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Utilitarianism As The Principle Of Happiness Philosophy Essay

Essay about utilitarianism

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business plan titles Write a Winning Business Plan. Essay Utilitarianism. B usiness P lanning. What are the gardener Benefits? Every wholesale, retail, and/or service business can benefit from the preparation of a carefully written business plan. There are two main purposes for writing that plan.

There is an essay about utilitarianism additional benefit if you do business internationally. Being Essays. Your business plan will serve as your guide during the lifetime of your operation. It is the blueprint of your business and will provide you with the essay about tools to american essays analyze your operation and implement changes that will increase your sales and, ultimately, your profitability. A business plan is a requirement if you are planning to essay about utilitarianism seek financing. It will provide potential lenders or investors with detailed information on all aspects of school essay thesis your company's past and about utilitarianism, current operations and provide future projections. Violence. If you do business internationally, a business plan provides a standard means of evaluating your products' business potential in a foreign marketplace. Business Plan Outline.

The following pages provide a suggested outline of the material to be included in your business plan. Your final plan may vary according to your specific needs or individual requirements of your lender or investor. Cover Sheet (Serves as the about utilitarianism title page of your business plan) Name, address, and phone number of the company. Name, title, address, phone number of owners/corporate officers.

Month and year your plan was prepared. Name of preparer. Copy number of the plan. Table of Contents (Quick reference to major topics covered in your plan) The executive summary is the ap european essay european abstract of your business plan. It summarizes the content and purpose of your finished plan, covering all of the key points. This is a key section if you are seeking funding. Your Company (introductory overview - who, what, where it is and why it is unique) Market Opportunity (opportunities your company is essay positioned to take advantage of) Capital Requirements, Breakdown of Uses of Funds, Repayment of essay history Loan or Benefits to Investors. (include only if you are seeking funding) Management (who they are and strengths each one brings to about utilitarianism the company) Competitors (direct and indirect); list their strengths and weaknesses.

Your Company's Competitive Advantages. Resume Students Recommendation. Financial Projections (summary of Income Statement Projections for next 3 years) Note : Write the essay executive summary after you have completed your business plan. It is write scientific paper conclusion a summary. Part I: The Organizational Plan. What is included?

This section should include a summary description of your business statement followed by information on the administrative end of your company. Summary Description of the about Business. In a paragraph or two give a broad overview of the nature of your business, telling when and the constant gardener essay, why the company was formed. Essay About. Then complete the summary by briefly addressing: mission (projecting short- and long-term goals) business model (describe your company's model and why it is unique to your industry) strategy (give an how to write scientific paper overview of the about utilitarianism strategy, focusing on short- and long-term objectives) strategic relationships (tell about any existing strategic relationships) SWOT Analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that your company will face, both internal and external) Products or Services. If you are the manufacturer and/or wholesale distributor of the constant a product: Describe your products. Tell briefly about your manufacturing process. Utilitarianism. Include information on suppliers and essay history, availability of materials. If you are a retailer and/or an e-tailer: Describe the products you sell.

Include information about your sources and handling of inventory and fulfillment. If you provide a service: Describe your services List future products or services you plan to provide. Address Copyrights, Trademarks, and Patents. About Utilitarianism. Back up in Supporting Documents with registrations, photos, diagrams, etc. Describe your projected or current location. Project costs associated with the location. Include legal agreements, utilities forecasts, etc. in Supporting Documents. Note: If location is important to marketing, cover in Part II - The Marketing Plan. Describe your legal structure and why it is advantageous for your company.

List owners and/or corporate officers describing strengths (include resumes). List the people who are (or will be) running the business. Essay Questions. Describe their responsibilities and abilities. Project their salaries. Essay. (Include resumes in Supporting Documents) How many employees will you have in what positions? What are the being american necessary qualifications? How many hours will they work and at what wage? Project future needs for adding employees. Accounting: What system will you set up for essay about daily accounting? Who will you use for a tax accountant? Who will be responsible for periodic financial statement analysis?

Legal: Who will you retain for an attorney? (Keep 'Murphy's Law' in mind.) What kinds of insurance will you carry? (Property Liability, Life Health) What will it cost and universitt wien, who will you use for a carrier? Address security in terms of inventory control and theft of information (online and off). Utilitarianism. Project related costs. Part II: The Marketing Plan. Being. What is a marketing plan? The Marketing Plan defines all of the essay components of your marketing strategy. You will address the details of your market analysis, sales, advertising, and public relations campaigns. The Plan should also integrate traditional (offline) programs with new media (online) strategies.

Overview and Goals of Your Marketing Strategy. Target Market (identify with demographics, psychographics, and niche market specifics) Competition (describe major competitors assessing their strengths and weaknesses. Essay Thesis. Market Trends (identify industry trends and customer trends) Market Research (describe methods of essay about utilitarianism research, database analysis, and results summary) General Description (budget % allocations on- and off-line with expected ROIs) Method of Sales and wien dissertation binden, Distribution (stores, offices, kiosks, catalogs, d/mail, website) Packaging (quality considerations and essay about, packaging) Pricing (price strategy and competitive position. Database Marketing (Personalization) Sales Strategies (direct sales, direct mail, email, affiliate, reciprocal, and viral marketing) Sales Incentives/Promotions (samples, coupons, online promo, add-ons, rebates, etc.) Advertising Strategies (traditional, web/new media, long-term sponsorships) Public Relations (online presence, events, press releases, interviews) Networking (memberships and leadership positions) Description of Customer Service Activities. Scientific Paper. Expected Outcomes of Achieving Excellence. Implementation of Marketing Strategy. Out-Sourced Functions (advertising, public relations, marketing firms, ad networks, etc.) Assessment of about Marketing Effectiveness* * To be used by for high students recommendation, existing companies after making periodic evaluations.

Part III: Financial Documents. The quantitative part of essay about your business plan. This section of the business plan is the the constant character essay quantitative interpretation of everything you stated in the organizational and marketing plans. About. Do not do this part of your plan until you have finished those two sections. Financial documents are the records used to school violence essay show past, current, and projected finances. Essay Utilitarianism. The following are the major documents you will want to include in gardener character, your Business Plan. The work is much easier if they are done in the order presented because they build on each other, utilizing information from the essay utilitarianism ones previously developed. Summary of Financial Needs (needed only if you are seeking financing) This is an outline giving the following information: Why you are applying for school students recommendation financing.

How Much capital you need. Loan Fund Dispersal Statement (needed only if you are seeking financing) Tell How you intend to disperse the loan funds. Back Up your statement with supporting data. Essay About Utilitarianism. Pro Forma Cash Flow Statement (Budget) This document projects what your Business Plan means in terms of dollars. It shows cash inflow and outflow over a period of time and is used for internal planning. It is of prime interest to character essay the lender and shows how you intend to repay your loan. About Utilitarianism. Cash flow statements show both how much and when cash must flow in and out of your business. Three-Year Income Projection. A Pro Forma Income PL (Income) Statement showing projections for resume writing for high school recommendation your company for the next three years. Use the essay utilitarianism revenue and expense totals from the Pro Forma Cash Flow Statement for the 1st year's figures and project for the next two years according to expected economic and industry trends. Projected Balance Sheet.

Projection of Assets, Liabilities, and essay questions, Net Worth of your company at end of next fiscal year. The break-even point is the point at which a company's expenses exactly match the sales or service volume. It can be expressed in: (1) Total dollars or revenue exactly offset by essay about utilitarianism, total expenses -or- (2) Total units of production (cost of which exactly equals the income derived by violence, their sales). This analysis can be done either mathematically or graphically. Essay About Utilitarianism. Revenue and expense figures are drawn from the three-year income projection. Note : The following (G-J) are Actual Performance (Historical) Statements. They reflect the activity of your business in the past. If your business is new and has not yet begun operations: the resume writing financial section will end here and utilitarianism, you will add a Personal Financial History. If yours is an established business: you will include the universitt wien dissertation binden following actual performance statements. Profit Loss Statement (Income Statement) Shows your business financial activity over about a period of time (monthly, annually).

It is a moving picture showing what has happened in resume for high students recommendation, your business and is an utilitarianism excellent tool for assessing your business. Your ledger is closed and balanced and the revenue and expense totals transferred to this statement. Shows the condition of the business as of a fixed date. It is a picture of your firm's financial condition at a particular moment and will show you whether your financial position is strong or weak. It is usually done at the close of an accounting period. Contains: (1) Assets, (2) Liabilities and resume recommendation letter, (3) Net Worth.

Financial Statement Analysis. In this section you will use your income statements and balance sheets to develop a study of relationships and comparisons of: (1) Items in a single year's financial statement, (2) comparative financial statements for a period of time, or (3) your statements with those of other businesses. Measures are expressed as ratios or percentages that can be used to compare your business with industry standards. If you are seeking a lender or investor, ratio analysis as compared to about utilitarianism industry standards will be especially critical in write scientific conclusion, determining whether or not the loan or venture funds are justified. Liquidity Analysis (net working capital, current ratio, quick ratio) Profitability Analysis (gross profit margin, operating profit margin, net profit margin) Debt Ratios (debt to assets, debt to equity) Measures of essay utilitarianism Investment (return on investment) Vertical financial statement analysis (shows relationship of components in a single financial statement) Horizontal financial statement analysis (percentage analysis of the increases and decreases in the items on comparative financial statement) Business Financial History. This is a summary of financial information about your company from resume for high letter its start to the present. Utilitarianism. The Business Financial History and Loan Application are frequently one and the same. If you have completed the rest of the financial section, you should have all of the information you need to transfer to this document. Part IV: Supporting Documents.

This section of your plan will contain all of the records that back up the statements and decisions made in the three main parts of your business plan. The most common supporting documents are: Include resumes for owners and management. A resume should a one-page document. Include: work history, educational background, professional affiliations and honors, and a focus on special skills relating to the company position. Owners' Financial Statements. A statement of personal assets and liabilities. For a new business owner, this will be part of your financial section. Business and personal from suppliers or wholesalers, credit bureaus, and banks. Copies of Leases, Mortgages, Purchase Agreements, Etc. All agreements currently in force between your company and resume for high school students recommendation, a leasing agency, mortgage company or other agency.

Letters of Reference. Essay. Letters recommending you as being a reputable and reliable business person worthy of being considered a good risk. (both business and personal references) Include all business contracts, both completed and the constant gardener character essay, currently in force. Other Legal Documents. All legal papers pertaining to your legal structure, proprietary rights, insurance, etc. Limited partnership agreements, shipping contracts, etc. All other documents which have been referred to, but not included in the main body of the plan. (for example: location plans, demographics, competition analysis, advertising rate sheets, cost analysis, etc.) Putting Your Plan Together.

When You Are Finished: Your Business Plan should look professional, but the about utilitarianism potential lender or investor needs to know that it was done by being, you. A business plan will be the about utilitarianism best indicator that can be used to judge your potential for universitt wien dissertation success. It should be no more than 30 to 40 pages in essay about utilitarianism, length, excluding supporting documents. If you are seeking a lender or investor: Include only the supporting documents that will be of universitt immediate interest to the person examining your plan. Keep the others with your own copy where they will be available on short notice. Make copies for each lender or investor you wish to approach. Keep track of each copy that you give out. If you are turned down for financing, be sure to retrieve your business plan. Keep Your Business Plan Up-to-Date. Your business plan will be beneficial only if you update it frequently to reflect what is happening within your business. Measure your projections against what actually happens in your company.

Use the results to analyze the utilitarianism effectiveness of resume students recommendation letter your operation. You can then implement changes that will give you a competitive edge and make your business more profitable. Linda Pinson is essay utilitarianism a nationally-recognized business speaker, author and educator. She is the wien dissertation binden owner of Out of Your Mind. and Into the Marketplace#8482;, publisher of educational how-to books and software for new and about, established businesses. Linda has authored nine books, one of dissertation which is Anatomy of a Business Plan, winner of the Ben Franklin Best Business Book of the Year Award and basis of the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) Publication, How to Write a Business Plan. She is also the developer of Automate Your Business Plan Version 2015 for Windows ® . Her books are in libraries and bookstores throughout the U.S. and have been translated into Spanish, Italian, Chinese and other languages for foreign use. The books and software are used as course material in universities, colleges, SBDCs, BICs, and technical schools, and also for training and development within corporations.

OUT OF YOUR MIND. AND INTO THE MARKETPLACE TM. 13381 White Sand Dr. , Tustin , CA 92780-4565 USA. Tel: 714-544-0248 (CA) or 469-223-4474 (TX) Fax: 714-730-1414. Copyright 1996-2015 Linda Pinson - All rights reserved.

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LEEWS (Law Essay Exam Writing/Preparation Science/System) changes the game! A proven effective (true) science of preparing for and executing the A essay exam, LEEWS is applicable to bar as well as law school exams. Unique, proven systems are put in place for (systematically!) identifying issues [No more haphazard spotting!], presenting analysis in concise paragraphs (roughly one per issue), briefing cases in 2-4 lines(!!), taking far fewer class notes, and essay about utilitarianism compiling condensed, effective, 30-50 page course outlines. Resume For High Letter. And much more. A law student learnsfinallyto learn/think as a reasonable facsimile of a [practicing] lawyer. I briefed, outlined my notes, reviewed the law, but still felt totally unprepared for upcoming exams.

This program was exactly what I needed the tools to confidently tackle exams in a methodical way. Jan Court, Univ Texas '00. Just knowing you have a plan i.e., the steps keeps you from worrying about panic. Rob Goldbaum, U. Chicago '92. 3 Sample Law Essay Exams From the LEEWS Primer (with Model Responses) [And an example of LEEWS' effectiveness in practice.] 1 Actual Civil Procedure Exam With Model Response (written by a LEEWS grad) and Professor Comments. The entire grade (!!) in most law school courses will depend upon performance on a final exam, most if not all of which is essay in nature. (You are basically asked to identify and analyze so-called issues generated in a hypothetical [made up] and usually complex fact pattern, much as a lawyer might.) Most exams are 3-4 hours in length, and either closed or open book. The former means you bring nothing into the exam with you (save the code in a course based on a code of rules [e.g., IRS Code in essay taxation, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in civil procedure]). Normally open book allows you to american essays, bring in class notes, textbook, outlines, whatever, which tends to essay utilitarianism, reassure students. However, open book is misleading, as there is typically little time to refer to aids.

Open or closed book, the how to write conclusion law you need to know should be in your head. Some professors offer take home exams, which may have 8-24 hour time limits, and limits as to how much you can write or type. Grading is about invariably anonymous to protect professors and wien students alike. Unlike college and graduate school, class participation, acquaintance with the professor, even midsemester (as opposed to midyear) midterms generally have no bearing on law school grades. Ask professors themselves, or upperclass students about the grading policies and practices of individual professors. There follow three examples of essay hypotheticals selected from among the eight in the appendix of the LEEWS Primer. Following are models of the LEEWS approach to breaking fact patterns down into units corresponding to relevant issues [Planning Phase], as well as fully developed written responses corresponding to our format of concise paragraphs, roughly one per issue [Writing Phase]. The law needed to address each hypo is provided, as the subjects may as yet be unfamiliar to essay, you. You may want to attempt a response before looking at the models. Standard exam writing advice posits that you follow IRAC.

I.e., identify the Issue, state the applicable Rule, Analyze, Conclude. (Sounds great, until you realize you don't know what an violence essay, issue is, much less how to identify all issues lurking in the fact pattern; you don't know how to analyze as a lawyer; and you don't know how to present analysis concisely.) Whether you are familiar with the about utilitarianism three subjects tested or no, all essay exercises are predictable in questions history nature. A typically complex and confusing fact pattern is followed by question(s)/instruction(s) that in effect require you to identify or spot the legal issues that would be of interest to a judge or lawyer. You must then resolve those issues, bringing to bear relevant law and the analytic dialectic between law and facts known as lawyerlike thinking. Should you find yourself thinking, as you review the utilitarianism model responses, I don't think I can ever do that, unless you have a knack for taking such exams (possessed by only a small handful of students -- 5-7%, even at Harvard), you are probably correct. Which is why so few law students manage even a single A on final exams. But rest assured that anyone with reasonable intelligence and diligence can produce such responses consistently. American. Showing you how is what LEEWS is about all about -- for any exam in any subject, no matter the question(s)/instruction(s) posed by the constant character essay, the professor. Civil Procedure Hypothetical (60 min.) Coris Becker, an occasional tennis player, fell while descending steps at the Only For Us Racquet Club in Long Island City, Queens County, New York. As she explained to her husband moments later by phone: Not the most graceful move in essay about utilitarianism the world, Morris.

I got so mad, I smashed Mommy's new titanium Stroker. Be a dear and bring home din-din. I'm going to be in the hot tub for hours. European History. As she limped out to about, her Lexus, Coris ran into the club owner, Jett Setter. He grinned and remarked, I saw that spill, Coris. Not the resume for high school students most graceful move in the world.

At which point Coris determined to sue Setter personally, as well as the utilitarianism club. Although a resident of Queens County, Coris, joined by her mother, Doris, a resident of Manhattan, New York County, brought suit against Only For Us Racquet Club, Inc. (OFU, Inc.) and Jett Setter personally in New York County, seeking damages for Coris' injury and the destruction of the tennis racquet. Thereupon followed, inter alia , the following events and for high school students recommendation letter motions: 1 OFU, Inc. and about utilitarianism Setter moved for a change of venue to Queens County. 2 Attempts to serve Setter personally at his club were twice unsuccessful, so a copy of the summons and complaint was affixed to the door of his home. Another was mailed to him. How To Write Paper. [So-called nail and about mail service.] 3 Although the complaint affixed to his door separated from the summons and blew away, and the mailed copy never arrived, Setter, by his attorney, appeared in the action, answered the complaint, interposed affirmative defenses, and otherwise defended against the action. Only later during an wien binden, appeal did he assert lack of personal jurisdiction as a defense. 4 OFU, Inc. served notice of the deposition of a person who, while standing in the next phone booth, had overheard Coris' conversation with her husband.

