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Antigone-Analysis of Creon#8217;s speech. After the war between Oedipus’ two sons Eteocles and Polyneices killed both brothers, Creon, their uncle, ascended to the throne as the nearest kinsman. Essay. This speech is Creon’s first as king and its main aims are to explain his legitimacy, outline his political ideals and justify his proclamation regarding the treatment of Polyneices. Aqa A-level Coursework. Being an rushessay essay, astute speaker, Creon’s speech contained effective usage of the art of persuasion, showing his shrewdness, inflexibility and arrogance. Problems Teenagers Face Essay. We will write a custom essay sample. on Antigone-Analysis of Creon#8217;s speech or any similar. topic specifically for you. By contrasting Antigone’s earlier decision, it plays in important role in plot development, bringing out the central theme of essay, conflict, creating tension and building up the rising action. Regarding the overall structure of definitions, Creon’s speech, the order of rushessay essay, his choice of topics masks his rash decision under a justified appearance, reflecting the need, great care taken into detailed planning.
He starts off with a conventional opening, crediting the gods dutifully for their continuous guardianship of Thebes with the commonly used ship-of-state metaphor, “Gentlemen, after tossing the life of our city on the great waves of the ocean, the gods have safely righted it once more. ” This displays Creon’s loyalty to the gods as any good king would, presenting an appealing image of himself. The traditional element is pleasing to rushessay essay, most conservative elders, providing them with a sense of security under the new king’s rule, and analytical essay hence, his later judgments, however unusual it may be. Creon intentionally did not start by announcing his proclamation at rushessay, the beginning as its unconventional nature tends to be frowned upon to say the analytical, least, or even be rejected by the conservative elders. Rushessay Essay. Creon is very well aware of this and homework definitions delays his announcement, addressing the conventional first. Afterwards, Creon moves onto flattering the chorus (elders), recounting their faithful service under King Laius, Oedipus, and his descendants, “I know that you always respected… and again… and when he died, you still stood by his children with unwavering loyalty” before affirming the legitimacy of his own rule. Here, Creon uses flattery as a reminder that the elders’ loyalty lie with the king, and rushessay essay hints that as he isnow king, they should serve as him as true heartedly as they did his precedents. Again, he cleverly applies the editorial nomos, elders’ sense of responsibility to rushessay essay, gain their support.
Page 2 Antigone-Analysis of Creon#8217;s speech Essay. Computing Coursework. He then continues on with outlining his principles (lines168- 180), and only after that does he announce his proclamation regarding thetreatment of Polyneices. By this order, Creon was able to first gain the elders’ support, then show that his actions were “in accordance with” his principles, making his judgment appear to be a sound argument based on rushessay, valid political ideals. Creon’s masterful technique in aqa a-level masking absurdity with reason fully reflects that he is politically astute and a calculating man. Moreover, the crafty use of pronouns exhibits Creon’s ability to convince. As the first person plural “we” appeals to the public (chorus), it provides a sense of unity among the audience, being reminded that they should cooperate with Creon in governing Thebes, and rushessay essay that they should strive towards a common goal, Creon’s goal, in making this city “great”. As they are responsible for abiding by these principles, it would only be appropriate that they agree with Creon’s proclamation based on analytical essay, these principles. Another effective use of the third person pronoun “it” is seen in “it has been proclaimed to the city…”, where instead of “I”, the active agent (Creon) being mentioned, any biased personal opinion of Creon himself is presented as impersonal and of good judgment, further enhancing the credibility of the proclamation. Once again, Creon is able to appeal to his audience’s emotions and takes the utmost care even in the choice of pronouns, being very persuasive speaker. Meanwhile, Creon is also able to manipulate the elders’ emotions and prejudices to achieve his goal of rushessay, justifying his actions. Inflated language (hyperbole), most notably, the superlative adjective “greatest” used to describe Eteocles gives the analytical of frankenstein, audience an exaggerated heroic image and rushessay thus his respectful treatment of the noble dead seems only reasonable.
In stark contrast to this was the treatment of Polyneices’ body, which wasn’t even given a proper burial. The juxtaposition of the definitions, polarized extremes with syntactic patterningtwo sentences paralleling each other, effectively contrasts the rushessay essay, praise for homework, the hero (Eteocles) and condemnation for the traitor (Polyneices). The heroic image of Eteocles adds up to rushessay essay, the emphasis on the crimes of the traitor, hence making Creon’s treatment of him reasonable, as it is suited for essay, a criminal. Also, the role of gothic imagery should not be undermined. Being a demagogue, a political leader who appeals to the popular desires and rushessay essay beliefs of the people, Creon paints gory visual images where Polyneices is said to be “burning down” Thebes, “drinking” the blood of his brother, almost vampire-like and “throwing” the people into slavery in order to repulse the audience, evoking their anger and fear. However in reality, this is just an exaggerated assumption, the editorial, elders’ emotions being toyed with, falling in line with Creon’s expectations. Here, Creon exhibits strong persuasive skills, being a manipulative speaker, striving to achieve his ultimate aim at the cost of others. On the other hand, the choice of wordings and use of language effectively enhances the absolute tone of this speech, meanwhile revealing Creon’s fatal flaw—his arrogant, impulsive character.
Emphatic declaratives are used in outlining Creon’s principles, for example, “I know this…” “… I will make this city great”, showing Creon’s excessive confidence in his own judgments. Along with absolute language like “A man who… is worthless” “… I say he is nothing”, the over-confident, definite words of Creon’s speech adds a bluntness to his tone, showing his inflexible and headstrong character. It also acts as a reflection of his arrogance, a characteristic shortcoming that will eventually lead to rushessay essay, punishment by the gods and his ultimate downfall as he challenges the gods’ authority. Not only nomos y thesis did Creon’s speech reflect his personalities, it also contributes a good deal in rushessay essay building up tension for the rising action in the play. Firstly, the order in which Creon’s speech is presented is aqa a-level computing coursework, of great importance. It is positioned immediately after Antigone speaks of essay, her decision to bury Polyneices in a secret discussion with Ismene. Both parties hold strong determination in their respective decisions, and as one is revealed directly after the other, and Creon is unaware of Antigone’s decision, it leads the audience to wonder: what will happen next? They anticipate the upcoming conflict between the need someone my essay, two opposing forces and hence, suspense is created. At the same time, Antigone and rushessay essay Creon’s basic values are juxtaposed, the former professing her faith in traditional bonds of kinship (philos), the latter holding his beliefs in loyalty to definitions, the state (polis). Each represents fundamental ideological differences, deeming the two incompatible. Rushessay Essay. Thus, ensuing clashes during confrontation will be expected.
Moreover, this speech itself, spoken by a demagogue, is fueled with passion and bold determination, a demonstration of Creon’s unyielding personality. Equally as steadfast and problems teenagers today unwavering is Antigone with her choice to go against the king’s word. Hence if a head-on collision between Antigone and rushessay Creon is set in due course, it would be expected to be not only a heated debate but a fight with ghastly consequences. Overall, Creon is a skilled demagogue who crafted his speech with great care, making an essay of frankenstein, abundant usage of rhetorical techniques to pursue his ultimate aim of justifying his proclamation. Rushessay. Hence, he is shown to be shrewd and manipulative, a confident leader with his tone reflecting his arrogance.
However it is later known that this is far from the truth, as his insecurity, cruelty and impulsiveness are concealed. This speech plays a significant role in introducing the central theme of computing, conflict, presenting polis in contrast with philos, heating up the situation and its tension quickly building up the rising action, conflict ready to break out any second.
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Man And Nature J Bronowski Essays and Research Papers. – 18th 2/26/12 The Nature of Man What is the strongest motivation for humans? Is it man’s greedy sense of rushessay essay, self-preservation . and survival that motivates him? Hobbes would think so. Is it the idea that man is more important than other living creatures on this earth? Is it the acquisition of supreme power that proves his ideas to be right? Does might make right?
I think the real question here is what the true nature of man is, what is editorial nomos, man’s strongest motivation? Is man naturally motivated. Civil society , Jean-Jacques Rousseau , John Locke 1216 Words | 3 Pages. Written On The nature of man is essay, a subject that dates back centuries, though it is one that is computing, still highly debated today. . Philosophers, sociologists, and even sociobiologists have brought evidence leading to various conclusions to the table, so the question still stands. Mencius said that man’s nature is good, while Hsun Tzu argued from the opposite side. Centuries later, John Locke published a theory relating the nature of essay, man to academic goals a blank piece of paper, stating that man is neutral until he. Human , Human nature , John Locke 1596 Words | 4 Pages. MAN AND NATURE Human beings are the rushessay, creations of nature . They drew everything needed for their very survival . from nature . The air they breathe, the water they drink, the food they eat and thousands of articles they use daily-all come from nature . Yet, strangely enough, man keeps a hostile attitude towards nature . Conquest of nature is the expression which is often used to denote man’s activities like space exploration, taming the rivers, etc. which sums up man’s attitude towards nature . Our. Agriculture , Earth , Freshwater 1235 Words | 4 Pages.
The relationship between man and nature is constantly evolving as man and nature can coexist in a . Teenagers Today? harmonious relationship or a destructive one with a power struggle. The poem ‘Lines Written In Early Spring’ by William Wordsworth, and one newspaper article “Into those arms no more” by rushessay, Charles Purcell gives representation to the different views that man can have towards nature . ‘The Surfer’ by Judith Wright is essay of frankenstein, a poem that explores the joy and fear that nature can provide man and ‘The Lorax’ by Dr Seuss. Bob Holt , Dr. Seuss , The Lorax 850 Words | 3 Pages. Mans relationship with nature is constantly evolving While Man and nature are inextricably linked, . the contemporary world has transformed man’s interaction with nature . In Kenneth Slessor’s poem “North Country”, he explores man’s exploitation of nature in rushessay pursuit of industrial progress, an idea reflected in Charles Purcell’s feature article, “Into those arms no more”.
Meanwhile, William Wordsworth’s poem, “Lines Written In Early Spring,” explores the supremacy of nature , while Thomas Cole’s artwork. England , Kenneth Slessor , Nature 1066 Words | 4 Pages. Kerri Devine Essay on Human Nature There are two conflicting views on editorial human nature . Chinese scholar Hsun Tzu believed that . man’s nature is essay, evil and editorial y thesis when man acts “good” it is only the result of what he called “conscious activity.” In the text, he describes conscious activity as “the part [of man ] that can be acquired by learning and brought to completion by rushessay, effort.” In other words, Hsun Tzu believed that man is naturally selfish, and academic goals writing that unless there are rules and principles put in place to essay guide. Confucianism , Human , Human condition 997 Words | 3 Pages. Man vs. Nature The natural world is superior to all of humanity. Academic Essay? Without reason, land controls us and influences our . identities. Through mankind’s power we try to suppress the rushessay, natural world but never truly succeed. “Progressive Insanities of a Pioneer” by Margaret Attwood, “The Bull Moose” by Alden Nowlan and “Not Just a Platform for my Dance” are comparable poems in a way that all three deal with a theme of the natural world and the power it holds against mankind. “Progressive Insanities of.
Earth , Human , Margaret Atwood 810 Words | 3 Pages. Man Is by Nature a Political Animal. Hobbes argues that Man is by Nature a Political Animal. The question that asks itself after this is whether an interpretation . targets the intention of Hobbes in defining human as animal; and more importantly, how did this very animal evolve into academic, a social component?In the introduction of Hobbes' Leviathan, he discusses the State of Nature , saying that people in their natural primal state would only contribute in making laws of the rushessay, jungle, where the editorial nomos, strongest feasts upon the weak. He says that. Human , Leviathan , Political philosophy 1463 Words | 4 Pages. Krauthammer's “Saving Nature but Only for Man ” Charles Krauthammer, in essay his essay “Saving Nature , but Only for . Man ,” argues against whom he refers to as a sentimental environmentalist. Charles Krauthammer is a well-known right-wing political columnist and commentator who has worked or contributed to a number of editorial nomos, magazines throughout his career (Krauthammer 292) His purpose behind writing this article was to prove that nature is rushessay essay, here to serve man and not the other way around. The logic of computing coursework, his argument.
Earth , Environmentalism , Human 1618 Words | 5 Pages. The Nature of God and Man Utah Valley University Abstract The nature and relationship of rushessay, God to . man has always been human natures more important question. “As man is, god once was; as god is, man may become.” Lorenzo Snow. I have asked myself this statement many times. What is Gods nature ? What is mans nature ? And human nature is God's nature ; therefore, a study of God’s nature is y thesis, simultaneously a study of human nature . I will explain this statement and my beliefs about human nature and. Abraham Maslow , Developmental psychology , God 2606 Words | 7 Pages. ?why nature ? Humanity's progress, particularly since the mid-19th century, has been largely the result of our ability to get and use what . planet Earth has to offer. All told, the rushessay, food we eat, the timber we cut, and the water we draw amounts to aqa a-level coursework an astounding one-third to essay one-half of global ecosystem production. But humans are part of nature , and like every other species on the planet, we depend upon healthy ecosystems for our survival. Nature provides us essentials like clean water, food, medicines.
Earth , Ecosystem , Human 1682 Words | 5 Pages. The Connection Between Man and Nature. The Connection between Man and editorial nomos Nature The poem, I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud, tells of a poet's wanderings and his discovery . of a field of daffodils by a lake. In the poem the speaker is able to escape reality through nature because it is rushessay essay, his memory that is being written about. The reader can use the poem to definitions escape reality through nature because of the rushessay essay, imagery and figurative language Wordsworth uses. This poem also deals with the speakers state of mind as he wanders and discovers the field. Earth , I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud , Metaphor 1096 Words | 3 Pages. In the play Macbeth by William Shakespeare, the author tries to aqa a-level computing show the true nature of essay, man by problems teenagers essay, using the rushessay, play's main character, . Goals? Macbeth, as an rushessay example. He is overly ambitious, courageous, and self-doubting. Throughout the play, Shakespeare displays these characteristics to the audience through Macbeth to show the true nature of man . At the end of the play, these characteristics ultimately lead to Macbeth's downfall. Essay Of Frankenstein? In the beginning of the play, Macbeth is described as being valiant.
He. Banquo , Duncan I of Scotland , Macbeth 884 Words | 3 Pages. FRANKENSTEIN AND THE NATURE OF MAN Through all ages of civilization, man strived to learn how he, the society to . which he belongs, and the state to which he owes his allegiance came to form the world as he knows it today. Rushessay Essay? Many tried to come up with an answer in nomos y thesis their own ways, either scientifically, spiritually or philosophically. Mary Shelley’s “Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus” can be seen as her attempt to solve this problem. Since she was well read, and rushessay essay was familiar with many philosophical. Civilization , Frankenstein , Geneva 2790 Words | 6 Pages. Man - the academic writing, Destructive Force of Nature.
“As Man progresses scientifically, he has also become more destructive.” Examine the rushessay, statement with respect to events and problems teenagers essay happenings around you . and giving sufficient examples wherever necessary. Man has, over the ages, been progressively moving towards a world and life of destruction. Essay? What most people fail to realise is that this destruction is not only the destruction of the world around us, but also a systematic destruction of the someone my essay, universe inside ourselves. Man has been destroying. Earth , Greenhouse gas , Human 1498 Words | 4 Pages. Lord of the Flies: The Nature of Man William Golding’s Lord of the Flies is a gritty allegory of adolescence, innocence, and . the unspoken side of human nature . Essay? Countless social issues are portrayed, however one of the most reoccurring is the homework, nature of man . Throughout the novel there is an ever-present focus on the loss of innocence amongst the boys, shown by rushessay essay, the deterioration of social skills and their retrogression into a barbaric form of analytical of frankenstein, society. Essay? Also portrayed is the juxtaposition of a cruel. William Golding 1735 Words | 5 Pages.
Nature and Components of Man Platonic Soul Three Parts: 1. The logos or logistikon (mind, nous, or reason) 2. The . thymos, or thumetikon (emotion, or spiritedness or masculine) 3. Aqa A-level Computing Coursework? The eros, or epithumetikon (appetitive, or desire, or feminine) Aristotle on the Soul Matter and Form: 1. Aristotle uses his familiar matter/form distinction to answer the question “What is soul?” 2. Things that have souls. Essay? Their souls are what make them living things. Things that have. Aristotle , Life , Metaphysics 633 Words | 4 Pages. Climate Change – Is climate change a natural phenomenon or caused by man ? There has been some discussion and debate over the causes of . global climate change and particularly, the causative forces that have contributed to aqa a-level computing coursework the measured increase in the mean atmospheric temperature over essay the last several decades. Many researchers and climatologists have concluded, using climate modeling systems that the main cause is anthropogenic ( man caused). Other researchers have argued that the model is ineffective. Atmosphere , Carbon dioxide , Climate 2378 Words | 7 Pages. What is the true nature of man ? In both ‘Lord of the Flies’ by Golding and ‘Brighton Rock’ by Green, the computing coursework, different sides of rushessay, . To Review My Essay? human nature are revealed, from kindness to pure evil. Rushessay Essay? The further both novels progress, the essay writing, more they reveal that we as humans are not perfect and when the opportunity of rushessay, chaos manifests, society is infected and the downward spiral into a fractured community is rapid. They also both present the need for power, and of frankenstein how one man’s desires can lead him to performing the most.
Brighton Rock , Human , KILL 1922 Words | 5 Pages. Insight into essay, Women and y thesis the Nature of essay, Man. one of the hills from the need someone, perspectives of Jig could represent her lifestyle and the American. The American does not have a name which is of major . significance, too. He remains unnamed throughout the rushessay essay, story, which can represent just about any American man who is in love or probably just out to have fun with a woman yet not ready for face today, any major commitments such as a having a baby. That is why the American tries to convince Jig to do away with the baby because he is essay, simply not interested in it (Hemingway. Abortion , F. Scott Fitzgerald , Interpersonal relationship 1621 Words | 5 Pages. Wordsworth and Into the analytical essay, Wild, Mans Connection with Nature. Nature is the essay, universe, with all its phenomena, the elements of the natural world. Computing? In society there are those individuals that have an intense . connection with nature . William Wordsworth, a romanticist, pantheist and transcendentalist believed that the natural world was an emblem of rushessay essay, god or the divine and his poetry often celebrates the beauty and spiritual values of the natural world. Chris McCandless believed that nature was the essence of freedom.
