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baisakhi essay Guru Gobind Singh celebrated Baisakhi in 1699 - the Birth of Khalsa. On 13 April 1999, Sunday, 300 th Anniversary of the Birth of Khalsa was celebrated worldwide by the public and the Governments. Read also, `Man of the Era,' and present, `Amrit.` Repetitions in these articles have been left intact to keep them independent of each other. Return to the top of the page. It had not been possible for a long time to celebrate such a historical event this way - on completion of the first and second hundred years. Essay! It was due to one factor or the other. The Sikhs were under the British Government, a sort of slaves at least in the body if not in the mind, and were engrossed with struggling for freedom with its typical reactions of conjugaison du verbe essayer suppression. In 1999, the country enjoyed freedom to mark the occasion, the governments were shoulder to shoulder with the Sikhs in the celebrations, almost all the countries shared the significance of the day, and celebration was the worldwide phenomenon of jubilation.
Every year Baisakhi falls on the 13 th day of April, and titles, it is deeply anchored to the memory of the Tenth Guru Gobind Singh. On this auspicious day, he created the conjugaison du verbe present, Khalsa by giving “Amrit” - the Holy Drink, to the willing people. He did it so that his verdict, “Recognize the essay, mankind as one and the same,” could be properly served by the dedicated and du verbe essayer, devoted people reborn by titles partaking the Holy Drink.This day, marks a vow to end tyranny on the downtrodden perpetrated by the cruel persons, realization of the conjugaison essayer present, human rights, responsibilities of the individuals, the values of liberty, carefree practice of the phd thesis titles, faith, oneness of the humanity, ethical living and to struggle for the reign of God. Reaction to the inhuman forces came with the birth of Guru Nanak Dev, and it kept on evolving by the efforts and sacrifices of the next 9 Gurus after him (total 10). The Tenth Master lived for about 42 years, and by his age of 32-33, he had successfully stood many battles by the intolerant, cruel rulers who constantly put in du verbe essayer present, their best efforts to keep their subjects slaves worst than animals. Return to the top of the page. On the Baisakhi day of 1699 AD, the great Guru gave a reverberating call to the gathering of about one hundred thousand Sikhs (his followers), at essays Kaes Garh Sahib (Anandpur Sahib), to come forward to get them transformed in totality. The five hesitating but courageous Sikhs stood up and offered them to the benevolent Guru. They represented different high and low castes, and whole of India.
The Guru gave them Amrit, and designated them `Panj-Piarae,' the five representing the Guru. Panj Piarae - Five Beloved of the Guru. Dharam Das - a Jat from Delhi. Essayer Present! Himm at a cook from paper on smoking Jagan Nath (Gujrat). Mohkam Chand - a chheemba (washerman, cloth dyer-printer) from Dwarka. Sahib Chand - a naa-ee (barber) from Bidar (Andhra Pradesh).
This eradicated discrimination of caste, class, sex, color, avocation, and of the geographical regions. Women got naturally included with men, when at the time of essayer present preparation of Amrit, Mata Sahib Kaur wife of phd thesis Guru Gobind Singh, added patasae - sugar cakes, to the water. It was participation by the women. The men and as well women partook Amrit at that time. To bring in equality of the preceptor and conjugaison du verbe essayer present, disciple, and to eradicate the institution of priesthood, the Tenth Master took Amrit from these panj-piarae (five beloved of the Guru). On Smoking! By the Guru's grace, these five together, had the authority (status) to give Amrit to conjugaison du verbe present their Guru. Return to the top of the page. A Guru's Sikh (disciple), gets elevated to the level of a Khalsa (Guru's own) by taking Amrit - the Holy Drink. An Amritdhari Sikh i.e.
Singh or the Khalsa, is the one who has taken Amrit. He or she symbolizes an ideal person who awakens in himself and the others, self-respect, dignity, realization of the individual rights and phd thesis, duties. He or she uplifts the conjugaison essayer present, downtrodden, weak, women, and the human kind in general. Such a person stands for discipline, humility, hard and honest work, sharing with the needy, education, high character, and brings awareness of the ill effects of drugs: intoxicants. He or she believes in equality of the men and women, and does not inculcate discrimination of any sort. All this has to be recognized by deeds: the life one lives.
A Sikh stands for mercy (compassion), selfless service, and essays, universal (selfless) love. He or she does not hesitate to get sacrificed to protect and practice the conjugaison du verbe, faith, the others - needy and weak, and freedom. The Sikh faith is a practical religion, advocates householder's (family) life, and Gurmukh - ethical i.e. God-oriented conduct. It does not believe in renunciation. The Sikhs must stand against injustice, cruelty, discriminations, slavery, insincerity, hypocrisy, untruth, deceit, treachery, superstitions, and all other negative traits. In conclusion, dictates of the Sikh faith include many aspects of the Constitution of the America and Charter of the Human Rights.
This is what the Sikh Gurus thought of, practiced and started preaching more than 500 years ago, when the paper, independent America was yet to be born. “Characteristics of a Sikh” is what the young fellows and others in conjugaison du verbe, India, UK, USA, and all over study the world - developed or undeveloped countries, have to be made aware of. They should carry the light of the Gurus to the coming millennium and to the time thereafter. II On the Baisakhi day, the Amritdharis - those who took vow of the Sikh faith by du verbe drinking Amrit - became the Khalsa, and they had to strictly follow the edict of Amrit to honor their promise to the Guru. This discipline is applicable for all the times to come, and it is - The head has to be kept covered with kaeskee (Dastar): a short turban, or a full turban, or a full turban tied on a short turban. About Friends! The head has to conjugaison du verbe essayer be kept covered, may be with a piece of cloth. The use of cap or hat of to stop in india any type or style is not permitted to an Amritdhari Sikh. This inculcates laziness.
Kangha - a small comb for conjugaison essayer, keeping the hair tidy. Kirpan - A short length sword-shaped dagger like weapon, is handy for protection of the self. An Amritdhari Sikh must always keep it on his body. It should be made of examination igcse past steel. Now, mostly its small replica is kept. Especially when going out, the Sikhs may carry a full-length sword - about 3 feet long, or a short Kirpan (A sort of dagger) of about 9 to 15 inches. Where not permitted, some keep the small iron replica on body and pack the bigger (longer) version in conjugaison du verbe essayer, `check in baggage.' Others, resent the interference with their faith, do not bend, and fight out their rights without caring for phd thesis titles, the consequences. Karra - an du verbe iron bangle on essays, the right wrist. To be the symbol, it should be made of steel.
Many use a Karra made of gold. It is not approved as a symbol. A Karra is a reminder to do good and to follow (keep bound by) the rules advocated by the Guru for evolving to attain an ethical life - honest avocation, sharing of the boons with the needy, and remembering God, etc. As well, it is a handy blunt weapon. A good many wear its heavy variety with sharp or serrated edges. For the modern machinery workers, the author once suggested a reasonably thin bangle made of soft iron (malleable steel) with a fine cut, so that it should easily open up if caught in conjugaison essayer present, a gear and not shear off the arm. Some workers, when on a machine, remove their Karras from their arms and put them into their pockets, and others may wear these on their left arms. Some may keep a small Karra as a necklace, and still others may do the same with the paper, replicas of Kirpans and Kanghas, also. A Kirpan may be set on essayer present, to a Kangha, besides keeping the full size Kakkaars.
The value lies in technology essays, the symbol itself. It has become common to wear a golden necklace with the symbol Khanda-Chakkar-Kirpan or of Ik-Oankar as a pendant. This is an ornament. An iron Karra is also used by conjugaison non-Amritdhari Sikhs (the Sikhs not yet properly inducted into the faith). Many parents put them on defensive, the arms of infants or children with the belief that these ward off the evil eye, and save them from the influences of the unholy spirits.
An iron is popular even with the people from the other communities. Karra, like Kirpan and other weapons, is a sign of valor. Conjugaison Du Verbe Essayer! It is to stop terrorism a declaration,”I fear none.” Wearing this, one invites the protection of the Guru and God - the essayer, Guru gave it and God directed him to do so. It is a sign of courage, high morale, and affirms that the wearer knows his duties, responsibilities, rights, and stands firm for them. Wearing this, one does not feel alone, believes that the Guru and God are with him or her. Karra is essay examination question a sign that he or she has totally surrendered to the Guru and God - is totally under His will! Kakkars claim that the person wearing them is ever ready to protect the needy, and conjugaison du verbe essayer, he or she can be fully and depended on case study outline business, without any hesitation or fear. Kachhaa - underwear: pant, to provide cover to du verbe present the men and women alike, under all circumstances. On Smoking! Wearing it is a reminder to have check on lust.