Coris moved for a protective order forbidding disclosure of anything overheard as a privileged conversation. 5 OFU, Inc. requested an essay about utilitarianism, admission from violence essay thesis, Doris that Coris has a tendency to essay, negligent behavior. Doris ignored it. 6 Following a directed verdict during trial dismissing her cause of action for destruction of the racquet, Doris immediately instituted a claim for school violence essay damages on essay utilitarianism, the same ground in small claims court, Manhattan. You are a law clerk to, where appropriate, both trial and universitt wien binden appellate judges assigned to this case. Prepare a memorandum of law respecting the issues raised in the above. Majority state law applies. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPO. (Such legal knowledge should be in your head as well as your course outline. Note: The law provided herein may or may not be currently accurate.)

Discovery (scope of) Generally, all information not otherwise privileged that is essay relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, whether or not the school thesis material would be admissible as proof. Communications between spouses A confidential communication between husband and wife is privileged against disclosure by either spouse or by essay utilitarianism, a third person (e.g., an eavesdropper). Personal Jurisdiction Generally, in order to determine the rights and duties of parties to an action, and to bind the ap european essay history parties personally to its determinations, a court must have in personam jurisdiction over said parties. Utilitarianism. Said jurisdiction will be had, inter alia, where a defendant is present in school violence the state where an action is about brought, and school personally served with process. Where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence, a plaintiff is essay about utilitarianism entitled to substitute such service by affixing a copy of the summons and complaint to the door or other conspicuous place at the defendant's last known address, and also mailing a copy of same by regular mail to said address (so-called nail and mail). A court has held that three attempts at violence essay in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the defendant at home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and about utilitarianism discretion at the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence. Waiver of Where a defendant appears, answers the the constant essay complaint, interposes defenses, and at no time during or after trial moves to about utilitarianism, dismiss based on, nor claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the defense will be deemed waived on resume writing for high students letter, appeal. Requests for admission A request for admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the existence of facts that are not in doubt and that should not be necessary to prove at trial. The party served normally has 30 days to respond.

Failure to timely respond results in the matter being deemed admitted. Inter alia , it is permissible to about, request that a party admit to a legal conclusion (e.g., that an employee was acting with authority, or that the party was traveling against being american traffic on a one-way street). About Utilitarianism. However, it is not proper to request an admission to an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per se). Res Judicata Doctrine that for reasons of economy, prevention of harassment, and avoidance of inconsistent judicial rulings (policy!), the write scientific paper relitigation of claims and issues is generally prohibited. Claim preclusion Doctrine whereby a final judgment on the merits of a claim or cause of action precludes reassertion of essay, that claim or cause of american, action in a subsequent suit. Venue Refers to the proper place for trial of a lawsuit. The purpose of venue rules is to prevent a plaintiff from forcing a defendant to trial where it would be burdensome for him to appear and defend (policy!). Unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action (meaning that the transaction which is the subject of the action could have happened anywhere) should be tried in the county where the action arose. MODEL RESPONSE TO CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPOTHETICAL. (1/4 - 1/3 of allotted time divided into 10-15 minute intervals)

Preliminary Overview Six distinct events/motions. Perform Steps One, Two, and Three (The Blender) on essay about, each is my initial perspective on how to proceed. [Always the Steps, always the Steps a constant way of thinking.] Step One [Conflict pairings and party objective(s) for each of the six events/motions.] The conflict pairings for all six are either Coris and/or Doris versus OFU, Inc. Gardener Essay. and/or Jett Setter. [The consistent overall objectives are to obtain damages on one side and to avoid liability on the other. However, given that this is a civil procedure exam, the objectives that count for purposes of generating premises are intermediate in nature. Utilitarianism. In the larger (intermediate) sense they are to school letter, keep the litigation going versus termination on a procedural ground. More immediate to the six events/motions:] 1 = Change venue to Queens County vs. Essay About. keep it in Manhattan County.

2 = Establish personal jurisdiction vs. not. 3 = Have lack of universitt wien dissertation, personal jurisdiction defense ruled moot vs. exists and viable. 4 = Preclude disclosure of overheard conversation vs. have it ruled discoverable. 5 = Have fact admitted vs. not admitted. 6 = Have claim heard in small claims court vs. Essay. dismissed.

[My view at this point is that each event/motion will generate no more than one or two premises, and will be relatively straightforward of analysis. Therefore, the time to gardener character, be allotted each will be roughly the same. As it would interrupt continuity of about, train of paper conclusion, thought and be time wasting to continue applying the Steps to all six, from this point on essay, I shall work on each question to school violence thesis, completion before going on to the next .] Step Two [Consider each pairing, party, and objective. Cull facts (and course outline) for relevant premises.] 1 = Venue of transitory action is essay overriding , (i.e., governs the being american determination, no matter which party's perspective/objective is considered. See definition of essay about utilitarianism, Step Two and how to write paper footnote, page 104.) 2 = Nail and mail service vs. due diligence rule. [Complete analysis/discussion of No.2 (7-8 minutes??), then on to No.3; . . Essay. . The Constant Essay. No.4; . Essay. . . 5; . . . 6.]

3 = Rule re lack of personal jurisdiction and grounds for waiver thereof overrides. 4 = Rule re discovery of spousal communication overrides. 5 = Requests for admission, and failure to respond thereto overrides. 6 = Res judicata rules override. Step Three [Consider each premise to the constant character, note missing elements or real issues.] [Since there appear to be but one or two premises to be considered for each event/motion, and utilitarianism since I am working on each exclusive of the others, Step Three is unnecessary as an independent exercise. It is part and parcel of inspecting the scientific paper conclusion law giving rise to the premise under consideration to determine whether it is necessary to state all of the law to essay utilitarianism, begin the first paragraph of analysis, or whether one or more elements can be focused on as pivotal.] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion No overlap of discussion apparent. No reason apparent not to proceed in the chronology given.

[When question(s)/instruction(s) offer a labeling format, you of course normally use it. The professor/bar grader will likely be looking for paper it (Here -- 1,2,3, etc. It seems unnecessary, time wasting, and essay utilitarianism probably confusing to universitt binden, mention conflict pairings here. However, I am thinking of and guided by them.] Generally, unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action [flag relevant law with underlining or boldface] should be tried in the county where the action arose.

Transitory has been defined to about utilitarianism, mean that the transaction that is the subject of the action could have occurred anywhere. Writing For High School Students Letter. Coris' fall and the destruction of the racquet could have occurred anywhere. [Concludes statement of utilitarianism, relevant premise, i.e., controlling legal precept, that abruptly begins every paragraph.] Moreover, Coris, Only For Us, Inc. (OFU), and Jett Setter all reside in Queens County. The residence in New York County of Coris' mother, Doris, whose claim is minor, is the only apparent reason for trying the essay action in essay New York County. It is hardly compelling. [Concludes lawyerlike analysis -- application of law to the constant gardener character essay, relevant facts.] Conclusion : The motion should be granted. [No hedging, as this seems open and about utilitarianism shut.] So-called nail and mail service will satisfy the requirements of personal jurisdiction only where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence. [Law.] It has been held that three attempts at in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the defendant at home or leave the being american summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at essay about utilitarianism the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of write paper, due diligence.

Plaintiffs made no attempt to utilitarianism, serve defendant Setter personally other than twice unsuccessfully at his place of ap european questions european history, business. About Utilitarianism. [Analysis.] Conclusion: The attempted nail and mail service was likely [Hedging!] ineffective for lack of due diligence. Where a defendant who has not been properly served nevertheless appears in an action, answers the complaint, and interposes affirmative defenses, but never moves to the constant essay, dismiss for lack of essay utilitarianism, personal jurisdiction, nor at any time claims lack of writing for high school students, personal jurisdiction, the defense of lack of personal jurisdiction will be deemed waived upon the taking of an appeal. [Law.] Setter, as concluded above, was never properly served. Nevertheless, he appeared, answered the complaint, defended in the action, and at essay about no time prior to appeal claimed lack of personal jurisdiction. Arguably, raising the claim on appeal is after trial. Being American Essays. However, waived upon the taking of an utilitarianism, appeal clearly indicates that the universitt wien dissertation time for raising the claim would be deemed tolled. [Analysis.] Conclusion : Setter's defense of lack of personal jurisdiction would be deemed waived on appeal. Generally, all information that is not privileged and is relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, even if not admissible as proof.

Confidential communications between husband and wife are privileged from disclosure by either spouse and by a third party (e.g., an eavesdropper). [Law.] Coris' statement that she had smashed the racquet was relevant for utilitarianism its truth, as well as an indication of Coris' truthfulness. Confidential normally implies private or secret. Gardener Character Essay. [Add clarification, or law, where needed, and appropriate.] A conversation at a phone that was apparently near other phones would not seem confidential. Moreover, given that Coris had not yet determined to utilitarianism, sue, her statement in the context of resume school students recommendation letter, remarks about dinner and a hot tub seems merely casual. [Analysis.] Conclusion : The motion will fail. The conversation with the husband was not confidential, and therefore not privileged. A request for essay about utilitarianism an admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the existence of american essays, facts that are not in doubt and essay utilitarianism that should not be necessary to prove at trial. However, inter alia, it is not proper to request an admission to an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per se). The statement in writing question seems manifestly a matter that is in some doubt, and that may be necessary to prove at about utilitarianism trial.

Moreover, in that negligence is a legal conclusion, the statement would appear to the constant, be an abstract statement of law. Conclusion : Doris' disregard of the request is of no consequence, as said request imposed no duty of acknowledgment. A final judgment on the merits of a claim or cause of action generally precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of action in a subsequent suit. Doris' action in small claims court is grounded in the same facts (destroyed tennis racquet) and sets forth the same cause of action as the one dismissed in the primary action herein. A directed verdict during trial seems both a final judgment and about utilitarianism a judgment on school violence essay, the merits.

Conclusion : The action in small claims court would be dismissed as res judicata. Corporations Hypothetical (50 min.) The RIP Corporation, formed in 1998 by the Bottomline brothers, Ohmy, Padthe, and Savethe, for the purpose (as duly set forth in its bylaws and articles of about utilitarianism, incorporation) of manufacturing and retailing so-called landscape rape accessories for four wheel drive and other off-the-road vehicles, quickly prospered and went public. Between 1999, when 100,000 shares were first sold over the counter, and 2001 the total value of RIPCORP (as the enterprise was affectionately known) shares, after two splits, rose tenfold to forty million dollars. Flush with their success and invincible in their avarice, the being essays Bottomline brothers led RIPCORP in the aggressive pursuit of profit wherever it might be found. The brothers held the chief executive positions in the corporation, as well as a majority of seats on about, the board of directors. Being. They further owned thirty percent of the outstanding shares, by far the largest voting block.

Thus, acquiescence in their increasingly bold ventures was virtually assured. Matters began to tangle when Meddle, a shareholder of record since purchasing 100 shares at the initial offering, took umbrage at RIPCORP's proposed acquisition of Southeast Asia ski resort options. In the fall of 2001 Meddle sought permission to inspect the RIPCORP minutes and other records relating to the ski resort venture. When she refused to accede to the demand of the Bottomline brothers that she first divulge her intentions regarding the inspection, the brothers issued a directive limiting access to the books and records to persons cleared by them, and under no circumstances to Meddle or her representative. Thereupon Meddle brought suit in her own right and on about, behalf of RIPCORP against the corporation and the Bottomline brothers personally to gain access to the books and records, to block the ski resort venture as an essays, ultra vires act, and for repayment by the RIPCORP board of directors of any expenses incurred in connection with the pursuit of about, said venture.

1) RIPCORP moved to dismiss the action for, inter alia, lack of standing, failure to first make a demand on the board of directors, and failure to school students, state a cause of action. 2) RIPCORP moved in the alternative that the essay court require Meddle to students, post $25,000 security for costs as a precondition to continued maintenance of the suit. 3) Meanwhile, the utilitarianism RIPCORP board passed a resolution providing for indemnification of the directors in the event Meddle prevailed, and purchased insurance to provide for same. Meddle immediately moved to quash these actions. How should the court decide the motions under 1, 2, and 3 above? RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CORPORATIONS HYPO. Ultra vires acts Generally includes acts beyond the dissertation binden purpose or powers of the corporation, and sometimes includes acts within the purposes and powers of the corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority. Many jurisdictions now restrict ultra vires challenges to utilitarianism, the following: 1) the right of a shareholder to wien, enjoin unauthorized corporate acts; 2) the right of the attorney general of the state to enjoin such activities; 3) the right of the corporation to recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present or former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s). Shareholder inspection rights Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. A shareholder may examine the stock book and minutes of essay about, stockholder meetings on essay thesis, demand if 1) he has been a stockholder of record for at least six months immediately preceding the essay demand; or 2) he is a holder of 5 percent of any class of outstanding shares.

Shareholder rights of action Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in his own name to enforce his rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the write scientific paper conclusion corporation to about, procure a judgment in favor of the corporation. The latter derivative action may be maintained only school essay if 1) the essay utilitarianism plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is brought; 2) the plaintiff was a shareholder when the alleged wrong to the corporation occurred; and 3) the plaintiff shows in his complaint that he has demanded that the how to conclusion board of directors commence the action, or that there are sufficient reasons for not making the demand (e.g., the board members are the essay defendants). Note that in essay european order to minimize the possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for essay utilitarianism nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, the corporation may require the plaintiff to post security for costs, unless 1) the essay thesis plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least 5 percent of any class of outstanding shares; or 2) the value of their shares exceeds $50,000. Indemnification Generally, a director or officer may not be indemnified (reimbursed) against essay about a judgment obtained against him in a direct action by essay questions european history, the corporation, or a derivative action on behalf of the about utilitarianism corporation, or for amounts paid in settlement thereof. Ap European Essay European. The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of about utilitarianism, good faith and gardener character essay reasonable care in the circumstances. Essay About. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the constant gardener character essay, the part of the officer/director is shown. MODEL RESPONSE TO CORPORATIONS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview The three motions referred to by the question are like three questions, each to be considered separately. [Note the essay about utilitarianism enormous benefit here of skipping over the facts.] Step One Conflict pairing(s) : [A quick review of the motions in conjunction with the sentence that precedes them reveals the single conflict pairing throughout.] RIPCORP, Inc. v. Meddle, etc., or vice versa for each motion (i.e., question). Objectives : [Somewhat confusing, as the sentence immediately preceding the motions reflects three ultimate objectives of Meddle.

However, the objectives relevant to a Step One analysis and the question are implied in the three motions. Note that motion #1 also provides Movant RIPCORP's premises (!!). Whether the school violence essay ultimate objectives will be achieved depends upon resolution of the motions.] 1) dismiss the action versus keep it going; 2) $25,000 security be required to essay about, be posted, versus not; 3) board indemnification resolution and purchase of insurance be quashed, versus maintenance of same. Step Two [RIPCORP is movant for motions 1 and 2, Meddle for 3. The motions themselves, especially the first, point to overriding premises. Ap European Essay European. In that a court may dismiss all or part of a suit, each premise must be considered in light of each of Meddle's objectives set forth in the preceding sentence . Essay About Utilitarianism. The facts in the first two paragraphs need only write scientific paper conclusion be considered for purposes of analysis.] 1) Lack of standing, failure to first make a demand on the board, and failure to state a cause of about, action respecting each of Meddle's three objectives = potentially nine discussions. but probably not.

2) [Must refer to relevant portions of corporations toolbox.] The law [Noted in toolbox only. Ap European Questions History. Don't write it in essay your outline.] respecting requirement that a shareholder plaintiff in action against corporation post bond. 3) The law respecting indemnification and/or insurance of universitt wien binden, directors in such a suit. Step Three [The motions seem more or less equivalent in weight. Given the complexity of the relevant premises noted in about utilitarianism Step Two, the effort necessary for a Step Three analysis seems needlessly duplicative of the analysis to be performed in writing the actual response. Therefore, it seems advisable to skip Step Three and being go to about utilitarianism, the writing phase .] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion No reason apparent for not proceeding chronologically. Lack of standing/failure to state a cause of action. Generally, a shareholder may sue the gardener character corporation in her own name to enforce her rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the corporation.

Inter alia, the latter derivative action can be maintained only if the plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is brought and when the alleged wrong to the corporation occurred. Meddle (M) is currently a shareholder, and has been since long before the ski resort venture. Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to inspect corporate books and essay about records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. Ap European Essay Questions European History. A shareholder may examine the stock book and minutes of stockholder meetings on demand if she has been a stockholder of record for at least six months immediately preceding the demand; or she is a holder of five percent of any class of outstanding shares. M's 100 shares, presumably grown after 'two splits to 400, constitutes much less than five percent of essay utilitarianism, any class of shares. However, she has been a stockholder of for high recommendation letter, record since the essay about utilitarianism initial offering, over two years prior.

So-called ultra vires acts acts beyond the purposes or powers of the corporation, and sometimes acts within the purposes and wien dissertation powers of the corporation, but performed in essay about utilitarianism an unauthorized manner or without authority may properly be challenged by shareholders. Scientific Paper. Moreover, the corporation may recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present and former) responsible for utilitarianism the ultra vires act(s) . Given that RIPCORP's stated corporate purpose is to manufacture and retail accessories for off-road vehicles, the Southeast Asian ski venture (Venture) has the resume writing for high school students appearance of an ultra vires act for which damages may be sought. Failure to first make a demand on about utilitarianism, the board. Another requirement for maintaining a derivative action is that the plaintiff demand that the board commence the action, or there be sufficient reasons for not making such demand (e.g., the board members are the defendants). The Bottomline brothers are named in M's suit and the constant gardener essay hold a majority of seats on the board, thereby satisfying the exception.

Conclusion : The motion should be denied, as all of RIPCORP's challenges lack merit. Corporations, in order to minimize the possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for about utilitarianism nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, may require a shareholder plaintiff to post security for costs , unless the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least five percent of any class of outstanding shares, or the value of their shares exceeds $50,000. M's 100 shares constituted but 1/10th of one percent of the initial 100,000 share offering. Essays. Their value at the time of the suit would have been 1/10th of one percent of forty million dollars, or approximately $40,000. However, M has been a shareholder since the very beginning of the corporation, and, as set forth, supra , a challenge to the Venture seems hardly without merit. [Yes, basic math may be necessary!]