The module In the Wild deals with humanity's. Emotion , Into the Wild , Lyrical Ballads 1946 Words | 5 Pages. The Relationship between Man and Nature. ?The Relationship between Man and face today essay Nature People valued passenger pigeons and were a part of many aspects of essay, human life and . culture. Computing? Passenger pigeons populations were estimated at five billion individuals in North America during the 19th century. People ate their fatty meat, they used the feathers of essay, passenger pigeons to stuff pillows and mattresses, people also hunted them for sport. In the end though, the last passenger pigeon in existence died at the Cincinnati Zoo in the spring of 1914. Analytical? There. Chernobyl disaster , Columbidae , Human 1050 Words | 4 Pages. Nature is an essay written by Ralph Waldo Emerson, and published by James Munroe and Company in rushessay essay 1836.
In this essay Emerson put forth the . Academic Essay? foundation of transcendentalism, a belief system that espouses a non-traditional appreciation of nature . Transcendentalism suggests that the divine, or God, suffuses nature , and rushessay suggests that reality can be understood by studying nature . Emerson's visit to the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris inspired a set of lectures he later delivered in. Amos Bronson Alcott , Concord, Massachusetts , Henry David Thoreau 815 Words | 3 Pages. Today, we would define ‘ man ’ as representing the someone my essay, human race. What is rushessay essay, human nature ? Human nature refers to academic the . patterns of essay, behavior typical to editorial that of mankind. Every man has both good and evil in rushessay essay him. Sometimes the good may take control or sometimes the evil can get the best of a person. One usually has many traits that make one a man , things like being respectful, loving, and selfish are among the many things that it is in man’s nature to be. Selfishness is someone, defined merely as “concerned excessively. Adolf Hitler , F. Scott Fitzgerald , Ginevra King 1744 Words | 5 Pages. Essay Nature , in its core function, is the cause and effect relationship offered to things with ascertainable objectivity, . happening without cause. From this we can easily conclude that the state of the nature of something that something being an object with “thing-hood”, as humorously described in class is its beginning purpose and generality.
There are a few debatable definitions of rushessay, nature , which at definitions, first glance are very similar. On hand, we have nature that is described as. Bison , Buffalo buffalo Buffalo buffalo buffalo buffalo Buffalo buffalo , Buffalo, New York 927 Words | 3 Pages. Wordsworth's Treatment of rushessay essay, Nature in Relation to Man in Tintern Abbey. WORDSWORTH’S TREATMENT OF NATURE IN RELATION TO MAN IN TINTERN ABBEY In his Preface to The Excursion, Wordsworth asserts . that it is the ‘Mind of Man ’ which is homework definitions, ‘My haunt, and the main region of my song’.
Wordsworth is interested not in the natural world for its own sake but in the relationship between the natural world and the human consciousness. His poetry, therefore, offers us a detailed account of the complex interaction between man and nature —of the influences, insights, emotions and sensations. Consciousness , Human , Humans 1193 Words | 4 Pages. The Death of Timothy Treadwell: the essay, Relation of the Grizzly Man with Nature. THE DEATH OF TIMOTHY TREADWELL: THE RELATION OF THE GRIZZLY MAN WITH NATURE A person’s life is of frankenstein, full of rushessay essay, tragedies and . experiences. When people try to do or achieve something, they are forced to definitions face hard times in essay their lives, which later become experiences of life.
For others, those experiences leave some morals to learn. Something similar to this happens with Timothy Treadwell and his death which leaves a message for the world. Timothy Treadwell goes to need someone to review my essay Alaska to live with grizzly bears where. Alfred P. Sloan Prize , Bears , Grizzly Man 1514 Words | 4 Pages. the Latin historia naturalis.
Its meaning has narrowed progressively with time, while the meaning of the related term nature has widened (see . also History below). In antiquity, it covered essentially anything connected with nature or which used materials drawn from nature . For example, Pliny the Elder's encyclopedia of this title, published circa 77 to 79 AD, covers astronomy, geography, man and rushessay essay his technology, medicine and superstition as well as animals and plants. Until well into the nineteenth century. Aristotle , Botany , Carl Linnaeus 1398 Words | 4 Pages. Human Nature in problems today a Very Old Man with Enormous Wings. A Look into Human Nature The story of A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings was originally written in 1955 in Spanish, titled . ??Un senor muy viejo con alas enormes. This story is categorized in a style called magical realism. This style is also associated with its author, Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Magical realism incorporates real everyday details with elements of fantasy. It is rushessay, done in such a manner that it can disguise the academic goals essay writing, distinction between reality and fiction.
This style, often associated. A Story , Alejo Carpentier , Gabriel Garcia Marquez 1034 Words | 3 Pages. Henry D. Thoreau's views on rushessay nature, society, and man. Thoreau Views on Nature , Society, and Man Henry David Thoreau's life began on goals writing July 12, 1817 in Concord, Massachusetts. At a . young age he began to show an interest in writing. Rushessay? In 1833, at the age of homework definitions, sixteen, Thoreau was accepted to Harvard University. Rushessay Essay? Although his parents could not afford the cost of tuition, his family offered to help with the funds, and in August he entered Harvard. In 1837 he graduated and applied for a teaching position at teenagers face today, a public school in Concord. However, he refused to flog. Civil disobedience , Concord, Massachusetts , Henry David Thoreau 1513 Words | 4 Pages.
public. In Correspondence, Charles Baudelaire uses metaphors to connect the rushessay essay, nature and the senses of a person. This is evident through out the . Goals Essay? poem. Temples according to rushessay Merriam-Webster is a building for religious practice . Of Frankenstein? Therefore temples are sacred and in the very first line of the poem, “ Nature is a temple in which living pillars”, Baudelaire uses metaphor to connect sacredness and nature . Naturally, nature has trees and temples have pillars, which hold the rushessay, structure. Again, he . Olfaction , Perception , Proprioception 744 Words | 2 Pages. The Devil and Miss Prym: The Nature of Man. Berta, Miss Prym steps in teenagers essay and tells them to rushessay essay simply look at what they’re doing, and to essay ask themselves if it is truly justified. She convinces them to rushessay stop . Need Someone To Review? their murderous plans by reminding them that humans are not inherently good or bad, but that our nature depends on essay each person’s control and choices.
The Devil and Miss Prym introduces a variety of characters, yet the story plot mainly focuses on two people: Miss Chantal Prym and problems face today essay the stranger (who also adopts the rushessay, name of Carlos at one point). Chantal. Evil , God , Gold 1233 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of four types of problems teenagers, conflict in John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath, man versus man, man versus nature, man versus society, and man versus himself. types of conflicts: man vs. himself, man vs. society, man vs. nature , and man vs. . man . Rushessay Essay? In the case of The Grapes of Wrath, man represents the Joad family as a single unit. They experience conflict within the family itself, with the y thesis, society they are coming from rushessay, as well as the one they are going to, and with nature and the elements.
The man vs. man conflict is usually just a more specific example of one of the other areas of conflict. The most prevalent conflict in the novel is man vs. society. The. Conflict , Dust Bowl , Family 1479 Words | 4 Pages. Nature : The Double Edged Sword From the bitter, cold winters in Antarctica to the blazing, hot summers in problems Africa and essay from the ugly, thick . swamplands of Louisiana to the beautiful, clean coasts of Hawaii, nature plays a pivotal role in life on nomos this wonderful planet. Nature is extremely dangerous but it is also a beautiful component of the earth. People view nature in unique ways that are displayed through actions and essay words. Jack London, author of nomos y thesis, “To Build a Fire”, and Henry David Thoreau, author.
Concord, Massachusetts , Henry David Thoreau , Library of America 1826 Words | 5 Pages. Global Warming - Is It Man-Made or Mother Nature or Both? Global Warming - Is It Man -Made or Mother Nature or Both? Global warming is define as the rushessay essay, global increase in the average . temperature of the earth, that near the air-surface and the oceans which caused by the emission of the gases. These include carbon dioxide, methane and homework nitrogen that trap the sun’s heat in the earth. It’s happened since the mid-twentieth century and its projected would be continuation. Global warming is an extremely severe problem facing the world today. Its effects and causes. Carbon dioxide , Climate change , Earth 1305 Words | 3 Pages. AN ESSAY ON MAN - EPISTLE II - OF THE NATURE AND STATE OF MAN WITH RESPECT TO HIMSELF, AS AN INDIVIDUAL. CRITICISM ? ‘ Nature to all things fixed the limits fit’ ? ‘So vast is art, so narrow human wit’ ? ‘Unerring . Nature , still divinely bright, / One clear, unchanged and rushessay essay universal light’ ? ‘Those rules of old discovered, not devised, / Are Nature still, but Nature methodized’ AN ESSAY ON MAN - EPISTLE II - OF THE NATURE AND STATE OF MAN WITH RESPECT TO HIMSELF, AS AN INDIVIDUAL Know then thyself, presume not God to scan, The proper study of mankind is Man . Plac'd on problems teenagers face today essay this isthmus.
Alexander Pope 925 Words | 4 Pages. Modern World History 1 The Nature of Man and Society Many people seem to have strong beliefs on whether man . is good and society bad, or vice versa. Rushessay? For either point of view, society is composed of definitions, people and rushessay therefore the people in it determine the outcome of the society. People have their own definitions of bad or good which may be a little subjective based on their religious beliefs, so ultimately, without one, you cannot have the other. Problems Teenagers Face Today? This means that without “bad” people you would never. Code of Hammurabi , Good and evil , Historiography 587 Words | 2 Pages. Frost and Nature Robert Frost’s use of nature on essay its own of the most misinterpreted element of his poetry. Frost regularly . stated, “I am not a nature poet. There is almost always a person in coursework my poems.” In the majority of Frost’s poems he uses nature imagery. His grasp and understanding of natural fact is well documented throughout his poems. But Frost is not trying to tell us how nature works.
His poems are about the human mind. His attitude is impassive, honest and accepting. In Frost’s. Mind , Nature , Poetry 1398 Words | 4 Pages. Emily Dickson's Portrayal of essay, Man vs Nature. Dickinson portrays Faith as something that is made from man himself. Her poem begs the question of whether humanity sees Faith as a . metaphysical factor in academic essay their lives, created independently from the likes of men, or something humanity created for its own use. Rushessay Essay? Different from computing coursework, that question, yet still referring to the same theme, is her other poem, A Bird, came down the Walk. This poem discusses a more predominantly shared view humans have of nature as a physical environment yet offers a more in depth.
Africa , Earth , Human 1454 Words | 5 Pages. What is Nature Tourism? Nature tourism – responsible travel to natural areas, which conserves the essay, environment and improves the . welfare of local people. It is essay, tourism based on the natural attractions of an essay area. Problems Today? Examples include birdwatching, photography, stargazing, camping, hiking, hunting, fishing, and visiting parks.
These experiential tourists are interested in a diversity of natural and cultural resources. Rushessay? They want what is real, and they want to be immersed in a rich natural, cultural, or. Biodiversity , Conservation biology , Habitat 683 Words | 3 Pages. information in nomos y thesis the case. However, the implementation issues are worthy of our consideration. 1. Rushessay? Why is J J Brazil in teenagers face today essay the . situation they are?
Some of the essay, reasons I have observed are as follows: • Economy plays a role in academic writing the situation that they are in now. Rapidly decaying economy and constantly changing economical and regulatory landscape prepares the necessary grounds for J J Brazil’s downfall. For example, the fact that they were technologically ill-prepared to keep up with. Barriers to entry , Consumer , Management 1153 Words | 4 Pages. Nature is the world around us, except for human-made phenomena. Rushessay? As humans are the only animal species that consciously, powerfully manipulates . the environment, we think of ourselves as exalted, as special. We acknowledge that in an objective view we are merely one of many organisms, and that we are not able to computing coursework survive outside of our natural world of air, earth, water and life. But we tend to be poor leaders in the hierarchy of animal life. Despite our greatness, too often we waste, we fight, we.
Animal , DNA , Ecosystem 1721 Words | 5 Pages. people and nature is interdependent. Nature provides us with all kinds of resources which are indispensable to our existence. . Without nature , people could not live. We need air, water, sunshine, food and rushessay so on. On the other hand, human also belong to the nature , nature also needs human.
As a consequence, if we destroy the nature , in some extent, we will diminish ourselves. Nature is a mighty force. All species are the result of natural selection. Human is no exception. We can adjust nature or in part. Environment , Environmentalism , Evolution 405 Words | 2 Pages. Man's True Nature: Hsun Tzu's thought's on mans true nature arguing that in fact it is need to review, evil. Man's Nature is Evil the rushessay essay, author explains why the human characteristics are wicked. The author uses basic illustrations of people's jealousy . and envy to prove that human nature is truly evil. Tzu's essay proves through many examples that man's nature is evil, and that everything that is considered good comes from people that go against their evil nature to make the analytical essay, concept of morality.
Hsun Tzu's Man's Nature is Evil is a great analysis of essay, human nature to definitions suppose that in rushessay fact, man's nature is aqa a-level coursework, truly. Hominidae , Human , Humans 1287 Words | 4 Pages. The Astonishing Work of Nature Have you ever dreamt of rushessay essay, a place that you want to editorial y thesis visit which is afar different from the place that you . live in? Sometime in our busy life, we think about taking a break or spending some free time away from our routinary life. People from the countryside would like to rushessay essay experience the city lights and shopping while the urban people find peace and serenity beside lakes and waterfalls. However, some people will put in writing the appeal of the place they grew up in. Health , Human , Humans 1184 Words | 3 Pages. A man for teenagers today, all seasons by rushessay essay, Robert Bolt, The character of the common man seems to carry traits of disloyalty and selfishness when he . appears in the play portraying different characters. This seems to relate greatly to y thesis the works of Bertolt Brecht whose main focus was to distance viewers from the essay, characters as to give better acknowledgement to the social problems being displayed. In this essay Bertolt Brecht’s influence will be critically discussed by explaining Brecht’s aims in plays, how it is captured.
A Man for All Seasons , Augsburg , Bertolt Brecht 741 Words | 3 Pages. argument against the Puritans’ beliefs is organizations like the Peace Corps or American Red Cross. These are organization based on problems teenagers face today making differences in . third world countries as well as anywhere that needs help from natural disasters, terrorist bombings, man made disasters etc. Yet the Puritans said all men are evil. Essay? If all men are evil then these organizations would try to make money off of disasters like this; but they don’t.
So how can the Puritans justify calling all men evil? Although I don’t believe. 2001 albums , American Red Cross , Belief 404 Words | 2 Pages. According to Plato’s ideas of Human Nature , man can not be without . Aqa A-level Coursework? imperfections. Plato believes that man cannot live alone in human nature and rushessay essay due to this weakness man will naturally form social relationships that enhance his chances of surviving in nature . Problems Face Today Essay? Plato goes onto rushessay, say, with these social relationships must come social and political structure to control greed and academic goals envy, without social and political structure these can not be maintained.
With. Aristotle , Government , John Locke 1456 Words | 4 Pages. Big Debate vs. Big Duet: Nature vs. Nurture Halil B. Genc Quincy College Abstract Nature vs. Nurture? The debate has . obsessed the rushessay essay, minds of psychologists and philosophers for many years. However, for the object-orienteer, it has never been a problem: an object inherits all of its properties.
In this work we ask if an object should not be subject to goals essay environmental effects. We answer this question in rushessay essay the affirmative by academic essay, demonstrating many cases in which the character of an object must be affected. Biological determinism , Eugenics , Genetic determinism 1758 Words | 5 Pages. [19.11.2013 . 18:29:51] 3: Man is born free But everywhere he is in chain. - J. J. Rousseau Discuss the meaning and importance of rushessay, freedom in the light of this quotation. ? Man is born free But everywhere he is in chain. Need? - J . Rushessay Essay? J . Rousseau Discuss the someone my essay, meaning and rushessay essay importance of freedom . in the light of this quotation.
Every animal including man is born free. All animals in their natural state, except man who is precluded by civilization to be in his natural state, are free. Homework? Some animals lose their freedom only because of rushessay, man's needs and deeds. The world is 'open' and not 'closed' in its natural state; every animal - man is teenagers face essay, not exempted - desires novelty, spontaneity. Civil liberties , Civilization , Declaration of the Rights of Man and essay of the Citizen 863 Words | 3 Pages. ohm’s The electric current is computing, moved by a force, and that force is applied voltage. Ohm’s law simply says that the rushessay essay, current(rate of flow ) is homework, proportional . to the force. FACTORS AFFECTING ELECTROLYTIC CONDUCTANCE 1) Nature and rushessay structure of the metal. 2)Number of valence electrons per teenagers face today atom.
3)Temprature. FARADAY’S LAW OF ELECTROLYSIS 1)First law: The mass of the substances deposited or liberated at electrolysis during electrolysis. Anode , Battery , Cathode 1289 Words | 6 Pages. Nature and Nurture is rushessay essay, a highly debated topic on the development of a person’s behaviour and decision-making. John Locke’s quote “Let us then . suppose the mind to be, as we say, white paper void of all characters, without any ideas.
How comes it to be furnished? Whence comes it by that vast store which the busy and boundless fancy of man has painted on it with an almost endless variety? Whence has it all the materials of reason and knowledge? To this I answer, in one word, from EXPERIENCE,” is in reference. Antisocial personality disorder , Genetics , Human behavior 1833 Words | 5 Pages.
The Purpose of the y thesis, Natural Man What separates man from animal is nothing more than what has been categorized as . Human nature , but what Is Human nature ? What actions of man can actually be considered as being a causation of essay, his nature ? Is Human nature good or is it evil? In order to answer these questions we must first understand what is good and what is academic goals essay, evil. Rushessay? The definition of good is said to editorial be moral excellence or admirableness, that which is good or valuable or useful, beneficial. Civil society , Jean-Jacques Rousseau , John Locke 2325 Words | 6 Pages. no calamity (leaving me my eyes), which nature cannot repair. Standing on the bare ground, - my head bathed by the blithe air and uplifted into . infinite space, - all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eyeball. I am nothing. I see all.
The currents of the essay, Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or particle of problems teenagers today, God. -Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nature (1836) In his essay, Nature , Ralph Waldo Emerson describes man's relationship to nature and to God. Early on, he describes himself. Closer , Concord, Massachusetts , Eye 936 Words | 3 Pages. arisen about rushessay what is definitions, human nature . Essay? Is it in our nature to analytical of frankenstein be good or is it our nature to be evil? Many . philosophers have joined the debate taking stances on either end of the rushessay, spectrum, while some try to pose alternative answers. Thomas Hobbes believes man’s nature to be bad. He claims humans to be naturally selfish, like animals we are driven by our own passions. Computing? Mohandas Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr. believed that man is naturally good. Rushessay? They believe man’s nature to be a state of to review my essay, harmony but. Civil society , John Locke , Karl Marx 1818 Words | 5 Pages. Nature of rushessay essay, Thought From the time, we are born until the writing, time we die thought plays a role in our lives.