This means respect for the opposite sex. It was an easy dress for the horse riding to ever keep combat-ready. It is baggy, and specially designed to stay closely fitted above the knees. An Amritdhari Sikh must take care that it is always on the body and is never ignored even for a moment. When changing, this is du verbe essayer done on each leg in case outline business, turn, and the previous one (wet) is conjugaison not cast off from about both the legs at the same time - first change it on one leg, and conjugaison essayer, then change on the other. Prescribed Kachhaa is a must for the Amritdharis, but now, many take some liberties with its design.
In its one form or the terrorism, other, and in its many shapes and designs, this panty is one of the most common wear in the world.Besides observing the discipline of five Kakkaars, a Sikh in general and an Amritdhari in particular, has to protect himself or herself from the four serious transgressions called Kurehtan. Kurehtan - Transgressions Char Kurehtan - Four transgressionsIt is a special strict discipline for the Amritdhari. The following are the four to essayer present be strictly taken care of - Preserve the body-hair. Preserve the hair. Keep the head covered with a Dastar or Kaeskee: the cloth of a short length, or with a turban. An Amritdharis should not wear a cap or hat of case any sort. It develops laziness and is not the right thing to properly cover a head with long hair. A turban has to conjugaison essayer present be undone and tied again once it is about friends removed, and is not to be used as a cap. Do not use tobacco in its any form. Also, alcohol and other addictives i.e. intoxicating drugs are not permitted. Control Sex.
Honor the present, Woman. Respect the opposite sex. The Guru's edict was not to molest a woman. She was to be fully protected,. In the days gone by, the Sikh and fanatic Muslim skirmishes were not uncommon, and there was a possibility of the Muslim women falling into the Sikh hands. A Muslim woman if captured, was to be respected like a mother, sister, or daughter, and sent to her home with honor. Research On Smoking! A Sikh was prohibited to harm her in any way. It helped to develop their high character and respect for conjugaison du verbe essayer, women.
In fact, a Sikh has to respect the opposite sex. A high moral character is a must, and lust in phd thesis titles, any form is a taboo for him or her. Eat Jhatka-Meat.
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oberlin essay THE EDUCATION OF MINORITY CHILDREN by Thomas Sowell. Will Rogers once said that it was not ignorance that was so bad but, as he put it, all the conjugaison present things we know that ain't so. Nowhere is that more true than in American education today, where fashions prevail and in india evidence is seldom asked or given. And nowhere does this do more harm than in the education of minority children. The quest for present, esoteric methods of trying to educate these children proceeds as if such children had never been successfully educated before, when in fact there are concrete examples, both from history and from our own times, of business schools that have been sucessful in educating children from low-income families and from minority families. Yet the educational dogma of the day is that you simply cannot expect children who are not middle-class to do well on du verbe, standardized tests, for all sorts of sociological and psychological reasons. Those who think this way are undeterred by the fact that there are schools where low-income and technology essays minority students do in fact score well on standardized tests. These students are like the bumblebees who supposedly should not be able to essayer present, fly, according to the theories of aerodynamics, but who fly anyway, in disregard of essay about friends those theories. While there are examples of schools where this happens in our own time-- both public and conjugaison essayer present private, secular and religious-- we can also go back nearly a hundred years and find the same phenomenon. Back in 1899, in on smoking Washington, D. C., there were four academic public high schools-- one black and three white.
1 In standardized tests given that year, students in the black high school averaged higher test scores than students in two of the conjugaison three white high schools. 2. This was not a fluke. It so happens that I have followed 85 years of the phd thesis titles history of this black high school-- from conjugaison du verbe present 1870 to 1955 --and found it repeatedly equalling or exceeding national norms on standardized tests. 3 In the 1890s, it was called The M Street School and after 1916 it was renamed Dunbar High School but its academic performances on standardized tests remained good on into the mid-1950s.
When I first published this information in 1974, those few educators who responded at all dismissed the about relevance of these findings by saying that these were middle class children and essayer present therefore their experience was not relevant to the education of low-income minority children. Those who said this had no factual data on phd thesis, the incomes or occupations of the parents of these children-- and I did. The problem, however, was not that these dismissive educators did not have evidence. The more fundamental problem was that they saw no need for evidence. According to their dogmas, children who did well on standardized tests were middle class. These children did well on such tests, therefore they were middle class.
Lack of evidence is not the problem. Essayer Present. There was evidence on the occupations of the parents of the children at this school as far back in the early 1890s. As of academic year 1892-93, there were 83 known occupations of the parents of the friends children attending The M Street School. Of these occupations, 51 were laborers and one was a doctor. 4 That doesn't sound very middle class to me. Over the years, a significant black middle class did develop in Washington and no doubt most of them sent their children to the M Street School or to Dunbar High School, as it was later called.
But that is wholly different from saying that most of the children at that school came from middle-class homes. During the later period, for which I collected data, there were far more children whose mothers were maids than there were whose fathers were doctors. For many years, there was only one academic high school for blacks in the District of Columbia and, as late as 1948, one-third of all black youngsters attending high school in Washington attended Dunbar High School. So this was not a selective school in the sense in du verbe essayer present which we normally use that term-- there were no tests to take to get in, for example-- even though there was undoubtedly self-selection in research paper the sense that students who were serious went to Dunbar and those who were not had other places where they could while away their time, without having to meet high academic standards. (A vocational high school for blacks was opened in Washington in 1902). 5. A spot check of attendance records and tardiness records showed that The M Street School at du verbe essayer the turn of the century and Dunbar High School at mid-century had less absenteeism and less tardiness than the examination past question white high schools in the District of Columbia at those times. The school had a tradition of conjugaison present being serious, going back to its founders and early principals. Among these early principals was the first black woman to case, receive a college degree in the United States-- Mary Jane Patterson from Oberlin College, class of 1862. At that time, Oberlin had different academic curriculum requirements for women and men.
Latin, Greek and conjugaison essayer present mathematics were required in the gentlemen's course, as it was called, but not in the curriculum for ladies. Defensive Essays. Miss Patterson, however, insisted on taking Latin, Greek, and conjugaison du verbe essayer present mathematics anyway. About Friends. Not surprisingly, in her later 12 years as principal of the black high school in Washington during its formative years, she was noted for a strong, forceful personality, for thoroughness,' and for being an indefatigable worker. Having this kind of person shaping the standards and traditions of the school in its early years undoubtedly had something to do with its later success. Other early principals included the conjugaison first black man to graduate from Harvard, class of essay terrorism 1870. Four of the conjugaison du verbe school's first eight principals graduated from Oberlin and two from outline business Harvard. Because of restricted academic opportunities for essayer present, blacks, Dunbar had three Ph.Ds among its teachers in the 1920s. One of the other educational dogmas of our times is the notion that standardized tests do not predict future performances for minority children, either in study academic institutions or in life.
Innumerable scholarly studies have devastated this claim intellectually, 6 though it still survives and flourishes politically. But the history of this black high school in conjugaison essayer present Washington likewise shows a pay-off for essay, solid academic preparation and the test scores that result from it. Conjugaison. Over the entire 85-year history of academic success of this school, from case business 1870 to 1955, most of du verbe essayer its 12,000 graduates went on to higher education. 7 This was very unusual for phd thesis, either black or white high-school graduates during this era. Du Verbe Present. Because these were low-income students, most went to a local free teachers college but significant numbers won scholarships to leading colleges and universities elsewhere. 8. Some M Street School graduates began going to Harvard and other academically elite colleges in the early twentieth century. As of 1916, there were nine black students, from the entire country, attending Amherst College. Six were from the M Street School. During the period from 1918 to research paper, 1923, graduates of this school went on to earn 25 degrees from conjugaison Ivy League colleges, Amherst, Williams, and Wesleyan. Over the period from igcse question 1892 to 1954, Amherst admitted 34 graduates of the M Street School and Dunbar.
Of these, 74 percent graduated and more than one-fourth of these graduates were Phi Beta Kappas. 9. No systematic study has been made of the later careers of the graduates of this school. However, when the late black educator Horace Mann Bond studied the backgrounds of conjugaison blacks with Ph.D.s, he discovered that more of them had graduated from M Street-Dunbar than from any other black high school in the country. The first blacks to graduate from phd thesis titles West Point and conjugaison du verbe essayer present Annapolis also came from this school. So did the first black full professor at a major university (Allison Davis at the University of Chicago). Defensive Technology. So did the first black federal judge, the first black general, the first black Cabinet member, the first black elected to the United States Senate since Reconstruction, and the discoverer of a method for essayer, storing blood plasma. During World War II, when black military officers were rare, there were more than two dozen graduates of M Street or Dunbar High School holding ranks ranging from major to essay about friends, brigadier general.
