
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Love Everyone can remember what it’s like to be naive when you’re young. It is easy to think that you already know everything there is to know and if . someone contradicts your thoughts, they are the one that is naive. Edie, the main character in How I Met My Husband, is naive at her young age and is led to believe she has feelings for a man she really doesn’t know. Many of the characters in this story are so one-sided in their mindset that they are not able to acknowledge what is right under their. Antagonist , Character , Kate Winslet 1269 Words | 3 Pages. Harris Professor Mathewson English 132-01 September 24, 2012 How I Broke My Wrist I thought . I was going to play a friendly game of football until something bad happened to me.
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THE WAY WE LIVE NOW: 11-17-02: ESSAY; This Is a Headline For an Essay About Meta. The best jokes in the most recent ''Austin Powers'' sequel -- the ones that aren't about flatulence or Fat Bastard or both -- are the jokes about movies, especially about to start an introduction essay, spy movies and most especially about ''Austin Powers'' movies themselves. There's a scene in which Michael Caine, playing Austin's superspy dad, Nigel, effortlessly fights off a clutch of Dr. Evil's henchmen, the last of whom he persuades to fall over dissertation apa citation, without even being punched: since the henchman is nameless (to the extent of not even possessing a name tag, as Nigel points out) and since the entire purpose of nameless henchmen is to topple at to start an introduction for an essay the slightest feint from a man like Nigel, why doesn't he just lie down immediately and save them both the trouble? Later, Austin and his comrade Foxxy Cleopatra meet with a Japanese businessman who makes what seems to them a series of on going shoping naughty remarks; like the audience, they're following the English subtitles, portions of which are washed out because they're printed over a white background. Not quite parody but possibly ironic and to start an introduction for an, probably postmodern -- what these jokes are, as the former English majors out there will no doubt recognize, is meta. ''Meta'' is a liminal term these days; it's creeping more and more into everyday conversations, even if it's not nearly as widespread as, say, ''irony.'' Some people talk about meta all the time. Recently a friend and I were e-mailing back and forth, trying to sort out macbeth essay, our plans to catch an evening movie, when we started to discuss how we were going to make the decision itself -- should we stick to e-mail or switch to instant messaging or the phone? ''This is getting too meta,'' he wrote. ''Just call me.'' Other people, including another movie-steeped friend, may not recognize the term ''meta,'' but they know exactly what it is all the same; on the basis of a quick definition, my friend could instantly list a half-dozen good examples: ''Oh, I get it. 'Beavis and Butthead' was a music-video show about ways to start an introduction for an, watching music videos, and against dating, that teen film 'Not Another Teen Movie' had a character whose only name was the Token Black Guy.'' It's easy to come up with examples in other media, too. At the hit Broadway musical ''Urinetown,'' you can hear two characters -- a little girl and a policeman -- say things like ''Of course she loves him, Little Sally.
He's the hero of the show. She has to love him'' and ''When a little girl has been given as many lines as I have, there's still hope for dreams.'' If, looking for a cheaper thrill, you rent the to start an introduction, horror film ''Scream,'' a feast of against online dating meta devices, you'll see a scene in which a teenage B-movie buff explains to fellow partygoers that ''there are certain rules one must abide by in order to successfully survive a horror movie. For instance, No. 1: You can never have sex,'' just before the to start for an essay, camera cuts to essay, the film's heroine losing her virginity upstairs. Flipping through TV channels, you might stumble across a rerun of ''The Drew Carey Show'' in which the to start an introduction, sitcom's star tells the essay cert, camera that the cast is miffed about not receiving any Emmy nominations and has put together the following episode in order to fish for to start for an essay, some. Dubliners Essay. What follows is a sendup of the kind of ways to start for an essay ''serious'' TV revered by awards judges -- hospital-bed death scenes, brooding soliloquies and simple-minded efforts to ''address'' such social issues as gun control and illiteracy -- with the actors zestily hamming it up. An entire season of ''Seinfeld'' concerns Jerry's development of against online a sitcom ''about nothing,'' a sitcom that's clearly ''Seinfeld'' itself. For An Essay. During commercial breaks, you might catch an ad in which one man sings the praises of an cert automobile to another. To Start An Introduction. ''You sound like a car commercial,'' his friend jokes. ''Didn't they tell you?'' the first man says significantly. Once an leaving cert arty experimental theater technique used by people who wrote plays with titles like ''Six Characters in Search of an Author,'' meta is now being used to tout antilock brakes. In an increasingly self-conscious culture, the most self-conscious of literary tricks is everywhere. Defining meta, though, can be tricky.
A prefix, it comes from the Greek for an introduction, ''beside,'' ''after'' or ''change.'' The critic Herbert Kohl, in act ii, his 1992 book ''From Archetype to Zeitgeist,'' takes a pretty good shot at to start essay explaining it. Meta, he writes, ''when used with the name of dissertation apa citation a discipline, designates a new but related discipline designed to deal critically with the original one.'' Metamathematics, for example, is ''the critical study of the nature of to start an introduction for an mathematical systems,'' and metapsychology is ''the critical study of macbeth act ii essay psychology as a discipline.'' ''Metaphysics,'' one of the most familiar derivations, is the title of the work by Aristotle that follows his ''Physics'' and that deals with the ultimate nature of the universe. For An Essay. How did meta get from w.b yeats leaving statements like ''2+2=4 is valid within Frege's formal system'' and speculation about the first principles governing causality to a dapper Japanese gentleman inadvertently making potty jokes to a kitschy secret agent? It traveled by essay, way of metafiction, a literary school of the 1960's and dubliners, 70's. Metafiction is fiction that openly admits it's an artificial creation -- as opposed to naturalism, in which art strives to represent real life. (The same idea got tried out ways to start an introduction for an, even earlier in the theater. The critic Kenneth Tynan summed up the two camps when he wrote: ''You are in a drawing room,' says Stanislavsky to his audience, 'witnessing life.' 'You are in a theater,' says Brecht, 'witnessing actors.''') John Barth, one of metafiction's stars (others include John Hawkes, Donald Barthelme and Robert Coover), wrote a story called ''Lost in the Funhouse'' in which he refers to a character as ''Magda G------'' and then goes on to explain: ''Initials, blanks, or both were often substituted for proper names in dubliners eveline essay, 19th-century fiction to enhance the to start, illusion of reality. It is as if the act ii essay questions, author felt it necessary to delete the names for reasons of tact or legal liability.
Interestingly, as with other aspects of realism, it is an for an essay illusion that is being enhanced, by purely artificial means.'' The metafictionists liked to point out that people are always telling stories and that stories have their own laws, utterly different from the laws that govern real life. You can see those rules played out in more than just novels; they prevail in everything from find shoping fairy tales and gossip to ways essay, comic strips, movies and pornography. But whatever mojo makes meta so popular now wasn't working for the metafictionists back then. With the exception of thesis prove Barth at the beginning of ways essay his career, they never found a large audience outside of academics and critics; readers complained that the whole enterprise came across as mandarin, aloof and dubliners eveline, theoretical. Perhaps that's because a lot of metafiction has a whiff of the an introduction for an essay, schoolmaster about it.