As we wake up in the morning, the essay, . brain is editorial, already starting to think about the day and what activities we will be doing. Rushessay? When asked what is thought? The first thing that comes out of most people’s mouth is thought is thinking. This is someone, true however; a process must happen before one can think. Parts of this process are thinking, memory, perception, and perceptual blockers. In this paper, we will. Cognition , Critical thinking , Human 955 Words | 2 Pages. The interplay of rushessay essay, nature and nurture sha.
?The interplay of nature and nurture shapes human development across life span – a literature review on the factors enhancing human . Need Someone To Review My Essay? development Abstract: It is essay, said that the interplay of nature and nurture shapes human development across life pan. However, somebody stated that people contribute actively to their development. On the other hand, a research reported that “Parental background is so dominant in terms ofpredicting and influencing children’s future prospects”. this article is. Developmental psychology , Evolutionary psychology , Human 2343 Words | 11 Pages. ?There has always been a big debate on nature verses nurture. Aqa A-level Coursework? It is a debate that is still going on today. Many psychologist and other . professions still trying make an rushessay essay agreement for one or the other.
I believe that is it both nature and nurture because it cannot be just one overpowering the other. I believe that both nature and nurture intertwine with one another for every human since birth. Psychologists such as Erickson believed that nature determines the sequence of the stages and it sets the. Child development , Cognitive psychology , Developmental psychology 813 Words | 3 Pages. Are we pulling away from nature ? Over just a few decades, computers have gone from taking up entire rooms to a person being able to teenagers face today essay carry one . around in their pocket. Technology has grown to extraordinary levels. With all of these technology advancements comes consequences.
Some argue that because of all of the technology advancements, society has lost touch with nature . There are people that believe that humanity has built such a complete shelter around themselves that nature is rushessay, no longer a part of. Animal Liberation Front , Concord, Massachusetts , Earth Liberation Front 1169 Words | 4 Pages. 20 , , , , , 25 , , , , , , , , , ? , , , , , , ? , ; , , 1. , R G 1943) : , , , , , , : : ( 1963- ) , , , : , ( . Collinwood, 1889, , , , , , , , , : 2002 07 15 58 , , , , , , : 2. , ( A Good Man Is H ard to Find) , , , , : ; , ( Good Country People) , , : , , , , , , , , , , ( The Life You Save May Be Your Own) , : , , , ; , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ( Tertullian, 145- 200) : , , , ) , , ( , .
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MICROSOFT'S C# PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE. The C# language is an object-oriented language that is aimed at enabling programmers to rushessay, quickly build a wide range of definitions applications for the Microsoft .NET platform. The goal of C# and the .NET platform is to shorten development time by freeing the developer from worrying about essay several low level plumbing issues such as memory management, type safety issues, building low level libraries, array boundschecking , etc. Goals! thus allowing developers to actually spend their time and energy working on their application and business logic instead. As a Java developer the previous sentence could be described as a short description of the Java language and platform if the words C# and the .NET platform were replaced with words Java and rushessay essay the Java platform. What follows is an overview of similarities and someone my essay differences between the language features and libraries of the C# and Java programming languages based on my experience using both languages. All code snippets below were tested on Microsoft's .NET Framework version 2.0 for rushessay C# snippets and need someone my essay Java#8482; Platform, Standard Edition version 6 for the Java snippets. Just like Java, C# has a single rooted class hierarchy where all classes in C# are subclasses of System.Object the same way all Java classes are subclasses of essay java.lang.Object . The methods of the two languages' Object classes share some similarities (e.g.
System.Object's ToString() to java.lang.Object's toString()) and aqa a-level computing differences ( System.Object does not have analogs to wait(), notify() or notifyAll() in rushessay essay java.lang.Object ). There are a large number of syntactic similarities between Java and C#, similarly almost every Java keyword has a C# equivalent except for a few like transient, throws and strictfp. Below is academic goals writing, a table of Java and C# keywords with the Java keywords in rushessay red while the equivalent C# keywords are in blue. NOTE: Although goto and const are Java language keywords they are unused in the Java language. NOTE: The [NonSerialized] attribute in C# is equivalent to academic goals essay writing, the transient keyword in Java. Just like Java is typically compiled to Java byte code which then runs in managed execution environment (the Java Virtual Machine or JVM) so also is C# code compiled to an Intermediate Language (IL) which then runs in rushessay essay the Common Language Runtime (CLR). Both platforms support native compilation via Just In Time compilers. In Java objects are created on the heap using the new keyword. Most classes in C# are created on the heap by using the new keyword. Also just as the goals essay writing JVM manages the destruction of rushessay essay objects so also does the CLR via a Mark and Compact garbage collection algorithm. In languages like C and C++, each subarray of a multidimensional array must have the same dimensions.
In Java and C# arrays do not have to be uniform because jagged arrays can be created as one-dimensional arrays of arrays. In a jagged array the contents of the array are arrays which may hold instances of a type or references to essay, other arrays. For this reason the rows and columns in a jagged array need not have uniform length as can be seen from the following code snippet: The above code snippet is valid for both C# and Java. Just like Java and unlike C++, methods in C# have to rushessay essay, be part of a class either as member or static methods. Academic! C#, like Java, supports the concept of an interface which is essay, akin to someone, a pure abstract class. Similarly C# and Java both allow only single inheritance of classes but multiple inheritance (or implementation) of interfaces.
C# has a System.String class which is analogous to the java.lang.String class. Both classes are immutable meaning that the rushessay values of the strings cannot be changed once the strings have been created. In both instances methods that appear to modify the actual content of a string actually create a new string to return, leaving the original string unchanged. Y Thesis! Thus the following C# and Java code does not modify the string in either case. To create a string-like object that allows modification in C# it is advisable to use the System.Text.StringBuilder class whereas in Java one would use the rushessay essay java.lang.StringBuffer class. To Review! Both Java and C# provide mechanisms to specify that a class should be the rushessay last one in an inheritance hierarchy and cannot be used as a base class.
In Java this is done by preceding the goals class declaration with the final keyword while in C# this is rushessay essay, done by preceding the need class declaration with the sealed keyword. Below are examples of classes that cannot be extended in either language. NOTE: Although exceptions in both languages support methods for getting a stack trace, only Java exceptions have methods that allow one to alter the rushessay essay stack trace. Instance and static variables can be initialized at their point of definition in both C# and Java. If the member variable is an instance variable, then initialization occurs just before the problems teenagers today constructor is called. Essay! Static members are initialized sometime before the first usage of the editorial nomos y thesis member and rushessay before the academic goals essay first creation of an instance of the rushessay class. It is also possible to specify a block of code that should run before the class is used either via creation of an instance variable or invocation of a static method. These code blocks are called are called static constructors in C# and static initialization blocks in Java. Problems Teenagers Face! Static constructors are invoked before the first invocation of a static method in the class and before the rushessay first time an instance of the class is created. In situations where value types need to be treated as objects, the teenagers essay .NET and rushessay Java runtimes automatically converts value types to objects by my essay, wrapping them within a heap-allocated reference type in a process called boxing . The process of rushessay automatically convert an object to its corresponding value type such as converting an instance of java.lang.Integer to an int is known as unboxing . Below are examples of various situations where boxing occurs in both runtimes. It is typically recommended that one creates a main method for analytical each class in an application to test the functionality of essay that class besides whatever main method actually drives the application.
For instance it is possible to have two classes, A and goals B, which both contain main methods. In Java, since a class is the rushessay essay unit of compilation then all one has to do is invoke the specific class one wants run via the command line to run its main method. In C# one can get the same effect by compiling the application with the of frankenstein /main switch to essay, specify which main should be used as the aqa a-level computing coursework starting point of the application when the executable is created. Using test mains in rushessay combination with conditional compilation via preprocessor directives is a powerful testing technique. Problems Teenagers Today Essay! So in Java's favor, one doesn't have to recompile to change which main is used by the application while a recompile is needed in a C# application. However, On the other hand, Java doesn't support conditional compilation, so the main method will be part of even your released classes. Rushessay Essay! C# uses C++ syntax for inheritance, both for class inheritance and interface implementation as opposed to the extends and implements keywords.
Since C# is aimed at transitioning C++ developers the above syntax is understandable although Java developers may pine for the Java syntax especially since it is clear from looking at the class declaration in the Java version whether the class is subclassing a class or simply implementing an interface while it isn't in the C# version without intimate knowledge of definitions all the classes involved. Although it should be noted that in rushessay .NET naming conventions, interface names have an upper-case I prepended to their names (as in IClonable), so this isn't an issue for my essay programs that conform to standard naming conventions. A C# namespace is a way to group a collection of classes and is used in a manner similar to Java's package construct. Users of C++ will notice the similarities between the C# namespace syntax and that in C++. In Java, the package names dictate the directory structure of source files in rushessay an application whereas in C# namespaces do not dictate the physical layout of source files in directories only their logical structure. Examples below: C# namespace syntax also allows one to nest namespaces in the following way. The syntax and semantics for academic goals essay constructors in essay C# is identical to that in Java.
C# also has the concept of destructors which use syntax similar to C++ destructor syntax but have the mostly the same semantics as Java finalizers. Although finalizers exist doing work within them is not encouraged for a number of reasons including the fact that there is no way to control the order of finalization which can lead to interesting problems if objects that hold references to each other are finalized out of order. Finalization also causes more overhead because objects with finalizers aren't removed after the garbage collection thread runs but instead are eliminated after the finalization thread runs which means they have to be maintained in editorial the system longer than objects without finalizers. Below are equivalent examples in C# and Java. NOTE: In C#, destructors(finalizers) automatically call the base class finalizer after executing which is not the case in Java. Rushessay Essay! Both C# and Java support the concept of synchronized methods. Whenever a synchronized method is called, the thread that called the homework definitions method locks the object that contains the method. Rushessay! Thus other threads cannot call a synchronized method on the same object until the object is unlocked by the first thread when it finishes executing the synchronized method. Synchronized methods are marked in Java by using the synchronized keyword while in C# it is done by annotating the method with the [MethodImpl(MethodImplOptions.Synchronized)] attribute. Examples of synchronized methods are shown below. Below is a table mapping C# access modifiers to Java's.
C++ fans who were disappointed when Sun changed the semantics of the protected keyword in Java 2 will be happy to note that the C# protected keyword has the editorial nomos y thesis same semantics as the C++ version. This means that a protected member can only be accessed by member methods in that class or member methods in derived classes but is inaccessible to any other classes. The internal modifier means that the member can be accessed from other classes in the same assembly as the class. The internal protected modifier means that a member can be accessed from classes that are in the same assembly or from derived classes. NOTE: The default accessibility of a C# field or method when no access modifier is essay, specified is private while in Java it is protected (except that derived classes from need my essay outside the rushessay essay package cannot inherit the field). One might notice from the above code samples that there is slightly more granularity in the C# Reflection API than the Java Reflection API as can be seen by the fact that C# has a ParameterInfo class which contains metadata about the parameters of a Method while Java uses Class objects for that which lose some information such as the name of the parameter. Sometimes there is academic, a need to obtain the metadata of a specific class encapsulated as an object. This object is the java.lang.Class object in Java and the System.Type object in C#. To retrieve this metadata class from an instance of the target class, the rushessay essay getClass() method is used in Java while the GetType() method is used in C#. If the name of the class is known at problems today compile time then one can avoid creating an rushessay essay, instance of the class just to homework, obtain the metadata class by doing the following.
To declare constants in Java the final keyword is used. Final variables can be set either at compile time or run time. In Java, when the final is used on a primitive it makes the value of the primitive immutable while when used on rushessay object references it makes the reference constant meaning that the homework reference can only point to only one object during its lifetime. Final members can be left uninitialized when declared but then must be defined in the constructor. To declare constants in C# the const keyword is used for compile time constants while the readonly keyword is used for runtime constants. The semantics of constant primitives and object references in C# is the rushessay essay same as in Java.
Unlike C++, it is not possible to specify an immutable class via language constructs in either C# or Java. Neither is it possible to create a reference through which it's impossible to modify a mutable object. NOTE: The Java language also supports having final parameters to goals essay writing, a method. This functionality is non-existent in C#. Essay! C# and Java automatically call base class constructors, and both provide a way to call the aqa a-level computing coursework constructor of the base class with specific parameters. Similarly both languages enforce that the call to the base class constructor occurs before any initializations in the derived constructor which prevents the derived constructor from using members that are yet to be initialized. The C# syntax for rushessay calling the y thesis base class constructor is reminiscent of the C++ initializer list syntax. Both languages also provide a way to rushessay essay, call a constructor from problems teenagers face today another which allows one to reduce the amount of code duplication that can occur in constructors. This practice is rushessay essay, typically called constructor chaining. In C and C++ it is possible to specify that a function takes a variable number of arguments. This functionality is used extensively in the printf and scanf family of problems teenagers today essay functions.
Both C# and Java allow one to define a parameter that indicates that a variable number of arguments are accepted by a method. In C#, the essay mechanism for specifying that a method accepts a variable number of arguments is by need someone to review, using the params keyword as a qualifier to the last argument to essay, the method which should be an array. In Java, the same effect is achieved by appending the nomos string . to the typename of the last argument to the method. Both C# and Java provide a mechanism for creating strongly typed data structures without knowing the specific types at compile time. Prior to the existence of the Generics feature set, this capability was achieved by specifying the type of the objects within the rushessay data structure as Object then casting to specific types at someone to review my essay runtime. This technique had several drawbacks including lack of type safety, poor performance and code bloat. The following code sample shows how one would calculate the sum of all the integers in a collection using generics and using a collection of Objects so that both approaches can be compared. Although similar in concept to templates in rushessay essay C++, the Generics feature in C# and y thesis Java is not implemented similarly.
In Java, the generic functionality is implemented using type erasure . Specifically the generic type information is present only at compile time, after which it is erased by the compiler and all the type declarations are replaced with Object . Rushessay Essay! The compiler then automatically inserts casts in the right places. Problems Teenagers! The reason for rushessay this approach is that it provides total interoperability between generic code and legacy code that doesn't support generics. The main problem with type erasure is that the generic type information is not available at run time via reflection or run time type identification. Another consequence of this approach is that generic data structures types must always be declared using objects and not primitive types. Thus one must create StackInteger instead of homework Stackint when working integers. In C#, there is rushessay, explicit support for generics in the .NET runtime's instruction language (IL).
When the generic type is compiled, the generated IL contains place holders for specific types. At runtime, when an initial reference is problems, made to a generic type (e.g. Listint ) the system looks to see if anyone already asked for the type or not. Essay! If the type has been previously requested, then the previously generated specific type is returned. If not, the JIT compiler instantiates a new type by replacing the generic type parameters in the IL with the computing specific type (e.g. replacing ListT with Listint ). It should be noted that if the requested type is a reference type as opposed to rushessay, a value type then the generic type parameter is replaced with Object . However there is no casting done internally by the .NET runtime when accessing the type. Editorial! In certain cases, one may need create a method that can operate on data structures containing any type as opposed to those that contain a specific type (e.g. a method to print all the objects in a data structure) while still taking advantage of the benefits of strong typing in essay generics. The mechanism for specifying this in C# is via a feature called generic type inferencing while in someone my essay Java this is done using wildcard types . The following code samples show how both approaches lead to the same result. Both C# and Java provide mechanisms for specifying constraints on generic types. In C# there are three types of constraints that can be applied to generic types A derivation constraint indicates to essay, the compiler that the generic type parameter derives from problems essay a base type such an interface or a particular base class A default constructor constraint indicates to essay, the compiler that the generic type parameter exposes a public default constructor A reference/value type constraint constrains the generic type parameter to be a reference or a value type.
In Java, only the derivation constraint is supported. Aqa A-level Computing! The following code sample shows how constraints are used in practice. C# also includes the default operator which returns the default value for a type. The default value for reference types is null , and the default value for value types (such as integers, enum, and structures) is a zero whitewash (filling the structure with zeros). This operator is very useful when combined with generics. Rushessay Essay! The following code sample excercises the analytical functionality of this operator. Rushessay! The for-each loop is an iteration construct that is popular in a number of scripting languages (e.g.
Perl, PHP, Tcl/Tk), build tools (GNU Make) and function libraries (e.g. for_each in essay of frankenstein algorithm in C++). The for-each loop is a less verbose way to iterate through arrays or classes that implement the the System.Collections.IEnumerable interface in C# or the java.lang.Iterable interface in Java. In C#, the keywords foreach and in are used when creating the for-each loop while in Java the keyword for and the operator : are used. Metadata annotations provide a powerful way to extend the capabilities of a programming language and rushessay the language runtime. These annotations can be directives that request the homework definitions runtime to perform certain additional tasks, provide extra information about an item or extend the abilities of a type. Metadata annotations are common in a number of programming environments including Microsoft's COM and the Linux kernel. C# attributes provide a way to add annotations (i.e. metadata) to a module, type, method, parameter or member variable. Rushessay! Below are descriptions of a few attributes that are intrinsic to .NET and how they are used to extend the capabilities of the y thesis C#. [MethodImpl(MethodImplOptions.Synchronized)] : is used to specify that a access to a method by multiple threads is protected by a lock to prevent concurrent access to essay, the method and is similar to the synchronized in y thesis Java.
It is possible to access the attributes of a module, class, method or field via reflection. This is particularly useful for seeing if a class supports certain behavior at runtime or for extracting metadata about a class for usage by others. Rushessay Essay! Developers can create their own custom attributes by subclassing the need my essay System.Attribute class. What follows is an example of using an attribute to provide information about the author of a class then using reflection to access that information. Java annotations provide a way to add annotations (i.e. metadata) to rushessay essay, an package, type, method, parameter, member or local variable. There are only three built-in annotations provided in the Java language which are listed below. @Override : is used to specify that a method is intended to override a method in a base class.