Conclusion : Although M falls $10,000 short of the $50,000 exception, the motion should probably be denied. Given that M's sharehold nearly satisfies the exception, and about the policy justification underlying the security requirement seems utterly lacking, it is unlikely that a court would permit the corporation to impose this financial impediment. Character Essay. [Note the use of the policy underpinning as a basis for a counterargument.] Generally, a corporate director (or officer) may not be indemnified against a judgment obtained against about utilitarianism him in a direct action by binden, the corporation or a derivative action, or for amounts paid in settlement thereof. The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of defending the utilitarianism action, unless, inter alia, he is resume students recommendation adjudged to essay about utilitarianism, have violated his fiduciary duty of universitt, good faith and essay utilitarianism reasonable care in the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to resume school recommendation letter, indemnify officers and directors for even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the officer/director is about shown. [Given this much legal preamble, it seems appropriate to begin the school students recommendation letter analysis in a new paragraph.] M's action is in part derivative on behalf of RIPCORP, and essay a judgment obtained in this respect cannot be indemnified against. Ap European European. The facts are unclear about whether the resolution indemnifies against expenses of defending against the action. Essay About Utilitarianism. Assuming, arguendo , that it does, the inherent improbability, indeed inherent folly of the Venture, coupled with its seeming obvious ultra vires aspect, strongly suggests a violation by the directors of their duty to exercise reasonable care, if not a violation of their duty to act in good faith.

However, given that RIPCORP appears to have been engaged for some time in a pattern of being american essays, divers schemes wholly unrelated to its stated purpose, it is unlikely that a court would be willing to take judicial notice of such a conclusion so early in the proceedings. Nothing in the facts suggests deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of any RIPCORP director/officer that would preclude the purchase of indemnification insurance. Conclusion : The motion should be granted as to any portion of the resolution that purports to about, indemnify against school violence essay thesis judgments obtained on essay about utilitarianism, behalf of the corporation, denied as to portions that indemnify against writing for high letter judgments obtained by M, and denied with leave to renew at a later time with respect to all other portions. T properly executed a will in 1994, by utilitarianism, the terms of which he distributed his entire estate in the following manner: First: I bequeath my racehorse, Swayback, to for high students recommendation, my friend, X. Second: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y.

Third: I give, devise, and bequeath the rest, residue, and remainder of my estate to my faithful companion, Z. In 1998, having fallen out with Z, T properly executed a new will with the following terms: First: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Second: I give, devise, and bequeath the essay rest, residue, and remainder of my estate to my (new) faithful companion, B. In 1999, having reconciled with Z and spurned B, T properly executed a codicil to his 1994 will, by the terms of being essays, which he increased the legacy to Y to $150,000; and in all other respects he ratified, confirmed, and essay about utilitarianism republished the 1994 will. T died in 2001. In a probate proceeding the evidence established the following: 1) Although sober when he made the codicil in 1999, T was drunk out of his mind when he executed the 1994 will. 2) T sold Swayback to a syndicate in 1997 for $200,000. 3) Inadvertently in 2000 T, falling asleep at his desk with cigarette in hand, set fire to some papers.

One of the papers destroyed was the original copy of the 1999 codicil, which T had been reviewing. 4) Y died in 2000. 5) S, the son of Y, was one of several witnesses to T's execution of the being american 1994 will. Discuss the rights of the various parties in terms of who takes what from T's estate. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Ademption Occurs when a specific legacy (defined below) is essay not in existence or not in the possession of the testator when he dies (because, for example, it has been sold or given away). When an essay european history, ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing. Death of a beneficiary A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses (returns to the estate).

By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. About Utilitarianism. Such surviving issue will take the legacy in equal proportions per stirpes . Disposition of estate Shall be in write paper accordance with a decedent's last will and testament. Execution of a will A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will. Republication A properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed. This is so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for essay want of testamentary capacity at essays the time of making. Revocation As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the essay utilitarianism prior will by implication. A will may further be revoked by means of its physical destruction. Such destruction, however, must be accompanied with the intent and for the purpose of revoking the will. Specific legacy A bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the same or similar nature. It must be taken by the legatee as and where he finds it. Testamentary capacity Absent evidence to the contrary, testamentary capacity will be presumed where the testator, in executing a will or other document, accurately recites the nature and extent of his property, and recognizes the natural objects of the constant essay, his bounty.

Witness as beneficiary A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in essay utilitarianism probate without his assistance. MODEL RESPONSE TO WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview The instruction points to parties who stand to take from T's estate. Each will be in opposition to anyone or anything that would prevent him from taking from T's estate. Step One X, Y, Z, B, and A vs. anyone or thing (including each other, T, the state, or the estate) that stands between him and taking from T's estate. B v. Z seems a key conflict. Step Two [Each claimant must establish that the will or codicil upon which he bases his claim is being essays valid and controlling. Each will likewise seek to defeat a competitor claim. Legal precepts governing testamentary disposition set forth in my wills toolbox will come into play. However, it would be inefficient and confusing to try to sort them out at this point.

Better to focus on one conflict at a time in the writing phase. Possibly there will be overlap of about utilitarianism, premises/discussion.] Step Three [Having declined to universitt binden, set forth the premises of the various parties in Step Two, I may as well go straight to the response. My impression is that once the controlling rules are set forth, analysis will be relatively uncomplicated.] Ability of a per stirpes witness, S, to take may be an interesting discussion. Preview of a logical sequence of discussion Resolving which instrument controls seems the about utilitarianism obvious first step. Therefore, beginning with B v. Z would seem to make sense. B and Z's rights [This label conforms to the instruction. How To Paper. B v. Z might confuse. But I'm thinking B v. Z!]

As a general rule, a subsequent will that is utilitarianism entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the resume recommendation letter prior willby implication. The 1998 will was inconsistent with the 1994 will and made a complete disposition of T's property, thereby revoking the 1994 will and Z's legacy. However, a properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed. This is so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for want of essay about utilitarianism, testamentary capacity at how to write the time of making. The properly executed 1999 codicil republished the properly executed 1994 will, thereby restoring Z's legacy. The fact that T was sober when making the essay about codicil moots any effect of T having been drunk when making the 1994 will. There being no evidence to the contrary, the fact that T in executing the codicil accurately recited the school violence nature and essay about utilitarianism extent of his property and recognized the natural objects of his bounty will establish his testamentary capacity in making the codicil. Although a will may be revoked by means of physical destruction , such destruction must be accomplished with the being essays intent and for the purpose of revoking the about will. The circumstance that the original copy of the codicil was destroyed inadvertently in for high letter 2000 is thus of no avail to B. Conclusion : The 1998 will is revoked, and B takes nothing. Z takes the rest, residue, and remainder of T's estate under the 1999 codicil that revived the 1994 will.

An ademption occurs when a specific legacy (i.e., a bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the same or similar nature) is not in existence or not in the possession of the about testator when he dies. The Constant Gardener Character Essay. When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing. The racehorse, Swayback, appears to be such a particular, individualized chattel. In that Swayback was sold prior to T's death, the republication of the 1994 will is of no avail to X. Conclusion : X takes nothing from T's estate, as his legacy has adeemed. A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the utilitarianism testator ordinarily lapses. Violence. By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Such surviving issue will take the essay legacy in equal proportions per being essays stirpes . Therefore, although Y predeceased T, Y's son, S, would take the $150,000, providing he is not disqualified by essay, having witnessed the now republished 1994 will. A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will.

S was one of several witnesses to the 1994 will, implying that more than two persons witnessed the will. Therefore, presumably two other witnesses exist to prove the will in probate. NB: Arguably S should be permitted to take under the questions european history 1994 will per stirpes, even were he one of only two witnesses to the will. The rationale for not allowing a witness necessary to probate to essay utilitarianism, take under the will being probated is presumably the conflict of interest posed. The reliability of a witness with a vested interest in having the will probated is compromised. Y, however, not S stood to for high school students recommendation letter, take under the 1994 will. Had there been any consideration of essay utilitarianism, Y predeceasing T, and therefore S taking, S probably would not have been asked to witness the will. However, it could also be contended that that was then, and now S does have a compromising vested interest. [This latter paragraph is not necessary. Resume For High School Recommendation Letter. However, it demonstrates the about utilitarianism kind of interest and binden thoughtfulness that may catch a professor's attention and about utilitarianism garner an A. Possibly it should be highlighted in some way, perhaps with a red star.

I might even decide to put it on the blank page left at the beginning. (See p.75.)] Conclusion : Y, having predeceased T, will take nothing. However, Y's intended legacy will go to the son, S, per stirpes . S's having witnessed the will under which he takes should not disqualify him, providing two others of the several witnesses to the will exist to dissertation, prove it in probate. Actual Civil Procedure I Exam, Fall 2006, U. Memphis School of Law (with Model A+ Response and Professor Comments) [The example that follows is an about, actual exam and model response sent to us by one Richard Townley, Sr., U. Memphis class of 2009E (evening division). The exam was given jointly to two first year classes by their professors. Richard ordered the audio CD version of being, LEEWS. His is the verbatim model response offered to students with professor comments! as what was wanted. His response received the highest grade, one of only two A+ grades. His accompanying remarks are reprinted in the Results section.

Inter alia (among other things), he said, LEEWS was absolutely essential to my success. . The exemplar is, in essay fact, *my* exam essay answer, and if I say so myself, it's a pretty good LEEWS exemplar as well. We reiterate that the LEEWS objective for every response is a series of paragraphs, each beginning with relevant law and school violence thesis presenting balanced lawyerlike analysis. Essay Utilitarianism. . What is for high recommendation surely wanted when confronted with a task such as what follows is a system whereby in structured, step-by-step fashion, the examinee knows exactly what is wanted and how to proceed and present. For example, a LEEWS grad will immediately skip over essay the confusing fact pattern to the question/instruction, typically at the end, and school violence thesis perform Step One. A LEEWS grad has also read many such introductory instructions, and therefore will skim through quickly to note what, if anything, is new and/or unusual. Note that the average student managed less than 17 points out of a possible 45 on the essay exam versus Richard's 39 (!!). Utilitarianism. . It may be further noted that although these professors did not require a so-called IRAC format [and we commend that!), Richard's paragraphed response could easily have been conformed to a Follow IRAC instruction by merely introducing an essay, issue statement before each paragraph, and a conclusion statement at the end. LEEWS posits that in essay general issue statements are unnecessary, as starting a paragraph with law implies the issue, and conclusions are unimportant.] Civil Procedure I -- Exam Results -- Fall, 2006 ( 11 = Prof Banks, 12 = Prof Entman) Essays - 45 points. Average -- 11 [17.2]; 12 [16.1]; both sections [16.6] Range -- 11 [3 - 42]; 12 [4 - 39]

Multiple Choice - 55 points (35 questions) Average -- 11 [33.70]; 12 [35.00]; both sections [34.36] Range -- 11 [18.86 - 50.29]; 12 [17.29 - 53.43] Total - 100 points. Average -- 11 [50.90]; 12 [51.09]; both sections [50.99] Range -- 11 [22.86 - 92.29]; 12 [26.29 - 83.00] Average Grade - 11 [2.33] Both Sections [2.34] 12 [2.34] A+: 82 and above. F : 0 - 32. INSTRUCTIONS - Read these instructions carefully. The Constant. You are responsible for following them to the letter and will be assessed a point penalty or given a failing grade for failure to follow instructions.

Before you begin work on this examination, be sure that you have an examination booklet consisting of 8 consecutively numbered pages -- beginning with this page. Part I consists of problems calling for written analysis. Part II consists of 35 multiple choice questions. About Utilitarianism. If your examination is incomplete, you should advise the instructor immediately. It is write scientific your responsibility to ensure that you are working with a complete examination. The exam is closed book. You may not use any material other than this examination booklet, the essay utilitarianism answer sheet, blank paper and scientific paper conclusion an appropriate writing instrument. You may not, of course, confer with or receive assistance from any other person.

Your answers for Part I should be written on the paper provided. Be sure to identify clearly which subpart you are answering (e.g., I. A.). When you have completed your answers to essay about, Part I, number your pages consecutively, write your identification number on each page, and staple all of the pages together in the upper left hand corner. 1. Answer only the question asked and binden do so with organization, precision, legibility, and proper grammar and spelling. 2. If a court rule or a statute is relevant to a problem, you may identify it by number, but you must discuss its substance whether or not you mention the rule or statute by number. 3. Write on only one side of a page and leave a left margin. Write your identification number in the space provided on the answer sheet for Part II and mark the appropriate corresponding circles on about utilitarianism, your answer sheet to indicate your examination number. Do not staple the answer sheet for Part II to anything.

Submission of Exams -- General Instructions When you have finished the examination, place your answers to Part I, your answer sheet for Part II, and the exam booklet in the separately designated boxes. All examination booklets must be turned in. School Essay Thesis. You must write your identification number on essay about utilitarianism, this exam booklet at the top of the first page and return the school violence thesis booklet in order that your exam answer sheet may be matched with the correct version of the answers. Do not write your name on anything. For this examination, unless we have specifically studied to the contrary, you should assume the following: 1. all states have adopted rules of civil procedure identical to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; 2. all states have enacted statutes that authorize the exercise of jurisdiction on each of the traditional bases recognized by the Supreme Court up to the date of essay utilitarianism, its decision in resume writing for high students recommendation International Shoe;

3. all states have also enacted the following statutes: X.C.A. 1-1-111: A court may exercise personal jurisdiction over a person (including an individual, his executor, administrator, or other personal representative, or a corporation, partnership, or any other legal or commercial entity) who acts directly or by an agent, as to a claim for relief arising from the persons. (a) transacting any business within this State; (b) causing tortious injury by essay about utilitarianism, an act or omission in american this State; (c) causing tortious injury in essay utilitarianism this State by an act or omission outside this State if the person regularly does or solicits business, or engages in american essays any other persistent course of conduct, or derives substantial revenue from goods used or consumed or services rendered in this State; (d) owning, using or possessing any property situated in this State; (e) contracting to insure any person, property, or risk located within this State at the time of contracting. X.C.A. Essay. 2-2-222: In any suit brought in resume writing for high letter the courts of this State, service of process may be achieved by essay about, sending a summons and a copy of the complaint by registered mail, return receipt requested, to the defendant's home address, or principal place of universitt dissertation binden, business, wherever located. The problems in Part I are worth a total of 45 points. They are not of equal weight. A. You are now an associate attorney in a law firm.

Respond fully to the following memorandum from one of about, your employers. I Quit is not a recommended answer. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Writing School Students Recommendation Letter. Isolde. Date: Dec. 11, 2006. [Fact pattern (hypo)] Tristan and Isolde are partners in a furniture repair business. Their shop is in the State of Swabia where most of their customers are from. Sometimes people from the nearby States of about, Prussia and Bavaria bring repair jobs to the shop in write scientific Swabia. Isolde was raised in Prussia and lived there with her parents until June, 2003, when she moved into an apartment in Swabia to see if she would enjoy living away from home.

In July, 2003, a vice-president of First Commercial Industrial Bank of Prussia [First Commercial] attended a lecture on about utilitarianism, furniture repair that Isolde gave in Prussia. He decided that Tristan and Isolde had a promising business and that the bank would do well to procure their business. After receiving a letter at their shop offering the banks services, Tristan and Isolde decided to borrow $150,000 from being american, First Commercial. By telephone, they requested the essay utilitarianism bank send them the write scientific paperwork at their shop. On August 15, 2003, Tristan and Isolde signed the essay utilitarianism loan papers at their shop and Tristan immediately took them to First Commercials main office, located ten miles away in the State of Prussia. First Commercial then gave them a check for $150,000 minus closing costs of approximately $5,000. Ap European Essay Questions European. The loan agreement provided that its interpretation and validity would be governed by the law of Prussia and that it was to be repaid in two years. Due to financial difficulties, Tristan and utilitarianism Isolde made only two payments on the loan. When First Commercial threatened to sue them, Tristan settled the banks claim against him for $50,000. The Constant Character. First Commercial then sued Isolde in the United States District Court for Prussia to collect the unpaid principal and interest.

First Commercials attorney served Isolde with process by registered mail, return receipt requested, to her at the shop in Swabia. On May 15, 2005, after Isolde failed to respond to the complaint and summons, the court entered a default judgment against essay about her for $100,000. Being Essays. On December 1, 2006, First Commercial sought to register the about judgment against Isolde with the United States District Court for the District of Swabia. In conjunction that proceeding, First Commercial procured a writ of garnishment, attaching $10,000 that Isolde had in a bank account in Swabia. First Commercial also procured a writ of resume writing students, garnishment from the federal court in Bavaria, attaching a $5,000 debt owed to Isolde by one of her customers there. [Question/instruction] We represent Isolde. Please submit a memo to me discussing fully whether Isolde has any defenses she may raise to the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Be sure to discuss fully any possible defenses that you may have considered and rejected and explain fully why you have rejected them. B. The next day, you receive the following memorandum from the same partner. Again, respond fully.

To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Isolde. Date: Dec. 12, 2006. I have now learned that Isolde was involved in an automobile accident in Swabia a week after she was served with process by registered mail.

She was rendered unconscious for two days. An ambulance rushed her to the nearest hospital, which was located in Prussia. Three days after the accident, but while she was hospitalized in Prussia, a private process server acting on about utilitarianism, behalf of First Commercial served Isolde in her hospital bed with a another copy of the summons and complaint for resume for high the same lawsuit. Given that she was served while in the state, it now seems to essay, me that the judgment of the federal district court in Prussia against ap european essay european Isolde is unquestionably valid and is enforceable in both Swabia and Bavaria. Please discuss fully whether you believe that assumption is essay valid and whether the service on Isolde in the hospital establishes jurisdiction. The discussion below is a verbatim copy of a students essay that received a top grade.

Commentary by Professors Banks and Entman appears in character essay brackets. . [LEEWS note: We reprint this commentary in blue.] LEEWS NOTE: IRAC (merely a formula for organizing analysis of an issue) prescribes a statement of I ssue to precede the statement of R ule, and the discussion ( A nalysis). (And C onclusion at the end.) The LEEWS paragraphing format posits that an abrupt statement of premise (relevant law) to begin a paragraph implies the issue, making a separate statement of essay about, issue unnecessary (thereby saving time). Richard's model response in LEEWS format does this. Our only suggestion is essay questions european history that underlining or boldfacing key words in about the preamble of law e.g., Subject matter jurisdiction in essay the opening paragraph, federal diversity statute in the next to assist the professor in recognizing the about utilitarianism topic (issue). Subject-matter jurisdiction. The federal courts are courts of limited jurisdiction; they can only violence essay hear certain types of claims as outlined in Article III of the essay about utilitarianism US Constitution and as authorized by Congressional Statute. First Commercial will argue that the US District Court has subject-matter jurisdiction to hear this case based on the diversity of citizenship of the parties. First Commercial is a citizen of Prussia. Isolde has been living in how to scientific paper Swabia for one month. [The facts do not give sufficient information to essay about utilitarianism, know how long Isolde had been living in Swabia at being essays the time First Commercial filed its complaint, which is the time at essay utilitarianism which jurisdiction must either exist or not.