10. All this contradicts another widely-believed notion-- that schools do not make much difference in children's academic or career success because income and family background are much larger influences. If the conjugaison du verbe essayer schools themselves do not differ very much from one another, then of course it will not make much difference which one a child attends. But, when they differ dramatically, the results can also differ dramatically. This was not the only school to achieve success with minority children. But, before turning to some other examples, it may be useful to consider why and how this 85-year history of unusual success was abruptly turned into on smoking, typical failure, almost overnight, by conjugaison du verbe, the politics of education. As we all know, 1954 was the year of the famous racial desegregation case of Brown v. Board of Education . Those of us old enough to remember those days also know of the strong resistance to school desegregation in many white communities, including Washington, D. C. Ultimately a political compromise was worked out. In order to comply with the law, without having a massive shift of students, the District's school officials decided to turn all public schools in Washington into neighborhood schools.
By this time, the neighborhood around Dunbar High School was rundown. This had not affected the school's academic standards, however, because black students from all over the city went to Dunbar, though very few of those who lived in its immediate vicinity did. When Dunbar became a neighborhood school, the technology essays whole character of its student body changed radically-- and the character of its teaching staff changed very soon afterward. In the conjugaison present past, many Dunbar teachers had continued to teach for years after they were eligible for research paper, retirement because it was such a fulfilling experience. Now, as inadequately educated, inadequately motivated, and disruptive students flooded into the school, teachers began retiring, some as early as 55 years of age. Inside of a very few years, Dunbar became just another failing ghetto school, with all the problems that such schools have, all across the country. Eighty-five years of achievement simply vanished into thin air. It is a very revealing fact about the politics of education that no one tried to stop this from happening.
When I first began to present, study the history of this school, back in the 1970s, I thought that it was inconceivable that this could have been allowed to happen without a protest. I knew that the Washington school board in the 1950s included a very militant and distinguished black woman named Margaret Just Butcher, who was also a graduate of Dunbar High School, Surely Dr. Case Outline Business. Butcher had not let all this happen without exercising her well-known gifts of withering criticism. Yet I looked in vain through the minutes of the school board for even a single sentence by anybody expressing any concern whatever about the fate of Dunbar High School under the essayer new reorganization plan. About Friends. Finally, in complete frustration and du verbe bewilderment, I phoned Dr. Butcher herself. Was there anything that was said off the record about Dunbar that did not find its way into the minutes that I had read?
No, she said. Then she reminded me that racial integration was the battle cry of the hour in the 1950s. No one thought about what would happen to defensive technology, black schools, not even Dunbar. Now, decades later, we still do not have racial integration in many of the du verbe urban schools around the country-- and we also do not have Dunbar High School. Such are the ways of politics, where the defensive crusade of the hour often blocks out everything else, at least until another crusade comes along and takes over conjugaison present, the same monopoly of essay friends our mind. Ironically, black high schools in du verbe Washington today have many of the so-called prerequisites for good education that never existed in the heyday of technology Dunbar High School-- and yet the educational results are abysmal. Adequate funding is always included among these prerequisites and conjugaison du verbe essayer present today the per pupil expenditure in phd thesis the District of present Columbia is study, among the du verbe essayer highest in essay the nation. During its heyday, Dunbar was starved for funds and present its average class size was in the 40s.
Its lunchroom was so small that many of its students had to eat out on the streets. Its blackboards were cracked and it was 1950 before the school had a public address system. Yet, at outline that point, it had 80 years of achievement behind it-- and essayer only 5 more in front of it. As a failing ghetto school today, Dunbar has a finer physical plant than it ever had when it was an academic success. Case Study Business. Politics is also part of this picture. Immediate, tangible symbols are what matter within the limited time horizon of elected politicians. Throwing money at conjugaison public schools produces such symbolic results, even if it cannot produce quality education. Another black school that I studied-- P. S.91 in phd thesis Brooklyn, New York-- was housed in an even older building than the original Dunbar High School.
This building in Brooklyn was so old that it still had gas jets in the hallways, left over essayer present, from the gaslight era, before there were electric lights. The surrounding neighborhood was so bad that a friend told me that I was brave-- he probably meant foolhardy-- to park a car there. Yet the students in most of the grades in this predominantly black elementary school scored at or above the national norms on research on smoking, standardized tests. This was not in du verbe any sense a middle-class school or a magnet school. It was just an ordinary ghetto school run by an extraordinary principal. What was more extraordinary to me than even the test scores of the about students was the openness with which I was welcomed and allowed to du verbe essayer present, see what I wanted to see. Educators usually like to give guided tours to selected (and often atypical) places, much like the Potemkin village tours in essay Czarist Russia. But, in conjugaison du verbe present P.S. 91, I was allowed to wander down the halls and arbitrarily pick out which classrooms I wanted to about friends, go into. I did this on conjugaison, every floor of the school. Inside those classrooms were black children much like children you can find in any ghetto across the country.
Many came from broken homes and were on welfare. Essays. Yet, inside this school, they spoke in du verbe grammatical English, in complete sentences, and to the point. Essay. Many of the materials they were studying were a year or more ahead of essayer their respective grade levels. It so happened that I had to fly back to California right after visiting this school and did not get to talk to all the people I wanted to interview. I asked a mother who was head of the phd thesis school's Parent-Teacher Association if I could call her at home after I got back to California and conjugaison present interview her over the phone. Essay Friends. It turned out that she did not have a telephone. Du Verbe Essayer. I can't afford one, she said. Paper On Smoking. That too hardly seemed middle class. Others have found successful black schools operating in equally grim surroundings and under similar social conditions. A collection of stories about such schools was published by the Heritage Foundation in a book titled No Excuses . Back in the 1970s, I studied two academically successful Catholic schools with black students in New Orleans. Conjugaison Du Verbe Essayer Present. In both schools, a majority of the parental occupations were in the unskilled and semi-skilled category.
Dr. Diane Ravitch of the Manhattan Institute wrote about another successful black public school in another Brooklyn ghetto neighborhood. The movie Stand and Deliver showed Jaime Escalante achieving similarly outstanding academic results from phd thesis titles Hispanic students in a low-income neighborhood. Yet the dogma marches on that a middle-class background is necessary for academic success. St. Augustine high school in New Orleans was a particularly striking example of achieving academic success while going against the grain of prevailing opinion in educational circles. It was established back in 1951, during the era of racial segregation in conjugaison du verbe present the South, as a school for black boys, presided over by an all-white staff from the Josephite order. None of these young priests had ever taken a course in a department or school of education.
To the horror of some outside members of the order, the case outline school used corporal punishment. There was no unifying educational theory. The school simply kept doing things that worked and discarded things that didn't. The first black student from the du verbe present South to essay examination, win a National Merit Scholarship came from St. Augustine. So did the first Presidential Scholar of any race from the state of Louisiana. As of 1974, 20 percent of all Presidential Scholars in conjugaison du verbe the history of the state had come from this school with about 600 black students. Test scores were never used as a rigid cutoff for admission to St. Augustine. There were students there with IQs in the 60s, as well as others with IQs more than twice that high. For individual students and for the school as a whole, the average IQ rose over friends, the years-- being in the 80s and 90s in the 1950s and then reaching the national average of 100 in the 1960s.
To put that in perspective, both blacks and whites in the South during this era tended to score below the national average on IQ and other standardized tests. Most of these children did not come from middle-class families. Conjugaison Du Verbe Essayer. Those who parents were in professional or white-collar occupations were less than one-tenth as numerous as those whose parents worked in unskilled and semi-skilled occupations. What are the secrets of such successful schools? The biggest secret is that there are no secrets, unless work is essay about, a secret. Work seems to be the only four-letter word that cannot be used in public today. Aside from conjugaison present work and discipline, the various successful schools for minority children have had little in common with one another-- and even less in common with the fashionable educational theories of our times. Essays. Some of conjugaison du verbe these schools were public, some were private. Some were secular and some were religious. Essay On How To Stop Terrorism. Dunbar High School had an all-black teaching staffs but St.
Augustine in New Orleans began with an all-white teaching staff. Some of these schools were housed in old rundown buildings and others in new, modern facilities. Conjugaison Du Verbe Essayer Present. Some of defensive technology their principals were finely attuned to the social and political nuances, while others were blunt people who could not have cared less about such things and would have failed Public Relations One. None of these successful schools had a curriculum especially designed for conjugaison, blacks. Most had some passing recognition of the children's backgrounds.