If the annotated method does not override a method in definitions the base class then an error is issued during compilation. As in C# it is possible to access the annotations on a module, class, method or field via reflection. However a key difference between C# attributes and essay Java annotations is that one can create meta-annotations (i.e. annotations on annotations) in Java but can not do the same in C#. Definitions! Developers can create their own custom annotations by creating an annotation type which is similar to an interface except that the keyword @interface is used to rushessay, define it. What follows is an example of using an attribute to provide information about the author of a class then using reflection to access that information.
Enums are used to create and group together a list of user defined named constants. Although on the surface the enumerated types in C# and editorial nomos y thesis Java seem quite similar there are some significant differences in the implementation of enumerated types in both languages. In Java, enumerated types are a full fledged class which means they are typesafe and can be extended by adding methods, fields or even implementing interfaces. Whereas in C#, an enumerated type is simply syntactic sugar around an integral type (typically an int ) meaning they cannot be extended and are not typesafe. The following code sample highlights the differences between enums in both languages.
In Java and C# it is possible to nest class declarations within each other. In Java there are two kinds of nested classes; non-static nested classes also known as inner classes and static nested classes. A Java inner class can be considered as a one-to-one relationship between the inner class and rushessay essay its enclosing class where for each instance of the enclosing class there exists a corresponding instance of the inner class that has access to the enclosing class's instance variables and problems face today essay contains no static methods. On the other hand a Java static nested class is rushessay essay, a similar to nesting a class decaration within another where the nested class has access to the static members and methods of the enclosing class. C# has the equivalent of Java's static nested classes but has nothing analogous to Java's inner classes. The following nested class declarations below are equivalent. Editorial Y Thesis! NOTE: In Java a nested class can be declared in rushessay any block of code including methods, this is not the case in C#. The ability to create nested classes in methods in Java may seem unnecessary but combined with anonymous inner classes can provide a means of creating powerful design patterns. A thread is a sequential flow of control within a program. A program or process can have multiple threads running concurrently all of which may share data or run independently while performing tasks.
Threads are powerful in that they allow a developer to perform multiple tasks at once in a single program or process. Advantages of threads include exploiting parallelism in multiprocessor architectures, reducing execution time by being able to analytical of frankenstein, perform tasks while waiting on a blocking system calls (such as printing or other I/O), and avoiding freezing in GUI applications. Java threads are created by subclassing the java.lang.Thread class and overriding its run() method or by implementing the java.lang.Runnable interface and implementing the run() method. Whereas in C#, one creates a thread by rushessay essay, creating a new System.Threading.Thread object and passing it a System.Threading.ThreadStart delegate which is initialized with the method that is to be run as a thread. Thus, in Java a method that shall run in a multithreaded context is designed up front specifically with that in mind.
On the other hand, in C# any method can be passed to a ThreadStart object and run in computing coursework a multithreaded scenario. In Java, every class inherits the essay wait(), notify() and notifyAll() from java.lang.Object which are used for thread operations. The equivalent methods in C# are the Wait(), Pulse() and PulseAll() methods in the System.Threading.Monitor class. The example below shows a scenario where worker threads are dispatched in a specific order and must be processed in the same order upon return. Due to the non-deterministic nature of threads, on some runs the teenagers today essay threads finish working in the order they were dispatched in and in other runs they appear out of order and thus each thread must wait until its turn comes up.
In many situations one cannot guarantee that the order of essay execution of a program will be the same as that in essay the source code. Reasons for the unexpected ordering of program execution include compiler optimizations that reorder statements or mulitiprocessor systems that fail to store variables in global memory amongst others. To work around this, both C# and Java have the rushessay concept of the volatile keyword which is used to tell the language runtime that reordering instructions related to accessing such fields is prohibited. There are major differences in someone to review the semantics of volatile in Java and C# which are illustrated in the example below taken from The Double-Checked Locking is Broken Declaration. Although the rushessay essay above code snippets seem identical save for the substitution of the synchronized keyword with the lock keyword, the Java version is not guaranteed to work on all JVMs. Currently the teenagers today Java Memory Model does not prevent reordering of writes to volatile variables with writes to other variables so it is possible that the new object is constructed before the helper reference is made to point at rushessay essay the newly created object meaning that two objects are created. Also it is possible that the helper reference is made to point at a block of memory while the object is still being created meaning that a reference to an incomplete object will be returned. Editorial! In C#, the semantics of rushessay essay volatile prevent such problems from occurring because reads and writes cannot be moved backward or forward across a volatile write.
Also in homework C#, being marked as volatile also prevents the Just In Time compiler from placing the variable in rushessay a register and computing also ensures that the variable is stored in global memory on multiprocessor systems. For more information on the problems with the Java Memory Model and Double-Checked Locking, see the essay Double-checked locking: Clever, but broken article on Javaworld. Operator overloading allows standard operators in a language to be given new semantics when applied in the context of a particular class or type. Someone To Review My Essay! Operator overloading can be used to rushessay, simplify the syntax of certain operations especially when they are performed very often, such as string concatenation in Java or interactions with iterators and collections in the C++ Standard Template Library. Operator overloading is a point of contention for many developers due to the fact that it provides a lot of flexibility and power which makes it prone to abuse. There is a tendency for developers to analytical, use it poorly by doings like overloading operators in an unintuitive manner (e.g. overloading ++ and rushessay -- to connect and to review disconnect from the network) , overloading operators in a manner inconsistent with their typical use (e.g. overloading [ ] to return a copy of an object at a particular index in a collection instead of a reference to the actual object) or overloading some operators and not others (e.g. overloading but not ). Overloading operators tends to rushessay, be most useful when the class lends itself intuitively to using that operator. Examples of computing situations that intuitively suggest that operator overloading would be beneficial are overloading [ ] for use with collections, overloading + and * for rushessay use with matrices, overloading mathematical operators for use with complex numbers, and academic essay writing overloading the == and != operators for classes that have some means to measure equality. Rushessay Essay! Below is an example that shows how operator overloading works in C#. NOTE: Unlike C++, C# does not allow the overloading of the following operators; new , ( ) , || , , = , or any variations of compound assignments such as += , -= , etc. Need Someone To Review My Essay! However, compound assignment operators will call overloaded operators, for instance, += would call overloaded +. C# assemblies share a lot in common with Java JAR files.
An assembly is the fundamental unit of code packaging in the .NET environment. Assemblies are self contained and typically contain the intermediate code from compiling classes, metadata about the classes, and any other files needed by the packaged code to perform its task. Since assemblies are the fundamental unit of code packaging, several actions related to rushessay, interacting with types must be done at my essay the assembly level. For instance, granting of security permissions, code deployment, and versioning are done at the assembly level. Java JAR files perform a similar task in Java with most differences being in the implementation. Assemblies are usually stored as EXEs or DLLs while JAR files are stored in the ZIP file format. A number of popular programming languages contain a collections framework which typically consists of rushessay a number of nomos data structures for holding multiple objects as well as algorithms for manipulating the objects within the aforementioned data structures.
The primary advantage of a collections framework is that it frees developers from having to write data structures and sort algorithms every time one is needed and instead frees them up to work on the actual application logic. A secondary benefit is that collections frameworks lead to consistency across projects which means the learning curve for rushessay new developers using applications that use a collections framework is less steep when compared to a situation where one was not used. The C# collections framework consists of the editorial nomos classes in the System.Collections and the System.Collections.Generic namespaces . The Systems.Collections namespace contains interfaces and abstract classes that represent abstract data types such as IList, IEnumerable, IDictionary, ICollection, and CollectionBase which enable developers to rushessay essay, manipulate data structures independently of problems today essay how they are actually implemented as long as the essay data structures inherit from the abstract data types. The System.Collections namespace also contains some concrete implementations of data structures such as ArrayList, Stack, Queue, HashTable and coursework SortedList. All four of the concrete data structure implementations enable one to obtain synchronized wrappers to the collection which allows for rushessay access in a thread-safe manner. The System.Collections.Generic namespace has generic implementations of the key data structures in the System.Collections namespace including generic ListT, StackT,QueueT, DictionaryK,T and SortedDictionaryK,T classes . The Java collections framework consists of a large number of the classes and interfaces in the java.util package. Instead of problems teenagers face having a separate namespace for generic collections, the collections in the java.util package have been retrofitted to essay, support generics. Of Frankenstein! The Java collection framework is similar to essay, that in C# except for the fact that it can be considered a superset of the C# collection framework since it contains a number of academic essay writing extra features. The Java collection framework contains data structures that are missing from those in C# such as sets and linked lists. Also the Java collections framework not only has methods that enable one to access unsafe collections in a thread safe manner but contains thread-safe versions of most of the data structures as well.
Finally, the Java collections framework has a number of rushessay algorithms for manipulating the elements within the data structures including algorithms that can do the problems teenagers face following; find the largest element based on some Comparator, find the smallest element, find sublists within a list, reverse the rushessay contents of need someone to review a list, shuffle the contents of a list, creates immutable versions of a colection, performs sorts, and rushessay essay binary searches. At the current time, the Java collections framework is problems teenagers face today, more sophisticated than that available in .NET via C#. Unlike Java, C# contains the rushessay essay goto statement which can be used to jump directly from a point in the code to homework, a label. Although much derided, gotos can be used in certain situations to reduce code duplication while enhancing readability. A secondary usage of the rushessay goto statement is the homework ability to mimic resumeable exceptions like those in Smalltalk, as long as the exception thrown does not cross method boundaries. NOTE: In C#, one cannot jump into a statement block using the goto statement; One of the tenets of object oriented programming is polymorphism.
Polymorphism enables one to interact with members of a type hierarchy as generic types instead of dealing with specific types. The means of implementing polymorphism typically involves having methods in a base class that may be overidden by derived classes. These methods can be invoked even though the client has a reference to rushessay, a base class type which points to an object of the derived class. Such methods are bound at runtime instead of being bound during compilation and are typically called virtual methods. In Java all methods are virtual methods while in goals essay C#, as in C++, one must explicitly state which methods one wants to be virtual since by essay, default they are not. To mark a method as virtual in C#, one uses the virtual keyword.
Also, implementers of a child class can decide to either explicitly override the virtual method by using the override keyword or explicitly choose not to by using the new keyword instead. By default, in homework definitions C#, the behavior of methods in a derived class that have the same signature as those in the base class is rushessay, as if they were declared with the new keyword. It is possible to mark methods as final in Java which means that the aqa a-level computing method cannot be overridden by derived classes. Rushessay! In C# this can be done by not marking the method as virtual . The major difference is that in academic essay C#, the class can still define the method but the base class version is the one that will be called if the rushessay essay object is used via a base class reference. Java disallows the derived class from containing a method that has the same signature as the final base class method. Below are examples that show the academic goals essay writing differences in virtual methods in both languages. The C# example can be made to produce the same output as the Java example by rushessay essay, marking the DoStuff(string) method in definitions the Parent class as virtual and marking the DoStuff(string) method in the Child class with the rushessay essay override keyword. The above example can be made to to review my essay, produce the original results by altering the signature of the essay DoStuff(string) method in the Child class to. public new void DoStuff(string str) which states that although the DoStuff method is virtual in the base class, the child class would like to treat it as a non-virtual method. Both languages support performing I/O via Stream classes. Problems Face! The examples below copy the contents of a file named input.txt to another called output.txt.
Object Persistence also known as Serialization is the ability to read and write objects via a stream such as a file or network socket. Essay! Object Persistence is useful in situations where the state of an teenagers today, object must be retained across invocations of a program. Usually in essay such cases simply storing data in a flat file is insufficient yet using a Database Management System (DBMS) is overkill. Serialization is someone, also useful as a means of transferring the essay representation of essay a class in an automatic and rushessay fairly seamless manner. Serializable objects in C# are annotated with the [Serializable] attribute. The [NonSerialized] attribute is used to annote members of a C# class that should not be serialized by the runtime. Such fields are usually calculated or temporary values that have no meaning when saved. C# provides two formats for problems teenagers face essay serializing classes; either as XML or in a binary format, the former is more readable by humans and applications while the latter is more efficient. One can also define custom ways an rushessay, object is serialized if the standard ways are insufficient by implementing the ISerializable interface.
In Java, serializable objects are those that implement the Serializable interface while the transient keyword is used to mark members of a Java class as ones not to be serialized. By default Java supports serializing objects to a binary format but does provide a way of overriding the standard serialization process. Objects that plan to override default serializations can implement methods with the following signatures. Since the above methods are private there is no interface that can be implemented to aqa a-level computing, indicate that a Java class supports custom serialization using readObject and writeObject. For classes that need publicly accessible methods for custom serialization there exists the java.io.Externalizable interface which specifies the readExternal() and writeExternal() for use in customizing how an object is read and rushessay essay written to a stream. Both C# and Java provide a mechanism for extracting specially formatted comments from source code and placing them in an alternate document. These comments are typically API specifications and are very useful way to provide API documentation to the users of a library.
The generated documentation is also useful to share the nomos y thesis specifications for an API between designers, developers and QA. Rushessay! Javadoc is the tool used to extract API documentation from source code. Javadoc generates HTML documentation from the source code comment, an example of which is the Java#8482; Platform, Standard Edition API Documentation which was all generated using Javadoc. Javadoc can be used to describe information at the package, class, member and method level. Descriptions of classes and editorial nomos y thesis member variables can be provided with the option to add references to other classes, class members and methods. Javadoc allows one to essay, document the following metadata about a method: Description of the need someone method.
Exceptions thrown by the method. Parameters the essay method accepts Return type of the method. Associated methods and coursework members. Essay! Indication as to whether the API has been deprecated or not. Version of the API the method was first added. The deprecated information is analytical essay of frankenstein, also used by the compiler which issues a warning if a call to a method marked with the deprecated tag is encountered during compilation. Javadoc also provides the following information automatically: Inherited API List of derived classes List of implementing classes for rushessay interfaces Serialized form of the class Alphabetical class listing. Analytical Essay Of Frankenstein! Package hierarchy in a tree format.
Since Javadoc generates HTML documentation, it is valid to use HTML in rushessay essay Javadoc comments. There is support for linking the generated documentation with other generated documentation available over the web. Such linking is useful when one wants readers of the documentation to be able to read the API documentation from the related sources. An example of this is the following generated documentation which contains links to the Java 2 API documentation. If no such linking is specified then the generated documentation contains no links to editorial, other API documentation. Below is an example of how Javadoc comments are used. Rushessay! C# uses XML as the format for the documentation.
The generated documentation is an XML file that contains the metadata specified by the user with very little additional information generated automatically. All the C# XML documentation tags have an analogous Javadoc construct while the aqa a-level computing coursework same cannot be said for the Javadoc tags having C# XML documentation analogs. For instance, the default C# XML documentation does not have analogs to Javadoc's @author , @version , or @deprecated tags although such metadata can be generated by reflecting on the assembly, as Microsoft's documentation build process does. Essay! One could also create custom tags that are analogous to the Javadoc tags and more but they would be ignored by standard tools used for handling C# XML documentation including Visual Studio.NET. Also of essay of frankenstein note is that C#'s XML documentation when generated does not contain metadata about the class such as listings of inherited API, derived classes or implementing interfaces. Here is an example of an XML file generated from C# source code. Rushessay! The primary benefit of an XML format is aqa a-level computing coursework, that the documentation specification can now be used in many different ways.
XSLT stylesheets can then be used to convert the rushessay essay generated documentation to ASCII text, HTML, or Postscript files. Also of need my essay note is that the generated documentation can be fed to tools that use it for spec verification or other similar tasks. Essay! It should be noted that C# currently does not have a tool analogous to essay of frankenstein, Javadoc for converting the XML documentation into rushessay HTML. Microsoft is in the process of developing such a tool which is currently codenamed SandCastle. Below is an example of how C# XML documentation is aqa a-level, used. Multiple classes can be defined in a single file in both languages with some significant differences. In Java, there can only be one class per source file that has public access and it must have the rushessay same name as the source file minus the file extension. C# does not have a restriction on the number of public classes that can exist in a source file and neither is there a requirement for the name of any of the classes in the file to match that of the source file. Using libraries in an application is a two-step process.
First the definitions needed libraries must be referenced somewhere in the source file which is done via the using keyword in C# and the import keyword in Java. Secondly, there must be a way to tell the compiler where to find the location of the needed library. Specifying the location of essay libraries that will be used by a Java program is done using the CLASSPATH environment variable or the -classpath compiler option. Assembly locations are specified with the /r compiler switch in C#. Editorial Nomos! Event-driven programming is a programming model where objects can register themselves to be notified of a specific occurrence or state change in another object. Event-driven programming is rushessay essay, also referred to as the publish-subscribe model or the observer design pattern and is very popular in graphical user interface (GUI) programming. Java and C# both have mechanisms that support events but there are significant differences. The typical publish-subscribe model has a one to many relationship between an object (publisher) and its event handlers (subscribers). A subscriber is today, registered by rushessay, invoking a method on the publisher which then adds the subscriber to an internal collection of to review interested objects. When the state change that a registered subscriber is interested in occurs, a method is invoked in the publisher that cycles through the collection of essay subscribers and invokes a callback method on each one. There is no general mechanism for computing event handling in essay Java.
Instead there are design patterns that are used by aqa a-level computing coursework, the GUI classes which developers can take their cue from. An event is typically a subclass of the java.util.EventObject class, which has methods that enable setting or getting of the object that was the source of the event. A subscriber in rushessay the Java model usually implements an interface that ends with the word Listener (e.g. MouseListener, ActionListener, KeyListener, etc) which should contain a callback method that would be called by the publisher on the occurrence of the event. The publisher typically has a method that begins with add and ends with Listener (e.g. addMouseListener, addActionListener, addKeyListener, etc) which is homework, used to register subscribers. Rushessay! The publisher also has remove methods for unregistering the subscribers. The aforementioned components are the primary entities in coursework an event-driven Java program.
C# uses delegates to provide an explicit mechanism for essay creating a publish-subscribe model. An event is typically a subclass of the System.EventArgs class. Like all data classes, the event class should have a constructor that allows complete initialization without calling any other methods so that you can pass new YourEventArgs(inits) to the subscriber delegate. Someone To Review My Essay! The publisher has a protected method preceded with the word On (e.g. OnClick, OnClose, OnInit, etc) which is invoked when a specified event occurs, this method would then invoke the rushessay delegate passing it the source and an instance of the EventArgs object. Making the method protected allows derived classes to need someone my essay, call it directly without the need to rushessay essay, register a delegate.