At most, one can deduce that the suit was brought as early as November 2003 or as late as April 2005. Consequently, Isolde must have been living in Swabia for more than one month, but not the two or three years that some students stated.] She can argue that she is still domiciled in Prussia, where she lived her whole life up to June of recommendation letter, 2003, because she only moved to Swabia temporarily, to see if she would enjoy life on her own. If Isolde is found to be a domiciliary of Prussia, then there is not diversity of citizenship and thus no subject matter jurisdiction. However, if Isolde is found to have relocated to Swabia with the utilitarianism intent of staying for write paper the indefinite future, then the parties are diverse. The federal diversity statute also requires the amount in controversy to essay, exceed $75,000.

The $100,000 judgment against being american Isolde satisfies this requirement. About. N.B. [Please do not use abbreviations, including this one.] This action could not be brought under federal question jurisdiction because breach of contract is a state common-law claim. Therefore nothing in how to write scientific paper conclusion the plaintiffs complaint arises under the essay Constitution and essay laws of the about utilitarianism United States. Subject-matter jurisdiction is never waived, and in the constant gardener this case, it has not been previously litigated, so it could be raised on collateral attack. However, it is more likely than not that the court will find that Isolde did move to Swabia with the intent to stay indefinitely, so the District Court in Prussia probably did have subject-matter jurisdiction. Personal jurisdiction.

In the alternative, Isolde can argue that the utilitarianism rendering court in Prussia lacked jurisdiction over the person. Because this has not been litigated, it can be raised on collateral attack in the enforcing court. Wien. [We would have preferred a discussion at this point that specifically points out that Isolde never even appeared in the first action. Most of you could have improved your answers by making better use of the facts to support your analysis. The reason Isolde can raise personal jurisdiction on collateral attack is because she did not appear at all in the original action. Since she did not appear, there is no reason to discuss Rule 12.] First, Isolde will argue that there are no traditional bases for establishing jurisdiction over her in Prussia. Essay Utilitarianism. N.B. The federal courts derive their personal jurisdictional reach from the state in which they are situated, so the District Court can exert personal jurisdiction over an out of state defendant only if the state court could do so.

Isolde was not served with process with Prussia, so transitory [transient?] jurisdiction does not attach. Because it is necessary that she be domiciled in Swabia to establish diversity of citizenship, First Commercial cannot argue that she be subjected to violence essay, personal jurisdiction on the basis of domicile. Even though the utilitarianism contract included a choice-of-law provision applying the laws of Prussia to thesis, possible disputes, that is not the same as a consent provision. [A surprising number of students referred to this as a forum selection clause. At least one student referred to it as a forum selection clause in part of the answer and a choice of essay about utilitarianism, law provision in another part of the same answer. Universitt Binden. Another specifically stated that it was a forum selection clause and not a choice of law provision. Mistakes of this type may be attributable to sloppy reading of the facts but they are also a strong indication of a serious lack of essay about utilitarianism, preparation. Failure to devote sufficient time to study of the assigned materials frequently manifests itself in a persons demonstrated obliviousness to important distinctions. Others simply didnt know what to do with the fact, thus reflecting a failure to study the Burger King opinion and to pay attention to our class discussions of it.] Statutory basis.

First Commercial will argue that the long-arm statute conferred specific jurisdiction over Isolde on the basis of the first of the enumerated acts: a) transacting any business within the State. The claim for relief, the $100,000 breach of write paper, contract, arises from the essay about utilitarianism defendants act of universitt dissertation binden, entering into essay about the loan contract, which First Commercial will argue was executed on Tristans delivery of the loan documents to the Banks main office in Prussia. Isolde will counter that her act was signing the documents, which took place at the furniture shop in Swabia. This is a valid argument so long as the wien binden court reads the statute literally and narrowly. However, if a court interpreted the statute broadly (See Gray v. American Radiator) it might find that the statute reaches the out of state act, the signing of the contract, which causes an in state result, the execution of the contract. [It is probably not necessary to stretch the construction of the statute as the court did in Gray to hold that it confers jurisdiction, given the essay about utilitarianism facts of this problem. The statute covers transacting business in the forum state directly or by an agent. Like McShara in Burger King, Tristan was acting on behalf of the partnership (thus as an agent) in delivering the papers to the bank. The facts specifically state that Isolde, along with Tristan, signed the papers and that he immediately took them to the bank. You should never, as many of you did, overlook the statement that Isolde signed the papers or speculate that she may not have read them.

There is simply no basis in the facts for resume writing for high school recommendation speculating that Isolde didnt know what she was signing. Indulging in about speculation that she might not have reveals desperation.] Constitutional Standard. The Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution provides that no state shall deprive a citizen of the constant gardener character, life, liberty or property without due process of utilitarianism, law. The U.S. Supreme Court defined the due process standard as it relates to imposing personal jurisdiction on school violence essay thesis, an out of state defendant in essay about International Shoe: jurisdiction is constitutional only if the cause of action arises from the defendants minimum contacts with the gardener forum, such that the assertion of jurisdiction would not offend traditional notions of about utilitarianism, fair play and substantial justice. Assuming, arguendo, [LEEWS note: We teach the proper use of words like arguendo -- because they are useful and add a lawyerly caste to the presentation.] that the long-arm statute is sufficient to provide a statutory basis of jurisdiction over Isolde, would such jurisdiction be constitutional under the Shoe standard? [While it is write scientific paper implicit in the answer that the constitutional hurdle becomes important only essay utilitarianism if the court first accepts the being argument that the statute confers jurisdiction, a perfect answer would have explained that relationship more fully.] Isolde will argue no, because the contact which gives rise to the claim, the signed loan contract, was brought into essay utilitarianism the forum by the unilateral actions of the constant character, a third party, Tristan. Therefore, Isolde did not purposefully avail herself of the essay about utilitarianism privileges of conducting activities in the forum, Prussia. First Commercial will counter that Tristan and Isolde were operating together to secure the loan. They reached into the forum when they called First Commercial.

Isolde knew that Tristan was taking the documents to essays, Prussia, [run-on sentence, a sin committed by many students in these essays] therefore it was imminently [eminently] foreseeable that the contract would be executed there, and essay utilitarianism she could reasonably anticipate being haled into american essays court in essay about utilitarianism Prussia over any disputes to the constant character essay, the contract. (See Denckla, Worldwide VW). While there are some open questions regarding minimum contacts, the essay utilitarianism facts seem to favor First Commercial. In the alternative, [In addition?] can Isolde raise any of the violence thesis fairness factors, defining fair play and substantial justice, articulated in the US Supreme Courts Burger King decision? In weighing the relative burden on essay, Isolde compared to the interest of First National in litigating in Prussia, it does not seem unfair to require Isolde to wien dissertation binden, travel to a nearby state where she lived most of her life and where she sometimes appears to give lectures. The interest of the essay utilitarianism forum state in adjudicating the dispute would be well served because of the choice of law provision; Prussia has an interest in adjudicating its own laws. The interest of the several states in efficiency and public policy do not seem to enter the picture, so the fairness factors do not point to dissertation, Prussia as an unfair forum for Isolde. Conclusion. Although Isolde has some colorable arguments, she probably cannot invalidate the original judgment on a defense of lack of personal jurisdiction.

[Many of you neglected altogether most of the issues about essay about validity of the Prussia judgment treated in the foregoing answer, instead discussing at length personal jurisdiction, subject matter jurisdiction, and ap european essay european history service of process in the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Essay. Such discussions reflect a lack of knowledge of our classwork on Assignment 27, a failure to read the Shaffer v. Heitner opinion carefully, and a failure to study the problems following that opinion in the casebook.]

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The Greater Good; an Essay on Utilitarianism | Cogito

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Unfortunately, it is most often under paid, underappreciated, and utilitarianism undervalued by numerous standards. So why does the writer of this paper want to teach? Was. Education , History of education , Motivation 762 Words | 3 Pages. College My reasons for college are probably just like everyone elses. I went to college because I wanted a better life for . Write Scientific Conclusion? myself and essay utilitarianism better myself. I wanted to find a job that I would not be living paycheck to resume writing school paycheck like my parents had to do when they first got married. I mean, no one wants to live that way?

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Why did you put each one in essay the role you chose? Lead Agent: Sam Type your reason . for choosing your Lead Agent here. I chose sam, because he has a lot of experience with leading teams, and been in charge of several assignments that were successful. He has had lots of years in the lead role, and has been very successful with the assignments he has been given . Essay? Assistant Lead Agent: Type your reason for choosing your Assistant Lead Agent hEmily. Choice architecture , Cognition , Critical thinking 664 Words | 3 Pages. If I Should Die Before I Wake Essay. On the cover of about utilitarianism If I Should Die Before I Wake I put Hilary in her hospital bed reliving some of the ap european essay . events in utilitarianism Chanas life. There are images of children being questioned by Nazis, families being taken to resume writing for high recommendation letter the ghetto or concentration camps and people behind fences.

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circumstances -- can be both a bully or a victim simply depending on the conditions. But, deny as you might, a frank evaluation of about life will reveal a . startling conclusion, that many many situations boil down to these basics: bully, victim, bystander. Now why is that? Well, you -- like every other living thing on this planet -- are just a big carbon-based (instead of silicon-based) computer. You are a painstakingly intricate vessel meant to accomplish one thing and one thing alone. You are to carry a code. 2008 singles , Bullying , Government 2617 Words | 6 Pages. ? Should I Relocate for a Job?

Jiahui Wang Brock University 5515135 Case Study Report PMPC . Being Essays? 6P11 Georgina Keller November 23, 2013 1. Problem Identification As for an international student or recent graduate, a dream job would be located in a preferable city with well-paying salary, a comfortable working environment and essay about plenty of opportunities for growth. However, reality is often different from ideal. Thus, the news concerning labor shortage and being american skills. Cost of about living , Human resource management , Management 1146 Words | 4 Pages. Introduction Why I became a nurse. Universitt Wien Dissertation Binden? As a child I was taught many good values. My mother had a strong belief in . God and she preached her beliefs to the family. I was taught not to about be judgmental, treat others as though you would like to ap european questions be treated, life is essay about very special, love one another as you love yourself, be caring, kind, and responsible. My mother was a great influence on students, me. Growing up in essay about utilitarianism a family of nine children, there wasnt much money to pay for medical care. She tried to keep her children.

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The debate on essay about, whether marijuana should be legal has been going on for a long period of time now. The argument intensifies even more now that four states in the US have legalized marijuana for recreational use. When smoking marijuana tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) the leading stimulant is released. Cannabis , Global Marijuana March , Hashish 1256 Words | 5 Pages. up as a child I was always told by school the adults around me that without a good education, I would not be able go far in life. But, . for me trying to essay about get my education was probably the essay thesis hardest thing I could even attempt to essay utilitarianism do. Ever since I could even remember Ive always despised the early morning routine of waking up and waiting on my Mother to universitt wien dissertation warm up her car to take us to the only Elementary school that was located in essay the small city of being american essays Gastonia, North Carolina. Essay? School for me was a drag; I was enrolled.

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society that is educated is better equipped to deal with the upcoming of a more globalized world. About Utilitarianism? Eventually, countries will need to compete against people . from ap european essay questions, other countries whose educational systems may be superior to about utilitarianism theirs, which is writing school letter why every government should pay for college for its own citizens. Currently, over 12 million people in about the United States are unemployed, where only eight percent of them are college graduates. School? Evidently, people that graduate from college are much more likely. College , Education , Higher education 624 Words | 3 Pages.

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SparkNotes: Utilitarianism: Summary

Analysis of Out, Out by Robert Frost Essay. Robert Frost tells a disturbing story in 'Out, Out, --', in which a little boy loses his life. The title of the poem leaves the reader to about utilitarianism substitute the resume recommendation letter, last word of the title, which some would assume would be out essay, because of the repetition. The title is referring to the boy exiting the universitt dissertation binden, living world. Frost drags the about utilitarianism, reader's mind into the poem with the imagistic description of the tools and atmosphere the little boy is how to write surrounded by. Analysis of Robert Frost?s Poem Out, Out Essay. Essay Utilitarianism? Robert Frosts poem Out, Out is about a boy who has his arm sawed off during work and violence asks his sister not to let the doctor amputate his arm, he then realizes hes lost too much blood and then dies while doctors try to save him. After his death everyone else continues on with their work and lives. Frost uses a lot of end-stopped lines, enjambment, repetition and personification among others in his lines of about utilitarianism, poetry. Resume For High Students Recommendation? Frost uses a lot of end-stopped lines and enjambment in the lines of his poem This was the start of Frost's reputation as one of the essay utilitarianism, great American writers of the 20th century.

Out, Out is a great example of a typical Robert Frost poem. This narrative poem tells a story of human tragedy through the death of a young boy. The poem shows how fragile life can be and how it can be taken from people in an instant. The boy's tragic death is illuminated for the reader by a commentator watching the incident from the outside looking in. There is a lot of detail given to the reader Appeal of Robert Frosts Out Out Essay. Frost did not say that the boy dropped the saw or that the boy lost control of the saw, but that the being essays, saw itself leaped out of the boys hand of its own free will. The saw is not happy enough with its free will to leap out at the boy but it also cuts off his hand neither refused the meeting. But the hand! (18). The poem now gets to the peak of its drama. The saw cut the boys hand off and he is desperately trying to figure out what to do holding up the hand half in appeal, but half as if to essay about Out-Out by Robert Frost and Mid Term Break by Seamus Heaney Essay. of his wife.

Out, Out, brief candle! Life's but a walking shadow, a poor playera this is universitt wien binden saying that life can end very quickly. As the young boys life did in the poem. The poet sets the scenery of the poem by describing Sweet-scented stuff He describes the scenery of beautiful mountains and sunset. When he describes this, it seems as though everything is perfect in the poem and that nothing could go wrong. About Utilitarianism? There is a quick shift in the poem as Robert Frost introduces the Out, Out by Robert Frost and Death on a Live Wire by history, Michael Baldwin.

Likewise, both poets have decided on essay about a very effective and universitt dissertation meaningful title for their poems. Frost has titled his poem Out, Out- which is taken from the play Macbeth, where it signifies trouble. Baldwin has titled his poem Death on a live Wire, which works very well in the way that it shows great contrast between the words Death and Live. This is also very good in the way that it seems to personify the electricity and the pylon, by describing the wire as Live, which A Comparison of The death of a hired man and Out, Out- by Robert Frost. rather sit on the floor than on a couch, as this is just how he is. The realisation in ?Out, Out-? is when the boy realised that he was losing too much blood and soon would die. ?Then the about utilitarianism, boy saw all-?. Paper? I will now begin to discuss the differences between the two poems. Essay About Utilitarianism? My first difference is that Silas is a very old man and has lived a full life and his death is how to write paper conclusion very peaceful and expected but in ?Out, Out-? the young boys death is essay about utilitarianism very violent and unexpected. One moment the boys working and The Road Not Taken and Neither Out Far Nor in Deep by Robert Frost. poetry is concerned with the resume for high school recommendation letter, interaction between humans and nature. Frost regarded nature as a beautiful but dangerous force, worthy of admiration, but full of danger. The underlying philosophy of Frost's poetry is rooted in traditional New England individualism, and his work shows his strong empathy for the values of early American society (Encarta,1). I have chosen to analyze Frost's two poems The Road Not Taken and Neither Out Far Nor In Deep. I chose these particular selections because of Neither Out Far Nor in Deep by Robert Frost Essay.

much what there is to essay about look at, than to just gaze. In the next stanza, Frost describes some of the things that are occurring around the people on and near the for high school students recommendation letter, beach. Utilitarianism? In lines five and six, Frost is personifying the the constant essay, ship by saying that it keeps raising or building its hull. Ships are already personified (for the most part) because most often they are given human names and are considered female. In this case, however, Frost is not really regarding the ship as any single gender, mainly to put his Macbeth#x27;s Tomorrow, Tomorrow Speech Vs. Robert Frost#x27;s Out, Out - Frost, on the other hand, wipes out his character and utilitarianism leaves us with the feeling as that death will silence the memories of all who knew the child. With the ap european, major differences in these works of writing, there are also many similarities among the two. Both Shakespeare and Frost are trying to essay about say death is inevitable. It takes place at different times and under different circumstances for everyone, but none-the-less, it cannot be avoided.

Everyone also deals with death in dissertation, their own way. Macbeth almost Comparing Robert Frost#x27;s Out Out and Seamus Heany#x27;s Mid Term Break. Both titles are highly symbolic. In my opinion Out, Out-' has the most intriguing title, being an extract taken from Macbeth. In the play the about, line reads Out, out - brief candle and the line is said by Macbeth upon hearing of his wife's death. The candle, a symbol of life and its fragility, relates to the sudden death of the young boy.

Candles make an appearance in ap european essay questions european history, Mid-Term Break too when 'candles soothed the bedside' of the body of the dead child. Essay About Utilitarianism? The title 'Mid-Term

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SparkNotes: Utilitarianism: Summary

conservatism essays Liberals in essay the United States have been losing political debates to conservatives for a quarter century. In order to start winning again, liberals must answer two simple questions: what is conservatism, and what is wrong with it? As it happens, the answers to being, these questions are also simple: Q: What is conservatism? A: Conservatism is the essay about domination of write paper conclusion society by about an aristocracy. Q: What is wrong with conservatism? A: Conservatism is school essay thesis incompatible with democracy, prosperity, and civilization in general. Essay About? It is a destructive system of inequality and prejudice that is founded on deception and has no place in the modern world. These ideas are not new. Indeed they were common sense until recently.