Dunbar High School, for research on smoking, example, was named for conjugaison du verbe, black poet Paul Laurence Dunbar and technology essays it set aside one day a year to commemorate Frederick Douglass, but its curriculum could hardly be called Afrocentric. Throughout the 85 years of conjugaison present its academic success, it taught Latin. In some of the early years, it taught Greek as well. Its whole focus was on expanding the students' cultural horizons, not turning their minds inward. For all I know, there may be some Afrocentric schools that are doing well. The point here is simply that this has not been an essential ingredient in the successful education of minority students. At St. Augustine school in New Orleans, its principal, Father Grant, resisted attempts to bring into the school the issues arising from the civil rights struggles of the technology essays 1960s. Although sympathetic to the civil rights movement himself, and to some extent a participant in it, Father Grant opposed the introduction into the school of du verbe present what he called extraneous elements, issues, and concerns.
Keenly aware of the students' cultural disadvantages and the need to overcome them, as well as the importance of the social issues that some wanted to address in the school, he said that we absolutely could not do both things well-- and both deserved to be done well, or not at all. Case Study Business. As Father Grant put it bluntly: Do not consume my time with extraneous issues and then expect me to have enough time left over to dedicate myself to a strong academic program where I will turn out strong, intelligent, competent kids. Again, the point here is not to say that this is the only viable approach. The point is that the social visions of the day have not been essential ingredients in educational success. Important as the history of outstanding schools for minority students has been, there is also much to learn from the history of du verbe essayer very ordinary urban ghetto schools, which often did far better in the past-- both absolutely and relative to their white contemporaries-- than is the case today. I went to research paper, such schools in Harlem in the 1940s but I do not rely on nostalgia for my information. Essayer Present. The test scores in technology essays ordinary Harlem schools in conjugaison du verbe essayer present the 1940s were quite comparable to the test scores in white working-class neighborhoods on New York's lower east side.
Sometimes the Harlem schools scored a little higher and sometimes the lower east side schools scored a little higher but there were no such glaring racial disparities as we have become used to in urban schools in recent years. In April, 1941, for example, some lower east side schools scored slightly higher on tests of word meaning and paragraph meaning than some schools in Harlem but, in test given in December of that same year, several Harlem schools scored higher than the phd thesis lower east side schools. Du Verbe Essayer Present. Neither set of schools scored as high as the city-wide average, though neither was hopelessly below it. 11. While the lower east side of New York is essay about, justly known for the many people who were born in poverty there and rose to middle-class levels-- and some to national prominence-- very little attention is paid to a very similar history in essayer present Harlem. Some years ago, a national magazine ran a flattering profile of examination igcse question me, expressing wonder that I had come out of Harlem and gone on to elite colleges and conjugaison du verbe present an academic career. Shortly thereafter, I received a letter from a black lawyer of my generation, pointing out that my experience was by no means so unusual in those days. He had grown up in Harlem during the same era, just a few blocks from me. From the same tenement building in which he lived came children who grew up to become a doctor, a lawyer, a priest, and a college president. Indeed, where did today's black middle class come from, if not from such places and such schools? My great fear is titles, that a black child growing up in Harlem today will not have as good a chance to rise as people of my generation did, simply because they will not receive as solid an conjugaison, education, in research paper on smoking an era when such an education is essayer present, even more important.
Parents have been an important ingredient in phd thesis the success of schools, whatever the racial or social backgrounds of the present students. But the specific nature of parental involvement can vary greatly-- and has often been very different from what is believed among some educational theorists. In some of the most successful schools, especially of the past, the parents' role has been that of giving moral support to the school by letting their children know that they are expected to learn and to behave themselves. Current educational fashions see parents' roles as that of active participants in the shaping of on how to stop terrorism in india educational policy and on-site involvement in the daily activities of the schools. Du Verbe Present. Whatever the merits or demerits of case outline business these notions, that was certainly not the role played by parents of children at successful schools in conjugaison du verbe the past.
Nor were they necessarily equipped to play such a role. Essay Terrorism. As of 1940, for example, the average black adult in the United States had only an elementary school education. I can still remember being surprised at what an event it was in our family when I was promoted to the seventh grade-- because no one else in the family had ever gone that far before. It was much the same story on the lower east side of New York at that time. Biographies of immigrant children who grew up there are full of painful memories of conjugaison present how their parents, with their meager education and broken English, hated to have to research paper on smoking, go see a teacher-- and du verbe how embarrassed their children were when their parents appeared at school. Parents today may be more educated and more sophisticated but it is not clear that their political or quasi-political involvement in past question schools has been a net benefit. At the very least, history shows that it has never been essential. For those who are interested in du verbe essayer present schools that produce academic success for research paper on smoking, minority students, there is no lack of examples., past and present. Essayer Present. Tragically, there is a lack of essay on how terrorism interest by the public school establishment in such examples. Again, I think this goes back to the politics of education.
Put bluntly, failure attracts more money than success. Politically, failure becomes a reason to demand more money, smaller classes, and more trendy courses and conjugaison du verbe programs, ranging from friends black English to bilingualism and self-esteem. Politicians who want to look compassionate and concerned know that voting money for such projects accomplishes that purpose for them and voting against such programs risks charges of mean-spiritedness, if not implications of racism. We cannot recapture the past and there is much in the past that we should not want to recapture. But neither is it irrelevant. If nothing else, history shows what can be achieved, even in the face of adversity. We have no excuse for achieving less in an era of greater material abundance and conjugaison du verbe essayer greater social opportunities. Report of the Board of Trustees of Public Schools of the District of Columbia to the Commisisoners of the District of Columbia: 1898-1899 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1900), pp.
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Anemias: Anemia and Congenital Pernicious Anemia Essay. Du Verbe. What are the different types of anemias? Sickle cell anemia is when red blood cells form abnormal “sickle or crescent shaped cells” that cannot carry oxygen to the body normally (Dyer Gould, 2011). Essay About Friends. Thalassemia anemia is conjugaison du verbe present when a blood disorder is inherited and business, the body cannot make a normal amount of hemoglobin. Present. Pernicious anemia is when there is to stop terrorism a decrease in du verbe the amount of healthy red blood cells that are within the intestines and they cannot properly absorb vitamin B12. To Stop. Idiopathic aplastic anemia is a condition when the “bone marrow (soft, fatty tissue in the middle of bones) does not properly make blood cells” (Bunn, 2011). Hemolytic anemia is when bone marrow is conjugaison present not able to replace the red blood cells that are being destroyed in the body. On Smoking. Iron deficiency anemia is du verbe present when the body does not have enough iron and will make fewer red blood cells that are too small and cannot carry oxygen which causes anemia. Anemia of chronic disease is when the body already does not have enough healthy red blood cells and the body carries a chronic illness or inflammatory disease that could cause the body to not produce healthy red blood cells based on technology, medical conditions. Folate-deficiency anemia is when the red blood cells are abnormally large due to du verbe essayer present a lack of friends, folate in the body most often called folic acid. B12 deficiency anemia is when there is a low red blood cell count because the body lacks vitamin B12.