The subscriber is a method that accepts the same argument and returns the same type as the event delegate. The event delegate usually returns void and accepts two parameters; an Object which should be the academic essay writing source of the event and the EventArgs subclass which should represent the rushessay event that occured. In C#, the event is used to automatically specify that a field within a subscriber is a delegate that will be used as a callback during an event-driven situation. During compilation the essay of frankenstein compiler adds overloaded versions of the += and -= operators that are analogous to the add and remove methods that are used in Java to register and unregister a subscriber. The example below shows a class that generates 20 random numbers and fires an rushessay essay, event whenever one of the numbers is even. Cross language interoperability is the ability to access constructs written in one programming language from another.
There are a number of ways cross language interoperability works in Java. First of all, there is the Java Native Interface (JNI) which is a mechanism that allows Java programs call native methods written in C, C++ or assembly language. The C, C++ or assembly methods methods must be specifically written to be called from Java. Native methods can use JNI to access Java features such as calling Java language methods, instantiating and modifying Java classes, throwing and catching exceptions, performing runtime type checking, and loading Java classes dynamically. To create a JNI program one performs the following steps: Create a Java program that contains the declaration of the native method(s) marked with the native keyword. Write a main method that loads the library created in step 6 and homework definitions uses the native method(s). Compile the class containing the rushessay declaration of the native method(s) and the main with the essay javac compiler. Use the javah compiler with the -jni compiler option to generate a header file for the native method(s). Essay! Write the native method in your language of choice (currently C, C++ or assembly). Compile the teenagers face essay header file and native source file into a shared library (i.e. a .dll on Windows or a .so file on rushessay UNIX). Java also has the ability to interact with distributed objects that use the common object request broker architecture (CORBA) via Java IDL.
CORBA is a technology that allows developers to make procedure calls on objects in a location and language agnostic manner. Need Someone! A CORBA application usually consists of an object request broker (ORB), a client and a server. An ORB is responsible for matching a requesting client to the server that will perform the request, using an object reference to locate the target object. When the ORB examines the object reference and checks if the target object is remote or not. Rushessay Essay! If the target of the call is local then the ORB performs an inter-process communication (IPC) call. On calls to nomos, remote objects the ORB marshals the arguments and routes the invocation out over essay the network to homework definitions, the remote object's ORB. Essay! The remote ORB then invokes the editorial y thesis method locally and sends the results back to the client via the network. CORBA has a language-agnostic interface definition language (IDL) which for which languages that support CORBA have various mappings. Essay! Java IDL supports the mappings from Java objects to CORBA IDL objects.
Various ORBs support CORBA language bindings for y thesis a number of languages including C, C++, Java, Python, Lisp, Perl, and Scheme. The most seamless way to do cross language interop in essay Java is when the language is problems teenagers face today, compiled directly to Java byte code. This means that objects in rushessay that language are available to homework, Java programs and Java objects are available to programs written in the target language. A good example of this is the Jython scripting language which is a version of the Python programming language that is integrated with the rushessay essay Java platform. Below is an example of an problems, interactive session with Jython shows how a user could create an essay, instance of the Java random number class (found in java.util.Random) and then interact with that instance which was taken from the Jython Documentation. There are a number of homework definitions projects in various degrees of completion that are aimed at providing a similar degree of cross language interoperability within the confines of the Java Virtual Machine. A list of languages retargetted for the Java Virtual Machine is available on the webpage of Dr. Robert Tolksdorf.
Currently, Sun Microsystems (creators of the Java language and platform) seems to be uninterested in this level of cross language interoperability and rushessay has decided to leave this to independent developers and researchers. With seamless cross langauge interoperability, objects can inherit implementation from other types, instantiate and invoke methods defined on other types, and otherwise interact with objects regardless of the academic goals essay writing language the types are originally implemented in. Also tools such as class browsers, debuggers, and profilers only need to understand one format (be it Java byte codes or .NET instruction language) but can support a multitude of languages as long as they target the appropriate runtime. Rushessay! Also error handling across languages via exceptions is nomos y thesis, possible. C# and the .NET runtime were created with seamless cross-language interoperability as a design goal. A language targeting the .NET common language runtime (CLR) is able to interact with other languages that conform to rushessay essay, the common type system and when compiled include certain metadata. The common type system defines how types are declared, used, and managed in the .NET runtime thus creating a framework that allows for homework type safety and ensures that objects written in various languages can share type information. Metadata is binary information describing the assemblies, types and attributes defined in rushessay the application that are stored either in a CLR portable executable (PE) or in memory if the assembly has been loaded.
Langauges that are currently being developed to target the .NET runtime include APL, C#, C++, COBOL, Component Pascal, Eiffel, Haskel#/Mondrian, Java, Mercury, Oberon, Perl, Python, Scheme, Smalltalk, Standard ML, and Visual Basic. Since it is very possible that certain features in one language have no analog in another, the .NET Framework provides the Common Language Specification (CLS), which describes a fundamental set of language features and defines rules for how those features are used. The CLS rules are a subset of the common type system that is aimed at ensuring cross-language interoperability by homework definitions, defining a set of features that are most common in programming languages. The C# compiler is a CLS compliant compiler meaning that it can be used to generate code that complies with the CLS. Rushessay Essay! The C# compiler can check for CLS compliance and issues an error when a program code uses functionality that is not supported by the CLS. To get the C# compiler to check for the CLS compliance of a piece of code, mark it with the need my essay [CLSCompliantAttribute(true)] attribute. Another aspect of cross language interoperability supported by C# is interaction with COM based objects. There are mechanisms that allow developers to use COM objects from C# code and essay vice versa.
C# objects can utilize COM objects if a wrapper class is academic goals, first created that defines the functions available in the COM object as well as some additional information. The wrapper class can then be used as if it were a regular C# object while the .NET runtime handles the complexities of marshalling arguments and the like. Creating the wrapper class can be done automatically using the tlbimp utility. If the utility is unable to rushessay essay, create a type library then one must be written by hand with foreknowledge of the coclasses and today interfaces being defined as well as the rushessay type library-to-assembly conversion rules. For a COM object to utilize a C# object, a typelib must be created that describes the C# object to COM aware applications. The tlbexp can be used to need my essay, create a typelib that describes the C# object's interface in a COM-like manner. Also the rushessay essay regasm utility can be used to register an assembly so it is available to COM.
When COM objects interact with the C# object, the runtime handles whatever marshalling of data that needs to occur between COM and .NET automatically. C# programs can also call almost any function in analytical essay any DLL using a combination of the extern keyword and the DllImport attribute on the method declaration. A major advantage of this is that the method being called does not have to be specifically written to be called from C#, nor is any wrapper necessary-so calling existing code in DLLs is relatively simple. To provide total control of releasing resources used by classes, C# provides the System.IDisposable interface which contains the Dispose() method that can be called by users of the class to release resources on completion of essay whatever task is at hand. Classes that manage resources such as database or file handles benefit from being disposable. Being diposable provides a deterministic way to release these resources when the class is need, no longer in use, which is not the case with finalizers in Java or C#. It is typical to call the rushessay essay SupressFinalize method of the GC class in the implementation of the Dispose method since it is likely that finalization by the runtime won't be needed since it will be provided explicitly via the Dispose method. C# also has some syntactic sugar via the definitions using keyword that makes releasing the resources used by classes occur in a more deterministic manner via the rushessay Dispose method.
If a class is disposable, it is best to make usage of the Dispose() method idempotent (i.e. multiple calls to Dispose() have no ill effects) which can be done by providing a flag that is checked within the today essay Dispose() method to see if the rushessay essay class has already been disposed or not. The example below shows a program where a class keeps a file open up until the Dispose() method is essay, called which indicates that the file no longer needs to be open. The above idiom is practically the same as having C++ style destructors without the essay worry of having to deal with memory allocation woes, making it the best of both worlds. The non-deterministic nature of aqa a-level coursework finalization has long been bemoaned by Java developers, it is rushessay, a welcome change to see that this will not be the case when using C#. Aqa A-level! Delegates are a mechanism for providing callback functions. Rushessay Essay! Delegates are akin to function pointers in C or functors in C++ and are useful in the same kinds of situation. One use of delegates is passing operations to a generic algorithm based on the types being used in the algorithm.
The C function qsort() is an example of this as are a variety of the C++ functions in algorithm like replace_if() and transform(). Another use of delegates is as a means to register handlers for a particular event (i.e. the someone to review my essay publish-subscribe model). To get the same functionality as C# delegates in Java, once can create interfaces that specify the signature of the callback method such as is done with the Comparable interface although this has the drawback of forcing the method to essay, be an instance method when it most likely should be static. To use delegates, one first declares a delegate that has the return type and accepts the same number of parameters as the methods one will want to invoke as callback functions. Secondly one needs to need, define a method that accepts an rushessay essay, instance of the delegate as a parameter. Once this is done, a method that has the same signature as the delegate (i.e. accepts same parameters and returns the same type) or has covariant return types and contravariant parameter types (i.e return type is derived from the return type of the delegate and the parameter types are ancestors of the corresponding parameters) can be created and used to initialize an instance of the delegate which can then be passed to the method that accepts that delegate as a parameter. Note that the same delegate can refer to definitions, static and instance methods, even at the same time, since delegates are multicast.
The example below shows the process of creating and using instance delegates. Rushessay! A delegate can be passed as a parameter to essay of frankenstein, a method in the same way that a function pointer is passed in essay languages like C and C++. The following code sample shows how this is today, done. In both Java and essay C#, items on the heap have to be garbage collected to reclaim the memory allocated to them when they are no longer in editorial nomos y thesis use while stack based objects are automatically reclaimed by the system. Memory on the stack is typically faster to rushessay, allocate than heap based memory. Editorial Y Thesis! In Java, all classes are created on rushessay the heap while primitives are created on the stack. This can lead to situations where objects that are used similarly to primitives in a program tend to hang around and wait for garbage collection thus adding overhead to the program. This can be bothersome, especially if the objects were used briefly and in a single location. To avoid the problem of allocating heap space for such classes and then having to garbage collect them, C# has a mechanism that allows one to specify that objects of a certain class should be stack based (In fact, C#'s built-in types such as int are actually implemented as structs in the runtime library).
Unlike classes, value types are always passed by value and are not garbage collected. And arrays of value types contain the actual value type objects, not references to dynamically-allocated objects-a savings of both memory and time. Aqa A-level Coursework! To specify stack based classes, one declares them using the keyword struct instead of class . To create C# structs (also known as value types) one uses the new keyword to create it as is done with classes. If the struct is instantiated with the default constructor syntax then a struct with its fields zeroed out is created. However, it is not possible to define a default constructor for a struct and override this behavior. The C# as operator is completely analogous to C++'s dynamic_cast construct.
The semantics of the as operator are that it attempts to perform an explict cast to a type and returns null if the rushessay operation was unsuccessful. NOTE: The as operator cannot be used to convert to or from value types. Properties are a way to abstract away from my essay directly accessing the members of a class, similar to essay, how accessors (getters) and modifiers (setters) are used in the Java world. A property is accessed by users of a class as if it was a field or member variable but in actuality is a method call. Accessing a member via a property allows for side effects when setting values or calculations when generating values while being transparent to the user of the class. Properties thus provide an explicit way to decouple the implementation of the member access from how it is actually used. It is possible to homework definitions, create, read-only, write-only or read-write properties depending on if the getter and setter are implemented or not. In addition, it is possible to create a property whose getter and setter have different visibility (e.g. a public getter but a private setter).
The example below shows different kinds of properties. Essay! The use of properties as an abstraction away from whether a member access is a method call or not may fall apart if the property throws an exception. When this occurs users of the object must then treat operations that look like member accesses as if they were method calls which can lead to unintuitive looking code. Need! The example below shows code that sets the values for the fields of a Clock class that where the rushessay essay setters throw an definitions, exception if the value is rushessay, invalid. To avoid situations like the one in the above example it is to review my essay, best that one avoids throwing exceptions in properties and rushessay essay handle the editorial exceptions that are thrown by methods used in the property. If throwing an exception is avoidable in some situations then the documentation for the property must adequately describe the exceptions that can be thrown and rushessay essay the circumstances that lead to them being thrown. C# makes the essay distinction between multidimensional and jagged arrays. A multidimensional array is akin to a multidimensional array in C or C++ that is a contiguous block containing members of the same type. A jagged array is akin to an array in Java which is an rushessay essay, array of arrays, meaning that it contains references to other arrays which may contain members of the same type or other arrays depending on how many levels the array has.
The code snippets below highlight the differences between multidimensional and jagged arrays. The lack of goals essay true multidimensional arrays in Java has made it problematic to essay, use Java in certain aspects of technical computing which has lead to computing coursework, various efforts to essay, improve this position including research efforts by IBM which involved writing their own Array class to get around the shortcomings in Java arrays. The following code snippet emphasizes the definitions differences between using multidimensional arrays and jagged arrays in rushessay essay C#. An indexer is a special syntax for overloading the  operator for a class. An indexer is teenagers face essay, useful when a class is a container for rushessay essay another kind of object. Indexers are flexible in that they support any type, such as integers or strings, as indexes. It is also possible to create indexers that allow multidimensional array syntax where one can mix and match different types as indexes. Finally, indexers can be overloaded.
C# includes a preprocessor that has a limited subset of the functionality of the C/C++ preprocessor. The C# preprocessor lacks the ability to #include files or perform textual substitutions using #define . Aqa A-level Computing! The primary functionality that remains is the ability to #define and #undef identifiers and also the ability to select which sections of essay code to compile based on the validity of certain expressions via #if , #elif , and #else . The #error and #warning directives cause the errors or warnings messages following these directives to be printed on compilation. The #pragma directive is used to supress compiler warning messages. Finally, there is the #line directive that can be used to specify the source file and analytical essay of frankenstein line number reported when the rushessay compiler detects errors. The using keyword can be used to alias the fully qualified name for a type similar to computing, the way typedef is used in rushessay essay C and C++. This is useful in creating readable code where the fully qualified name of a class is needed to resolve namespace conflicts. The Reflection.Emit namespace contains classes that can be used to generate .NET instruction language (IL) and use it to definitions, build classes in memory at runtime or even write portable executable (PE) files to disk. This is analagous to a Java library that would allow one to create Java classes at runtime by generating Java byte codes which could then be written to disks or loaded and used within the program.
It is expected that the primary users of the Reflection.Emit namespace will be authors of compilers and script engines. For instance, the regular expression classes in System.Text.RegularExpressions use the Reflection.Emit library to generate a custom matching engine for each regular expression compiled. Although core C# is like Java in essay that there is no access to a pointer type that is aqa a-level computing, analogous to pointer types in C and C++, it is possible to have pointer types if the C# code is executing in an unsafe context. When C# code is executing in an unsafe context, a lot of runtime checking is rushessay, disabled which means that the program must have full trust on the machine it is running on. Teenagers Face Today Essay! Certain situations call for the use of unsafe code such as when interfacing with the underlying operating system, during interactions with COM objects that take structures that contain pointers, when accessing a memory-mapped device or in situations where performance is critical. The syntax and semantics for essay writing unsafe code is similar to the syntax and semantics for analytical using pointers in C and C++. To write unsafe code, the unsafe keyword must be used to specify the code block as unsafe and the program must be compiled with the /unsafe compiler switch.
Since garbage collection may relocate managed (i.e. Rushessay Essay! safe) variables during the execution of a program, the aqa a-level coursework fixed keyword is provided so that the address of a managed variable is rushessay essay, pinned during the execution of the parts of the program within the fixed block. Without the fixed keyword there would be little purpose in being able to homework, assign a pointer to the address of rushessay essay a managed variable since the runtime may move the variable from that address as part of the mark compact garbage collection process. In Java the need someone to review my essay arguments to essay, a method are passed by value meaning that a method operates on copies of the need my essay items passed to it instead of on essay the actual items. In C#, as in C++ and in a sense C, it is possible to specify that the nomos y thesis arguments to a method actually be references to the items being passed to the method instead of copies. This feature is particularly useful when one wants to create a method that returns more than one object. In Java trying to return multiple values from a method is essay, not supported and leads to interesting anomalies like the fact that a method that swaps two numbers which has been the hallmark of freshman computer science classes for years is impossible to nomos y thesis, do in Java without resorting to coding tricks.
The C# keywords used to specify that a parameter is being passed by reference are ref and out . The difference between the rushessay keywords is that parameters passed using ref must be initialized to some value while those passed using out do not have to be. A more detailed explanation of Java's lack of Pass By Reference semantics is available in to review my essay the Javaworld article, Does Java pass by essay, reference or pass by value? Why can't you swap in Java? by Tony Sintes. C# provides the ability to avoid the usage of escape sequences within string constants and instead declare strings literally. Thus backslashes, tabs, quotes and newlines can be part of a string without using escape sequences.
The only caveat is that double quotes that appear within verbatim strings should be doubled. Verbatim strings are specified by prepending the @ symbol to string declarations. C# provides the option to explicitly detect or ignore overflow conditions in expressions and type conversions. Overflow conditions detected in code throw a System.OverFlowException . Since overflow detection causes a performance hit it can be explicitly enabled by using the need someone to review my essay /checked+ compiler option. One can also mandate code that must always be checked for overflow conditions by placing it in a checked block or that must always be ignored with regards to overflow detection by placing it in an unchecked block.
Sometimes when a class implements an interface it is rushessay, possible for there to be namespace collisions with regards to method names. For instance, a FileRepresentation class which has a graphical user interface may implement an IWindow and an IFileHandler interface. Need Someone! Both of these classes may have a Close method where in the case of IWindow it means to close the essay GUI window while in the case of IFileHandler it means to close the teenagers face today essay file. In Java, there is rushessay, no solution to this problem besides writing one Close method that does the same thing when invoked via an IWindow handle or an IFileHandler handle. C# gets around this problem by allowing one to bind method implementations to specific intefaces. Thus in the aformentioned example, the FileRepresentation class would have different Close methods that would be invoked depending on whether the class was being treated as an IWindow or an IFileHandler. NOTE: Explicit interface methods are private and can only be accessed if the object is cast to the required type before invoking the method. The friend assembly feature allows an need to review, internal type or internal member of an rushessay, assembly to be accessed from another assembly.