Nowadays, though, most of the people who call themselves conservatives have little notion of what conservatism even is. They have been deceived by one of the great public relations campaigns of school violence thesis human history. Only by analyzing this deception will it become possible to revive democracy in the United States. //1 The Main Arguments of Conservatism. From the essay pharaohs of ancient Egypt to wien, the self-regarding thugs of ancient Rome to the glorified warlords of medieval and absolutist Europe, in nearly every urbanized society throughout human history, there have been people who have tried to constitute themselves as an aristocracy. These people and their allies are the conservatives. The tactics of conservatism vary widely by place and time. But the most central feature of conservatism is deference: a psychologically internalized attitude on the part of the common people that the aristocracy are better people than they are. Modern-day liberals often theorize that conservatives use social issues as a way to mask economic objectives, but this is almost backward: the true goal of conservatism is to establish an aristocracy, which is a social and essay, psychological condition of inequality. Economic inequality and wien, regressive taxation, while certainly welcomed by the aristocracy, are best understood as a means to essay about utilitarianism, their actual goal, which is writing recommendation simply to be aristocrats.

More generally, it is essay crucial to conservatism that the people must literally love the universitt wien binden order that dominates them. Of course this notion sounds bizarre to modern ears, but it is utilitarianism perfectly overt in the writings of leading conservative theorists such as Burke. Democracy, for them, is not about the mechanisms of voting and office-holding. In fact conservatives hold a wide variety of being american opinions about such secondary formal matters. For conservatives, rather, democracy is a psychological condition. People who believe that the aristocracy rightfully dominates society because of its intrinsic superiority are conservatives; democrats, by essay utilitarianism contrast, believe that they are of binden equal social worth. Conservatism is the antithesis of democracy. This has been true for thousands of about utilitarianism years.

The defenders of aristocracy represent aristocracy as a natural phenomenon, but in reality it is the most artificial thing on earth. Although one of the goals of every aristocracy is to make its preferred social order seem permanent and universitt wien dissertation, timeless, in reality conservatism must be reinvented in every generation. This is essay utilitarianism true for gardener character essay, many reasons, including internal conflicts among the essay utilitarianism aristocrats; institutional shifts due to climate, markets, or warfare; and ap european essay questions european history, ideological gains and losses in the perpetual struggle against democracy. In some societies the aristocracy is rigid, closed, and stratified, while in others it is more of an aspiration among various fluid and factionalized groups. Essay About Utilitarianism? The situation in school the United States right now is toward the latter end of the spectrum. A main goal in life of all aristocrats, however, is to pass on their positions of privilege to their children, and many of the aspiring aristocrats of the United States are appointing their children to positions in government and in the archipelago of think tanks that promote conservative theories.

Conservatism in every place and time is utilitarianism founded on deception. The deceptions of conservatism today are especially sophisticated, simply because culture today is sufficiently democratic that the myths of earlier times will no longer suffice. Before analyzing current-day conservatism's machinery of deception, let us outline the main arguments of conservatism. Although these arguments have changed little through history, they might seem unfamiliar to many people today, indeed even to people who claim to be conservatives. That unfamiliarity is a very recent phenomenon. Yet it is only through the resume school students letter classical arguments and their fallacies that we can begin to analyze how conservatism operates now. According to the first type of argument, found for example in about Burke, social institutions are a kind of capital. A properly ordered society will be blessed with large quantities of being essays this capital. This capital has very particular properties. It is a sprawling tangle of social arrangements and patterns of thought, passed down through generations as part of the culture.

It is generally tacit in nature and cannot be rationally analyzed. About? It is fragile and must be conserved, because a society that lacks it will collapse into anarchy and tyranny. Innovation is bad, therefore, and prejudice is good. Although the institutions can tolerate incremental reforms around the edges, systematic questioning is a threat to american, social order. In particular, rational thought is evil.

Nothing can be worse for the conservative than rational thought, because people who think rationally might decide to essay about, try replacing inherited institutions with new ones, something that a conservative regards as impossible. This is for high school students letter where the word conservative comes from: the supposed importance of conserving established institutions. This argument is essay about utilitarianism not wholly false. Scientific Conclusion? Institutions are in essay about utilitarianism fact sprawling tangles of social arrangements and patterns of thought, passed down through generations as part of the culture. And people who think they can reengineer the whole of human society overnight are generally mistaken. The people of ancien regime France were oppressed by the conservative order of their time, but indeed their revolution did not work, and resume for high students letter, would probably not have worked even if conservatives from elsewhere were not militarily attacking them. After all, the conservative order had gone to insane lengths to deprive them of the education, practical experience, and patterns of thought that would be required to about, operate a democracy. School Thesis? They could not invent those things overnight. Even so, the argument about conserving institutions is mostly untrue. Most institutions are less fragile and more dynamic than conservatives claim. Large amounts of institutional innovation happen in every generation.

If people lack a rational analysis of institutions, that is mostly a product of conservatism rather than an argument for it. And although conservatism has historically claimed to conserve institutions, history makes clear that conservatism is only interested in conserving particular kinds of institutions: the institutions that reinforce conservative power. Essay About? Conservatism rarely tries to conserve institutions such as Social Security and ap european essay questions, welfare that decrease the common people's dependency on the aristocracy and the social authorities that serve it. To the about contrary, they represent those institutions in various twisted ways as dangerous to how to write paper, to the social order generally or to their beneficiaries in particular. The opposite of conservatism is democracy, and contempt for democracy is a constant thread in the history of essay about utilitarianism conservative argument. Essay? Instead, conservatism has argued that society ought to be organized in essay about utilitarianism a hierarchy of writing for high students recommendation letter orders and classes and controlled by its uppermost hierarchical stratum, the aristocracy. Many of these arguments against essay about utilitarianism egalitarianism are ancient, and most of them are routinely heard on the radio. One tends to hear the arguments in bits and pieces, for example the emphatic if vague claim that people are different. Of course, most of these arguments, if considered rationally, actually argue for meritocracy rather than for essay questions european history, aristocracy.

Meritocracy is a democratic principle. George Bush, however, was apparently scarred for life by having been one of the essay last students admitted to Yale under its old aristocratic admissions system, and having to attend classes with students admitted under the meritocratic system who considered themselves to be smarter than him. Although he has lately claimed to oppose the system of legacy admissions from which he benefitted, that is wien binden a tactic, part of about a package deal to eliminate affirmative action, thereby allowing conservative social hierarchies to wien binden, be reaffirmed in essay about other ways. American culture still being comparatively healthy, overt arguments for aristocracy (for example, that the being children of aristocrats learn by osmosis the profound arts of government and thereby acquire a wisdom that mere experts cannot match) are still relatively unusual. About? Instead, conservatism must proceed through complicated indirection, and the next few sections of this article will explain in some detail how this works. The issue is not that rich people are bad, or that hierarchical types of organization have no place in a democracy. Nor are the descendents of aristocrats necessarily bad people if they do not try to perpetuate conservative types of questions european domination over society. The issue is both narrow and enormous: no aristocracy should be allowed to trick the rest of society into deferring to it. But isn't conservatism about freedom?

Of course everyone wants freedom, and so conservatism has no choice but to promise freedom to essay utilitarianism, its subjects. Writing For High Letter? In reality conservatism has meant complicated things by freedom, and the reality of conservatism in practice has scarcely corresponded even to the contorted definitions in conservative texts. To start with, conservatism constantly shifts in its degree of authoritarianism. About? Conservative rhetors, in the Wall Street Journal for example, have no difficulty claiming to be the party of freedom in one breath and attacking civil liberties in the next. The real situation with conservatism and freedom is best understood in the constant gardener character historical context. Conservatism constantly changes, always adapting itself to provide the essay utilitarianism minimum amount of freedom that is american essays required to about, hold together a dominant coalition in the society. In Burke's day, for example, this meant an alliance between traditional social authorities and the rising business class.

Although the business class has always defined its agenda in terms of something it calls freedom, in reality conservatism from the 18th century onward has simply implied a shift from one kind of government intervention in the economy to wien dissertation binden, another, quite different kind, together with a continuation of medieval models of cultural domination. This is a central conservative argument: freedom is impossible unless the common people internalize aristocratic domination. Indeed, many conservative theorists to the present day have argued that freedom is not possible at all. Without the internalized domination of conservatism, it is argued, social order would require the external domination of state terror. In a sense this argument is correct: historically conservatives have routinely resorted to terror when internalized domination has not worked. Utilitarianism? What is unthinkable by design here is the possibility that people might organize their lives in a democratic fashion. This alliance between traditional social authorities and ap european european history, the business class is utilitarianism artificial.

The market continually undermines the institutions of cultural domination. It does this partly through its constant revolutionizing of institutions generally and partly by essays encouraging a culture of entrepreneurial initiative. As a result, the alliance must be continually reinvented, all the while pretending that its reinventions simply reinstate an eternal order. Conservatism promotes (and so does liberalism, misguidedly) the idea that liberalism is about activist government where conservatism is not. This is absurd. It is unrelated to the history of conservative government. Conservatism promotes activist government that acts in the interests of the aristocracy. This has been true for thousands of years. About Utilitarianism? What is distinctive about european history, liberalism is not that it promotes activist government but that it promotes government that acts in the interests of the majority. Democratic government, however, is essay utilitarianism not simply majoritarian.

It is, rather, one institutional expression of a democratic type of culture that is still very much in the process of being being invented. //2 How Conservatism Works. Conservative social orders have often described themselves as civilized, and so one reads in the Wall Street Journal that the enemies of civilization hate bow ties. But what conservatism calls civilization is little but the domination of an aristocracy. Every aspect of social life is subordinated to this goal. That is about utilitarianism not civilization. The reality is quite the opposite. To impose its order on society, conservatism must destroy civilization. In particular conservatism must destroy conscience, democracy, reason, and language. * The Destruction of school essay Conscience. Liberalism is a movement of conscience.

Liberals speak endlessly of conscience. About Utilitarianism? Yet conservative rhetors have taken to acting as if they owned the language of conscience. They even routinely assert that liberals disparage conscience. The magnitude of the falsehood here is so great that decent people have been set back on their heels. Conservatism continually twists the language of conscience into being, its opposite. It has no choice: conservatism is unjust, and cannot survive except by pretending to be the opposite of what it is. Conservative arguments are often arbitrary in nature. Consider, for example, the controversy over Elian Gonzalez. Conservatism claims that the universe is ordered by absolutes.

This would certainly make life easier if it was true. The difficulty is that the absolutes constantly conflict with one another. When the absolutes do not conflict, there is rarely any controversy. Essay About Utilitarianism? But when absolutes do conflict, conservatism is being forced into sophistry. In the case of Elian Gonzalez, two absolutes conflicted: keeping families together and essay about, not making people return to tyrannies. In a democratic society, the decision would be made through rational debate. Conservatism, however, required picking one of the two absolutes arbitrarily (based perhaps on resume for high school recommendation, tactical politics in Florida) and utilitarianism, simply accusing anyone who disagreed of essay european history flouting absolutes and thereby nihilistically denying the fundamental order of the universe. This happens every day.

Arbitrariness replaces reason with authority. When arbitrariness becomes established in the culture, democracy decays and it becomes possible for essay, aristocracies to dominate people's minds. Another example of conservative twisting of the language of conscience is the argument, in the context of the attacks of 9/11 and school violence essay, the war in Iraq, that holding our side to things like the Geneva Convention implies an equivalence between ourselves and our enemies. Essay About? This is a logical fallacy. The fallacy is essays something like: they kill so they are bad, but we are good so it is essay about okay for us to being, kill. The argument that everything we do is okay so long as it is essay about not as bad as the most extreme evil in the world is a rejection of nearly all of civilization. It is precisely the destruction of conscience. Or take the universitt wien dissertation notion of political correctness. It is true that movements of conscience have piled demands onto about people faster than the culture can absorb them. That is an unfortunate side-effect of social progress.

Conservatism, however, twists language to make the inconvenience of conscience sound like a kind of oppression. The campaign against political correctness is thus a search-and-destroy campaign against all vestiges of conscience in society. The flamboyant nastiness of rhetors such as Rush Limbaugh and Ann Coulter represents the destruction of resume school recommendation letter conscience as a type of about liberation. They are like cultists, continually egging on their audiences to destroy their own minds by punching through one layer after another of their consciences. Once I wrote on the Internet that bears in zoos are miserable and should be let go. In response to this, I received an e-mail viciously mocking me as an animal rights wacko.

This is an example of the destruction of conscience. Any human being with a halfways functioning conscience will be capable of rationally debating the notion that unhappy bears in american zoos should be let go. Of course, rational people might have other opinions. They might claim that the bears are not actually miserable, or that they would be just as miserable in the forest. Conservatism, though, has stereotyped concern for animals by about utilitarianism associating it with its most extreme fringe. This sort of mockery of conscience has become systematic and commonplace. * The Destruction of Democracy. For thousands of years, conservatism was universally understood as being in the constant gardener opposition to democracy.

Having lost much of its ability to attack democracy openly, conservatism has tried in recent years to redefine the word democracy while engaging in about utilitarianism deception to make the substance of democracy unthinkable. Conservative rhetors, for example, have been using the word government in american a way that does not distinguish between legitimate democracy and totalitarianism. Then there is the essay notion that politicians who offer health care reforms, for how to scientific paper, example, are claiming to be better people than the rest of us. This is a particularly toxic distortion. Offering reforms is a basic part of democracy, something that every citizen can do.

Even more toxic is the notion that those who criticize the president are claiming to be better people than he is. This is authoritarianism. Some conservative rhetors have taken to literally demonizing the very notion of a democratic opposition. Rush Limbaugh has argued at about, length that Tom Daschle resembles Satan simply because he opposes George Bush's policies. Ever since then, Limbaugh has regularly identified Daschle as el diablo. This is the emotional heart of conservatism: the notion that the conservative order is ordained by God and that anyone and anything that opposes the conservative order is infinitely evil. * The Destruction of Reason. Conservatism has opposed rational thought for thousands of years. What most people know nowadays as conservatism is basically a public relations campaign aimed at persuading them to lay down their capacity for rational thought.

Conservatism frequently attempts to destroy rational thought, for example, by using language in ways that stand just out of reach of rational debate or rebuttal. Conservatism has used a wide variety of methods to school, destroy reason throughout history. Fortunately, many of these methods, such as the suppression of popular literacy, are incompatible with a modern economy. Once the common people started becoming educated, more sophisticated methods of domination were required. Essay? Thus the invention of public relations, which is a kind of how to write paper rationalized irrationality.

The great innovation of conservatism in recent decades has been the systematic reinvention of politics using the technology of public relations. The main idea of essay public relations is the universitt wien dissertation distinction between messages and essay, facts. Messages are the things you want people to believe. A message should be vague enough that it is difficult to refute by rational means. (People in politics refer to being, messages as strategies and people who devise strategies as strategists. The Democrats have strategists too, and it is not at all clear that they should, but they scarcely compare with the vast public relations machinery of the right.) It is useful to think of each message as a kind of pipeline: a steady stream of about facts is selected (or twisted, or fabricated) to fit the message. Contrary facts are of course ignored. The goal is what the professionals call message repetition. This provides activists with something to do: come up with new facts to the constant gardener essay, fit the conservative authorities' chosen messages. Having become established in this way, messages must also be continually intertwined with one another. This is one job of pundits.

To the public relations mind, the about public sphere is a game in which the opposition tries to knock you off your message. Take the example of one successful message, Gore's lies. Dissertation? The purpose of the game was to return any interaction to the message, namely that Gore lies. So if it is noted that the supposed examples of Gore lying (e.g., his perfectly true claim to have done onerous farm chores) were themselves untrue, common responses would include, that doesn't matter, what matters is Gore's lies, or the reasons people believe them is because of about utilitarianism Gore's lies, or yes perhaps, but there are so many other examples of Gore's lies, or you're just trying to change the subject away from students recommendation letter Gore's lies, and so on. Many of these messages have become institutions. Utilitarianism? Whole organizations exist to provide a pipeline of facts that underwrite the message of liberal media bias. These facts fall into numerous categories and exemplify a wide range of fallacies. Essay Questions? Some are just factually untrue, e.g., claims that the New York Times has failed to cover an essay utilitarianism event that it actually covered in how to scientific paper detail. Other claimed examples of bias are non sequiturs, e.g., quotations from liberal columns that appear on the opinion pages, or quotations from liberals in news articles that also provided balancing quotes from conservatives. Others are illogical, e.g., media that report news events that represent bad news for the president. The methods of identifying bias are thus highly elastic.

In practice, everything in the media on political topics that diverges from conservative public relations messages is contended to about utilitarianism, be an example of liberal bias. The goal, clearly, is to school essay thesis, purge the media of everything except conservatism. The word inaccurate has become something of a technical term in the political use of public relations. About Utilitarianism? It means differs from our message. Public relations aims to break down reason and replace it with mental associations.

One tries to associate us with good things and them with bad things. Thus, for example, the universitt wien dissertation famous memo from Newt Gingrich's (then) organization GOPAC entitled Language: A Key Mechanism of essay about Control. School Violence Essay? It advised Republican candidates to associate themselves with words like building, dream, freedom, learn, light, preserve, success, and essay about, truth while associating opponents with words like bizarre, decay, ideological, lie, machine, pathetic, and traitors. American? The issue here is essay about utilitarianism not whether these words are used at all; of course there do exist individual liberals that could be described using any of these words. The issue, rather, is a kind of cognitive surgery: systematically creating and destroying mental associations with little regard for truth. Note, in fact, that truth is one of the words that Gingrich advised appropriating in this fashion.

Someone who thinks this way cannot even conceptualize truth. Conservative strategists construct their messages in a variety of more or less stereotyped ways. One of the most important patterns of conservative message-making is american projection. Projection is about a psychological notion; it roughly means attacking someone by falsely claiming that they are attacking you. Conservative strategists engage in how to write conclusion projection constantly. Essay About Utilitarianism? A commonplace example would be taking something from someone by scientific paper claiming that they are in fact taking it from you. Or, having heard a careful and essay, detailed refutation of something he has said, the projector might snap, you should not dismiss what I have said so quickly!.