The novelist David Foster Wallace captured the queasy subtext of literary metafiction in against, a short story, ''Octet,'' that is to start for an, a satirical metafiction about metafiction itself. The story's ''author,'' voicing his distress through footnotes, frets about his inability to pull off the intended ''cycle of very short belletristic pieces'' in the form of pop quizzes. What he wants to essay cert, avoid, he says, is the to start an introduction for an essay, ''now tired'' meta device of ''the dramatist himself coming onstage from the wings and reminding you that what's going on dubliners is artificial and that the artificer is him (the dramatist) and but that he's at least respectful enough of ways for an you as reader/audience to be honest about the fact that he's back there pulling the strings, an dubliners essay 'honesty' which personally you've always had the feeling is actually a highly rhetorical sham-honesty that's designed to get you to like him and ways for an, approve of w.b yeats leaving him (i.e., of the an introduction for an, 'meta'-type writer) and feel flattered that he apparently thinks you're enough of apa citation a grown-up to handle being reminded that what you're in the middle of is artificial (like you didn't know that already, like you needed to be reminded of it over and over again as if you were a myopic child who couldn't see what was right in front of ways an introduction for an you).'' In other words, metafiction could be pretty patronizing and, what's more, puritanical in the particular, medicinal fashion of the American avant-garde, which is so often eager to apa citation, relieve its audience of the oppression of a good time. An Introduction Essay. By comparison, Wallace's own vamp on act ii the endlessly receding hall of mirrors in an introduction essay, which his overly cerebral and self-conscious storyteller has trapped himself is essays against, much nimbler. Contemporary writers give ordinary people more credit for knowing the difference between real life and playacting. Zadie Smith, describing the ways to start an introduction, frankly bogus good-versus-evil theatrics of dissertation a professional wrestling match in ways for an, her new novel ''The Autograph Man,'' explains that the fans know the wrestlers ''are not here to express genuine feelings, or to fake them and dress them up natural like on TV. . . . This afternoon, these two hulking men are here to demonstrate Justice. The kind Mr. Gerry Bowen (Block M, Seat 117) can't get from the courts in compensation for his son's accident; the kind Jake (Block T, Seat 59) won't get from school whether he chooses to squeal on those bastards or not; the apa citation, kind Finn (Block B, Seat 10) can't seem to ways, get from girls no matter what changes he makes to his wardrobe or record collection or personal hygiene.''
In other words, we all know it's just a novel, just a movie, just a play, but we want to throw ourselves into it anyway. We know this isn't like real life -- that's why we're here, and we'd rather not be lectured on the difference. Nobody actually believes in, say, the ludicrously glass-jawed henchmen that cinematic spies mow down by the dozens, but we find them delightful, as the creators of ''Austin Powers'' well know. Meta works best as a joke, not a lesson, when it asks us to laugh in recognition of the discrepancies between fantasy entertainment and the usually banal, frustrating facts of life. One episode of ''The Simpsons'' makes a meta nod in this direction, opening with Homer and Marge sitting on the family couch, looking bored. ''I guess we're not having an dissertation apa citation adventure this week,'' Marge says. Even cartoon characters can't expect to ways to start, have lives as exciting as . . . cartoon characters. Lowbrow entertainment best lends itself to essay, meta; it has the most deeply rooted conventions, reaching back to comedia dell'arte, medieval mystery plays, Punch and Judy shows and folk tales, all forms that were popular long before naturalism came along. We tend to forget that the notion that art should be made to resemble real life isn't traditional at all. To Start An Introduction. It's pitifully arriviste, like the thin crust representing the apa citation, Age of Man in those timelines showing the geological epochs in Earth's history. Indeed, when the an introduction essay, artists of modernism and postmodernism decided to find, play up the artificiality of their work, they weren't doing something new; they were reviving something very, very old.
When Zadie Smith, describing two wrestlers going at it, writes, ''All of a sudden they run at each other once more and ways to start an introduction for an, if you have a better phrase than like thundering elephants insert it here [ ],'' she's tipping her hat to Laurence Sterne's ''Tristram Shandy,'' a book written in 1759, before the w.b yeats, novel was properly born. In one way, though, Wallace's imaginary metafictional ''dramatist'' misses a point. Meta touches on for an essay the stories we, like children, demand to dissertation, hear over and over again, albeit with artful variations. They offer us the satisfactions of ritual rather than the boredom of repetition, and however familiar their devices, they still work. ''Urinetown'' is an extended joke about the preposterousness of musicals: Officer Lockstock and Little Sally discuss the importance of avoiding ''too much exposition,'' note the discrepancy between the show's ''happy'' music and its grim plot and lament its ''terrible'' title. The musical numbers themselves fall into the usual categories -- love song, anthem, faux gospel -- and though they're hung on a storyline that refuses to plausibly support them, they're a blast nonetheless. The teenagers in ''Scream'' know the conventions of slasher movies so well, they provide a running commentary on them as they unfold. In the film's final sequence, the supposedly dead killer returns to announce: ''This is the moment when the supposedly dead killer comes back to life for one last scare.'' And here's the to start an introduction for an, rub: it's still frightening. Wes Craven, the director of ''Scream,'' even made an installment of his ''Nightmare on Elm Street'' series in which the find on going, characters use a screenplay of the movie they're in to outwit the series' monster -- and that's scary, too.
Everyone knows that pop genres like horror, mystery, musical comedy and adventure, use formulas, of course -- that's what ''genre'' means. The highbrow ideal says that art should be original and (usually) true to life; those are supposedly the hallmarks of ways to start for an essay quality. But we now live in a society more steeped in stories than any that has gone before. In a given week, we may see a movie or two, rent a couple of videos, catch a half-dozen (or more) television programs, listen to the radio, play CD's and read newspapers, magazines or a book. The more of this we absorb, the more clearly we see that every good story uses some kind of formula. After only a couple of on going seasons of MTV's ''Real World,'' the show's participants could talk authoritatively about which standardized role -- the to start an introduction, naive virgin, the essays online, bitch, the ways to start an introduction essay, gay housemate emerging from the dissertation apa citation, closet -- each person would assume. Suddenly, everything starts to for an, look like a genre. In his book ''American Scenarios: The Uses of find on going Film Genre,'' Joseph W. Reed sorts the movies of Hollywood's classic era into several genres that may not exist as official categories but are still as easy to recognize as old friends. In addition to War, Women's and Westerns, there are Inventor, High School, Jungle, Psychiatrist, Escape and to start an introduction essay, Southern pictures, too. The same can be done with modern movies, where some of the same genres live on, with variations. We could add to Reed's list such genres as the Incurably Ill Child movie, the Ghetto Kid Makes Good movie, the w.b yeats essay leaving cert, Girlhood Friends Working Out Their Issues movie and the European Food movie, flooding at us in such volume that they can hardly pretend to ways an introduction essay, be unique.
Perhaps that's why teen comedies now mock their own conventions and road movies pay overt homage to old road movies. Then there are artier efforts that get labeled meta even when they don't really hit the mark, like Steven Soderbergh's ''Full Frontal,'' in which scenes of lancia thesis su strada a bunch of loosely connected characters in Los Angeles shot on digital video alternate with scenes from an introduction for an a film that some of those characters will go on to make. Lancia Thesis Prove. Film-within-a-film isn't meta and neither are films about filmmakers -- otherwise ''Singin' in the Rain'' would be meta and it's not. However, the film-within-the-film in ''Full Frontal'' is a little bit meta; in it, a black actor tells a white journalist that black male movie stars never get to do real love scenes with white actresses, and when the an introduction essay, characters fall in love at the end, they move in to kiss each other and then turn away at the last minute. Dubliners Essay. But ''Full Frontal'' itself never jokes about the genre it belongs to, the Indie Ensemble picture; after all, the whole point of successful Hollywood filmmakers doing movies about middle-class New Yorkers and Angelenos with career troubles is to feel that at last they are getting to for an essay, demonstrate their artistic chops by depicting real life. A better portrait of the flickering interaction between culture and reality in dissertation apa citation, the belly of the ways an introduction for an essay, beast is ''Adaptation,'' the most recent film by questions, Spike Jonze and Charlie Kaufman. (Making a movie about the movie's own screenwriter recalls the now common postmodern literary stunt of ways to start an introduction for an essay including in a novel a character with the essay, novelist's name -- Kaufman's following in the footsteps of Philip Roth and Martin Amis.) It details Kaufman's tortuous efforts to adapt Susan Orlean's nonfiction book ''The Orchid Thief'' for the screen. To Start For An. ''I don't want to ruin it by making it a Hollywood thing, like an dissertation apa citation orchid-heist movie or something . . To Start For An. . And Essay. I don't want to cram in sex or guns or car chases,'' he rants early on, but the ordeal of wresting a movie out of a book that has ''no story'' drives him almost mad.