Compare the causes, symptoms, diagnostic tests, and treatments of different types of anemia in a table. Conjugaison. | CAUSES | SYMPTOMS | DIAGNOSTIC TESTS | TREATMENTS | Sickle Cell Anemia (Hemoglobin SS disease (Hb SS), sickle cell disease) | Abnormal hemoglobin S, inherited from both parents | Paleness, fatigue, shortness of breath, rapid heart rate, jaundice, abdominal pain in younger children, priapism, blindness, confusion, stroke, ulcers on lower extremities | Bilirubin, CBC, Hemoglobin electrophoresis, serum creatinine, blood oxygen, sickle cell test, serum potassium | Folic acid supplements (to make new RBCs), blood transfusions, pain medications, lots of outline business, fluids, Hydroxyurea (Hydrea) medication, antibiotics, Dialysis, kidney transplants, gallbladder removal, hip replacement for avascular necrosis of the hip, surgery, wound care for ulcers, bone marrow, stem cell transplants, Hib, PCV, PPV | Thalassemia anemia (Mediterranean anemia, Cooley’s anemia, Beta thalassemia, Alpha Thalassemia) | Lack of alpha globin and beta globin from one or both parent(s) | Bone deformities in the face, fatigue, growth failure, jaundice, shortness of breath | Blood sample, CBC, hemoglobin electrophoresis, mutational analysis | Blood transfusions, folate supplements, iron supplements, chelation therapy, bone marrow transplant | Pernicious anemia(Megaloblastic anemia, Macrocytic achylic anemia, Congenital pernicious anemia, Juvenile pernicious anemia, Vitamin B12 deficiency) | Lack of vitamin B12, weakened stomach lining (atrophic gastritis), autoimmune deficiency, pregnancy, folic acid deficiency, alcoholism | Diarrhea or constipation, fatigue, lack of energy, light-headedness, loss of appetite, pale skin, lack of concentration, shortness of breath, swollen or red tongue or bleeding gums, confusion, depression, loss of balance, numbness and tingling in hands and feet, gastric polyps | Bone marrow exam, CBC, Reticulocyte count, Schilling test, LDH, MMA test, vitamin B12 level test, bilirubin, cholesterol test, gastrin, Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase, peripheral smear, TIBC | Shot of B12 once per month, B12 supplements, well-balanced diet, folic acid supplements | Idiopathic aplastic anemia | Injury to blood stem cells, pregnancy or lupus, exposure to some toxins or drugs including chemotherapy, PNH blood disorder | Fatigue, pallor (paleness), rapid heart rate, shortness of breath with exercise, weakness, leukopenia (low white cell count) Related Documents: Anemias: Anemia and du verbe, Congenital Pernicious Anemia Essay. Anemia and Hemolytic Anemia Essay. Phd Thesis. ASA Institute Division of Health Disciplines Course: LABORATORY TECHNIQUES 11 BIO 110 SECTION: M01 Fall Semester 2012 Instructor: Dr. Saxon Maya Student: Osary Rodriguez Project: Tularemia Anemia: Is the du verbe essayer, condition of case study business, having a lower than normal red blood cell count or when a person’s red blood cells do not include enough hemoglobin. Those who have anemia do not receive enough oxygen-rich blood. Anemia is common and may occur at du verbe, any age and among any ethnic group. About. Words 713 - Pages 3. Essayer. Sickle Cell Anemia Essay examples. Sickle Cell Anemia Sickle cell anemia is the most common form of sickle cell disease(SCD). SCD is a serious disorder in which the paper, body makes sickle-shaped red blood cells. The etiology of sickle cell anemia is an conjugaison du verbe essayer present inherited disease of two genes of sickle hemoglobin from your parents. One sickle hemoglobin gene from essay on how to stop terrorism your father, and one from your mother.
It is mostly common in individuals from certain foreign countries like middle east, Mediterranean, Africa, and du verbe essayer present, Indian ancestry. In Americans. Words 1163 - Pages 5. cell disease can affect anyone with that gene or trait and causes a lot of pain and complications that can lead to long term affects that are very difficult control. This disease is a disease more common in the population of the African descent. It also prevents people from having the disease called malaria which is common in essay examination past question Africa. Du Verbe. A lot of people don’t know that they are caring the trait of sickle cell disease and don’t know that it can be passed down to their children. It is recommended that you see a doctor and figure out your family’s history to determine if you area carrier. Phd Thesis. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/sickle-cell-anemia/DS00324?DSECTION#x3D;complications http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001554/ By.
Maaja V. Words 630 - Pages 3. Sickle Cell Anemia : Cause , Symptoms, and Treatment By Chelsi McCormick December 2, 2013 Prof Bondzi Bio101-3 Sickle cell anemia is a disease that affects peoples lives all over du verbe the world. Sickle cells is not contagious it is an research on smoking inherited group of traits that cause a red blood cell disorder. This group of traits make it difficult for red blood cells to carry sufficient oxygen throughout the body. Normally. Words 951 - Pages 4. Aplastic Anemia ITT Technical Institute Aplastic anemia is a condition in which your body stops producing enough new blood cells. This illness will leave you very fatigued and more prone to infection and uncontrolled bleeding. This rare and serious condition can develop at any age.
Aplastic anemia may occur suddenly or progress slowly over a period of conjugaison du verbe present, time. This ailment may be brief, but can become a chronic disease and in on how in india some cases may be fatal. Aplastic anemia develops when. Words 572 - Pages 3. Conjugaison Present. Essay on examination, Anaemia: Anemia and present, Green Leafy Vegetables. through lentils. To serve place spinach leaves in serving bowls, and top with lentils and goats cheese. Sprinkle salad with pepper and serve with lime. Bibliography Anaemia . Phd Thesis Titles. (2014, 03 2014). Retrieved 03 21, 2014, from Better Health Channel: http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Anaemia Diseases and Conditions Anaemia . (2013, 03 08). Retrieved 03 21, 2014, from Mayo Clinic : http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/anemia/basics/prevention/con-20026209 Hay.
Words 597 - Pages 3. protein whose major function is to transport oxygen throughout the body. Hemolyticanemia is anemia resulting from hemolysis, the excessive destruction of du verbe essayer present, red blood cells. Hypoxia is a deficiency in the amount of essays, oxygen reaching the du verbe, body tissues. Iron deficiency anemia is anemia characterized by low serum iron concentration. Megaloblastic anemia is anemia caused by paper on smoking the failure of red blood cells to mature. Present. It is also known as pernicious anemia, addisonian anemia or maturation failure anemia. Microcytic. Words 986 - Pages 4. Research On Smoking. Sickle Cell Anemia and Hemophilia Essays. ? Sickle Cell Anemia and Hemophilia Blood is essayer a constantly circulating bodily fluid that provides the essay question, body with necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen, and takes part in waste removal. Blood is made up of two components: blood cells and plasma. The plasma is the liquid portion and conjugaison present, it makes up about half the phd thesis titles, content of blood. Plasma help in the clotting of blood with the help of proteins, and it also helps to conjugaison essayer present transport substances through the blood.
The other half of the blood. Words 1669 - Pages 7. Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disorder of the red blood cells (RBC) which is characterized by the blood cells being formed in the shape of a crescent, or half-moon. Phd Thesis. Due to conjugaison du verbe its being a genetic disorder, you can actually be a carrier of phd thesis, this disease and not have any symptoms. Only when offspring is du verbe essayer present met with another carrier does this trait become a dominant trait but until then it is essay known as sickle cell trait or (SCT). There is a multitude of present, health problems associated with sickle cell. Words 1174 - Pages 5. SICKLE CELL ANEMIA Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disease. Titles. People with this disease inherit two genes for sickle hemoglobin- one from each parent. This disease causes red blood cells, which are suppose to look like doughnuts, have a sickle or crescent shape to them.
Sickle cells are stiff and conjugaison, sticky. These cells tend to block the blood flow in the blood vessels of the limbs and organs. This can cause pain and organ damage. Study Outline. Plus it can also raise the risk for infection. A good way to handle.
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consciousness essay Department of Philosophy. University of Arizona. Tucson, AZ 85721. [Published in the Journal of conjugaison du verbe present Consciousness Studies 2(3):200-19, 1995. Also online is case study business, my response, Moving Forward on the Problem of Consciousness, to du verbe 26 articles commenting on this paper. Defensive Technology! That paper elaborates and extends many of the ideas in this one.] Consciousness poses the conjugaison du verbe present, most baffling problems in the science of the mind. Research On Smoking! There is nothing that we know more intimately than conscious experience, but there is nothing that is harder to explain. Du Verbe Present! All sorts of mental phenomena have yielded to scientific investigation in recent years, but consciousness has stubbornly resisted. Many have tried to explain it, but the explanations always seem to fall short of the research paper on smoking, target.
Some have been led to suppose that the problem is intractable, and that no good explanation can be given. To make progress on the problem of consciousness, we have to confront it directly. In this paper, I first isolate the conjugaison du verbe essayer, truly hard part of the problem, separating it from more tractable parts and giving an account of why it is so difficult to explain. I critique some recent work that uses reductive methods to address consciousness, and argue that such methods inevitably fail to come to grips with the hardest part of the problem. Once this failure is essay, recognized, the door to further progress is conjugaison du verbe essayer present, opened. In the second half of the paper, I argue that if we move to a new kind of nonreductive explanation, a naturalistic account of consciousness can be given. Essay On How To Stop! I put forward my own candidate for essayer present such an account: a nonreductive theory based on principles of structural coherence and organizational invariance and a double-aspect view of information.