To give one assembly access to another assembly's internal types and members, the [InternalsVisibleToAttribute] attribute is used. The following code sample shows 2 source files which are compiled into friend_assembly_test.dll and friend_assembly_test_2.exe which utilize the goals friend's assembly feature. The larger a project gets, the more likely it is that namespace collisions will occur. Rushessay! C# has the :: operator which is used for specifying at problems teenagers face what scope a namespace should be resolved. The left operand indicates the scope at which to resolve the name while the right operand is the name to resolve. The left operand can either be the keyword global which refers to rushessay, the global scope or a namespace alias as shown below. NOTE: The extern alias statement can be used to attach an alias to definitions, an assembly which can then be used as the left operand of the :: operator. When this is done the scope used for name resolution is the top level namespace(s) within the essay assembly. For a data structure to support being a target of the foreach loop it must implement or return an instance of System.Collections.IEnumerable . However writing an Enumerator can be somewhat cumbersome which is where the yield keyword comes in. The yield keyword enables one to convert any method or property into an iterator. In an iterator, one simply traverses the data structure and returns its contents one by one using the yield return statement and indicates the end of the sequence of values with the yield break statement.
The method or property must return one of IEnumerable, IEnumerableT, IEnumerator or IEnumeratorT. A partial class is specified by essay of frankenstein, prefixing the keyword partial to the class declaration. The following code sample shows a partial class that is defined across two source files. Note how methods and properties from one source file can reference members defined in another. It should be noted that all of the class attributes are merged across all definitions of a class. This means that contradictory attributes (e.g. class declared as private in one file and public in another) are disallowed.
A static class is a class that has no instance members, no instance constructors and rushessay cannot be used as a base class. A static class should be used to define types for which instances don't make sense such as the System.Environment and System.Math classes. A static class is specified by analytical essay, prefixing the class declaration with the rushessay keyword static . A nullable types is an aqa a-level computing coursework, instance of the System.Nullable type. Rushessay! A nullable type can represent the normal range of editorial y thesis values for an underlying value type as well as the rushessay essay null value. For example, the type Nullablebool can represent the values true , false and null . A nullable type can be declared by editorial nomos y thesis, appending the operator '?' to the name of essay a value type when declaring the variable. This means that bool? is equivalent to academic essay writing, Nullablebool . Each nullable type has a boolean HasValue property which indicates whether it represents a valid value type or the value null . The actual value of the nullable type is stored in its Value property.
There is also the GetValueOrDefault() method which either returns the value of the nullable type or the default value of the underlying value type if it is null . Nullable types are particularly useful when mapping C# objects to relational database schemas since null is a valid value for all data types in SQL databases. The ?? operator is called the null coalescing operator and is used for testing the value of a nullable type and returning its value or an alternate if its value is null. Thus x ?? y is equivalent to x == (null ? y : x) . Anonymous methods are a companion feature to rushessay, delegates. An anonymous method is a code block that can be used where a delegate method is expected. Aqa A-level Computing! This simplifies code that uses delegates by not requiring a separate method to implement the delegate's functionality. The following code sample compares the essay anonymous method approach to using a named delegate. There are a number of restrictions to anonymous methods that must be kept in mind. For one, jump statements like break , goto and continue cannot be used o jump into an anonymous method from outside the code block or vice versa. Editorial! Also anonymous methods cannot refer to ref or out rushessay essay, parameters that are defined outside the scope of the method. Before the advent of exceptions, most error handling was done via return codes.
There are many advantages of exceptions over return codes that are typically touted including the fact that exceptions. provide a consistent means to handle errors and other exceptional conditions. enable an error to propagate up the call stack if not handled in the current context. allow developers to seperate error handling code from general application logic. Java creates an additional wrinkle by possessing both checked and unchecked exceptions. Checked exceptions are exceptions that the calling method must handle either by catching the exception or declaring that the goals exception should be handled by its calling method via the throws clause. Rushessay! On the other hand, unchecked exceptions (also called runtime exceptions) do not have to be caught or declared in the throws clause. In a sense unchecked exceptions are similar to return codes in that they can be ignored without warnings or errors being issued by the compiler. Although if an exception is ignored at runtime, your program will terminate. Checked exceptions are typically used to indicate to need someone, a calling method that the callee failed in its task as well as pass information as to how and rushessay why it failed. One must either catch a checked exception or declare it in the throws clause of the method or the Java compiler will issue an error. The reasoning behind the fact that the exception must be declared in the throws clause is that handling whatever errors that can occur when the method is used is just as important as knowing what parameters it accepts and the kind of type it returns. Unchecked exceptions are typically exceptions that can occur in most parts of the program and thus the overhead of explicitly checking for them outweighs their usefulness due to the massive code bloat that would ensue.
Examples of teenagers situations that throw unchecked exceptions are accessing a null object reference, trying to access an out of bounds index of an essay, array or a division by zero. In all of the aforementioned cases it would be cumbersome to put try. catch blocks around every the code (for instance a try. catch block around every object access or every array access) and they are better off as unchecked exceptions. In C#, all exceptions are unchecked and there is no analog to the throws clause. One major side effect of this is academic goals essay writing, that unless the creator of the API explicitly documents the rushessay exceptions thrown then it is not possible for the users of the API to know what exceptions to catch in their code leading to problems teenagers face essay, unrobust applications that can fail unexpectedly. Thus users of C# are reliant on the documentation skill of programmers as their primary error handling mechanism which is a less than optimal situation. For instance in the following code snippet, the only way to know what exceptions can be thrown by the method below is to rushessay, either have the source code for teenagers today essay all the rushessay methods called within it or if the developer of the method documents all the exceptions thrown by homework, all the methods called within it (meaning that the developers of those methods must have done the same ad infinitum). The above code snippet is rushessay, from the goals .NET Framework Beta 2 documentation for the Socket class.
Note how there no exceptions caught in the code. If this was a method in a real application as opposed to a sample, it would be impossible for rushessay essay the users of this method to know what exceptions to face essay, catch without access to the source code or without the rushessay essay author of the method painstakingly checking what exceptions are thrown by every single method called and then documenting them. Analytical! Below is the list of exceptions that could be thrown within the method according to their entries in the Microsoft .NET framework Beta 2 documentation. If the author of the method does not have time to document the exceptions that may be thrown from this method or happens to leave out an important one, such as the SocketException in this case, then the users of the method could have their applications fail unexpectedly without an elegant means of recovery in place. In the above case, the main exception of interest to users would probably be the SocketException since the others are all related to rushessay essay, the internal workings of the method and don't really have anything to computing coursework, do with the rushessay caller and in fact would probably be unchecked exceptions if they existed in Java. In practice the GetMessageFromServer method would check the validity of its string parameter and throw ArgumentNException or one of its subclasses depending the essay results of the rushessay essay check. The rationale for excluding checked exceptions from C# has never been fully explained by Microsoft but this message from Eric Gunnerson of the C# team sheds some light on problems today the reasoning behind this decision. The primary reason for rushessay essay this choice according to Gunnerson is that examination of small programs led to the conclusion that using checked exceptions could both enhance developer productivity and enhance code quality. On the other hand experience with large software projects suggested that using checked exceptions decreased productivity with little or no increase in code quality. Writing! The lack of checked exceptions in C# will be very unsettling for Java developers and may lead to program designs which are flawed.
One only has to remember the anecdote about essay how originally a considerable amount of the editorial exceptions in the Java API were unchecked but upon changing them to checked exceptions a number of bugs and rushessay essay design flaws were found in the API. Hopefully this will be remedied in later versions of C# or a third party could develop a static source code analysis tool such as lint. Homework Definitions! Meanwhile C# developers must take care to document all exceptions thrown from their methods that callers should be aware of rushessay essay as a matter of consideration. This is not to say that documentation should not typically exist but since it is the only means to ensure exception safe C# code then its importance is now a much greater. A major selling point of Java#8482; technologies is that applications written in Java are portable across a number of operating systems and computing platforms. Sun officially supports Linux, Windows and Solaris but other vendors have implemented Java on a large range of platforms including OS/2, AIX and essay MacOS. Homework! Binary compatibility across platforms using similar Java versions is the essay norm except for situations involving bugs in various VM implementations.
At the time of this writing C# is only available on Windows. Efforts are currently in place to definitions, port it to other platforms, including Linux and FreeBSD. Linux porting is being done as part of the Mono project developed by Ximian while the FreeBSD implementation is a Microsoft project codenamed rotor. The Java extension mechanism enables developers to rushessay, extend the abilities of the today core Java platform. Developers can create classes and packages which are treated by the Java runtime as if they are core Java classes and packages like java.lang, java.util, java.net, etc. This means that extensions do not have to be placed on the class path since they are treated as if they are part of the core libraries such as those in the Java runtime library, rt.jar . Extensions are contained within JAR files and once installed are available to essay, all applications running on the target platform. A C# parallel would be the ability to coursework, create assemblies that are treated as if they are part of the System namespace contained in the System.dll assembly. In the above example the value printed by calling halfOfSquareFP() will be Infinity regardless of what JVM the application is run on. This is because Java enforces left-to-right evaluation of arguments and 6.6e+307 multiplied by 4.0 exceeds the maximum value for a double thus leading to essay, all subsequent operations yielding Infinity.
On the other hand the value printed on calling halfOfSquareNFP() may not be the same on different JVMs depending on coursework whether the target platform and JVM implementation support storing intermediate values in an extended format that has a larger range than that of doubles. Thus on some platforms the value 1.32E308 is printed as the rushessay essay value returned by halfOfSquareNFP() while on others Infinity is homework, printed. Section 4.1.5 of the C# specification covers floating point numbers and states that due to the excessive performance costs of enforcing that certain architectures perform operations with less precision than is possible, there is no way to rushessay essay, enforce FP-strictness in C#. The ability to dynamically load classes at runtime in Java is a very powerful feature especially when combined with a remote procedure call mechanism. Dynamic class loading enables Java applications to download the class files (i.e. byte codes) of classes that do not exist on the target machine.
An object type that only editorial, exists on one machine can be transferred to other machines in a seamless and transparent manner. Thus new types can be introduced on a remote machine which allows the behavior of remote applications to be significantly extended at essay runtime. The following example shows an example of a remote application that accepts types that implement a certain interface, IStockTicker. The obtainName() remote method in the above class accepts types that implement the IStockTicker interface. It is possible for this method to be invoked from a remote client which then passes a type that implements IStockTicker, for example NASDAQStock, that does not exist on the server where the MyRMIServer class lives. Writing! In this case the entire code needed for NASDAQStock class is transmitted from the client to the remote server automatically. C# and the .NET Remoting mechanism also enable remotely downloading classes from one machine to the other but the client has to rushessay essay, publish the assembly and the server can then load it via a URL. For information on Java Remote Method Invokation (RMI) read the Java tutorial on RMI.
Information on .NET Remoting with C# is explained in this introduction to .NET remoting and this technical overview on MSDN. In Java it is possible for constants to be declared in interfaces which are then available to implementing classes while in C# this is not allowed. This may not be a big issue in C# since the primary usage of constants declared in interfaces is as a poor emulation of enumerations. An anonymous inner class is need to review my essay, a class declaration that occurs at the same point where an instance of that class is created. Anonymous inner classes are typically used where only rushessay essay, one instance of need someone my essay a type will exist in the application. The most popular usage of anonymous inner classes is for essay specifying callbacks especially in the Java GUI libraries but there are other situations where anonymous inner classes are beneficial as well. Below is an example of using anonymous inner classes to implement the State Design Pattern. The static import feature makes it possible to access static members of a class without having specify the class name. This feature is intended to reduce the verbosity of code that frequently access the static members of a particular class (e.g. constants defined in a particular helper class). A static import similar to aqa a-level coursework, a regular import statement except that the keyword static is used and instead of importing a package, a specific class is imported.
Most developers, especially those with a background in C or C++, would probably agree that features like operator overloading, pointers, preprocessor directives, delegates and essay deterministic object cleanup make C# more expressive than Java in a number of cases. Essay! Similarly, Java developers who learn C# will be pleasantly surprised at features that are missing in Java that will seem glaring in their absence once one uses them in C#, such as boxing, enumerations and pass by reference. On the other hand the lack of checked exceptions, inner classes, cross platform portability or the fact that a class is not the smallest unit of distribution of code makes the choice of C# over Java not a clearcut case of choosing more language features without having to make any compromises. It is my opinion that both languages are similar enough that they could be made to mirror each other without significant effort if so required by either user base. Essay! In this case, C# would have it easier than Java in that C# has less to borrow from Java than Java would have to borrow from C#. However, the true worth of a programming language that is intended for use outside of academia is how quickly the language evolves to adapt to the changing technological landscape and what kind of community surrounds the language. Some programming languages are akin to the French language under the Les Immortels of the Acad¨¦mie Française in analytical essay France.
Les immortels are charged with dictating what constitutes the official French language but they have been slow to adapt to the information age thus their edicts on rushessay what constitutes the essay proper French versions of new words, especially those related to technology, are usually ignored especially since they either conflict with what the general French public would rather call them and essay show up long after the unsanctioned words have already entered the coursework lexicon. C++ is an example of essay a language that has undergone a process of balkanization closely resembling the French language under the Les Immortels of the Acad¨¦mie Française while Java under Sun Microsystems can be considered to be a language that has evolved with the times similar to how the English language has done. Analytical Essay Of Frankenstein! Thus the question really becomes, which of these languages looks like it will evolve with the times and be easiest to adapt to rushessay, new situations as they arise? So far, Sun has done a great job with Java although a lack of academic goals writing versioning support and the non-existence of a framework that enables extensibility of the rushessay essay language built into the platform makes drastic evolution difficult. C# with its support for versioning via the .NET framework and someone my essay the existence of attributes which can be used to extend the rushessay features of the language looks like it would in the long run be the homework more adaptable language. Only time will tell however if this prediction is accurate. As predicted in the original conclusion to rushessay, this paper, a number of homework features have become common across both C# and Java since 2001. These features include generics, foreach loops, enumerations, boxing, variable length parameter lists and rushessay metadata annotations. However after years of convergence it seems that C# and Java are about to go in editorial nomos y thesis radically different directions. Essay! The current plans for C# 3.0 are highlighted in goals essay the Language Integrated Query (LINQ) Project which encompasses integrating a number of data oriented features including query, set operations, transformations and type inferencing directly into the C# language. In combination with some of C#'s existing features like anonymous methods and nullable types, the differences between C# and Java will become more stark over the next few years in contrast to the feature convergence that has been happening over the past few years.
Eckel, Bruce. Thinking In Java. Prentice Hall, 2000. The following people helped in reviewing and rushessay proofreading this article: Paul Johns, David Dagon, Dr. Aqa A-level Computing! Yannis Smaragdakis , Dmitri Alperovitch, Dennis Lu and Sanjay Bhatia.
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colour of blue essay A Computer Darkroom Essay. I published my first essay on rushessay Photoshop Color Management back in the days of version 5 . Aqa A-level Computing! Back then ICC based color management was in its infancy and rushessay essay many Photoshop users needed all the help they could get to understand the myriad of analytical essay of frankenstein, options, dialogs, alerts, etc. With version Photoshop CS6 now in rushessay the hands of users it's time to see what has changed. The first and most obvious change since CS5 is the UI. However, color management remains very similar in both look and feel to versions dating back as far as CS2, which is a good thing because existing users will be up and running fairly quickly. It's for this reason that the problems essay, essay is, for the most part, simply an update of earlier versions rather than a complete rewrite. The one exception being the rushessay, changes introduced to the new Print dialog . A Swedish language translation of this essay is computing, available here. Section 1 - Color Management Primer.
Components of rushessay essay, a Color Management System. A typical imaging system will consist of input and output devices, for example: scanners, digital cameras, monitors, and printers. Unfortunately, with such a diverse range of essay of frankenstein, device types, technologies, and gamut limitations, it's inevitable that they will each reproduce the same color differently (i.e. color is device dependent ). Obviously, this will present significant problems when working with documents originating from different sources, and will be further complicated when the same document is destined for different types of output device. Rushessay! Therefore, some means of computing, ensuring that color data is rushessay essay, reproduced in editorial nomos y thesis a predictable way throughout the entire imaging system is rushessay, essential. Nomos Y Thesis! This is the purpose of a Color Management System (CMS). A color managed system comprises three basic components, namely: - A device-independent color space - this is usually referred to as the Working or Reference color space. ICC profiles for rushessay, each device (i.e. printer, scanner, monitor, digital camera, etc.) that will accurately describe the editorial y thesis, unique color characteristics of rushessay essay, each device. A Color Matching Module (CMM) that will interpret the analytical, information contained within the device profiles and rushessay carry out the instructions on how the color characteristics of each device should be treated. Color Numbers, their Meaning and ICC Profiles. A digital image will usually comprise many millions pixels, each of which is represented by essay of frankenstein a numeric values. The values assigned to each pixel will describe many attributes but in this essay it's the rushessay essay, color value or mix (e.g.
RGB value) that we're most interested in. As I have already mentioned, when a color is device-dependent, the appearance of pixels with identical values will very often differ because each device has its own unique way of aqa a-level, translating the color value or number into visual color. The role of ICC profiles is to ensure that discrepancies that result from the widely differing color characteristics of each device are known to essay, the color management system. If we were discussing spoken language rather than color, then the aqa a-level computing coursework, ICC profile would be synonymous with a translator. Device profiles come in two basic forms, i.e. Essay! Input and Output profiles. Input profiles typically describe the color characteristics of scanners and digital cameras, whereas Output profiles describe devices such as monitors, printers and need someone film recorders.
Input profiles are often referred to as one-way since they represent the source device. This means we can never convert a document into the color space of our scanner or digital camera. Output profiles, on the other hand, are two-way meaning we can convert From or To them. For example, we can convert a document with an embedded monitor profile into one that has a color profile describing a printer, or vice versa. The application software and drivers associated with most consumer class inkjet printers, film and flatbed scanner applications have been ICC aware for some time now with many vendors usually choosing sRGB as their preferred color space. This is a bit of essay, a misnomer because sRGB is not a device color space.
Clearly, these vendors are doing some work behind the homework, scenes so as to keep things simple for the user, which isn't necessarily as wise as it might first appear. The reason being that sRGB isn’t generally regarded as appropriate for high quality image editing, especially when print or film output is required. So, to rushessay essay, overcome this some vendors also provide the aqa a-level coursework, user with the option of choosing from a small selection of alternatives. For example, printer vendors such as Epson provide generic ICC profiles with their photo class printers, although its generally accepted these profiles are rarely as accurate as users would like. Nevertheless, they are getting better with each new generation of printer. As a rule, truly accurate color matching usually requires customised ICC profiles for each device and/or media type. These ICC profiles can be created professionally or you can buy your own profiling application software.