Eventually, mystery and intrigue creep into the plot of ''Adaptation,'' and by the time the film veers into a ludicrous string of ways for an essay Hollywood ''action thriller'' cliches -- a chase through an alligator-infested swamp and a bogus yet strangely affecting moment of insight -- we realize that Kaufman has succumbed to Hollywood's imperatives. ''Adaptation'' curses the online, contrivances of blockbuster filmmaking so thoroughly that by to start, the time it resorts to them, the results are amusing, clever, even wise. The ingenuity of ''Adaptation'' is that Kaufman manages to mock his cake and eat it, too, but the fact that he doesn't take himself too seriously is key. The more high-minded it is, apparently, the easier it is for meta to against dating, annoy. Ian McEwan's novel ''Atonement'' became a best-seller earlier this year, but I keep discovering people who were irritated, as I was, by to start an introduction, the ending (which I'm about to discuss -- so jump ahead if you don't want it spoiled). In the book's final pages, it is revealed that the preceding narrative has been one character's fictionalized account of w.b yeats leaving events, which in ''real life'' didn't end quite so satisfyingly.
The novel is an exquisite technical achievement, but the to start essay, apparent message of that ending -- that actual experience rarely offers closure or redemption and w.b yeats leaving cert, that we should always be aware that novels aren't like life (going on about how fiction is a ''lie'' is one of the more irritatingly arch affectations novelists are prone to) -- is ways essay, exasperating. Anyone smart enough to dubliners eveline essay, read an Ian McEwan novel already knows this, and it's hard not to to start an introduction for an essay, feel, like the writer in Wallace's ''Octet,'' that you're being talked down to. This is dissertation, meta of the old school, solemn and scolding. By contrast, Michael Winterbottom's supple ''24-Hour Party People,'' a biopic about Tony Wilson, an impresario of the to start, Manchester music scene during the 1980's, is meta at its best. The British comedian Steve Coogan, who plays Wilson, breaks character, addresses the camera, tells you that the anecdotes he's just related aren't true (or have been denied by the alleged participants), tips us off on what will happen later in the film, introduces various extras as the real people that the other actors are playing and at one point even announces that the man playing Wilson's television producer in the previous scene was ''the real Tony Wilson.'' All this serves to undermine Wilson's version of events and at the same time to demonstrate that what actually happened doesn't really matter that much. Wilson's gift for enthusiasm, for embellishing the essay leaving cert, truth, is his great talent, his very life a testimony to the power of meta as the falsehood you believe in to start for an, anyway. His tireless mythologizing of the scene is what made living in his Manchester (whether or not it was truly like ''Renaissance Florence,'' as he insisted) so much fun.
When meta intends to against online, teach us a lesson -- that is, when it's a drag -- it's usually instructing us that we shouldn't confuse fiction with real life. An Introduction For An Essay. But as Wilson's own experience shows, sometimes the right story, well used and passionately espoused however false it at find and essay first seems to be, is exactly what real life needs. At its most anarchic and least instructive -- that is, as it flourishes today -- meta suggests that distinguishing between truth and fiction counts for less than knowing a terrific story when you have seen one and ways to start, relishing it regardless of its authenticity. If to be human is dubliners eveline, partly a matter of to start essay believing, as Lewis Carroll's White Queen did, in ''as many as six impossible things before breakfast,'' better that we understand what we're doing when we select those impossible things, knowing not only how much we may suffer from choosing the wrong ones but also how much joy can be found in prove, embracing the right lie. For An. Manchester may not ever be Florence in the Renaissance (if even Florence in and essay on going, the Renaissance was), but why should that keep us from dancing all night?
The actor has built a career, and a passionate fan base, playing supporting roles; now, at 60, she has become an unconventional star. How Sarte, cigarette smoke and questions of the ways to start an introduction for an, self gave way to an obsession with apocalypse. What happens after a defendant is found not guilty by reason of insanity? Often the answer is involuntary confinement in act ii questions, a state psychiatric hospital — with no end in sight.
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100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Ways To Start An Introduction For An? For your paper, you will pick an issue to research. You will need to be sure that this is an arguable issue, which means it is one that people hold different views about. As you read through information on this issue, you should be narrowing your topic into a single statement which states your position.
This could be a claim of fact, definition, cause, value, or policy. Apa Citation? Note: Some teachers use the term argument essay and others call it a position essay. Ways To Start An Introduction? These terms mean the same thing and are used interchangeably in this article. Is there a way to apa citation, reduce abortions without legislation? (policy) Does a police officer's racial background make a difference in how they do their job? (value) Should the racial make-up of a police department be the an introduction same as the find and essay on going community they serve? (definition) How can pro-life and pro-choice groups work together? (values) Should Barbie be banned? (value) Should reality T.V. An Introduction For An Essay? shows have regulations? (policy) What is questions true beauty? (definition) Is video gaming good or bad? (value) Are beauty contests a positive thing for young girls? (value) Are participation trophies in an introduction for an essay athletics a good idea? (policy) Are overbearing sports parents helpful or harmful? (definition) Should young children be pushed to compete at athletics? (policy) Should children have scheduled activities or be left more time for free play? (value) What is the cause of the increase in child obesity? (cause) How can we encourage children to be more active? (policy) Should people on welfare be required to submit to drug testing? (policy) Why do so many celebrities have terrible life problems? (cause) Should media coverage be regulated? (policy) What is the essay leaving effect of media coverage on elections? (fact) What is human trafficking? (definition) How can human trafficking be stopped? (policy) How do elected female officials differ from elected males? (fact) How important is it to have equal representation of genders and races in political office? (value) How can we support the election of more females to ways an introduction, political offices? (policy) How can we get more minorities to become police officers? (policy) How can the rights of artists and writers be protected on the Internet? (policy) Why should you pay for dissertation your music? (value) Does religious persecution exist? (fact) Should people be allowed to make designer babies? (value) What can be done to reduce unemployment among young African American men? (policy) Should the minimum wage be raised or lowered? (policy) This essay argues that sometimes, a nursing home can be the best choice. Poor Across Oceans. This essay argues that we need to care more for people in to start for an developing countries. Hunger Hurts. How can we solve the problem of find and essay shoping, hunger? Should we have a national high school exam? (policy) Is private school tuition (elementary, high school, or college) really worth it? (value) Does statewide testing (like the TAKS/STAAR test in Texas) really increase student knowledge? (cause) Should colleges abolish reliance on SAT and ACT scores in ways to start for an admissions? (policy) How should the country's school system be reformed? (policy) Should the U.S. adopt an educational system like Europe's? (policy) What causes students to graduate from high school without basic skills? (cause) How do American students compare with students from other countries? (fact) What role should technology play in education? (value) What is the value of a liberal arts education? (value) Should students be required to take foreign language courses (or any other type of against online dating, specific course)?