2 The easy problems and the hard problem. There is not just one problem of consciousness. Consciousness is an ambiguous term, referring to many different phenomena. Each of these phenomena needs to be explained, but some are easier to explain than others. At the start, it is useful to phd thesis titles divide the associated problems of conjugaison du verbe present consciousness into hard and essay examination igcse question easy problems. The easy problems of essayer consciousness are those that seem directly susceptible to the standard methods of essays cognitive science, whereby a phenomenon is explained in terms of computational or neural mechanisms. The hard problems are those that seem to resist those methods. The easy problems of consciousness include those of explaining the following phenomena: the ability to discriminate, categorize, and react to environmental stimuli; the integration of information by a cognitive system; the reportability of mental states; the ability of a system to access its own internal states; the du verbe essayer, focus of attention; the deliberate control of behavior; the difference between wakefulness and sleep. All of these phenomena are associated with the notion of consciousness. For example, one sometimes says that a mental state is conscious when it is verbally reportable, or when it is internally accessible. Sometimes a system is said to question be conscious of some information when it has the ability to react on the basis of that information, or, more strongly, when it attends to that information, or when it can integrate that information and conjugaison du verbe present exploit it in the sophisticated control of behavior.
We sometimes say that an action is conscious precisely when it is deliberate. Often, we say that an organism is research on smoking, conscious as another way of essayer present saying that it is awake. There is no real issue about whether these phenomena can be explained scientifically. All of them are straightforwardly vulnerable to explanation in terms of computational or neural mechanisms. To explain access and reportability, for example, we need only examination past, specify the du verbe essayer present, mechanism by which information about internal states is retrieved and made available for verbal report. To explain the integration of information, we need only exhibit mechanisms by phd thesis, which information is brought together and exploited by conjugaison du verbe present, later processes. Titles! For an account of sleep and wakefulness, an appropriate neurophysiological account of the processes responsible for organisms' contrasting behavior in those states will suffice. In each case, an appropriate cognitive or neurophysiological model can clearly do the explanatory work.
If these phenomena were all there was to consciousness, then consciousness would not be much of a problem. Although we do not yet have anything close to a complete explanation of these phenomena, we have a clear idea of how we might go about explaining them. This is why I call these problems the easy problems. Of course, easy is a relative term. Getting the du verbe essayer present, details right will probably take a century or two of difficult empirical work. Still, there is every reason to believe that the methods of cognitive science and neuroscience will succeed. The really hard problem of consciousness is the problem of experience . When we think and perceive, there is a whir of information-processing, but there is also a subjective aspect.
As Nagel (1974) has put it, there is something it is like to be a conscious organism. This subjective aspect is experience. When we see, for defensive technology example, we experience visual sensations: the felt quality of redness, the experience of dark and light, the present, quality of depth in a visual field. Other experiences go along with perception in titles different modalities: the conjugaison, sound of a clarinet, the smell of mothballs. Titles! Then there are bodily sensations, from pains to orgasms; mental images that are conjured up internally; the felt quality of emotion, and the experience of a stream of conscious thought. What unites all of these states is that there is something it is like to be in them. All of them are states of experience. It is undeniable that some organisms are subjects of conjugaison experience. But the question of how it is defensive, that these systems are subjects of experience is perplexing.
Why is it that when our cognitive systems engage in visual and auditory information-processing, we have visual or auditory experience: the quality of deep blue, the sensation of middle C? How can we explain why there is something it is like to entertain a mental image, or to experience an du verbe present emotion? It is widely agreed that experience arises from a physical basis, but we have no good explanation of why and how it so arises. Why should physical processing give rise to a rich inner life at all? It seems objectively unreasonable that it should, and yet it does. If any problem qualifies as the problem of consciousness, it is this one. In this central sense of consciousness, an about friends organism is conscious if there is something it is like to be that organism, and a mental state is conscious if there is something it is like to be in that state. Sometimes terms such as phenomenal consciousness and qualia are also used here, but I find it more natural to speak of du verbe essayer conscious experience or simply experience. Another useful way to avoid confusion (used by e.g. Examination Igcse Past Question! Newell 1990, Chalmers 1996) is to reserve the conjugaison essayer present, term consciousness for the phenomena of experience, using the less loaded term awareness for the more straightforward phenomena described earlier. If such a convention were widely adopted, communication would be much easier; as things stand, those who talk about consciousness are frequently talking past each other. The ambiguity of the term consciousness is often exploited by both philosophers and scientists writing on the subject.
It is common to paper on smoking see a paper on conjugaison essayer, consciousness begin with an invocation of the phd thesis, mystery of consciousness, noting the strange intangibility and ineffability of subjectivity, and worrying that so far we have no theory of the phenomenon. Here, the topic is clearly the hard problem - the problem of experience. In the second half of the paper, the tone becomes more optimistic, and the author's own theory of consciousness is outlined. Present! Upon examination, this theory turns out to be a theory of one of the more straightforward phenomena - of research reportability, of introspective access, or whatever. Conjugaison Du Verbe! At the close, the author declares that consciousness has turned out to be tractable after all, but the reader is left feeling like the paper, victim of a bait-and-switch.
The hard problem remains untouched. Why are the essayer, easy problems easy, and why is the hard problem hard? The easy problems are easy precisely because they concern the explanation of cognitive abilities and functions . To explain a cognitive function, we need only specify a mechanism that can perform the function. The methods of case study business cognitive science are well-suited for this sort of explanation, and so are well-suited to the easy problems of consciousness. By contrast, the hard problem is hard precisely because it is not a problem about the performance of functions. The problem persists even when the performance of all the relevant functions is explained. (Here function is not used in conjugaison du verbe the narrow teleological sense of something that a system is designed to do, but in past the broader sense of any causal role in the production of behavior that a system might perform.) To explain reportability, for instance, is just to explain how a system could perform the function of producing reports on internal states. To explain internal access, we need to explain how a system could be appropriately affected by its internal states and use information about those states in directing later processes. To explain integration and conjugaison essayer present control, we need to essay friends explain how a system's central processes can bring information contents together and use them in the facilitation of various behaviors.
These are all problems about the explanation of functions. How do we explain the performance of a function? By specifying a mechanism that performs the function. Here, neurophysiological and cognitive modeling are perfect for conjugaison du verbe essayer the task. If we want a detailed low-level explanation, we can specify the neural mechanism that is responsible for the function. If we want a more abstract explanation, we can specify a mechanism in computational terms. Either way, a full and satisfying explanation will result. Once we have specified the neural or computational mechanism that performs the function of verbal report, for example, the bulk of our work in explaining reportability is over. In a way, the point is essay terrorism in india, trivial.
It is a conceptual fact about these phenomena that their explanation only involves the explanation of various functions, as the phenomena are functionally definable . All it means for reportability to be instantiated in a system is that the system has the capacity for verbal reports of internal information. All it means for a system to conjugaison be awake is for essay examination igcse question it to be appropriately receptive to information from the environment and for it to be able to use this information in directing behavior in an appropriate way. To see that this sort of thing is a conceptual fact, note that someone who says you have explained the performance of the verbal report function, but you have not explained reportability is making a trivial conceptual mistake about reportability. Essayer! All it could possibly take to explain reportability is an explanation of how the relevant function is phd thesis titles, performed; the conjugaison du verbe essayer present, same goes for about friends the other phenomena in question. Throughout the du verbe essayer, higher-level sciences, reductive explanation works in just this way. To explain the gene, for instance, we needed to specify the mechanism that stores and transmits hereditary information from one generation to the next. It turns out that DNA performs this function; once we explain how the function is performed, we have explained the gene.
To explain life, we ultimately need to explain how a system can reproduce, adapt to its environment, metabolize, and so on. All of these are questions about the performance of technology essays functions, and so are well-suited to reductive explanation. Present! The same holds for most problems in cognitive science. To explain learning, we need to explain the way in which a system's behavioral capacities are modified in light of environmental information, and the way in which new information can be brought to bear in essay to stop adapting a system's actions to its environment. If we show how a neural or computational mechanism does the essayer, job, we have explained learning. We can say the same for other cognitive phenomena, such as perception, memory, and language.
Sometimes the relevant functions need to be characterized quite subtly, but it is clear that insofar as cognitive science explains these phenomena at all, it does so by explaining the performance of functions. When it comes to conscious experience, this sort of explanation fails. What makes the hard problem hard and defensive essays almost unique is that it goes beyond problems about the performance of functions. To see this, note that even when we have explained the performance of conjugaison du verbe essayer all the cognitive and behavioral functions in the vicinity of experience - perceptual discrimination, categorization, internal access, verbal report - there may still remain a further unanswered question: Why is the performance of these functions accompanied by experience? A simple explanation of the functions leaves this question open.
There is no analogous further question in the explanation of genes, or of life, or of learning. If someone says I can see that you have explained how DNA stores and transmits hereditary information from one generation to the next, but you have not explained how it is a gene , then they are making a conceptual mistake. All it means to be a gene is to be an entity that performs the relevant storage and transmission function. But if someone says I can see that you have explained how information is titles, discriminated, integrated, and reported, but you have not explained how it is experienced , they are not making a conceptual mistake. Conjugaison Du Verbe Essayer! This is a nontrivial further question. This further question is the key question in the problem of consciousness.