Why bother with Profiles and Color Management? Even though color correction and color management are not the same thing they're often confused with each other, especially by the novice Photoshop user. Explaining the difference can very often lead to even more confusion, but hopefully the following explanation will provide some help. We have already established that the color characteristics of most imaging devices tend to be unique to that device. Rushessay! Likewise, it's very rare for them to be truly linear (i.e. R=G=B=Neutral). Sometimes this second characteristic is today essay, referred to as the rushessay, device being badly behaved; with scanners and printers being good examples of badly behaved devices. Obviously, it would be extremely difficult to edit a document where a group of essay, pixels with values of R=G=B=128 (i.e. grey) actually appeared on the monitor to be significantly non-neutral. In such circumstances color correction would an absolute nightmare. To overcome these discrepancies we usually carry out all our editing in color spaces that are well behaved or independent of essay, any specific device.
In Photoshop well behaved color spaces are more usually referred to as the computing, Working Spaces , and essay are always characterised by aqa a-level coursework RGB values that appear neutral when all three are equal. These Device Independent color spaces do not behave like, nor are they influenced by, any real world device. So, in this respect it could be argued that Working Spaces are based on synthetic color spaces . So, we have Device Profiles and rushessay essay Working Space Profiles - how do they interact ? The first thing we need to understand is goals, that for any color profile to be useful to the color management system it must conform with the ICC standard. Essay! In fact, you'll more often see such profiles referred to as just ICC profiles. Aqa A-level Coursework! Anyway, without the aid of device profiles the rushessay essay, accurate translation of the document color data (the RGB numbers) from the scanner or digital camera into the Working Space will prove very difficult, if not impossible. Likewise, without the academic goals essay, aid of accurate media specific printer profiles, the translation from the Working Space into the color space of a digital printer will prove equally difficult. We also need an accurate monitor profile so as to ensure that what we see on the monitor is a true representation of the document color. The following flow diagram demonstrates a typical imaging workflow, with the document being passed between devices: - from scanner/digital camera - to - computer - to - monitor - and printer.
So, the main benefit offered by color management is that the rushessay, process of problems teenagers essay, color correction can be undertaken in the knowledge that the document displayed on the monitor is an rushessay accurate visual representation of the original subject, and that the final print will accurately reflect the essay, colors of the document being displayed. Just like its more recent predecessors Photoshop CS6 continues to use document specific color settings, Actually, the Working Space that's chosen in the Color Settings dialog has a direct bearing on only three types of document, viz.: - The default color space of new documents created via the New command found in the File menu. Existing documents without an embedded ICC profile. Imported documents with no embedded ICC profile (i.e. untagged documents), which might include scanned documents or those emanating from digital cameras. Document specific color means that it's the ICC profile embedded within the document that determines how it will be displayed (it's appearance) and not the essay, default Photoshop Working Space. To Review! With Photoshop CS6 you can have multiple documents, each in its own unique Working Space, open at rushessay essay, the same time, and aqa a-level each will be displayed accurately.
Of course all of this assumes you're using an accurately calibrated and characterised monitor. Section 2 - Monitor Calibration and rushessay Characterisation. Monitor calibration and characterisation (profiling) is probably the most important aspect of analytical essay, a color managed workflow; yet many users seem oblivious to the issues poor monitor calibration can can have on rushessay their documents. So, what is calibration, why is it so important, and coursework why is essay, it different from y thesis characterisation? Calibration is a process whereby a device is brought to a standard state (e.g. a color temperature of 6500K and essay gamma of analytical essay, 2.2), whereas characterising the monitor is the process of determining how the monitor represents or reproduces color. We characterise the monitor by rushessay essay measuring how it displays known color values, then creating an ICC profile. The ICC profile is simply a data file that includes a description of the monitors’ color handling characteristics (i.e. Goals! its gamut). The calibration data will also be written into the ICC profile. Rushessay! As I've already mentioned, Photoshop then uses the monitor profile to automatically optimise the display of documents. It does so by academic essay carrying out an on-the-fly conversion between your document profile (e.g. ProPhoto RGB, Adobe RGB, sRGB, ColorMatch) and your monitor profile.
This conversion does not alter the actual document in any way; just its appearance on the monitor. Adobe stopped shipping Adobe Gamma with the Mac version of Photoshop a few versions back, but for a while kept it for Windows. This was because there was no software only alternative. Since Apple Display Calibrator Assistant was still installed within System Preferences Mac users never really found the absence of Adobe Gamma to be a problem. However, given that Windows Vista and essay Windows 7 don't play well with certain utilities, it was inevitable that Adobe Gamma would eventually be dropped from the Windows version of Photoshop. So, it came as no surprise that as of definitions, Photoshop CS3 Adobe stopped shipping Adobe Gamma.
For what it's worth, I think we can safely assume that Adobe will never again ship a monitor calibration utility with Photoshop. Obviously, software only monitor calibration applications use the rushessay, human eye to determine tone and color differences between a series of white/grey/black/color patches. However, it should go without saying that the eye isn't the most accurate method of measuring these differences. Therefore, my recommendation would be to use a hardware based system such as the Datacolor Spyder, X-rite Photo ColorMunki or X-rite Photo i1 Display Pro . Tip for Mac OS X users: a tutorial describing the process of calibrating a display with the Apple Display Calibrator Assistant can be found here . Useful Information on location of ICC/ColorSync Profiles. Photoshop CS6 is of frankenstein, only compatible with Windows XP with Service Pack 3 or Windows 7 with Service Pack 1 on the PC platform and OS X 10.6.8 or higher on the Mac platform. The upside of this is that the ICC and ColorSync profiles are more easily found.
Windows XP and rushessay essay Windows 7 - sub-folder named Windowssystem32spooldriverscolor. Mac OS X - ColorSync profiles are generally located in either the editorial nomos, Library/ColorSync/Profiles or Users/ Section 3 - Photoshop CS6 Color Settings. The Color Settings dialog is the essay, control room for academic goals essay writing, the Photoshop color management system, and like all control rooms it can appear complicated. If you already use Photoshop CS5 or earlier you'll likely have Color Settings configured to meet your needs, and it's probably best that you stick with those settings. On the essay, other hand new users should pour themselves a cup of strong coffee and problems essay pull up a chair because what follows is not always easy to understand, and may take a few attempts to essay, sink in.
Whether you use Mac or Windows the problems face essay, appearance and list of options within the Color Setting dialog, and essay elsewhere within Photoshop CS6, is to all intents and purposes identical. So, begin by opening the Color Settings, which is found towards the bottom of the homework, Edit menu. Figure 1 - Photoshop CS6 Default Color Settings. The first thing that I will draw your attention to is the rushessay essay, box at analytical of frankenstein, the bottom of the dialog labelled Description . As the rushessay, mouse is moved across the various pop-up menus, etc. you should see a short but informative explanation of what each menu does. Need To Review! Also note the button labelled More Options ; it's probably best that you select it now, as it will let you see the complete Color Settings dialog rather than the simplified version. The default RGB color setting depends upon your location but generally you'll find that it's either: North America General Purpose 2 or Europe General Purpose 3 . Essay! If you're working with documents that are primarily destined for the web then either is perfectly acceptable. However, if you're documents are destined for print then these settings are generally regarded as being less than ideal. So, if the General Purpose settings are not ideal, what is? I could answer the above question by simply writing US or Europe Prepress Defaults , but doing so doesn't really help explain why nor would it be strictly true. Therefore, I will work my way through each section of the Color Settings dialog in turn.
The first section is homework, labelled Settings , and is a simple pop-up menu with a list of preset Photoshop settings plus any that you may have saved previously. You needn't worry too much about rushessay essay this section just yet. The next section (figure 3) is labelled Working Spaces, and as I discussed earlier the selections made here will determine the Working Space profiles used for need to review, color handling of your documents. Figure 3 - Default Working Space Profiles. There are four Working Space types in Photoshop: RGB, CMYK, Gray and Spot (occasionally called Modes because they appear under the rushessay essay, ImageMode menu). Aqa A-level! Since configuring the rushessay essay, others follows a similar process I will concentrate on the RGB Working Space.
Also note that the term Working Space should not be confused with Workspace, which is used by analytical essay Adobe to describe the layout of palettes, menu bars, etc. Working Space relates specifically to the various color modes available in Photoshop. Clicking the RGB pop-up menu with the mouse will produce a list of options similar to that shown below (figure 4). Rushessay! In this example I've selected Adobe RGB (1998) as the RGB Working Space. You'll also notice that it appears grouped with four other Working Spaces, these historically being the most popular choices of Photoshop professionals, but not necessarily the best. Typically, sRGB will be confined to situations were the teenagers essay, user is solely interested in web design. ColorMatch RGB was once a favoured choice of many Mac users and Apple RGB is apparently for essay, Mac web design. Notice the analytical essay, inclusion of ProPhoto RGB , which was previously only available from the extended list of profiles. ProPhoto RGB has been my preferred working space for quite a few years now. It's actually a very wide color space that encompasses the entire range of colors that your likely to encounter.
For this reason it's now generally regarded as the optimum color space when your output is destined for essay, dye-sub, inkjet photo printers or Hi-fi color. However, be warned that opening or viewing documents that use this color space in non color savvy (non ICC compliant) applications will result in colors appearing significantly different from those shown in Photoshop. If you look just above the five common Working Spaces you should also find options for Monitor RGB , and in the case of Mac systems ColorSync RGB . Monitor RGB is the color space of your monitor as created by your calibration utility or hardware calibration device. Y Thesis! Generally, it isn't a good idea to use the rushessay, monitor profile as your Working Space, but it's important that does appear in the list. It's often claimed that Photoshop has no obvious way of informing the user which monitor profile is actually being used.
Well, a quick check for Monitor RGB in the RGB Working Space pop-up should be enough to put your mind at definitions, rest. If Monitor RGB is showing something other than the profile you created when calibrating the monitor it is essential that you investigate the essay, reason and make the appropriate corrections. The actual list of options available for selection as Working Spaces differs according to whether More Options is activated, or not. If you chose to activate More Options then the of frankenstein, list of available RGB profiles will be quite extensive. Desktop type inkjet printers from Epson, Canon and rushessay essay HP actually require RGB data rather than CMYK , which means that the choice you make for this particular Working Space will have no influence in their actual output. Face Today! This is the main reason that I leave it set at rushessay essay, the default US Web Coated (SWOP) v2 , and if using a desktop inkjet, then I suggest that you do likewise. So, other than the list of available profiles, the procedure for choosing CMYK Working Space isn't that different to RGB. Again, having More Options activated gives you a more extensive list. With the Grayscale Working Space we have access to two gamma settings, a series of five preset dot gain curves, the ColorSync Gray Work Space (Mac only) and the ability to nomos y thesis, customise the dot gain to essay, our own requirements. The Gray Gamma 2.2 is probably the aqa a-level coursework, best for most users, but feel free to experiment. Also note, that if you choose to use a Custom Gamma or Dot Gain this will be the Working Space listed in the Gray Working Space pop-up menu.
Another very important point regarding Grayscale is that it’s not tied to the CMYK setup! This is why some legacy greyscale documents might not look quite the same as they did in Photoshop 5.x (does anyone still use Photoshop 5?) The Spot pop-up menu is broadly similar to essay, the greyscale, but for goals essay, spot colors. The options that we find include a series of essay, five preset Dot Gain options and the facility for customising the Dot Gain curve if required. The screen shot shown below indicates that I've selected 20% Dot Gain version as my default. Color Management Policies was a new and very important feature that was introduced by in need my essay Photoshop 6. Its importance continues in CS6, which is why I tend to spend so much time trying to rushessay, explain the various options. Definitions! Figure 5 below shows the default setup, but this hides a lot of important information.
Figure 5 - Photoshop CS6 Default Color Management Policies. Based on feedback, this section of the rushessay essay, essay is someone, probably the one that causes new Photoshop users greatest difficulty. Nevertheless, it's an important aspect of rushessay essay, Photoshop that is better to understand than ignore. Someone My Essay! Therefore, the explanation that I give below will appear quite wordy. Basically, each Working Space will have the same set of three policy options, although you need not configure each identically. The Color Management Policies are: - In simple terms, the Off Policy ensures that Photoshop does as little as possible when dealing with ICC profiles. Rushessay! In most situations it isn't the ideal choice and contrary to popular believe it's certainly not the panacea for new users that some would have them believe. Figure 6 - RGB Color Policy is analytical essay, Off. The following explanation will give you some idea as to the behaviour of Photoshop when this option is selected. Choosing Off will mean that all new documents will be created without an embedded ICC profile.
Likewise, when you save them there will be no embedded profile within the document. Generally, documents that do not contain an embedded ICC profile are referred to rushessay essay, as being untagged, which invariably means that their color appearance will vary on different monitors and even within different applications on the same computer. Opening an existing document that contains an embedded ICC profile that matches the current Working Space means that Photoshop will honour the editorial, embedded profile, and that this profile will subsequently be saved with the document once you've completed editing same. The default Pasting behaviour between documents is to retain numerical values (RGB pixel values), not the appearance. This means that no conversion between color spaces will take place and rushessay will often lead to the pasted section of the document taking on nomos a radically different appearance to that of the rushessay essay, original. Opening an existing document that contains an embedded ICC profile that does not match the current Working Space (i.e. profile mismatch) will cause that embedded profile to be stripped out of the document. The document will subsequently be saved with no embedded profile. With this policy you'll find that when the Ask When Opening warning checkbox is also unchecked a warning similar to y thesis, that shown in figure 7 will appear. The problem with this configuration is rushessay essay, that the user either accepts what Photoshop dictates or doesn't open the homework definitions, document at all, not much of a choice.
Activating the Don't show again checkbox will ensure that you're no longer nagged by rushessay the alert dialog, but be aware documents that contain an nomos embedded profile that differs significantly from the current Working Space will generally have a less than optimal appearance. (b) Preserve Embedded Profiles (default) For most situations this policy offers the greatest degree of flexibility and therefore is to be preferred. The following explanation should give you an idea as to the behaviour of Photoshop CS6 when this policy is selected. Choosing Preserve Embedded Profiles means that when you open an existing document into Photoshop that has an embedded ICC profile that differs from the rushessay essay, current Working Space, then that document and its associated profile will be left intact. Academic Goals Writing! In other words Photoshop will make no attempt to convert the document to rushessay essay, the current Working Space; the original embedded profile will be retained and subsequently saved with the document. Nevertheless, even though the analytical of frankenstein, document and Photoshop are no longer in rushessay essay sync, color space wise, the document preview will still be accurate. If you're unclear as to need someone, why this should be then see explanation of document specific color in Section 1. When opening an existing document with an embedded ICC profile that matches the rushessay, current Working Space Photoshop will take no action; the document is opened and saved as normal. The default behaviour when pasting either an RGB or Grayscale document is slightly more complex whereby the homework, appearance of the pasted documented will be preserved but the numbers will change (i.e. the pixel values will change). Rushessay! In the case of face today essay, CMYK it is the numbers that will be retained, not the appearance.
If the document being opened or imported has no embedded ICC profile (i.e. the document is untagged) then Photoshop will use the essay, current Working Space for editing and previewing purposes. Analytical! However, the rushessay essay, profile will not be embedded into the document when it is subsequently saved. Creating a new document with this policy setting means that the current Working Space is used for editing and previewing. The associated profile will eventually be embedded into the file when saved. Homework! If necessary, the default Working Space profile for new documents can be overridden in the New document dialog. This policy behaves in essay an almost identical fashion to color management in essay of frankenstein Photoshop 5. It's for this reason that some Photoshop dinosaurs ( there are still some around ) still tend to rushessay, favour it. Actually, this policy isn't a bad choice, but it does need to homework, be treated with care. Figure 8 - RGB Policy is Convert to rushessay essay, Working RGB. If an existing document with no embedded ICC profile is opened or imported into Photoshop then the current Working Space will be used for editing and previewing. Y Thesis! However, there will be no profile embedded into the document when it is essay, saved (i.e. the resulting document will be untagged). If an document is editorial y thesis, opened or imported and has an embedded ICC profile which is rushessay essay, found to differ from the current Working Space then that document will be converted into, and someone subsequently saved in the Working Space.
When the essay, document and the Working Space profiles are matched then Photoshop takes no action; the document is opened and saved as normal. New documents will be previewed, edited and ultimately saved in the current Working Space. Finally, the default pasting behaviour is to convert and thus preserve the appearance of the document. However, the user will get the option not to convert the pasted document, hence preserving the numbers if the pasted document doesn't match with the target document. With this policy you'll find that, by default, the Ask When Opening warning checkbox is also unchecked for Profile Mismatches, so a warning similar to the following (figure 7) will appear. It's worth reading the goals, text and rushessay comparing it with figure 7 above.
At first glance the above warning appears virtually identical to that shown for the OFF Policy , but there is a subtle difference - the document is converted to the Working Space profile rather than discarding the embedded profile. Compare the text of the definitions, two screen shots (i.e. figure 7 and 9) if you're in any doubt as to essay, the differences. Again you may wish to problems face essay, tick the Don't show again checkbox so as to stop this warning reappearing in the future. Overriding the Default Policy Behaviour. The previous section described how your choice of Color Management Policy determined the default behaviour of Photoshop CS6 under various scenarios. However, you need not be confined to these preset outcomes. A much better option would be to rushessay, configure the Color Management Policies as shown in figure 10 below. Here we can see that each of the checkboxes for Profile Mismatches and Missing Profiles be set for Ask When Opening or Ask When Pasting as appropriate Basically, the three checkboxes associated with the profile warnings have the following impact on nomos y thesis the Color Management Policies: - (i) Profile Mismatches: Ask When Opening. When this checkbox is rushessay essay, active Photoshop has been set to present the user with a warning when the document being opened or imported has an need someone my essay embedded profile that does not match the current Working Space. The warning looks like figure 11, and contains three options with the default settings being dependent upon the actual Color Management Policy in operation at the time.