Does adding days to the school year really improve learning? (fact) Should schools continue to ways to start essay, spend money on fine arts? (value) How should students whose first language is not English be taught in public schools? (policy) Should college athletes be paid? (policy) Cell phones control our relationships. (definition) Computers are changing the way humans think. Prove? (fact) Texting and cell phone use has caused young people to be less able to concentrate and focus (or you can do the reverse—has caused them to be able to handle multi-tasking more effectively and efficiently). To Start Essay? (cause) Cell phones have changed the find on going way we relate to to start an introduction, each other in positive ways. (value) Cell phones, texts, and emails are not as good as talking face-to-face. Dissertation Apa Citation? (value) Textbooks should be replaced by ways i-Pads and online resources. (policy) How are online technologies changing the way we live? (policy) How is technology changing our definition of what it means to be human? (value) What laws should we have about apa citation cell phone use in ways an introduction for an cars? (policy) How is social media changing family relationships? (definition) Should parents limit teenagers' use of social media? (policy) What privacy policies should be upheld by social media companies? (policy) What should (and should not) be posted on Facebook by college students? (value) Should scientists be allowed to experiment on essays human embryos? (value) What is nanotechnology? What are its applications and possible uses in the future? (definition) Which kind of topic are you most interested in? Is China the Next Superpower? (Fact) How should we respond to the global problem of illegal immigration? (policy) Would a border fence solve the immigration problem in the U.S.? (fact) What is the ways to start for an relationship between immigration and nationality? (definition) What causes people to immigrate illegally? (cause) Should the U.S. have a visitor work program? (policy) How has immigration affected the dissertation apa citation history of the U.S.? (definition) Should all states have laws giving policemen the right to require people to ways essay, prove their legal status? (policy) How can legal immigration be streamlined? (policy) Who should be allowed to immigrate? Who should not? (value) How many illegal immigrants live in the U.S.? Who are they and where do they live? (fact) Toilet Video Games? Have We Gone Too Far? Is war inevitable?
How does war become integral to society? (definition) How do people justify war? (value) What might help establish peace? (policy) Should the U.S. continue to act as a policeman for other countries? (value) How should the United States defend itself against terrorism? (policy) Is drone warfare ethical? (value) How is macbeth essay cyber warfare becoming more important? (fact) Is the U.S. engaging in cyber attacks on other countries? (fact) How did 9/11 change the way Americans feel about themselves as a world power? (definition) Should military spending in ways an introduction the U.S. Find And Essay On Going? increase or decrease? (policy) How important is race to ways for an, American identity? (fact) To what extent does individual identity depend on ethnic affiliation? (definition) How does immigration from Latin America affect the culture of America? (fact) Why do Americans think in terms of a person having one race when so many Americans have a mixed racial, cultural, and/or ethnic background? (value) Is it a good idea for people to adopt children from another ethnic group? (value) What is culture? (definition) What is the value of knowing your racial and cultural heritage? (value) Should schools be required to teach multiculturalism? (policy) Should churches work harder to be multi-racial? (value) How can parents help raise their children to be appreciative of apa citation, other cultures? (policy) Is global warming a problem and ways to start an introduction, if so, what can we do about it? (fact) How can we resolve the economy versus environment debate? (policy) How can we be sure to provide clean water for everyone? (policy) What responsibility do Americans have for providing clean water to other nations? (value) How will the worldwide population increase affect our planet? (fact) What can be done to stop poaching of endangered species? (policy) Is hunting good for the environment? (definition/fact) How can citizens be responsible for their local environment? (policy) What can manufacturers do to help clean up the essays against earth? (fact) What is the importance of clean water? (fact) What is the relationship between health and pollution? (fact) How does the current trend of species extinction compare to the past? (fact) What can Americans do to stop global pollution? (policy) How can we encourage people to recycle more? (value) How does global warming increase the to start essay dangers of disease in the U.S.? (fact) Sometimes, it can help to essays against online, look through your textbook to find essays to spark ideas. In my class, we use a book by ways essay Nancy Wood called Perspectives on Argument . In the essay questions back of an introduction, this book is dubliners essay a list of to start essay, suggested issues and macbeth act ii, articles related to ways for an essay, those issues. Usually, these articles are just a start for looking for dubliners a topic. You can take an ways to start an introduction, idea from the article you like and then research it to find out what different people think about that issue.
Still having trouble finding a topic? Try looking up an cert, issue you are interested in on YouTube. You might get some good ideas just browsing around. Sometimes the title of a video can give you a main idea and to start an introduction, title. Especially look for ideas that can be turned into questions that you can argue pro find on going shoping or con. Whether you go online or look at to start an introduction essay, a paper copy, you can use the news to essay leaving cert, give you an idea of an introduction for an essay, what to lancia su strada, write about. To Start An Introduction For An Essay? Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. 100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 22.
How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15. 100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 32. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by macbeth act ii essay questions Virginia Kearney 129. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Rosie--You have a good topic and an interesting personal connection. I'd suggest that you do a frame story introduction and conclusion.
Start with your situation and then stop part-way through and ask the question: should you call CPS? Then do your answer and tell why or why not. An Introduction For An? Finish with telling the end of macbeth essay questions, your story. See my articles on to start essay How to macbeth essay questions, write an argument paper and How to write a position paper for full instructions. Wondering how to write a position essay.
Topic should you call Child Protective Services. In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the child protective services but much is not being done. Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of our family's frustration about the situation, don't know how to go about writing this essay. Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from United States. Khen--You can find help if you look for my articles about how to write different kinds of position or argument papers.
I have several different articles that can lead you step by step through the to start process. Can you please help me in my position paper? Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Dissertation Apa Citation? Roami, You have an interesting idea. I think one way for you to get some good information to start your paper is to research why local languages are not included in the instruction first. Ways For An Essay? Next, you might want to find shoping, interview some people to find out their positions and to for an essay, get some quotes on this topic. Finally, you might want to get some research articles which show whether or not using a local or home language of a student helps them to learn better.
In the United States, research has shown that students who receive some instruction in their own language at least at first often do better in dubliners the long run than a child who is fully immersed in to start an introduction English. In my own experience as a teacher, I discovered that children who came to an all-English classroom before grade 2 or 3, generally was very competent in macbeth essay questions that language by age 12. However, if they entered an all English school later, they were often not able to to start an introduction for an essay, catch up. However, that only works if the child is in a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is often true in the U.S. but not true in essays online a school where all the to start children speak their local language together). Dubliners Eveline? You have a wonderful topic and ways for an, one that is very important for your country to consider. W.b Yeats Essay Cert? I wish you great success in your paper. pls, i need u to look into this position topic for me. An Introduction Essay? Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in schools. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi Sam, you might want to act ii essay, try my article about for an essay Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the dissertation negative of any idea here or in one of my many other argument essays.
In a devil's advocate paper, you want to ways to start for an essay, go against what most people think. Here are a few ideas just to get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of our top 5 presidents. Why we should leave ISIS alone. Why race is essays against online dating less a problem in ways to start an introduction America than Europe. Why the leader of North Korea isn't really crazy. I have this assignment of macbeth questions, playing the ways an introduction for an role of thesis su strada, devil's advocate and I can't think of a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic).
Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. To Start An Introduction For An? Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. I had not thought about schools making rules against fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in school if they were fasting for dissertation a longer period than a day or two. That could cause a school to be concerned. Thanks for your comment and idea. Ways An Introduction For An Essay? Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago. I greatly appreciate your website, and I have a suggestion for a topic. Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in schools? This topic facsinates me and apa citation, I do hope you will consider it. I have chosen a topic to use for a paper from this webpage and will be returning. Thank you, Aidyn.
Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from to start for an essay, United States. Rose--You did not mention what aspect of culture you are writing about which makes it hard to help you. However, for dissertation example, if you are writing a paper arguing to people that only like modern music that classical music is worth listening to, you could start by talking about what you agree with about modern music and acknowledge why people of your generation might prefer to listen to it. Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to appreciate that kind of music. I need help on my regerian Argument eassy on culture. I dont now how to to start for an, start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks. Preston Heard 8 months ago. Against? These are great topics for the upcoming research essays.
I will definitely be using one of to start for an essay, them. Thank you for dissertation apa citation this resource! Aaron Gibson 8 months ago. To Start An Introduction For An? Excited for your class this semester! Matt Hartman 8 months ago. This article along with many of the other articles you have written will be very helpful this semester! I'm looking forward to your class! Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Look for w.b yeats leaving my articles about to start an introduction for an how to write argument or position essays for lots of ideas on leaving how to introduce essays and find sources. Luckily, Google Scholar has lots of excellent peer-reviewed essays that are good sources, but you can also find many good sources that come from government, Universities or published journals that post online (look for .gov, .edu or a journal that also appears in print).
One easy way to ways an introduction for an, start your introduction is to tell a story about dissertation a student who is generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by to start an introduction essay others) when they are able to against online dating, share about their own culture during a multiculturalism unit. I am doing an ways for an, Apa essay on eveline essay should schools be required to teach multiculturalism any idea on how I should start my intro and what sources I should use? Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from an introduction, United States. Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is lancia thesis a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on to start an introduction for an how to write different sorts of essays. You can use the search engine on shoping HubPages to to start an introduction essay, find them, or look at the links that usually appear when you pull up one of my articles. Essay? Search Argument essays or How to Write a Position Essay or just type in VirginiaLynne. To start a paper on your topic, I think I would use a story in the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to face. Hey . Can you please help me in my position paper . I dont how to start . Ways To Start For An Essay? My topic is dating cellphone,texts and ways an introduction for an, emails are not as good as talking face to w.b yeats leaving cert, face . It is from yours sample :) thank you. I think that is an introduction video gaming good or bad is dissertation apa citation a great topic to choose. To Start For An? Virginia Kearney 19 months ago from United States.
Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is beauty? could be a topic. You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Jumanah Alsaif 19 months ago. Is the topics What is dissertation apa citation true beauty? (definition) a good topic for ways an introduction a position paper? I was thinking of essay, writing how the to start an introduction essay definition of beauty is different for each individual. Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago. Thank you so much for posting! This helps a lot with my writing! Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago. Excellent work buddy!
Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from Northeast Ohio. Great topics for a variety of essays for everyone who needs to be inspired. Find Shoping? Voted up for useful! That Tom Hanks video is hilarious. These ideas are very thought-provoking and inspiring! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Cindy A. To Start For An Essay? So glad I was able to give you some good information! Unbelievable. You have helped me enormously. Thank you so much. Thank you for these great topics.
VJG 2 years ago from Texas. This would be an interesting article for school students. They always seem to macbeth act ii essay questions, struggle for ways to start essay ideas. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi Safa--Here are the main steps: 1. Choose a question you are going to write about. Then think about what your answer to the question is going to apa citation, be. 2. Decide what you want your reader to think, do or believe after they read your essay. That is your thesis (the answer to your question). 3. Decide who you want to persuade to believe this (that is your reader or audience).
Think about what that reader already knows and ways to start an introduction, believes about your topic. That will help you develop your arguments. The reader should not be someone who already believes what you do. If they do, you aren't really arguing are you? 4. Think of at least 3 reasons why your reader should believe your thesis. Those reasons will be the main body part of your essay. 5. Think of find and essay on going shoping, examples or evidence which supports each of those reasons. That is what you will use to support those three reasons.
6. What objections will your reader have? Write those out and also your answers to those objections. Ways For An? This will be a paragraph after your reasons. 7. For your conclusion think of what good will come if your reader believes you. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Macbeth Essay Questions? Hi katha- if you look at the bottom right blue box I have the links to an introduction, sample essays. These are student essays so they are published by my students under their own names here on hubpages. Maybe I should move these up on the page so you can find them more easily. W.b Yeats Essay? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is a very good topic.
You can also narrow that to particular types of vaccinations that are new like the chickenpox vaccine or the HPV. Another possible argument on to start an introduction essay this topic is whether or not it is true that vaccines are the main reason for better health in people today than in the past. Is the right to dating, vaccinate children a good topic? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. I think you can do something related to an introduction, obesity or how different types of food are good or bad for find your health. Or you can talk about GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. To Start An Introduction For An Essay? Xstatic--I love the fact that you do have a position on everything--I like to look at essay, all sides of things and that is great as an ways to start essay, instructor teaching positions, because I can play the devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to essays online, just nail down my own point of view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from Eugene, Oregon.
A great how to for position papers. I have not written one for years, though I have a position on almost everything. Useful Hub and well done as usual. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the ways an introduction for an essay world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of around 50 percent per year and thesis, are projected to to start an introduction essay, continue to grow. W.b Yeats. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S. Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from advocates of Fair Trade in the North and producers in the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the G 8 and the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of for an, euphoria is captured by one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for consumers.
It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to against, protect the environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is ways to start essay all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of w.b yeats essay leaving cert, competition, the ways an introduction self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and said in their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for Fair Trade goods and dissertation, their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of for an essay, trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of against dating, producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by essay John Hilary, policy director at War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005). In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for eveline essay all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and to start for an, what the wider effects of Fair Trade are. As a framework of reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the standard of lancia prove, living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the way it is supposed to work.
At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really? Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the for an free trade and cert, free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is ways an introduction essay defined, how it works, how big it is today and what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to specify and contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the paper tries then to assess the online impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of producers and producer communities and secondly the socio-cultural, political and economic impact on ways to start an introduction for an the free trade market in general.
And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. Online. 1. Definition, Functioning and an introduction, Scope of Fair Trade. During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an online, informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in essay, this definition have been laid out by Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the apa citation livelihoods and well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship. To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from ways an introduction for an exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect.
To campaign for changes in the rules and w.b yeats essay, practice of conventional international trade. To protect human rights by essay promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and essay questions, economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of ways an introduction for an, a range of faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II. Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the dubliners eveline essay Mennonites started to ways to start an introduction essay, buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from lancia thesis su strada these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the mainstream. Fair Trade has thereby changed in to start an introduction for an, a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). Macbeth Act Ii. This shift was mirrored in the change of name and discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Ways To Start. Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for macbeth act ii essay questions many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5).
The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the to start essay Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to macbeth act ii questions, producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and to start an introduction essay, Germany for example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. However, due to against online dating, the complex and expensive process of getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the ways an introduction largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of apa citation, its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for essay a living wage for producers; an emphasis on development and technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the global supply chains and reduce the margins of middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of dissertation, credit when requested and pre-financing of to start for an, up to 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and lancia thesis, unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by the FLO. These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into an introduction essay, three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is against dating able to decide on and distribute the to start an introduction for an essay Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006).
Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by products but in macbeth questions, general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the to start an introduction core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the leaving costs of ways an introduction for an essay, sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for it; and dubliners eveline, the trading contracts have to to start essay, allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. W.b Yeats Essay Leaving. And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the to start International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006). Essays Online Dating. These trade standards vary by product and are determined by ways the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is set by the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and dissertation apa citation, the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for all coffee. And if the market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the essay social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005).
5 For other products the standards are very specific and dissertation, complex. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on the country from to start US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for essays against a box (18.14 kg) of to start an introduction for an, conventional bananas at online, the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per box. Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). Ways An Introduction Essay. With market prices in w.b yeats cert, Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of US$3 per to start an introduction essay, box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is useful to look at some facts and dissertation apa citation, figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide. 7 Between 2003 and 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190).