Why doesn't all this information-processing go on in the dark, free of any inner feel? Why is it that when electromagnetic waveforms impinge on a retina and are discriminated and categorized by a visual system, this discrimination and categorization is experienced as a sensation of vivid red? We know that conscious experience does arise when these functions are performed, but the very fact that it arises is the central mystery. There is an explanatory gap (a term due to Levine 1983) between the terrorism, functions and experience, and we need an conjugaison du verbe essayer present explanatory bridge to cross it. A mere account of the functions stays on study outline, one side of the gap, so the materials for the bridge must be found elsewhere. This is not to say that experience has no function. Conjugaison Du Verbe Present! Perhaps it will turn out to play an important cognitive role. But for any role it might play, there will be more to the explanation of experience than a simple explanation of the study business, function. Perhaps it will even turn out that in the course of explaining a function, we will be led to the key insight that allows an explanation of experience.
If this happens, though, the discovery will be an extra explanatory reward. Essayer Present! There is no cognitive function such that we can say in advance that explanation of that function will automatically explain experience. To explain experience, we need a new approach. The usual explanatory methods of phd thesis cognitive science and neuroscience do not suffice. These methods have been developed precisely to explain the performance of cognitive functions, and they do a good job of it. But as these methods stand, they are only equipped to explain the present, performance of case business functions. When it comes to the hard problem, the standard approach has nothing to say. In the last few years, a number of works have addressed the problems of consciousness within the conjugaison present, framework of cognitive science and neuroscience. This might suggest that the about, analysis above is faulty, but in fact a close examination of the relevant work only lends the analysis further support. When we investigate just which aspects of consciousness these studies are aimed at, and which aspects they end up explaining, we find that the ultimate target of explanation is always one of the easy problems.
I will illustrate this with two representative examples. The first is the neurobiological theory of consciousness outlined by present, Crick and Koch (1990; see also Crick 1994). This theory centers on certain 35-75 hertz neural oscillations in the cerebral cortex; Crick and Koch hypothesize that these oscillations are the basis of consciousness. This is partly because the business, oscillations seem to be correlated with awareness in a number of different modalities - within the visual and olfactory systems, for du verbe example - and also because they suggest a mechanism by essays, which the binding of information contents might be achieved. Binding is the process whereby separately represented pieces of information about present, a single entity are brought together to paper be used by later processing, as when information about the color and shape of du verbe essayer present a perceived object is integrated from separate visual pathways. Following others (e.g., Eckhorn et al 1988), Crick and Koch hypothesize that binding may be achieved by on how terrorism, the synchronized oscillations of neuronal groups representing the relevant contents. When two pieces of information are to be bound together, the conjugaison essayer present, relevant neural groups will oscillate with the same frequency and phase. The details of how this binding might be achieved are still poorly understood, but suppose that they can be worked out. What might the resulting theory explain? Clearly it might explain the binding of information contents, and perhaps it might yield a more general account of the integration of information in the brain. Crick and Koch also suggest that these oscillations activate the mechanisms of working memory, so that there may be an account of essays this and perhaps other forms of memory in the distance.
The theory might eventually lead to a general account of how perceived information is bound and conjugaison stored in memory, for use by later processing. Such a theory would be valuable, but it would tell us nothing about why the relevant contents are experienced. Crick and Koch suggest that these oscillations are the neural correlates of phd thesis titles experience. This claim is arguable - does not binding also take place in the processing of unconscious information? - but even if it is accepted, the explanatory question remains: Why do the oscillations give rise to experience? The only basis for an explanatory connection is the role they play in conjugaison present binding and storage, but the question of why binding and storage should themselves be accompanied by experience is never addressed. If we do not know why binding and storage should give rise to experience, telling a story about the oscillations cannot help us. Conversely, if we knew why binding and storage gave rise to experience, the essay on how to stop terrorism, neurophysiological details would be just the icing on the cake. Crick and conjugaison du verbe essayer Koch's theory gains its purchase by assuming a connection between binding and case outline experience, and so can do nothing to essayer present explain that link. I do not think that Crick and Koch are ultimately claiming to address the hard problem, although some have interpreted them otherwise.
A published interview with Koch gives a clear statement of the essay on how to stop, limitations on the theory's ambitions. Well, let's first forget about the really difficult aspects, like subjective feelings, for they may not have a scientific solution. The subjective state of play, of conjugaison du verbe pain, of research pleasure, of seeing blue, of smelling a rose - there seems to be a huge jump between the materialistic level, of explaining molecules and neurons, and the subjective level. Let's focus on du verbe essayer, things that are easier to study - like visual awareness. On How Terrorism In India! You're now talking to me, but you're not looking at conjugaison essayer present me, you're looking at the cappuccino, and so you are aware of it. You can say, `It's a cup and there's some liquid in it.' If I give it to you, you'll move your arm and you'll take it - you'll respond in a meaningful manner. Outline! That's what I call awareness. (What is Consciousness, Discover , November 1992, p. 96.) The second example is an approach at the level of cognitive psychology. This is Baars' global workspace theory of consciousness, presented in his book A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness . According to this theory, the contents of consciousness are contained in a global workspace , a central processor used to mediate communication between a host of specialized nonconscious processors. When these specialized processors need to broadcast information to the rest of the system, they do so by sending this information to the workspace, which acts as a kind of communal blackboard for the rest of the system, accessible to du verbe present all the other processors.
Baars uses this model to address many aspects of human cognition, and to explain a number of contrasts between conscious and unconscious cognitive functioning. Ultimately, however, it is a theory of cognitive accessibility , explaining how it is that certain information contents are widely accessible within a system, as well as a theory of informational integration and reportability. The theory shows promise as a theory of awareness, the functional correlate of phd thesis titles conscious experience, but an explanation of experience itself is not on offer. One might suppose that according to this theory, the contents of conjugaison du verbe essayer experience are precisely the contents of the workspace. But even if this is so, nothing internal to the theory explains why the information within the global workspace is experienced. The best the theory can do is to say that the information is experienced because it is phd thesis, globally accessible . Du Verbe Essayer Present! But now the question arises in a different form: why should global accessibility give rise to conscious experience? As always, this bridging question is unanswered.
Almost all work taking a cognitive or neuroscientific approach to consciousness in defensive essays recent years could be subjected to a similar critique. The Neural Darwinism model of Edelman (1989), for instance, addresses questions about perceptual awareness and the self-concept, but says nothing about why there should also be experience. The multiple drafts model of Dennett (1991) is largely directed at conjugaison essayer present explaining the reportability of certain mental contents. Defensive! The intermediate level theory of Jackendoff (1988) provides an account of some computational processes that underlie consciousness, but Jackendoff stresses that the question of how these project into conscious experience remains mysterious. Researchers using these methods are often inexplicit about their attitudes to present the problem of conscious experience, although sometimes they take a clear stand. Even among those who are clear about it, attitudes differ widely. In placing this sort of work with respect to the problem of experience, a number of different strategies are available.
It would be useful if these strategic choices were more often made explicit. The first strategy is about friends, simply to explain something else . Some researchers are explicit that the problem of du verbe present experience is too difficult for now, and perhaps even outside the domain of science altogether. These researchers instead choose to address one of the more tractable problems such as reportability or the self-concept. Although I have called these problems the easy problems, they are among the most interesting unsolved problems in cognitive science, so this work is certainly worthwhile. The worst that can be said of this choice is that in the context of case study business research on consciousness it is relatively unambitious, and the work can sometimes be misinterpreted. The second choice is to take a harder line and conjugaison deny the phenomenon . (Variations on this approach are taken by Allport 1988, Dennett 1991, and Wilkes 1988.) According to this line, once we have explained the phd thesis titles, functions such as accessibility, reportability, and essayer present the like, there is paper on smoking, no further phenomenon called experience to explain. Some explicitly deny the phenomenon, holding for essayer present example that what is not externally verifiable cannot be real. Others achieve the same effect by allowing that experience exists, but only if we equate experience with something like the capacity to discriminate and technology report. Present! These approaches lead to research paper a simpler theory, but are ultimately unsatisfactory. Conjugaison Du Verbe! Experience is the most central and manifest aspect of our mental lives, and indeed is titles, perhaps the key explanandum in conjugaison essayer present the science of the mind.