Noticed that unlike the essay, examples shown previously, all the goals writing, necessary information required to make an informed decision is present. The above example is preset for rushessay, how the problems teenagers essay, dialog would appear when the Color Management Policy is set for Preserve Embedded Profile . The user can choose to leave the document as is (default - Use the embedded profile ), allow the conversion ( Convert document's colors to the Working Space ) or strip out the embedded profile and switch off color management ( Discard the embedded profile ). Had the policy been Convert to rushessay, Working Space the teenagers face today essay, dialog would have looked almost identical except that it would have been preset for essay, Convert document's colors to Working Space. Basically, the answer to the question: How do you want to proceed? is editorial y thesis, already decided for you when the rushessay, Embedded Profile Mismatch dialog appears. However, if you know this answer to be incorrect then by all means make an homework definitions alternative selection, otherwise leave well alone, and click OK. I think you will agree that the warning in figure 11 is a lot more user friendly than the essay, one that appears under similar circumstances when Ask When Opening is my essay, unchecked. At least with this option you now have the opportunity to assign an rushessay alternative profile to the document before it opens. (ii) Missing Profiles: Ask When Opening. Choosing this option means that Photoshop has been set to problems teenagers, present the essay, user with a warning when the definitions, document being opened has no embedded ICC profile. The warning looks similar to the following (figure 10) and again contains three options.
The preset or default selection is rushessay essay, dependent upon the Color Management Policy in problems today operation at the time. The above example is preset for how the dialog would appear when the Color Management Policy is essay, set for Preserve Embedded Profile. Since no profile is embedded Photoshop will default to not color managing the document. The lower Assign Profile (and the homework definitions, associated and then convert to working RGB) checkbox is the best choice if you know the source documents' true color space and you want the document to appear correctly in Photoshop. Typically, this option will be used for images from rushessay some older digital cameras or similar device that don't embed a profile in problems essay the document or provide accurate EXIF color space information. (iii) Paste Profile Mismatches: Ask When Opening. Figure 13 below shows the Paste Profile Mismatch warning that appears in the event of the color spaces of the two documents not matching. Note that the terms preserve color appearance and color numbers relate to the source document, not the destination. The various warning dialog boxes shown above are only a sample of those that may appear as you open or import documents that contravene the defined Color Management Policy.
However, I think that the text messages included in each should be more than ample to explain what each option does and rushessay will therefore allow you to writing, make the appropriate choice. This section will only be present in the Color Settings dialog if the rushessay essay, user chooses More Options. Figure 14 shows this section of the Color Settings dialog in its default configuration. Engine : this is the name of the engine, which will be used for all color space conversions. Homework! Unless you have good reason to choose an alternative you should leave it at the default Adobe ACE setting. ACE is the rushessay essay, direct equivalent of the Built-in engine used in Photoshop 5. Windows users should not be tempted to choose ICM. Mac users should keep in mind that the analytical, option chosen here will override the selection made in essay the ColorSync setup.
Intent : this pop-up menu allows the user to select from four different rendering intents, namely Perceptual , Saturation , Relative Colorimetric and Absolute Colorimetric . Aqa A-level Computing! Typically, most users will choose between either Relative Colorimetric or Perceptual . A short description on each is provided in the Description section of the Color Settings dialog. A more comprehensive explanation can be found in the Photoshop on-line help files. With Relative Colorimetric it is only those source colors that are out of gamut (i.e. Rushessay Essay! can't be viewed/printed accurately within the destination color space) that will be mapped to the closest in-gamut color, the remainder are left unchanged. This means that in the case of documents containing lots of out-of-gamut colors the teenagers today essay, visual relationship between the colors (after conversion) will almost certainly change. Essay! With Perceptual, all colors of the computing coursework, source color space will be mapped to the nearest in-gamut color of the destination color space thus maintaining the visual relationship between colors. In other words, with Perceptual the whole document color gamut will be compressed so that it fits within the new color space. The Photoshop default is Relative Colorimetric. Use Black Point Compensation : this should be kept checked. Rushessay! Black Point Compensation ensures that the darkest neutrals of the source color space are mapped to the darkest neutrals of the destination color space.
In most circumstances toggling BPC ON or OFF will result in no obvious change to definitions, the document appearance, but in some situations converted documents will look/print horrible if BPC is Off, so be very careful with this setting. Use Dither (8-bit/channel images) : as with Black Point Compensation this should be kept checked. The description box at the bottom of the Color Settings dialog box will give you some clue as to what it does. Compensate for Scene-referred Profiles : This is a new option introduced with CS5. It compares video contrast when converting from rushessay essay scene to output profiles. Analytical! This option reflects default color management in rushessay After Effects, and is of no real significance to homework definitions, Photographers.
As with the conversion options, this section will only be present in the Color Settings dialog if the user chooses to activate the More Settings option. Figure 15 shows this section of the rushessay, Color Settings dialog in its default configuration. An explanation on what each of these options do is provided in computing coursework the Description box and on-line helps files. Rushessay Essay! The consensus appears to be that all three checkboxes should be left in the default condition (i.e. Desaturate Monitor Colors. and Blend RGB Colors. unchecked, and homework definitions Blend Text Colors. checked). The Desaturate Monitor Color option is the rushessay essay, one that has greatest potential to cause confusion, as it will result in academic goals essay the document preview to become progressively less saturated as the rushessay, percentage is nomos y thesis, increased. Those choosing to work in very wide color spaces may find it useful, however, the essay, majority of Photoshop users should leave it Unchecked. Saving Out Your Own Default Color Settings. Select the Save button and give your settings a Name and Description by nomos y thesis which you can call them back in the future, if for some reason you make a temporary change.
Also note that you can have as many different sets of settings as you wish, although only one can be active at a time. Figure 16 shows my preferred color settings. Figure 16 - Customised Color Settings Configuration. If you're using Adobe Creative Suite 6/Creative Cloud you'll also want to make sure that all color handling within the other applications matched with Photoshop. To help you with this task Adobe has provided a feature within Bridge (Edit menu Creative Suite Color Settings) that enables you to synchronise the color settings for all of the essay, suite applications. Remember, that this feature is teenagers face, only available when you have Creative Suite 6/Creative Cloud installed and rushessay essay activated. Figure 17 - Synchronise Creative Suite 6 Color Settings.
A frequently asked Photoshop questions is: why don't my prints match the screen? Generally it's down to poor monitor calibration, but on other occasions it's simply the fact that the user has an unrealistically high expectation of definitions, what can be printed. We dealt with monitor calibration in rushessay essay Section 2, however, on the subject of goals writing, prints I'm reminded of a conversation I had with Thomas Knoll (original author of Photoshop) on my photo trip to Antarctica in January 2009 . During this conversation Thomas suggested that much of the problem is really due to overly bright monitors, especially those based on LCD and LED technologies. So, if you're still having problems with dark prints after calibration it's worth reducing the rushessay, display brightness control by 10/15%. This section will discuss the someone to review, options and commands associated with the Soft Proof feature. Essay! As you work your way through it you'll notice that I haven't included any reference to homework, specific printer driver set-ups. This is because they will be covered in a separate tutorial Photoshop CS6 - Managing Color When Printing , which isn't published yet. Basically, soft proofing is nothing more than using your monitor to simulate a printing device.
However, accurate soft proofing is essay, dependent upon the quality and accuracy of the monitor profile and the media profiles for each printer/media/ink combination that you're attempting to proof. Configuring Photoshop for soft proofing is done via the View Proof Setup Custom menu as shown below. Proof Setup only affects the current or active document on your desktop. So, if you want to define your own default Proof Setup (a wise move) you need to configure the need to review my essay, proof setup via the Custom menu option with no documents open. Rushessay Essay! Alternatively, if you do have a document open then hold down the editorial y thesis, Alt/Option key to activate the rushessay, -Default (i.e. Save proof profile) button in the Customise Proof Condition dialog. The various proofing options are: Working CMYK - soft proofs the document using the current CMYK working space defined in the Color Settings dialog. Working Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black Plate or Working CMY Plates - soft proofs the document using the current CMYK working space defined in aqa a-level the Color Settings dialog. Macintosh RGB and Windows RGB - soft proofs the document using the standard Mac or Windows monitor profile (i.e. Rushessay! Apple RGB and sRGB respectively).
Both options assume that the coursework, simulated monitor will display your document without using color management. Monitor RGB - soft proofs the document using your actual monitor profile. Again, this option assumes that the simulated monitor will display your document without using color management. Color Blindness - creates a soft proof that reflects colors visible to a person with color blindness. The two soft proof options, Protanopia and Deuteranopia, approximate color perception for the most common forms of color blindness. The screen shot below shows a typical view of the new Proof Setup ( i.e. Customize Proof Condition ) dialog in rushessay essay CS6. In this example, I'm showing the configuration required for face today, simulating Premium Glossy Photo Paper on an Epson Stylus Pro 3800 inkjet photo printer. From this dialog you can easily select, configure and save your own customised soft proofing setup for any number of different printer profiles. You begin the process by choosing the Profile from the rushessay, Device to Simulate pop-up menu.
In the example shown above I have selected the Epson Stylus Pro 3800 profile for essay, Premium Glossy paper (i.e. Ep3800_PremGloss_2880_Colorful). In your case it will be the profile for the media that you want to simulate on the monitor. This option will only be available when the document and rushessay essay profiles are in sync, i.e. both are RGB or both are CMYK. Selecting the editorial y thesis, Preserve RGB/CMYK Numbers checkbox will usually result in a quite awful looking display, so don't make the mistake of choosing that option. Essay! Basically, we are simulating how the document will appear if it's not converted to the actual device profile. One use of homework, this option is to essay, enable you to see how the document would print if the appropriate media profile is not selected in the Print with Preview dialog. Normally, it's best the leave the checkbox unchecked. Rendering Intent is the definitions, setting that appears to cause most confusion and it's generally worth trying both Relative Colorimetric and Perceptual . Typically, Relative Colorimetric will be best but some highly saturated documents will benefit from choosing Perceptual.
I described Use Black Point Compensation previously when discussing the rushessay, conversion engines. Typically, it will be best to keep it checked. There are two options (or checkboxes) shown in this section of the computing coursework, Customize Proof Condition dialog. Rushessay! The first: Simulate Paper Color allows you to essay, simulate, on the monitor, the shade/color of the paper white. The second: Simulate Black Ink will enable you to simulate, on your monitor, the dynamic range defined by rushessay the media profile (i.e. how dark black will appear on the media you're printing to). Coursework! Note that selecting the Simulate Paper Color checkbox will cause the rushessay, Simulate Black Ink to academic essay, be selected and greyed out.
Not all profiles will support both options. The resulting soft proof display can be quite disconcerting at first. By this I mean that the overall tone of the image may tend to look compressed or slightly color shifted (e.g. Rushessay! white takes on a blue cast). In such circumstances it's probably best to leave the aqa a-level computing, Simulate Paper Color and Black Ink options unchecked. To save the customised proof setup simply choose the Alt/Option+Save button and give the soft proof profile a name that clearly indicates the printer/media combination for which it was created. The name of a saved soft profile will be appended to the bottom of the essay, list immediately below Color Blindness options (Figure 18 above).
A comprehensive, albeit quite old, tutorial describing the technique of soft proofing can be found here. Section 5 - Managing the Document Color Space. As with other aspects of color management we find that color space conversion and profile-embedding hasn't changed in Photoshop CS6. I suppose you could say that since it wasn't broken in earlier versions there was no need to fix it. Either way, for many Photoshop newbie's it's difficult to appreciate the academic goals writing, difference between embedding a profile and essay converting to a profile, so I'll try to shed some light of the differences below. So what does Assign Profile do and when do we use it? Assign Profile allows you to teenagers today, associate any profile of rushessay essay, your choosing to aqa a-level computing, a document. The command is rushessay essay, intended for only a few limited uses, e.g. documents that have been imported into Photoshop using a Twain module or a scanner package that has no means of embedding an editorial ICC profile. It’s important to rushessay essay, note that assigning a profile does not change the document (i.e. it will not change the RGB/CMYK numbers or pixel values). Problems Today! Assign Profile simply provides Photoshop with a description of the essay, actual color space that you wish to edit and today essay view the document in. Essay! In other words it changes the document appearance or meaning of the need someone, RGB/CMYK numbers.
The Don't Color Manage this Document : option is used to instruct Photoshop to remove an rushessay essay existing embedded profile (sometimes referred to as untagging). The Working RGB : option tags the document with the current default working space profile as defined in goals Color Settings . The Profile : popup option allows us to assign a profile other than the default Working Space profile. In the above example I chose to assign a customised profile for a Nikon scanner. Other potential uses for Assign Profile include the removal of an embedded profile (i.e. don't color manage the document). Convert to Profile is basically an enhanced version of the essay, old Photoshop 5.0 Profile-to-Profile command, the main difference being that with Profile-to-Profile you were able to define the source color space. In all subsequent versions of Photoshop, which includes CS6, this cannot be done since the source profile for the image is predefined and locked. The only way that the source profile can be changed is via the Assign Profile command discussed above. Figure 21 above shows the new Convert to Profile dialog. Analytical Essay! Notice the button labelled Advanced, which when clicked expands the rushessay essay, dialog to such a much larger range of advanced options (figure 22 below).
A document with the ProPhoto RGB profile embedded (Source Space) being converted to Working RGB - sRGB IEC61966-2.1 (i.e. the Destination Space). Need To Review! Whenever we make this conversion it will be the profile for essay, the destination space that is embedded within the document when saved. Convert to Profil e changes the RGB/CMYK numbers (i.e. pixel values) in order that the document appearance is maintained. The Preview checkbox allows the coursework, user to compare the conversion with and without Black Point Compensation, Dithering, and rushessay essay any one of the four rendering Intents . The ability to preview the conversion is computing, a real boon and shouldn't be ignored, so use it to essay, your benefit. Also notice that the screen shot shows the problems teenagers face today, Intent set to Relative Colorimetric. This was the default Intent I chose when I configured the Color Settings dialog earlier. However, as with many Photoshop setting the Intent is sticky, which means that if I was to change it to Perceptual then the next time I choose Convert to Profile the Intent will be set to Perceptual.
Printing from within Photoshop CS6 has changed somewhat from previous versions in that for essay, the actual print workflows are a lot simpler than they have been in the past. The screen shot shown below shows the Printer Setup and Color Management sections within the new Print Settings dialog box. In particular, the Color Management section enables you to y thesis, define the Color Handling and Printer Profile options along with the Rendering Intent used to convert the document between the document profile and printer profile. Even if you've been using a version of Photoshop as recent as CS5 you'll immediately notice that the Print dialog has been reworked, again. To the rushessay, right of the preview image and goals essay writing reading from top to rushessay, bottom we have a Print Setup , which gives access to the printer driver along with options for essay, positioning and scaling prints. Pressing the Print Settings button will open your printer driver dialog thus giving you access to the various settings for color management, page layout, etc. The actual dialog will differ according to rushessay, your OS and problems face printer vendor. Color Management is still the default view for the Print dialog, and the preview window is fully color managed, and includes the essay, ability to soft-proof images. The actual soft-proofing is controlled by the three checkboxes below the preview image. These are labelled Match Print Colors, Gamut Warning and Show Paper White . To keep things simple I will focus on only those settings that fall within the Color Management section in figure 24 above. Analytical! I will also give a brief summary of each option and hopefully give you better idea which combinations are best suited to essay, particular print tasks:
Color Handling - this is the pop-up menu from which you choose the preferred method of computing, managing color when printing from within Photoshop CS6. By adopting this approach Adobe have separated the workflow aspects of printing from the media choices. There are three color handling options, and essay each has its own associated preset configuration within the essay, Print Settings dialog, thereby helping the user avoid erroneous settings. Printer Manage Colors - with this option Photoshop instructs the printer to carry out the conversion between the document color space and the printer vendors preferred color space. Essay! Photoshop will not change (convert) the document if this option is selected.
This is the need someone, most appropriate option when you don't have ICC media profiles for your particular printer/media combination. Photoshop Manages Colors - with this option Photoshop will convert the document to rushessay, the printer/media profile that you have selected in the Printer Profile pop-up. Many desktop printers are now supplied with generic media profiles, but much more accurate prints can be obtained if custom profiles are used. However, for this option to work correctly color management must be switched off in the printer driver. Separations - this option is used when printing CMYK documentss where each channel is handled separately. If your document is nomos y thesis, RGB the essay, option will be greyed out. In CS4 and earlier we also had an option called No Color Management , but it has been completely removed from CS5/CS6.
This option was intended for special cases such as printing custom profile targets that require document color management to be turned off in both Photoshop and the printer driver. In the absence of this option Adobe have published a Technote entitled No Color Management option missing when printing in Photoshop CS5 suggesting a number of analytical, alternative methods for printing profiling targets. Solution 3 is probably the most effective approach to printing the targets. Printer Profile - as its name implies this is the pop-up menu from which you choose the ICC profile associated with the printer/media combination you'll be using. This pop-up will only be active when Photoshop Manages Colors is selected in the Color Handling pop-up. By default, it will actually show the document color space, so make sure that you don't forget to choose the rushessay, appropriate printer/media profile before hitting the Print button. Normal Printing - Rendering Intent and Black Point Compensation - again, depending upon your choice in Color Handling one or both of these settings may be greyed out. Irrespective of whether it's greyed out or not, most desktop photo printers (inkjets) will ignore these two settings when Printer Manages Colors is selected from the editorial nomos, Color Handling pop-up. The Description box is a useful feature within the Print dialog in so far as it provides short explanations for each of the settings and options. Essay! The description itself is triggered when you hover the mouse over editorial y thesis the various buttons and essay pop-up menus (e.g.
Color Handling, Rendering Intent, Black Point Compensation, etc). Saving your documents is not directly related to y thesis, color management the Save As dialog throws up a host of useful features. Rushessay Essay! The Embed Profile checkbox is very important and of frankenstein will reflect your choice of Color Management Policy . Notice that the dialog even informs us which profile is being embedded within the rushessay essay, document. The screen shot shown below (figure 25) is definitions, how the dialog appears on rushessay essay a Mac OS X system. Editorial Y Thesis! The Windows dialog looks slightly different, but is functionally identical to rushessay essay, the Mac version. The other save options present in computing coursework the dialog are those associated with Layers , Alpha Channels , Annotations , etc. Again, you can choose to uncheck them and so save the essay, image without the layers, etc.
The Save As a Copy feature is engaged by default as soon as you uncheck Layers ; this prevents you trashing a lot of hard work. Hopefully the material presented in this essay has been helpful and improved your understanding of Adobe's approach to managing color in Photoshop CS6. As noted throughout the essay there is vast body of material to be found all over the internet. A simple search using google.com and the key words Color Management is all that is required. Contents on this site: Ian Lyons © 1999 - 2017.
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