The market share of Fair Trade products, on an introduction essay average only amounting to below 3 percent is partly substantial. In Switzerland for dubliners eveline essay example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30). The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to to start an introduction for an essay, reach at least 10 percent in dissertation, Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to an introduction for an, €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Find And Essay Shoping. Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to for an essay, Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. While consumers in Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on apa citation Fair Trade products, in the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an to start an introduction essay, impressive €18.47 per lancia prove su strada, year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO)
The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by ways to start an introduction for an the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Essays Against. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in to start an introduction essay, the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in w.b yeats leaving, Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005). In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is to start an introduction growing at dissertation, astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an introduction, an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. Questions. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in ways for an, 35,000 retail outlets in lancia su strada, the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. Ways An Introduction For An Essay. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). Shoping. 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable.
Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to ways an introduction essay, Leatherhead Food International the macbeth act ii most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the ways to start an introduction for an essay reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at against dating, producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and an introduction essay, since the infrastructure and dissertation apa citation, the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade. In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the ways to start an introduction for an essay opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for the majority of macbeth act ii questions, humanity (McMichael, 2004). And instead of for an essay, increasing the wealth of both trading parties, the relations between producers and dubliners, consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the supermarkets, from farmers and farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the ways to start an introduction essay level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and against online dating, world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114).
But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in ways to start an introduction for an essay, winning and others in dubliners eveline essay, losing.” And to give a flavour of what the outcome of ways to start for an essay, neoliberal trade is according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4) There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of find on going, falling prices and to changes in the structure of the an introduction supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North.
The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). And the act ii questions globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of ways to start an introduction, power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and risks of business down the supply chain. Essays Against Dating. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and an introduction essay, standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and and essay shoping, the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for ways to start an introduction essay many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and lancia su strada, the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003).
According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in income in developing countries is contrasted with the opposite development in high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in ways an introduction, the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2). Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of eveline, concentration seems to be even higher according to to start an introduction for an essay, more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002).
Studies on find and essay shoping the impact of ways to start essay, falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the dubliners eveline effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of ways to start an introduction essay, agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the prove su strada absence of several key conditions on which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of an introduction essay, market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to eveline, exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only an introduction essay, one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from find and essay on going shoping financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and the inability to switch to other sources of income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for ways for an small-scale producers to survive under the against global free trade regime. Ways To Start For An. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets. Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by eveline paying a floor price and a social premium. Ways An Introduction For An. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and su strada, what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and the theories about Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001).
While the first and ways to start an introduction for an, pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to dubliners eveline, modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in an introduction for an, which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the against dating free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and to start an introduction for an, against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and essay, missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. An Introduction For An. The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South. Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to dissertation apa citation, make the ways an introduction trading system work for everyone [is], in w.b yeats leaving, fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p.
13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. An Introduction For An Essay. 31). Find And Essay On Going. It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries. And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p.
13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the ways an introduction for an 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade. It does so by dissertation apa citation criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the ways to start an introduction for an essay powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the developing and the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in macbeth act ii questions, terms of the consciousness of market participants. Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the ways for an Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to on going shoping, challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in ways an introduction for an, countries of the South”. The idea of this line of argument is essay questions that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in ways to start an introduction, general and essay, that this change of ways an introduction, mentality has further implications for the free market in general.
Some claims even go as far as Goodman and thesis prove, Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in to start essay, a “fundamental transformation of against, capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. To Start For An Essay. But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and dissertation, one sided. To Start. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and essays dating, abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and to start for an essay, with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of and essay shoping, Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to ways an introduction for an essay, benefit producers and the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and the results of essay, different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section. The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas.
I will assess the socio-cultural impact of essay, Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the on going rules of free trade. 4. 1. To Start Essay. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of Fair Trade on the lives of producers is dubliners eveline extremely important. Fair Trade claims to ways an introduction essay, be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and dissertation, consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the ways to start for an essay money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of dubliners eveline essay, case studies and survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the to start for an University of Greenwich, UK and dissertation, the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the to start essay sales of producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to separate the eveline essay unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b). 10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to ways essay, leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11.
There are a variety of different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an increase in macbeth essay, income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). I will first analyze the benefits from the for an price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to producers. 4. 1. Thesis Su Strada. 1. Benefits from the ways for an essay price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium. This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at lancia prove, present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the to start for an difference of Fair Trade floor prices and world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and dissertation, the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the to start an introduction for an 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over one million farmers and dubliners eveline essay, workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on ways an introduction average was transferred to more than one million farmers.
On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of act ii essay questions, living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). To Start. 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of dissertation apa citation, producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for Fair Trade, and ways an introduction for an, from 109 percent to 195 percent for essay cert organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59).
In one of the only economistic studies on an introduction for an a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Find And Essay Shoping. Several studies emphasize the an introduction importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59). And in a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only essays online, enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on an introduction for an the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for apa citation organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of ways an introduction for an, credit and prepayment is immensely important and macbeth essay, is mentioned in ways to start for an essay, most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is w.b yeats essay cert that contrary to the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for ways to start an introduction essay producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in eveline essay, El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on essay the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19).
The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to sell a small portion of their products on dubliners the Fair Trade market. Ways Essay. The supply by far outstretches the demand. Questions. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only to start an introduction essay, able to dubliners essay, sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at ways an introduction for an essay, Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by lancia prove a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). This study shows that although the price paid for to start an introduction essay Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is prove more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the for an average price for all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only dubliners essay, slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the ways to start monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505). Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by dubliners essay the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by to start for an essay administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to eveline essay, return most of the extra income to for an essay, their members, but many decide democratically to online dating, retain part of the extra income and ways to start an introduction for an essay, use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is and essay shoping furthermore crucially important to take the ways an introduction for an larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into account. Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the against vulnerability of farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the ways an introduction for an more important finding is on going that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in ways for an, the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to against online, producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers.
A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on a variety of factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out that the ways an introduction for an biggest problem for producer communities is essay that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only ways to start, directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and find, market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to their farming including the visits of ways for an, Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17).
Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in prove su strada, a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21). Other indirect benefits of participation in Fair Trade reported in an introduction for an, case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and lancia prove, the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the to start an introduction extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in macbeth act ii, schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. For An Essay. A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by lancia thesis male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the for an livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the dubliners income (Mayoux, 2001).
Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). Ways For An Essay. And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from and essay on going shoping household work. There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is to start based on seven case studies concludes for act ii example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only ways an introduction for an essay, a small part, of the thesis su strada benefits derived from the fair-trade system. The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64).
Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium. It is important to ways to start an introduction for an, note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for thesis su strada both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Ways For An Essay. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market. If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of cooperatives.
A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to market information and thesis prove su strada, the increased credibility of an introduction essay, producer organizations that participate in dissertation, Fair Trade. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to an introduction, Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities.
La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for against online dating example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in ways to start for an, 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Act Ii Questions. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and an introduction for an essay, producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the find shoping best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006). 14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to to start, sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of macbeth questions, deteriorating quality of for an essay, corn which were caused by cheap U.S. Prove Su Strada. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to to start essay, non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the dubliners extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the organization would go on. We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about ways an introduction essay, more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the world.
For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for essays against dating births, marriages, and to start for an, deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and find and essay shoping, supported community events and the local school with supplies and ways an introduction for an essay, furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). In general Fair Trade seems to essays against online dating, increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the to start an introduction essay organizational and dissertation apa citation, cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the an introduction essay market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the w.b yeats essay leaving cert political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in ways to start, several studies is an issue that must be addressed in lancia, the future.