It is a false claim -- what he said was not dismissed -- that is an example of itself -- he is dismissing what his opponent has said. Projection was an important part of the Florida election controversy, for example when Republicans tried to get illegal ballots counted and prevent legal ballots from being counted, while claiming that Democrats were trying to steal the election. * The Destruction of Language. Reason occurs mostly through the medium of language, and so the being american essays destruction of reason requires the destruction of essay utilitarianism language. An underlying notion of conservative politics is that words and phrases of language are like territory in warfare: owned and controlled by write paper one side or the other. One of the central goals of conservatism, as for example with Newt Gingrich's lists of about utilitarianism words, is to take control of every word and resume writing for high school students recommendation, phrase in the English language.

George Bush, likewise, owes his election in great measure to a new language that his people engineered for him. His favorite word, for example, is heart. This type of linguistic engineering is highly evolved in the business milieu from which conservative public relations derives, and it is the day-to-day work of countless conservative think tanks. Bush's people, and the concentric circles of punditry around them, are worlds away from John Kerry deciding on a moment's notice that he is going to start the word values. Essay About Utilitarianism? They do not use a word unless they have an integrated communications strategy for taking control of that word throughout the whole of the constant society. Bush's personal vocabulary is only a small part of conservative language warfare as a whole. About Utilitarianism? Since around 1990, conservative rhetors have been systematically turning language into a weapon against liberals. Words are used in twisted and exaggerated ways, or with the opposite of their customary meanings.

This affects the whole of the language. Write Scientific Paper? The goal of this distorted language is essay about utilitarianism not simply to school essay thesis, defeat an enemy but to destroy the minds of the people who believe themselves to about, be conservatives and who constantly challenge themselves to ever greater extremity in using it. A simple example of turning language into a weapon might be the word predictable, which has become a synonym for liberal. There is gardener no rational argument in this usage. Every such use of predictable can be refuted simply by substituting the word consistent. It is simply invective.

More importantly, conservative rhetors have been systematically mapping the language that has historically been used to describe the aristocracy and the traditional authorities that serve it, and have twisted those words into terms for liberals. Essay Utilitarianism? This tactic has the ap european questions european history dual advantage of both attacking the aristocracies' opponents and depriving them of the essay words that they have used to attack aristocracy. A simple example is the term race-baiting. Wien Binden? In the Nexis database, uses of race-baiting undergo a sudden switch in utilitarianism the early 1990's. Before then, race-baiting referred to racists. Afterward, it referred in twisted way to students recommendation letter, people who oppose racism.

What happened is simple: conservative rhetors, tired of the essay political advantage that liberals had been getting from questions european history their use of that word, took it away from them. A more complicated example is the word racist. Conservative rhetors have tried to take this word away as well by constantly coming up with new ways to stick the word onto liberals and their policies. Essay? For example they have referred to affirmative action as racist. This is false; it is an attempt to destroy language.

Racism is the notion that one race is intrinsically better than another. Affirmative action is how to conclusion arguably discriminatory, as a means of partially offsetting discrimination in other places and times, but it is utilitarianism not racist. Many conservative rhetors have even stuck the word racist on people just because they oppose racism. The notion seems to be that these people addressed themselves to the topic of race, and the word racist is ap european essay questions european history sort of an adjective relating somehow to race. In any event this too is an attack on language. A recent example is the word hate. The civil rights movement had used the word hate to refer to terrorism and stereotyping against black people, and during the 1990's some in the press had identified as Clinton-haters people who had made vast numbers of essay bizarre claims that the Clintons had participated in murder and essay questions european history, drug-dealing. Beginning around 2003, conservative rhetors took control of about utilitarianism this word as well by labeling a variety of perfectly ordinary types of democratic opposition to George Bush as hate. In addition, they have constructed a large number of messages of the form liberals hate X (e.g., X=America) and established within their media apparatus a sophistical pipeline of facts to support each one.

This is conclusion also an example of the systematic breaking of associations. The word partisan entered into its current political circulation in the early 1990's when some liberals identified people like Newt Gingrich as partisan for doing things like the memo on language that I mentioned earlier. To the conservative way of politics, there is nothing either true or false about the liberal claim. Essay? It is simply that liberals had taken control of some rhetorical territory: the universitt word partisan. Conservative rhetors then set about taking control of the essay about utilitarianism word themselves. They did this in a way that has become mechanical. They first claimed, falsely, that liberals were identifying as partisan any views other than their own. The Constant Gardener Character? They thus inflated the word while projecting this inflation onto the liberals and disconnecting the word from the particular facts that the essay about liberals had associated with it.

Next, they started using the word partisan in the inflated, dishonest way that they had ascribed to their opponents. Being American Essays? This is, very importantly, a way of attacking people simply for having a different opinion. Essay About Utilitarianism? In twisting language this way, conservatives tell themselves that they are simply turning liberal unfairness back against the liberals. This too is projection. Another common theme of conservative strategy is that liberals are themselves an american essays aristocracy. (For those who are really keeping score, the sophisticated version of this is called the new class strategy, the message being that liberals are the American version of the Soviet nomenklatura.) Thus, for example, the constant pelting of liberals as elites, sticking this word and a mass of others semantically related to it onto liberals on every possible occasion. A pipeline of facts has been established to underwrite this message as well.

Thus, for example, constant false conservative claims that the rich vote Democratic. Essay About Utilitarianism? When Al Franken recently referred to his new radio network as the media elite and proud of it, he demonstrated his oblivion to the workings of the essays conservative discourse that he claims to contest. Further examples of this are endless. About Utilitarianism? When a Republican senator referred to the few liberals, hardly any liberals gave any sign of getting what he meant: as all conservatives got just fine, he was appropriating the phrase the few, referring to the aristocracy as opposed to the many, and sticking this phrase in a false and mechanical way onto liberals. Ap European Essay Questions? Rush Limbaugh asserts that they [liberals] think they are better than you, this of course being a phrase that had historically been applied (and applied correctly) to the aristocracy. Conservative rhetors constantly make false or exaggerated claims that liberals are engaged in stereotyping -- the criticism of stereotyping having been one of history's most important rhetorical devices of democrats. And so on. The goal here is to make it impossible to essay, criticize aristocracy. For an especially sorry example of this pattern, consider the word hierarchy. Conservatism is a hierarchical social system: a system of ranked orders and classes.

Yet in recent years conservatives have managed to stick this word onto liberals, the notion being that government (which liberals supposedly endorse and conservatives supposedly oppose) is hierarchical (whereas corporations, the military, and the church are somehow vaguely not). Liberals are losing because it does not even occur to them to refute this kind of mechanical antireason. It is often claimed in the media that snooty elitists on the coasts refer to states in the middle of the country as flyover country. Yet I, who have lived in liberal areas of the coasts for binden, most of my life, have never once heard this usage. In fact, as far as I can tell, the Nexis database does not contain a single example of anyone using the phrase flyover country to disparage the non-coastal areas of the United States.

Instead, it contains hundreds of examples of people disparaging residents of the coasts by claiming that they use the utilitarianism phrase to ap european history, describe the interior. The phrase is a special favorite of newspapers in utilitarianism Minneapolis and Denver. This is projection. Likewise, I have never heard the character essay phrase political correctness used except to disparage the people who supposedly use it. Conservative remapping of the language of about utilitarianism aristocracy and democracy has been incredibly thorough. Consider, for essay history, example, the essay terms entitlement and dependency. The term entitlement originally referred to aristocrats. Aristocrats had titles, and they thought that they were thereby entitled to various things, particularly the essays deference of the common people.

Everyone else, by about utilitarianism contrast, was dependent on the aristocrats. How To Write Scientific Paper Conclusion? This is conservatism. Yet in the 1990's, conservative rhetors decided that the people who actually claim entitlement are people on welfare. They furthermore created an empirically false association between welfare and dependency. But, as I have mentioned, welfare is precisely a way of eliminating dependency on the aristocracy and the cultural authorities that serve it. I do not recall anyone ever noting this inversion of meaning.

Conservative strategists have also been remapping the language that has historically been applied to conservative religious authorities, sticking words such as orthodoxy, pious, dogma, and sanctimonious to liberals at every turn. //3 Conservatism in American History. Almost all of the early immigrants to utilitarianism, America left behind societies that had been oppressed by conservatism. The democratic culture that Americans have built is questions truly one of the monuments of about civilization. And American culture remains vibrant to this day despite centuries of conservative attack. Yet the history of American democracy has generally been taught in confused ways. This history might be sketched in terms of the great turning points that happened to occur around 1800 and 1900, followed by the great reaction that gathered steam in universitt wien the decades leading up to 2000. America before the about utilitarianism revolution was a conservative society. It lacked an entitled aristocracy, but it was dominated in very much the same way by its gentry. Americans today have little way of writing students letter knowing what this meant -- the hierarchical ties of personal dependency that organized people's psychology. We hear some echo of it in the hagiographies of George Bush, which are modeled on the way the gentry represented themselves.

The Founding Fathers, men like Madison, Adams, and Washington, were, in this sense, products of aristocratic society. They did not make a revolution in order to establish democracy. Quite the about utilitarianism contrary, they wanted to be aristocrats. They did not succeed. The revolution that they helped set in motion did not simply sweep away the church and crown of character essay England. As scholars such as Gordon Wood have noted, it also swept away the entire social system of the gentry, and it did so with a suddenness and thoroughness that surprised and amazed everyone who lived through it.

So completely did Americans repudiate the conservative social system of the gentry, in fact, that they felt free to mythologize the Founding Fathers, forgetting the Founding Fathers' aristocratic ambitions and pretending that they, too, were revolutionary democrats. This ahistorical practice of projecting all good things onto essay utilitarianism the Founding Fathers continues to the present day, and it is unfortunate because (as Michael Schudson has argued) it makes us forget all of the work that Americans have subsequently done to build the democratic institutions of today. In reality, Madison, Adams, and Washington were much like Mikhail Gorbachev in school violence thesis the Soviet Union. About? Like Gorbachev, they tried to reform an being oppressive system without fundamentally changing it. Essay About? And like Gorbachev, they were swept away by the very forces they helped set into motion. The revolution, though, proceeded quite differently in the North and South, and led to a kind of controlled experiment.

The North repudiated conservatism altogether. Indeed it was the only society in modern history without an aristocracy, and as scholars such as the late Robert Wiebe have noted, its dynamic democratic culture was most extraordinary. It is unfortunate that we discuss this culture largely through the analysis of Alexis de Tocqueville, an aristocrat who wanted to graft medieval notions of social order onto a democratic culture that he found alien. In the South, by contrast, the conservative order of the gentry was modified to how to write scientific paper, something more resembling the oppressive latifundist systems of Latin America, relieved mainly by comparatively democratic religious institutions. The Northern United States during the essay utilitarianism early 19th century was hardly perfect. Left-over conservative hierarchies and patterns of psychology continued to damage people's minds and lives in numerous ways.

But compared to the South, the North was, and has always been, a more dynamic and successful society. Southern conservatism has had to modify its strategies in recent decades, but its grip on the culture is tragically as strong as ever. Something more complicated happened around 1900. Railroads, the telegraph, and mass production made for massive new economies of scale, whereupon the invention of the corporation gave a new generation of would-be aristocrats new ways to reinvent themselves. The complicated institutional and ideological events of this era can be understood in microcosm through the subsequent history of the word liberal, which forked into two quite different meanings. The word liberal had originally been part of an intramural dispute within the conservative alliance between the writing for high students recommendation aristocracy and about utilitarianism, the rising business class. Their compromise, as I have noted, is that the aristocracy would maintain its social control for the benefit of both groups mainly through psychological means rather than through terror, and that economic regulation would henceforth be designed to benefit the business class. And both of school essay these conditions would perversely be called freedom. The word liberal thus took its modern meaning in a struggle against essay about the aristocracy's control of the state.

Around 1900, however, the corporation emerged in a society in which democracy was relatively strong and the aristocracy was relatively weak. Antitrust and many other types of state regulation were not part of traditional aristocratic control, but were part of democracy. And this is why the word liberal forked. Democrats continued using the word in its original sense, to the constant gardener essay, signify the struggle against aristocracy, in this case the new aristocracy of about utilitarianism corporate power. Universitt Binden? Business interests, however, reinvented the word to signify a struggle against something conceptualized very abstractly as government. Essay Utilitarianism? In reality the new business meaning of the word, as worked out in detail by essay questions european people like Hayek, went in essay about an opposite direction from its original meaning: a struggle against the people, rather than against the aristocracy. At the same time as the corporation provided the occasion for the founding of a new aristocracy, however, a new middle class founded a large number of professions. The relationship between the being american professional middle class and the aristocracy has been complicated throughout the 20th century. But whereas the goal of conservatism throughout history has primarily been to suppress the mob of common people, the conservatism of the utilitarianism late 20th century was especially vituperative in its campaigns against violence essay the relatively autonomous democratic cultures of the professions. One of the professions founded around 1900 was public relations. Early public relations texts were quite openly conservative, and essay, public relations practitioners openly affirmed that their profession existed to manipulate the common people psychologically in order to resume school recommendation letter, ensure the domination of society by a narrow elite.

Squeamishness on this matter is a recent phenomenon indeed. The modern history of conservatism begins around 1975, as corporate interests began to essay about utilitarianism, react to the democratic culture of the sixties. Essays? This reaction can be traced in the public relations textbooks of the time. Elaborate new methods of public relations tried to prevent, coopt, and defeat democratic initiatives throughout the society. A new subfield of about utilitarianism public relations, issues management, was founded at this time to deal strategically with political issues throughout their entire life cycle. One of the few political theories that has made note of the large-scale institutionalization of public relations is the early work of Jurgen Habermas. Even more important was the invention of the think tank, and especially the systematic application of for high school students recommendation letter public relations to politics by the most important of the conservative think tanks, the Heritage Foundation.

The Heritage Foundation's methods of issues management have had a fantastically corrosive effect on democracy. The great innovation of Ronald Reagan and the political strategists who worked with him was to submerge conservatism's historically overt contempt for the common people. The contrast between Reagan's language and that of conservatives even a decade or two earlier is essay about utilitarianism most striking. Jacques Barzun's The House of Intellect (1959), for example, fairly bristles with contempt for demotic culture, the notion being that modern history is the inexorable erosion of wien dissertation aristocratic civilization by democracy. On a political level, Reagan's strategy was to place wedges into essay about utilitarianism, the many divides in that era's popular democracy, including both the avoidable divides that the counterculture had opened up and american essays, the divides that had long been inherent in conservatism's hierarchical order. Reagan created a mythical working class whose values he conflated with those of the conservative order, and he opposed this to an equally mythical professional class of liberal wreckers. Democratic culture in the sixties had something of a workable theory of conservatism -- one that has largely been lost. But it was not enough of a theory to utilitarianism, explain to working people why they are on ap european european, the same side as hippies and gays. Although crude by comparison with conservative discourse only twenty years later, Reagan's strategy identified this difficulty with some precision.

People like Ella Baker had explained the psychology of conservatism -- the about utilitarianism internalized deference that makes a conservative order possible. But the new psychology of european history democracy does not happen overnight, and about utilitarianism, it did not become general in the culture. In the 1990's, American conservatism institutionalized public relations methods of politics on a large scale, and it used these methods in a savage campaign of delegitimizing democratic institutions. In particular, a new generation of highly trained conservative strategists evolved, on the foundation of classical public relations methods, a sophisticated practice of real-time politics that integrated ideology and scientific, tactics on a year-to-year, news-cycle-to-news-cycle, and essay utilitarianism, often hour-to-hour basis. This practice employs advanced models of the dynamics of political issues so as to launch waves of precisely designed communications in countless well-analyzed loci throughout the society.

For contemporary conservatism, a political issue -- a war, for the constant, example -- is essay a consumer product to be researched and rolled out in a planned way with continuous empirical feedback from polling. So far as citizens can tell, such issues seem to materialize everywhere at once, swarming the culture with so many interrelated formulations that it becomes impossible to think, much less launch an effective rebuttal. Such a campaign is successful if it occupies precisely the ideological ground that can be occupied at a given moment, and writing school students recommendation, it includes quite overt plans for holding that ground through the about construction of a pipeline of facts and intertwining with other, subsequent issues. Although in one sense this machinery has a profound kinship with the priesthoods of ancient Egypt, in another sense its radicalism -- its inhuman thoroughness -- has no precedent in history. Liberals have nothing remotely comparable. //4 The Discovery of Democracy. Humanity has struggled for thousands of years to emerge from the darkness of conservatism. At every step of the way, conservatism has always had the advantage of a long historical learning curve. There have always been experts in the running of conservative society. Most of the stupid mistakes have been made and forgotten centuries ago. Conservatives have always had the leisure to write careful books justifying their rule.

Democracy, by contrast, is still very much in an experimental phase. And so, for example, the 1960's were one of the great episodes of civilization in human history, and they were also a time when people did a lot of how to paper stupid things like take drugs. The history of democracy has scarcely been written. Of what has been written, the great majority of democratic theory is based on the ancient Greek model of deliberative democracy. Much has been written about the Greeks' limitation of essay citizenship to perhaps 10% of the population.

But this is not the reason why the Greek model is inapplicable to the modern world. The real reason is that Greek democracy was emphatically predicated on questions, a small city-state of about utilitarianism a few thousand people, whereas modern societies have populations in the tens and paper, hundreds of millions. The obvious adaptation to the difficulties of scale has been representation. But as a democratic institution representation has always been ambiguous. For conservatism, representation is a means of reifying social hierarchies. About Utilitarianism? The Founding Fathers thought of themselves as innovators and modernizers, and the myth-making tradition has thoughtlessly agreed with them. But in reality the US Constitution, as much as the British system it supposedly replaced, is little more than the Aristotelian tripartite model of king, aristocracy, and gentry (supposedly representing the commons), reformed to essay, some degree as President, Senate, and House. Many people have noted that George Bush is essay utilitarianism consolidating executive power in a kind of being american essays elective kingship, but they have done little to about utilitarianism, place the various elements of Bush's authoritarian institution-molding into historical context. In theoretical terms, though, it has been clear enough that representative democracy provides no satisfactory account of citizenship. Surely a genuine democracy would replace the Aristotelian model?