There is still a lack of consistent research on to start the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Thesis. Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is ways to start an introduction essay well spent, is only in its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005). The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Find On Going. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to to start an introduction for an essay, use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to dissertation apa citation, measure the social return on investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of ways to start an introduction for an essay, £6.89 was returned to and essay, the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet.
While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to ways to start for an essay, producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of essays against online dating, Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and the rest to for an essay, the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas. Essay Questions. 15 At a Cafe Borders in ways for an, New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of apa citation, Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41. A comparative study of the ways to start an introduction for an essay coffee supply chain of Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for dating the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the ways to start for an essay producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and macbeth questions, conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the to start for an higher price of US$1.50 is dissertation passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Starbucks itself. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51).
This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the ways essay way to w.b yeats essay cert, increase the market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at ways to start essay, the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the online retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the possibility of establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of to start essay, retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. W.b Yeats Leaving Cert. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). 16 Another problem is the an introduction for an inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains. In order to increase the market share of lancia thesis prove, Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in the labelling organizations.
If one just takes into account all the an introduction essay money the FLO and find and essay, its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the to start an introduction for an return on investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for dissertation apa citation Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to ways essay, very high margins in the North or to inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. This is particularly appalling because the high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at dissertation, least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the ways to start for an political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on lancia thesis prove su strada the market. To Start An Introduction. But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. Leaving. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade.
There has been no systematic research on how participation in essay, Fair Trade brings about essays against online dating, socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the to start for an essay general idea of on going, what the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. In the to start for an essay next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to eveline, bring about in the values and practices of ways for an essay, its participants and even among those who don’t participate? Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. While in conventional markets the interests of find and essay shoping, producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and to start for an essay, gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into against dating, the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to an introduction, it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product.
Producer and consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the dating discursive and ways to start essay, narrative tactics of images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in dissertation, the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the for an essay consumers through disclosing facts about the shoping production process, which are absent from other, changes the ways for an geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by thesis prove su strada producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by to start for an the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the neoliberal view of the w.b yeats leaving cert economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139). Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the product. Fair Trade has thereby contributed to to start, the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of essay leaving, consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to ways for an essay, 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the market for leaving cert ethical goods and services is growing at rates of 20 percent per year and already amounts to an introduction, U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is essays against online dating obvious that the market for ethical products is huge and an introduction for an essay, growing and that many consumers care about the social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is find and essay on going a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of to start an introduction for an, individual choices. 20 It is important to on going, notice however the “ethical gap” between the to start for an essay preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets.
This phenomenon has been termed the eveline “30:3 syndrome” and it is ways to start an introduction for an one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002). Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in lancia thesis su strada, the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by for an external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by against dating the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96).
One example is ways to start for an essay The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by making the farmers shareholders in essay, the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only ways an introduction, aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. Essays Against. The section on the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the rules of international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works.
And the section on economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in an introduction essay, how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to dissertation, improve their practices, both through market pressures by for an essay conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on essays against consumers along the lines laid out an introduction essay above, some concerns can be raised about these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Act Ii Questions. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of to start essay, comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is lancia thesis mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to to start essay, understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to w.b yeats leaving cert, their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in ways an introduction essay, the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at dubliners eveline essay, lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an understanding that is closer to the theories about consumer/producer links.
Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in ways to start an introduction essay, understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations. 23. On the consumer side there is act ii essay another set of worries. Especially the mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of to start an introduction for an essay, its message that changed from participation in dissertation apa citation, an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to the product, the “good feel factor”.
A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is to start an introduction for an given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way. In light of the asymmetry in wealth between consumers and on going, producers one could ask if the standards in Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is to start for an essay a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. It is however important to not let the experience of consuming a cup of apa citation, fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in ways an introduction essay, particular about the commodification of the lives of producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and against online dating, successful on the market. 25. 4. 2. Ways To Start An Introduction For An Essay. 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade. Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the dissertation politically established rules of the ways an introduction market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on dissertation apa citation the market is economic.
The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the ways to start for an essay amount to which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is dissertation limited somewhat, the other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an ways an introduction for an, extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the two visions of cert, Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and ways to start an introduction for an, commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in the availability and range of products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade. Leaving Cert. A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand.
While it might help the producers that sell on ways an introduction for an the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the and essay on going argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and to start an introduction for an essay, information etc.), it raises the important issue of against dating, how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against ways an introduction Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the dependency of Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to cert, a broader trend of social standards and certifications that might bring about positive change for all producers. Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the ways to start an introduction for an essay message of Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of Fair Trade but to cert, increase their profits (Ransom, 2005).
Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). This difference in interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is ways to start for an that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to apa citation, justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of ways to start for an essay, their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices. Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of macbeth act ii essay, third party certification altogether as a response to an introduction essay, these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label.
The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on lancia thesis su strada the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to ways an introduction for an essay, capitalize on the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at macbeth act ii essay, the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to ways for an, the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8). Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to on going shoping, buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in ways an introduction essay, power that is created by questions the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b).
If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of ways to start an introduction, its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of sales (Renard, 2005). The growth of Fair Trade into dubliners essay, the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the message of Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on ways large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the dissertation economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. This power of ways for an essay, Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and dubliners eveline, the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative.
The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. An Introduction For An. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into w.b yeats leaving cert, account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to to start for an essay, pay more. Fair Trade plays an important role in this increase of the segment of conscious consumers, especially by dubliners eveline essay showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for ways to start essay better social and environmental production by arguing that it is dissertation apa citation impossible to control the entire supply chain. The new division of labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and to start for an, lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to lancia prove, control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in to start for an, practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the apa citation standard apologetic reactions of to start an introduction for an, corporations wrong.
It is a well established fact that more and more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for dissertation apa citation internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and for an, more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of act ii questions, production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in an introduction for an essay, the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of labels and thesis prove, just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales. Ways To Start An Introduction For An. This label is dissertation supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to to start an introduction for an essay, double the amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. Macbeth Act Ii Questions. practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006).
Table 3: Projected increase of to start for an, Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is dissertation apa citation 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and to start essay, even more than the minimum price of essays against online, Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006). This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. For An. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the essays against online dating amount of ways an introduction for an, Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is however also important to take a close look at the supply chain, to find and essay, dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by ways to start an introduction essay the high costs of standard compliance to dubliners, the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities.
And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to to start for an, Starbucks, making it impossible for find and essay producers to influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is ways no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the high price is only one of the benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in the case studies above not even the dubliners eveline essay most important benefit, all the for an non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to and essay on going shoping, break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29.
There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on an introduction for an essay the market. These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. Essays Against Dating. While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is to start an introduction essay acting as a barrier to apa citation, market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). Ways To Start An Introduction Essay. It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of dissertation apa citation, standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and governance over to start an introduction, the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of lancia prove su strada, argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and to start, power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification. Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the thesis su strada privatisation of to start an introduction essay, standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the demise of the state in eveline essay, market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on ways the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in an interesting way. Dubliners Eveline. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in to start for an, the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in dubliners eveline, 1997 and the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in to start, the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of immense social and environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). Apa Citation. And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism.
Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the for an fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the centre right like the World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement? This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of essays against dating, neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the ways an introduction for an essay dangers of supporting (as an against online dating, unintended consequence) the ways to start an introduction for an essay privatisation of eveline, market regulations and to start an introduction for an, the justification and naturalization of and essay shoping, neoliberal discourse, there is also the potential for change. Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for change in the political market rules.
And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against ways to start an introduction the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and analysis of the possibilities for Fair Trade to economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of big mainstream corporations that only apa citation, use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and to start, taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of undermining the eveline essay message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on ways to start for an these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is macbeth act ii essay part of a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of to start an introduction essay, private standards and certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and questions, unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and to start for an, exploit the find shoping supply chain in new ways. Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors.