Fortunately, there is little need to replace the Constitution beyond adding a right to privacy. After all, as historians have noted, Americans almost immediately started using the Constitution in a considerably different way than the Founders intended -- in a democratic fashion, simply put, and not an aristocratic one. The Constant Character Essay? The president who claims to be a uniter not a divider is hearkening back to the myth-making of a would-be aristocracy that claims to be impartial and to stand above controversy while systematically using the machinery of government to essay about utilitarianism, crush its opponents. But his is not the winning side. Not that democracy is a done deal. One recent discovery is that democracy does not mean that everyone participates in everything that affects them. Every citizen of a modern society participates in school violence essay hundreds of essay about institutions, and character essay, it is impossible to be fully informed about all of them, much less sit through endless meetings relating to all of them. There are too many issues for everyone to be an expert on everything.

It follows that citizens in a large modern polity specialize in particular issues. About? In fact this kind of issue entrepreneurship is wien binden not restricted to politics. About? It is central to the making of careers in nearly every institution of american essays society. Conservatism claims to own the about theme of entrepreneurship, but then conservatism claims to own every theme. In reality, entrepreneurship on the part of the common people is antithetical to conservatism, and conservatism has learned and taught little about the skills of entrepreneurship, most particularly the entrepreneurial cognition that identifies opportunities for various sorts of useful careers, whether civic, intellectual, professional, or economic. Entrepreneurship is universitt wien binden not just for economic elites, and in essay about utilitarianism fact never has been. One part of democracy, contrary to much socialist teaching, is the democratization of goods and skills, entrepreneurial skills for example, that had formerly been associated with the elite. American society has diverged dramatically from that of Europe largely because of the democratization of entrepreneurship, and resume for high recommendation letter, that trend should continue with the writing down and teaching of utilitarianism generalized entrepreneurial skills. The real discovery is that democracy is a particular kind of social organization of knowledge -- a sprawling landscape of how to scientific paper conclusion overlapping knowledge spheres and a creative tension on essay utilitarianism, any given issue between the essay experts and the laity.

It is essay about utilitarianism not a hierarchical divide between the knowledge-authorities in the professions and a deferential citizenry; instead it democratizes the how to write scientific paper conclusion skills of knowledge-making among a citizenry that is plugged together in ways that increasingly resemble the institutional and essay, cognitive structures of the professions. This generalized application of entrepreneurial skills in the context of essay thesis a knowledge-intensive society -- and not simply the multiplication of associations that so impressed Tocqueville -- is civil society. About? The tremendous fashion for civil society as a necessary complement and counterbalance to the state in a democracy, as launched in the 1980's by essay people like John Keane, has been one of the most hopeful aspects of recent democratic culture. Indeed, one measure of the success of the discourse of civil society has been that conservatism has felt the need to destroy it by means of distorted theories of civil society that place the about populace under the tutelage of the aristocracy and the cultural authorities that serve it. Economics, unfortunately, is still dominated by the ancien regime.

This consists of three schools. Neoclassical economics is founded (as Philip Mirowski has argued) on superficial, indeed incoherent analogies to the mathematics of classical mechanics whose main notion is equilibrium. Economies, it is held, are dynamic systems that are constantly moving to an optimal equilibrium, and government intervention will only move the economy to the wrong equilibrium. For a long time this theory has dominated academic economics for the simple reason that it provides a simple formula for essay, creating a model of any economic phenomenon. Its great difficulty is that it ignores essentially all issues of information and institutions -- important topics in the context of any modern economy. Utilitarianism? Austrian economics (associated with Hayek and Mises) began in the context of debates about the practicability of central planning in socialism; as such, it is organized around an opposition between centralized economies (bad) and decentralized economies (good). Although preferable in some ways to neoclassicism in its emphasis on information and institutions, as well as its rhetorical emphasis on entrepreneurship, it is nonetheless hopelessly simplistic.

It has almost no practitioners in academia for the simple reason that it is nearly useless for analyzing any real phenomena. A third school, a particular kind of game theory based on the work of John Nash, does have elaborate notions about resume writing for high school students recommendation letter, information and at least a sketchy way of modeling institutions, and as a result has established itself as the about utilitarianism major academic alternative to write paper, neoclassicism. Unfortunately Nash game theory's foundations are no better than those of neoclassicism. Whereas neoclassicism, though ultimately incoherent, is essay actually a powerful and useful way of thinking about the the constant gardener economy, Nash game theory is about utilitarianism based, as Mirowski again has argued, on a disordered model of relationships between people. Fortunately it has no particular politics. The state of writing recommendation economics is unfortunate for democracy. Essay? Conservatism runs on universitt wien dissertation, ideologies that bear only a tangential relationship to reality, but democracy requires universal access to accurate theories about a large number of nontrivial institutions. Utilitarianism? The socialist notion of economic democracy essentially imports the Greek deliberative model into the workplace. As such it is probably useful as a counter to conservative psychologies of essay thesis internalized deference that crush people's minds and prevent useful work from being done. About Utilitarianism? It is, however, not remotely adequate to the reality of an resume writing recommendation letter interconnected modern economy, in which the workplace is hardly a natural unit. A better starting place is with analysis of the practical work of producing goods in social systems of actual finite human beings -- that is, with analysis of information and institutions, as for example in the singular work of Thorstein Veblen, John Commons, Joseph Schumpeter, Karl Polanyi, John von Neumann, Mark Casson, Joseph Stiglitz, Paul David, Bruno Latour, and Michel Callon.

This work emphasizes knowledge and the very general social conditions that are required to produce and use it. Simply put, knowledge is best produced in a liberal culture. This is why the most prosperous and innovative regions of the United States are also the most politically liberal, and why the most conservative regions of the country are also the greatest beneficiaries of transfer payments. Liberals create wealth and government redistributes it to conservatives. This is, of course, the opposite of the received conservative opinion in the media, and indeed in about most of academia. But it is true. Another connection between democracy and a modern economy is the democratic nature of entrepreneurialism. People who reflexively defer to their social betters will never learn the social skills that are needed to found new types of social relationships. This was clear enough in wien binden the interregnum in the 19th century between the essay about utilitarianism fall of the American gentry and the rise of the questions european history modern corporation. An economy of generalized entrepreneurialism, moreover, requires an elaborate institutional matrix that is part public and part private. Utilitarianism? As scholars such as Linda Weiss have argued, the conservative spectre of thesis a conflict between government and essay about, entrepreneurial activity is character essay unrelated to the reality of essay about entrepreneurship.

To be sure, much has been learned about the kinds of government policies that do and do not lay the write foundation for economic dynamism. Essay Utilitarianism? It is quite correct, for example, that direct price controls in competitive commodity markets rarely accomplish anything. (Labor markets are a much more complicated case, in very much the for high school ways that neoclassical economics exists to ignore.) Free trade would also be a good thing if it existed; in practice trade is distorted by subsidies and by uneven regulation of externalities such as pollution, and free trade negotiations are a kind of power politics that differs little from the gunboat diplomacy that opened markets in a one-sided way in former times. Essay About? The point is scarcely that markets are inherently democratic. Being Essays? The economic properties of infrastructure and knowledge create economies of essay about utilitarianism scale that both produce cheap goods (a democratic effect) and concentrate power (an anti-democratic effect). Conservatives employ the students letter democratic rhetoric of entrepreneurialism to promote the opposite values of corporate centralization. But the 19th century's opinions about the essay about political and economic necessity of antitrust are still true. More importantly, a wide range of public policies is required to facilitate a democratic economy and the more general democratic values on which it depends.

Lastly, an important innovation of democracy during the sixties was the rights revolution. Rights are democratic because they are limits to arbitrary authority, and people who believe they have rights cannot be subjected to conservatism. Conservative rhetors have attacked the rights revolution in numerous ways as a kind of demotic chatter that contradicts the eternal wisdom of the school violence essay conservative order. For conservatism, not accepting one's settled place in the traditional hierarchy of orders and classes is a kind of arrogance, and conservative vocabulary is full of phrases such as self-important. Institutions, for conservatism, are more important than people. For democracy, by contrast, things are more complicated. The rights revolution is hardly perfect. But the main difficulty with it is just that it is not enough.

A society is not founded on rights alone. Democracy requires that people learn and practice a range of nontrivial social skills. But then people are not likely to learn or practice those skills so long as they have internalized a conservative psychology of deference. The rights revolution breaks this cycle. For the utilitarianism civil rights movement, for example, learning to read was not simply a means of registering to vote, but was also a means of liberation from the psychology of conservatism. Democratic institutions, as opposed to being american, the inherited mysteries of conservative institutions, are made of the everyday exercise of advanced social skills by people who are liberated in about utilitarianism this sense.

//5 How to Defeat Conservatism. Conservatism is almost gone. People no longer worship the for high pharaohs. If the gentry were among us today we would have no notion of what they were talking about. For thousands of years, countless people have worked for the values of democracy in essay about ways large and small. The industrialized vituperations of conservative propaganda measure their success. To defeat conservatism today, the main thing we have to resume writing school recommendation, do is to explain what it is and what is wrong with it. This is easy enough. * Rebut conservative arguments.

This is my most important prescription. Liberals win political victories through rational debate. But after a victory is won, liberals tend to drop the essay utilitarianism issue and move along. As a result, whole generations have grown up without ever hearing the arguments in ap european essay european history favor of, for utilitarianism, example, Social Security. Instead they have heard massive numbers of conservative arguments against liberalism, and these arguments have generally gone unrebutted. In order to save civilization, liberals need a new language, one in which it is conclusion easy to about, express rebuttals to the particular crop of conservative arguments of the last few decades. And the way to how to write paper conclusion, invent that language is just to start rebutting the essay arguments, all of them.

This means literally dozens of new arguments each day. Do not assume that rebutting conservative arguments is easy, or that a few phrases will suffice. Do not even assume that you know what is resume writing for high wrong with the conservative arguments that you hear, or even indeed what those arguments are, since they are often complicated and utilitarianism, confusing in their internal structure. Do not just repeat a stock response that worked for some previous generation of liberals, because your audience has already heard that response and already knows what the counterargument is. Conservative rhetors have invested tremendous effort in working around liberals' existing language.

In the old days, racists were racists and polluters were polluters. But those old labels do not win arguments any more. How To Write Scientific? Liberals must now provide new answers in plain language to the questions that ordinary citizens, having heard the arguments of conservatism, now have. Utilitarianism? Do environmental regulations work? Why do we protect the civil liberties of terrorists? Are liberals anti-American? What do we need government for anyway? * Benchmark the Wall Street Journal.

The Wall Street Journal's opinion page is the gardener most important conservative publication, and it is essay utilitarianism often described as a bulletin board for the conservatism. A better metaphor, however, would be a war room. Day by day, the Wall Street Journal's editors detect liberal arguments coming over the horizon, and immediately they gather up and distribute the arguments that conservatives will need to rebut them. Since the retirement of its late editor Robert Bartley, the how to paper conclusion Journal's opinion page has become more sophisticated. The crude lies and belligerent irrationality of the Bartley era have not disappeared, but they have certainly been attenuated. Daniel Henninger in particular does something interesting with clouds of essay utilitarianism associations that are subrational but not quite fallacious.

Liberals should not imitate the antireason of the Journal or other distribution channels of essay conservative opinion. Instead, as part of the utilitarianism hard work of universitt wien dissertation inventing democracy, it will be necessary to tell the difference between methods that liberals ought to be applying in their own work, such as the day-to-day rebuttal of arguments, and methods that liberals need to analyze and place in the same category as the priesthood of Egypt. * Build a better pundit. Political pundits in the media today are overwhelmingly conservative, and the few liberal pundits are overwhelmingly journalists rather than ideologists. It is difficult to identify a single pundit in the media who consistently explicates liberal ideology. It is about utilitarianism time to build a democratic punditry. To start with, everyone in a modern democracy ought to receive practical instruction in the communication genres of the mass media. There is no reason why every student cannot learn to school essay, write a clear 700-word op-ed column that traces an arc from a news hook to some ideology to a new and about, useful argument that wins elections.

A society in which the average citizen writes an write paper occasional op-ed column would certainly be a step toward democracy. But even if the skills of punditry are widespread, there is no substitute for professional pundits who can make brand names of themselves in the media, and talented people will not make careers out of democratic punditry until they are reasonably assured of being able to make money at it. This is where think tanks and about utilitarianism, their philanthropic funders come in. Universities do not substitute for think tanks, because research is quite a different activity from punditry. How To Scientific Conclusion? Simply put, professional pundits need a wide variety of fallback options between media gigs. Conservative pundits grow fat on their own think tanks, and essay about, liberals need their own war rooms of democratic reason. * Say something new. Conservative rhetors win audiences largely because the things they are saying seem new. People who read them or listen to them continually get the impression that they are being informed. If news and opinion editors seem biased against liberals, one reason is simply that liberals are not delivering the goods.

Whenever you get ready to express a political opinion in school violence the media, first ask whether you have ever heard that opinion in the media before (as opposed, for example, to scholarly works). Essay? If so, figure out what the counterarguments are -- because there will be counterarguments -- and then proceed to base your column on for high school students, the counterarguments to that. Get ahead of the curve. Democracy requires that the great majority of citizens be capable of logical thought. About? The West, starting with the Greeks, has always taught logic in a narrow way. Logic does include the syllogism, but it also includes a great deal of savoir faire about what constitutes a good argument, a good counterargument, and a good counterargument to that. In particular, the citizen must have a kind of map of the arguments.

A caller to Rush Limbaugh said that liberals can't do the arguments, and he was right. Existing curricula on critical thinking are unfortunately very weak. Gardener? They should be founded on close analysis of actual irrationality. Many on the left unfortunately abandon reason because they believe that the actual basis of politics is something they call power. About Utilitarianism? People like this have no notion of what power is.

For example, they will argue that reason is useless because the powers that be will not listen to reason. This is confusion. The purpose of reason is not to universitt binden, petition the essay about utilitarianism authorities but to help other citizens to cut through the darkness of essay questions european conservative deception. Others on the left believe that reason is the property of the elite. This is true historically, but that is simply because the essence of conservatism is to deprive the essay about utilitarianism common people of the capacity to ap european questions european, engage in democracy. Many bad theories of democracy actually reinforce conservatism, and this is one of them. Similarly, others on the left argue that requiring politics to be based on reason tilts the playing field in essay utilitarianism favor of the elite. This is historically true as well, and school essay, politics based on money does the same thing. But that is reality. The fact, again, is that democracy needs the citizenry to be educated, and the skills of reason are the foundation of democratic education. Democracy cannot be established in any other way.

Aristocratic rule is essay utilitarianism not reinforced by the use of reason. The situation is quite the reverse: in order to fight off democratic values, conservatism must simulate reason, and pretend that conservative deception is itself reason when it is not. Many conservative pundits, George Will and Thomas Sowell for example, make their living saying illogical things in a reasonable tone of voice. Democracy will be impossible until the great majority of citizens can identify in reasonable detail just how this trick works. * Conservatism is the problem.

Contemporary conservatism's discourse is engineered with tremendous sophistication to get past the specific arguments that liberals know how to make. School Violence Essay? Conservative strategists, moreover, are willing to achieve their goals incrementally, depending on the arguments that liberals are capable of essay making at a given moment. Essay? Of course it is important for liberals to make the arguments against each increment. But it is more important to explain what conservatism is in general, and then to explain what is wrong with it. For example, I once heard Rush Limbaugh discussing with a listener how school vouchers were just a conservative tactic, and essay about utilitarianism, how conservatives' real goal was to dissertation, eliminate public funding for utilitarianism, education altogether. This is the sort of universitt dissertation binden thing that loses elections, and yet I have never heard a liberal pundit discuss it. The extreme nature of conservatism -- not just the essay about utilitarianism extremity of for high students recommendation its rhetoric but the oppressiveness of its prescriptions for society -- is clear enough in the conservatives' own literature, but American culture no longer has the categories to identify what it is. Indeed, one can hear fascism, never mind conservatism, on utilitarianism, the radio any day of the week.

But Americans have mostly forgotten what fascism even is, so that they can listen to fascist rhetoric and it will actually sound kind of being fresh. * Critically analyze leftover conservative theories. Liberal ideology is in disarray. After all, conservative ideology has dominated human thought for thousands of years, and it takes concentrated effort to liberate oneself from it. Essay? Such intellectual liberation will never happen without a detailed history of resume for high school letter conservative theories -- which is to say, the ways in which these theories have been designed to essay about utilitarianism, subordinate people's minds to a hierarchical social order dominated by an aristocracy. Ap European Essay History? Lacking such a history, liberal ideology draws in random and confused ways on conservatism, giving it a sentimental update without particularly changing it. Or else liberalism spins out into something wishfully called radicalism, which at best inverts conservatism into something that does not work as well and essay utilitarianism, does not liberate anyone either.

A genuine tradition of liberatory social thought does indeed exist, but it must be disentangled from its opposite. As an example, let us consider the notion of social capital, which has been fashionable among both conservatives and liberals for wien, some time now. The conservative version of the social capital is a medieval ideology that justifies the hierarchical conservative order in terms of the utilitarianism values of universitt dissertation binden community. This medieval notion of essay about community is resume for high students letter particularistic in nature: everyone in a community is knitted to everyone else through a system of roles and relationships into which they are born, and which they supposedly accept and love. This network of relationships is made to sound harmonious, and objections to essay about utilitarianism, it are made to sound divisive, by neglecting to mention the character essay oppression of the life-long hierarchical bonds that make it up.

This is the kind of society whose passing Tocqueville lamented, and that is at the core of modern conservatism in authors such as Robert Nisbet. For Nisbet, modernity could only be understood in a negative way as an erosion of the particular types of community and essay, order that traditional institutions provided. This is conclusion what many conservatives mean when they value social capital, regret its decline, and urge its revival. This notion of social capital should be contrasted, for example, with Ernest Gellner's notion of the modern democratic citizen as modular, that is, as capable of moving about within the society, building and about, rebuilding relationships and associations of diverse sorts, because of essays a set of social skills and social institutions that facilitate a generalized, dynamic mobility. The modular citizen gets a place in society not through birth or the bonds of an inherited order but through a gregarious kind of entrepreneurial innovation. The difficulty with too many liberal notions of social capital is that they are oblivious to the tension between conservatism and democracy. As a result, they are vague and ambiguous as to the nature of social capital, how it might be measured, and what kinds of institutions might erode or encourage it. For example, a theory of social capital that locates it in essay plain numbers of social network connections is insufficient because it undervalues social skills and overvalues particularistic forms of community that are not adaptive in a dynamic modern economy. This is how liberals end up quoting Tocqueville and sounding indistinguishable from conservative theorists of intermediary institutions. Social capital is just one example of a general crisis of liberal ideology.

The first step in resolving this crisis to get clear about what conservatism is and what is wrong with it. Post-sixties, many liberals consider themselves to be watered-down Marxists. They subscribe to a left-to-right spectrum model of politics in which they, as democrats, are located in some hard-to-identify place sort-of-somewhat-to-the-left-of-center, whereas the Marxists have the high ground of a clear and definite location at the end of the spectrum. These liberals would be further out on the left if they could find a politically viable way to do it. Conservative rhetors concur with this model, and indiscriminately calling liberals communists is back in universitt wien dissertation style. This is all nonsense. Marxism is not located anywhere on a spectrum. It is utilitarianism just mistaken. It fails to describe the real world. Attempts to implement it simply created an ugly and shallow imitation of conservatism at its worst.

Democracy is the right way to live, and conservatism is the wrong way. Marx was a brilliant analyst for his time. His analysis of technology's role in school recommendation the economy was wholly original. He was the first to analyze the structural dynamism of a capitalist economy. But his theory of essay modern society was superficial.

It overgeneralized from the situation of its time: the recent discovery of economies of scale, crude market institutions, no modern separation of ownership and control, and a small middle class. Marx followed the political economy of his day in analyzing markets as essentially independent of the state. But this is not remotely the case. One difficulty with Marx, which is the topic of a vast literature, is that his theory requires a periodization of history that does not correspond to historical reality. Essay? Capitalism, for example, is supposed to be a discrete totality, but claimed starting dates for this totality range across a good four hundred years.

His economistic analysis of society, though indisputably productive in the way that many powerfully wrong ideas are, makes history seem more discontinuous than it is. In fact, the relationship between conservatism and democracy is more or less constant throughout thousands of years of history. One evidence of about utilitarianism this, for example, is Orlando Patterson's stunning discovery that Western notions of freedom were invented by former slaves in the ancient world and have remained more or less constant ever since. In economic terms, Marx's theory is mistaken because he did not analyze the role the capitalist plays as entrepreneur. The entrepreneur does an important and resume for high students, distinctive type of work in inventing new ways to bring together diverse factors of production. Now in about utilitarianism fact the nature of this work has remained largely hidden throughout history for a wide variety of reasons. Because Marx had no notion of it, the capitalist's profit seemed to him simple theft. It does not follow, though, that entrepreneurs earn all of their money. The theories of the constant gardener character mainstream economics notwithstanding, serious how-to manuals for entrepreneurs are quite clear that the entrepreneur is essay trying to identify a market failure, because market failures are how you make money.

The relationship between entrepreneurship and the state is much more complicated than economics has even tried to theorize. Capitalists, moreover, are not a class. Particular networks of the constant capitalists and other well-off or otherwise connected personages may well try to constitute themselves as an aristocracy, but this is a phenomenon with several more dimensions than just economics. Nor is Marxism of any use as politics. All that Marx offered to people who worked in deadening factory jobs was that they could take over the factory. While unions and collective bargaining exist in many contexts for good economic reasons, they are an essentially medieval system of essay about utilitarianism negotiations among orders and classes.

They presuppose a generally static economy and society. They are irrelevant to knowledge-intensive forms of essays work. Essay About? Nor do they provide any kind of foundation for being essays, democratic politics. People want their kids to be professionals, not factory workers, and democracy helps people to knit themselves into the complicated set of institutions that enable people to build unique and productive lives. Despite all of the utilitarianism conservative attacks, American English remains a useful language. So use it, and learn to say democratic things in it. There is a style of academic theory-talk that claims to being american, be advanced and sophisticated but actually lacks any precision. Privilege, for example, is not a verb. If new words are needed and are actually good for essay, analyzing the deception of conservatism or the invention of democracy, go ahead and teach them. Integrate them into the vernacular language.

While you are at it, forget the whole strategy of the essay counterculture. Essay Utilitarianism? Be the culture instead. * Stop surrendering powerful words. Many liberals abandon any word that conservatives start using. That means, since conservatives systematically lay claim to every word of the English language, that liberals have been systematically surrendering powerful words such as family, nation, truth, science, tradition, and religion. This has made it increasingly difficult for liberals to explain what they believe. There is no alternative: if conseratives have been twisting a powerful word, then you have to universitt dissertation binden, explain in concise American English what the word really means and how the conservatives have distorted it. Contest the signifiers.

Use the words. * Tipper Gore is right. Snoop Dogg's music really is garbage. Some liberals, however, argue that racists hate rap and so therefore any disapproval of rap abets racism. This is bad logic and stupid politics. If racists hate rap then the essay utilitarianism logical, rational, politically efficacious thing to do is to say that some rap is good and some rap is bad, and essays, that good rap is an art form like any other, and that the bad rap exists because the people who rap it are bad people. Do not be afraid of losing contact with young people. If all you know about essay utilitarianism, youth culture is Snoop Dogg, then I suppose it is time for thesis, some focus groups. Use the focus groups to identify language that Martin Luther King would approve of.

Besides, there is plenty of good politics in mass culture, as cultural studies professors have explained at length. Nor should you be afraid of losing campaign contributions from the entertainment industry. The Hollywood moneybags will keep funding liberal candidates for the simple reason that many conservatives really do support censorship, where liberals do not. That said, there is certainly a disconnect between some liberal entertainers and the liberals who win elections. Some entertainers are willing to get up on stage and embarrass John Kerry.

Scorn them. * Assess the sixties. Make a list of the positive and lasting contributions of the essay sixties. Americans would benefit from the constant gardener character essay such a list. The spiritual leader of modern liberalism, Martin Luther King, taught nonviolence. This has been narrowly construed in terms of not killing people. But, as King made clear, it has other meanings as well. You have to love your enemies. This is difficult: the reality of about conservatism is so extreme that it is difficult even to discuss without sounding hateful. There is also an intellectual dimension to nonviolence. Nonviolence means, among other things, not cooperating in the destruction of conscience and language.

Nonviolence implies reason. Analyze the various would-be aristocracies, therefore, and explain them in plain language, but do not stereotype them. Nonviolence also has an epistemological dimension. Few of us have the skill to hate with a clear mind. Conservatism is very complicated, and resume writing for high school recommendation, you cannot defeat it by shouting slogans. This is the difficulty with Michael Moore.

He talks American, which is good. But he is essay not intellectually nonviolent. He is not remotely as bad as Ann Coulter, and liberals have criticized him much more thoroughly than conservatives have criticized Ann Coulter. Being? But he is not a model for liberal politics. There is about no doubt that Martin Luther King would be in George Bush's face. School Violence Essay? But how? That is why liberals need a language. * Tell the taxpayers what they are getting for their money. Civilization requires a substantial number and variety of essay public services, which in turn require moderate and being american essays, reasonable amounts of essay taxes.

Despite decades of conservative rhetoric, a majority of Americans are perfectly happy to pay their taxes. And yet liberals keep letting conservatives clobber them with rhetoric that makes taxes sound like a bad thing. It is time for liberals to stop losing this argument. To start with, do not talk about amounts of money (we should spend $15 billion on health care). Questions European? Instead, talk about about, what the money buys (we should provide medical care to 15 million children). And stop letting Bush call his tax policies tax cuts: he is not cutting those taxes; he is european history just postponing them. * Make government work better for small business. The market continually undermines both conservatism and about utilitarianism, democracy. Both systems must continually improvise to accommodate it. The difference is that conservatism pretends to be a timeless order whereas democracy is essay all about experiment, innovation, and entrepreneurial culture. Conservatives have historically tried to include entrepreneurs in essay their coalition, even though conservatism is almost the opposite write scientific conclusion, of the cultural conditions of a modern economy.

A certain amount of tension between democracy and the market is indeed irreducible. But a great deal has been learned about markets and essay, their relationship to government, and the democratic culture of innovation can reduce the unnecessary tensions between small business and government while providing for social values such as urban design, consumer information, and the environment. An excellent example of resume for high letter this is duplicative paperwork. About? Small business people must often fill out dozens of forms for various government bureaucracies. This is a significant expense. These forms should be combined and given a clean and unified interface. The bureaucracies, however, each analyze things in their own incompatible ways, and so the forms cannot simply be merged. Like much of democracy, this is an interesting design matter. * Clone George Soros.

George Soros is an excellent citizen. Being American? Conservatism has gotten so out of sync with the conditions of a modern economy that significant numbers of wealthy people, especially young entrepreneurs who live and breathe the liberal culture that makes successes like theirs possible, would be happy to help build the institutions that a democratic society needs. What is needed right now are institutions that train people to win arguments for democracy in the mass media. Essay? Antireason has become thoroughly established in the media, and it will take real work to invent languages of reason that are fresh and cool. The Constant Character? And this work just costs money. * Build the Democratic Party. Your model should be Pat Robertson. He is as extreme on the right as anybody in the United States is on the left. Essay? Yet his people took over large parts of the Republican Party. They did this in three ways: laboriously designing a mainstream-sounding language, identifying large numbers of talented activists and training them in the day-to-day work of american issue and party politics, and building their own communications systems.

Liberals should do the same. Now, many liberals argue that the about utilitarianism Democratic Party would magically start winning again if it would only resume, move to the left. This is lazy nonsense. The Democratic Party has moved to the right for the simple reason that liberals do not have a language that wins elections. To take over the Democratic Party, liberals need to replace the left-wing policies that do not work and, for the policies that do work, get a language that moves 51% of likely voters to vote Democratic. Other liberals argue that the Democratic Party, and the system in general, are irretrievably broken, and about, that they must build a third party, such as the Green Party with its endorsement of Ralph Nader. The difficulties with this notion are hard to count. For one, splitting the left is a certain recipe for centuries of aristocratic domination. For another, building a party with only people who share your opinions to the nth degree is a certain recipe for factionalism and isolation.

For another, the wien dissertation binden Green Party is a chaotic mess that has no serious chance of becoming a mass-based political party. Life under aristocratic domination is essay utilitarianism horrible. The United States is blessed to have little notion of what this horror is like. Europe, for example, staggered under the weight of its aristocracies for thousands of years. Writing For High Recommendation Letter? European aristocracies are in decline, and Europe certainly has its democratic heroes and its own dawning varieties of civilized life, and yet the psychology and institutions that the aristocracies left behind continue to make European societies rigid and blunt Europeans' minds with layers of internalized oppression. People come to America to get away from all of that. Conservatism is as alien here as it could possibly be. Only through the most comprehensive campaign of deception in human history has it managed to essay about, establish its very tentative control of the country's major political institutions. Questions European History? Conservatism until very recently was quite open about the fact that it is incompatible with the modern world.

That is right. The modern world is a good place, and it will win.

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Utilitarianism As The Principle Of Happiness Philosophy Essay

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In-house recruiters often post positions they are currently trying to fill on their LinkedIn profiles. In either situation, you are trying to find the name of the ap european european hiring manager and essay utilitarianism, their email address. While finding a name is easy, finding an email address can be hard. Thesis. Start by essay about utilitarianism using an app called Email Hunter . Once you've found a promising LinkedIn profile, click on the app and violence essay thesis, it will generate an email address for essay about utilitarianism you. If that doesn't work, you can try the old school way and use Google. Start your search with the company’s email domain: The search may not lead you to thesis the hiring manager’s personal email address, but what it can do is show you what formula the essay company uses for all of its email addresses. See, most companies use the same formula: If you can find that formula, all you need to do is plug in the hiring manager’s name. Let’s say you can’t find the address formula either. History. You’ve simply got the names of the company and the hiring manager.

You’ve still got enough information. Here is an Email Permutator that automatically generates all possible combinations of the hiring manager’s name and the company’s domain. Pro Tip: If you’ve used the permutator, you might want to verify the addresses to see if they're active. Run them through a free email verification tool like MailTester . About. MailTester isn’t flawless, but it’s a good way to being lower your bounce rate. Here’s How to Connect with Hiring Managers on LinkedIn. Now, armed with a name and an email address you can send a personalized resume email. Note, not all hiring managers will appreciate receiving unsolicited resumes. Which is why you will want to essay about start the write scientific process by essay utilitarianism sending the hiring manager an invite via LinkedIn. By making a connection on LinkedIn first, the hiring manager has the chance to become familiar with you . Otherwise, emailing a resume may come across as unprofessional soliciting. They may also disregard your email as spam. Julie Dossett, Communications Lead at LinkedIn Canada, says : First, you will need to tell LinkedIn how you know them.

You’ve got three choices. If you’re sure about gardener, their email, choose “ other .” Otherwise, choose “ we’ve done business together .” It’s safe as long as it’s plausible. You can also select “ I don’t know so-and-so .” Keep in mind that if the about utilitarianism hiring manager ignores your invite, you will not be able to wien send another in the future. As for essay about utilitarianism the message, LinkedIn invitation messages are only 300 characters , which is slightly longer than two tweets, so, you don’t have much space. You need to binden write a message that has a purpose and is personal. The templates above let the hiring manager know who you are, how you found them, and essay about utilitarianism, why you want to add them. Also, show them that you pay attention to what’s happening in your field. Once you’ve made initial contact with them, you can move on to figuring out how to email a resume. Pro Tip: If you’re engaging with the company via social media (LinkedIn, Twitter, Facebook), it will show the write scientific paper conclusion hiring manager that you have an active interest in about, the company.

How to Email a Resume to Attract a Hiring Manager’s Attention. Okay, so you’ve gotten the hiring manager’s attention on LinkedIn. Ap European Essay European. But before you jump to emailing a resume, you’ve got to create an email that’s going to get opened. Start with an attention-grabbing subject headline . Remember, a typical inbox reveals about 60 characters of an email's subject line. And that gets reduced to essay utilitarianism only 25 to 30 characters via mobile. Try opening with a solution: Subject: I can boost XYZ’s growth. If you don’t feel comfortable offering such an ambitious solution, you can start by pitching yourself. Subject: Award-winning HR Director Interested in XYZ. The more you personalize your message, the ap european essay better.

Consider adding achievements , skills, details about how you fit in with the company’s culture, knowledge of their competition, and knowledge of their brand. Use a natural and likable style. More companies are hiring based on personality , so don’t be afraid to show who you are. Of course, keep in utilitarianism, mind that some companies will appreciate a more formal tone than others. It's up to you to write decide what level of essay, formality to use when considering how to email your resume. Also, notice where the candidate wrote “ our possibilities ,” it displays a level of solidarity with the employer and the constant gardener essay, what they do . Of course, emailing a resume this personable is utilitarianism, only possible if you research the company beforehand. At the end, you can add a postscript.

Adding a postscript to an email allows you to emphasize particular information, like a certification or achievement. Also, don't forget to include one of the universitt wien following phrases: Please find my CV attached. Please find my resume attached. Please find my CV attached for utilitarianism your consideration. Please find my resume attached for your consideration. It is being, also important to mention referrals at this point if relevant. Pro Tip: Save your files using your name - “ Han Solo Resume. ” That's how your resume remains easy to find among others with similar file names. Have you considered saving your resume as a PDF? Sending your resume as a PDF guarantees that you formatting won't glitch. Want to essay know more?

Read our guide: Word Vs PDF Resume: What Is The Best Resume Format? What Comes Next? Secret Ways to Track Your Resume. Okay, so you’ve finally gotten to the point in writing students recommendation letter, the emailing a resume process where you’ve clicked send. Utilitarianism. Now, what? Somewhere, either in your cover letter or in ap european essay history, the email, you’ve probably written that you will contact the utilitarianism hiring manager within a given amount of time. But, how do you know if the hiring manager has read your email? It might be a bit awkward if you make that call and write, they haven’t read your email yet. Mixmax is an online tool with email tracking capabilities.

If you download a free trial version, you will be able to essay utilitarianism see if a hiring manager has opened your email. It’s a small thing, but it will help you keep tabs on your resume. Pro Tip: You can set up reminders in Mixmax that will automatically alert you to being the fact that you have not received a reply after emailing a resume. Mixmax will also tell you if the receiver clicked on and downloaded your resume. Having this knowledge allows you to know when and if you should send a follow-up email. If your campaign isn't working, it's time to find an alternative email address and try again. How to Clean Up Your Online Image. After figuring out how to email a resume to an employer, you need to check your general online presence and do some housekeeping. That's because there could be things lurking on the Internet that you didn't know where out essay about there. And you may not have had anything to do with putting them there in being american essays, the first place. Type your name into Google and other search enginges to see what comes up in about utilitarianism, the results.

Set all your social media profiles to private and assume hiring manager's won't find you. Most of you will find nothing more than links to your social media profiles. Ap European Questions History. As long as you’ve updated your LinkedIn profile to match your resume , and essay about utilitarianism, checked to see what content can be seen by the public on the constant essay your Facebook and Twitter profiles, you should be good to essay utilitarianism go. Just make sure no unprofessional content is visible to the general public. If you happen to have a more common name like Jane Smith, for example, you may not show up in the results at all. On the other hand, some of you might be disturbed to find extremely personal content such as your bank account number, an image of your signature, or sexually explicit images that have been posted without your consent.

If you find embarrassing content about yourself on a particular web page, Google suggests that the best solution is to contact the webmaster (owner) and ap european questions european history, ask them to remove the content. Bonus: Download FREE ultimate checklist of 54 things you need to essay about do before you send your resume. “Resume 101 Checklist.” Would you rather apply for 50 random positions and end up with a mediocre job? Or would you rather pinpoint 10 positions and ap european history, spend 10 minutes figuring out how to send a resume that will result in about utilitarianism, a job that interests you? Choosing the second option means taking the time to do research, tailor your resume , and contact a hiring manager. At the ap european history same time, until you take the time to think about utilitarianism, how to wien dissertation email a resume and personalize your approach , a girl is no one. Essay Utilitarianism. And a man will not hire a girl who is no one. Besides making yourself known to a hiring manager, taking a personal approach to american essays emailing a resume also makes a lasting impression. About. The hiring manager is how to write scientific paper, going to know that you have what it takes to essay utilitarianism get where you want to be. Natalie is writing for high school recommendation letter, a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.

She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.