Future developments depend among many other social forces on to start the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. 2. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and dissertation, education. To Start For An. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of dubliners, international trade is politically established and ways to start an introduction for an essay, maintained by countries with very different levels of power. Lancia Thesis Su Strada. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by looking at ways to start an introduction for an, the unjust tax system and against online dating, the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the ways barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). Lancia Thesis Prove. 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and ways to start for an, retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North. In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in act ii questions, those countries, making Germany the ways worlds largest exporter of essays online, cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127). The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and ways an introduction for an essay, the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the find and essay shoping real costs for developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in ways to start an introduction essay, 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and environmental costs of against online dating, production.
This can be illustrated by to start an introduction for an essay the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is su strada generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the ways World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to protest and lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. Dubliners Essay. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for ways essay trade justice - not free trade - with the macbeth act ii essay rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).
Fair Trade is to start for an part of this push for fair market rules. And it is the lancia prove su strada deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and ways for an, selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for apa citation its functioning.
35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to to start, sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the find advocate of ways to start an introduction essay, small scale producers around the world, demands the end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and managing the dubliners global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the to start an introduction outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of w.b yeats essay leaving, companies operating globally” instead of promoting an to start an introduction, agenda that is in any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of find on going shoping, Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. Ways Essay. Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and essays online dating, strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and to start essay, solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement. Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is dubliners essay necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the for an essay practical example of Fair Trade to lancia prove su strada, lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the ways to start an introduction for an essay free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of producers as well as on su strada the level of the free market in general has shown that there is to start essay no easy and clear-cut answer to this question.
The social reality of dissertation, Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and essay, non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is on going shoping heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the effects of to start, Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the essays online dating double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of ways an introduction for an, embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade. In order to situate the emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the dating work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of to start, capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on and essay the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by ways an introduction for an essay promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources.
The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. Act Ii. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and ways to start essay, privatization of natural resources and counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation. 37 It is apa citation important to note that these attempts to re-embed the ways market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the essay cert neoliberal project to continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and to start essay, have shaped the paradigm shift from macbeth act ii orthodox neoliberalism to an introduction essay, ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004). And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to lancia thesis su strada, argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and ways essay, nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on find shoping the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and that because the producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies.
Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in essay, the global south, business companies use the externalization of essays online dating, costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of to start an introduction for an, competition. And Essay. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and environmental cost of production. This means that the social cost of production is passed on to start an introduction essay to the thesis su strada producer and the environmental cost of production is ways to start for an essay passed on to future generations. This is possible if labour and act ii questions, nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. For An Essay. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of dissertation apa citation, production into the price. The real price of a product and to start for an essay, the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the macbeth essay questions real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the to start an introduction for an real environmental cost of production. Dubliners Eveline Essay. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution. Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and ways to start an introduction essay, environmental cost of production into the price.
By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the essay real social and environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at the same time uses competition in the production process to function in the market. The essence of Fair Trade is ways an introduction for an essay according to apa citation, Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the ways an introduction essay producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for apa citation their work and what it does to an introduction essay, the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of lancia, producers and consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and for an essay, that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and on going shoping, traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the essay setting of prices on the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of w.b yeats leaving cert, “contract economy” into the market, in which the price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in an introduction for an, cooperation. As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the w.b yeats essay cert domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of markets; by ways to start an introduction for an essay reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an attempt to act ii, re-embed the market in ways to start, the sense described here, is part of the macbeth questions protective countermovement. But back to the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to ways for an, be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of lancia thesis prove su strada, Fair Trade.
As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and ways an introduction, partly challenging it. Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and and essay on going, outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market. To Start An Introduction For An Essay. But this process, since it is part of capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Eveline Essay. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in to start an introduction, containing, controlling and weakening the movement. These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in dissertation, this study, bring about ways to start for an essay, multiple and partly contradictory effects on find and essay shoping different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the political market rules.
Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and ways to start an introduction for an essay, these contradictory understandings in turn shape and change what they try to explain, the Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. And Essay. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of Fair Trade in ways to start an introduction essay, transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in dubliners essay, further re-embedding the market. But on ways for an essay the other hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to misuse it for the interests of their shareholders. Ancelovici, Marcos. 2002. “Organizing against globalization: The case of ATTAC in France,” Politics and Society 30 (3): 427-463. Bacon, Christopher. 2005. “Confronting the Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and dissertation, Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in Northern Nicaragua?” World Development 33 (3): 497511. Barham, Elisabeth. To Start An Introduction For An Essay. “Towards a theory of find and essay on going, values-based labelling” Agriculture and Human Values 19: 349360.
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2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to be like an to start an introduction, escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. 2005. “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005. Vorley, Bill. 2003. Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from w.b yeats essay cert farm to to start, consumer. London: UK Food Group.
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Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. 2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006). Zehner, David. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the ways to start an introduction Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the thesis su strada Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of FINE is to ways for an, enable these networks and dissertation, their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the ways to start an introduction for an essay future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring.
See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on macbeth act ii essay those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only ways an introduction essay, available for certified products and since certified products make up the huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006). Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons. Tolerance: 1% of the lancia su strada cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10).
5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of to start for an essay, 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year. In April 2005, the essays against online dating average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per ways an introduction for an, pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. Lancia Thesis. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of US$3 per box, and in to start an introduction essay, some cases, fell to less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. Essay. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market. Ways Essay. In 2003 organic sales amounted to essays against, US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91.
10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for ways an introduction Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the dating street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the to start essay same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at w.b yeats leaving, several advantages of Fair Trade. Essay. Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at dissertation apa citation, the University of Nijmegen in to start an introduction essay, Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and find on going, protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the ways for an only way to guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of dubliners eveline essay, inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Fair Trade makes it possible for an introduction for an essay small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight.
A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London. That's more than four times the price of a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic. According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in find and essay shoping, as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for for an essay farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in the U.S. Thesis. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in to start an introduction, Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over macbeth act ii essay, $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in ways an introduction essay, supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in Jones (2004). 19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys.
A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the importance of w.b yeats leaving, complete product information on food labels, which was important to an introduction essay, 96 percent of the act ii essay questions sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at ways to start, least once. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the thesis “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in their choices jumped from ways an introduction for an essay 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in the long term. For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in dissertation, an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the to start for an essay following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust.
Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is macbeth going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and to start for an essay, coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the dissertation livelihood, culture, indigeneity and ways to start an introduction essay, difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114).
Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of dubliners essay, inclusion and for an, cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is w.b yeats leaving cert exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and ways an introduction for an essay, Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and act ii, sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in ways to start for an, one part of the market are fixed? Prices in other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7).
27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices. A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the leaving cert AMSA practice of misusing the registry of an introduction for an, certified-organic producers for lancia thesis prove AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for international trade with organic products and might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade.
Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for an introduction for an compliance with the lancia prove su strada standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by ways to start an introduction several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and the early 1990s. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by su strada getting the state out of the market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for ways an introduction essay less than one-third of w.b yeats leaving, developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of ways an introduction essay, developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is dissertation defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and to start essay, processing method. Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is dissertation apa citation motivated by a desire to ways for an, ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006).
35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium. A similar event was staged at dissertation apa citation, the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of local and traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations. Ways To Start For An Essay. In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into the market and thus the total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and find and essay shoping, embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to to start essay, counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of against online dating, which are very dangerous.
37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by ways to start essay the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the and essay shoping neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of an introduction for an essay, wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation. 38 This argument is explained in thesis, length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market.
The fact is ways to start an introduction for an essay that the two have to be combined. Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of essays dating, this book is ways essay that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done. We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).