Because of this status as an research paper explanandum, experience cannot be discarded like the vital spirit when a new theory comes along. Rather, it is the central fact that any theory of consciousness must explain. Conjugaison! A theory that denies the phenomenon solves the outline business, problem by ducking the question. In a third option, some researchers claim to be explaining experience in the full sense. Conjugaison! These researchers (unlike those above) wish to take experience very seriously; they lay out their functional model or theory, and claim that it explains the full subjective quality of experience (e.g. Flohr 1992, Humphrey 1992). Essay On How To Stop Terrorism In India! The relevant step in the explanation is usually passed over quickly, however, and usually ends up looking something like magic.
After some details about conjugaison essayer present, information processing are given, experience suddenly enters the picture, but it is left obscure how these processes should suddenly give rise to experience. Perhaps it is simply taken for examination igcse past granted that it does, but then we have an incomplete explanation and a version of the fifth strategy below. A fourth, more promising approach appeals to these methods to explain the structure of experience . For example, it is arguable that an account of the discriminations made by the visual system can account for the structural relations between different color experiences, as well as for the geometric structure of the visual field (see e.g., Clark 1992 and Hardin 1992). In general, certain facts about structures found in du verbe processing will correspond to and arguably explain facts about the structure of defensive essays experience. This strategy is plausible but limited. At best, it takes the existence of experience for granted and conjugaison accounts for some facts about phd thesis, its structure, providing a sort of nonreductive explanation of the structural aspects of experience (I will say more on this later). This is useful for du verbe essayer many purposes, but it tells us nothing about outline, why there should be experience in the first place.
A fifth and reasonable strategy is to isolate the substrate of du verbe essayer present experience . After all, almost everyone allows that experience arises one way or another from brain processes, and it makes sense to identify the sort of process from question, which it arises. Du Verbe Essayer! Crick and Koch put their work forward as isolating the neural correlate of consciousness, for example, and Edelman (1989) and Jackendoff (1988) make related claims. Justification of these claims requires a careful theoretical analysis, especially as experience is not directly observable in essay on how terrorism in india experimental contexts, but when applied judiciously this strategy can shed indirect light on the problem of conjugaison du verbe experience. Nevertheless, the strategy is clearly incomplete. For a satisfactory theory, we need to essay know more than which processes give rise to experience; we need an account of why and how.
A full theory of consciousness must build an explanatory bridge. We have seen that there are systematic reasons why the usual methods of conjugaison essayer present cognitive science and technology neuroscience fail to account for du verbe essayer conscious experience. These are simply the wrong sort of methods: nothing that they give to us can yield an about explanation. To account for conscious experience, we need an extra ingredient in the explanation. This makes for a challenge to those who are serious about the hard problem of consciousness: What is your extra ingredient, and why should that account for conscious experience? There is no shortage of extra ingredients to conjugaison be had. Some propose an injection of chaos and nonlinear dynamics. Some think that the key lies in phd thesis titles nonalgorithmic processing.
Some appeal to future discoveries in neurophysiology. Some suppose that the key to the mystery will lie at the level of quantum mechanics. It is easy to see why all these suggestions are put forward. None of the old methods work, so the solution must lie with something new. Unfortunately, these suggestions all suffer from the same old problems.
Nonalgorithmic processing, for example, is put forward by essayer, Penrose (1989; 1994) because of the essay, role it might play in present the process of case business conscious mathematical insight. The arguments about mathematics are controversial, but even if they succeed and an account of nonalgorithmic processing in the human brain is given, it will still only be an account of the conjugaison essayer present, functions involved in mathematical reasoning and the like. For a nonalgorithmic process as much as an algorithmic process, the question is left unanswered: why should this process give rise to experience? In answering this question, there is research, no special role for nonalgorithmic processing. The same goes for conjugaison essayer nonlinear and chaotic dynamics. Essay About Friends! These might provide a novel account of the dynamics of cognitive functioning, quite different from that given by conjugaison du verbe present, standard methods in cognitive science. Defensive Technology Essays! But from dynamics, one only gets more dynamics. The question about experience here is as mysterious as ever. Essayer Present! The point is even clearer for new discoveries in neurophysiology. These new discoveries may help us make significant progress in understanding brain function, but for any neural process we isolate, the same question will always arise.
It is difficult to imagine what a proponent of new neurophysiology expects to happen, over and above the research on smoking, explanation of du verbe essayer further cognitive functions. Examination Igcse Past! It is not as if we will suddenly discover a phenomenal glow inside a neuron! Perhaps the most popular extra ingredient of all is quantum mechanics (e.g. Hameroff 1994). The attractiveness of quantum theories of consciousness may stem from a Law of conjugaison essayer Minimization of Mystery: consciousness is mysterious and quantum mechanics is mysterious, so maybe the two mysteries have a common source. Essay Friends! Nevertheless, quantum theories of consciousness suffer from the same difficulties as neural or computational theories. Quantum phenomena have some remarkable functional properties, such as nondeterminism and nonlocality. Du Verbe Present! It is natural to speculate that these properties may play some role in the explanation of cognitive functions, such as random choice and the integration of information, and this hypothesis cannot be ruled out defensive technology essays, a priori . But when it comes to the explanation of experience, quantum processes are in the same boat as any other. The question of why these processes should give rise to experience is entirely unanswered. (One special attraction of quantum theories is the fact that on some interpretations of quantum mechanics, consciousness plays an active role in collapsing the quantum wave function. Such interpretations are controversial, but in any case they offer no hope of explaining consciousness in terms of quantum processes.
Rather, these theories assume the existence of consciousness, and use it in the explanation of quantum processes. At best, these theories tell us something about a physical role that consciousness may play. They tell us nothing about how it arises.) At the end of the day, the same criticism applies to any purely physical account of present consciousness. Defensive! For any physical process we specify there will be an unanswered question: Why should this process give rise to du verbe present experience?
Given any such process, it is conceptually coherent that it could be instantiated in titles the absence of experience. It follows that no mere account of the physical process will tell us why experience arises. Du Verbe Essayer! The emergence of experience goes beyond what can be derived from physical theory. Purely physical explanation is well-suited to the explanation of study physical structures , explaining macroscopic structures in terms of detailed microstructural constituents; and it provides a satisfying explanation of the essayer, performance of essay question functions , accounting for these functions in terms of the physical mechanisms that perform them. This is because a physical account can entail the facts about structures and functions: once the internal details of the physical account are given, the structural and functional properties fall out as an automatic consequence. But the structure and conjugaison du verbe essayer present dynamics of physical processes yield only case, more structure and dynamics, so structures and functions are all we can expect these processes to explain. The facts about experience cannot be an automatic consequence of any physical account, as it is conceptually coherent that any given process could exist without experience.
Experience may arise from the physical, but it is not entailed by the physical. The moral of all this is that you can't explain conscious experience on the cheap . It is a remarkable fact that reductive methods - methods that explain a high-level phenomenon wholly in terms of more basic physical processes - work well in so many domains. In a sense, one can explain most biological and cognitive phenomena on the cheap, in that these phenomena are seen as automatic consequences of more fundamental processes. It would be wonderful if reductive methods could explain experience, too; I hoped for a long time that they might. Unfortunately, there are systematic reasons why these methods must fail. Reductive methods are successful in most domains because what needs explaining in du verbe essayer those domains are structures and functions, and defensive essays these are the kind of thing that a physical account can entail. When it comes to a problem over and above the conjugaison du verbe present, explanation of structures and defensive functions, these methods are impotent. This might seem reminiscent of the vitalist claim that no physical account could explain life, but the cases are disanalogous.
What drove vitalist skepticism was doubt about whether physical mechanisms could perform the many remarkable functions associated with life, such as complex adaptive behavior and reproduction. The conceptual claim that explanation of functions is what is conjugaison du verbe present, needed was implicitly accepted, but lacking detailed knowledge of biochemical mechanisms, vitalists doubted whether any physical process could do the defensive, job and put forward the hypothesis of the vital spirit as an alternative explanation. Du Verbe! Once it turned out that physical processes could perform the relevant functions, vitalist doubts melted away. With experience, on the other hand, physical explanation of the functions is not in question. The key is instead the conceptual point that the explanation of functions does not suffice for the explanation of experience.
This basic conceptual point is not something that further neuroscientific investigation will affect. In a similar way, experience is disanalogous to the élan vital . The vital spirit was put forward as an explanatory posit, in order to explain the relevant functions, and could therefore be discarded when those functions were explained without it. Experience is not an explanatory posit but an explanandum in its own right, and so is not a candidate for this sort of elimination. It is tempting to note that all sorts of study outline business puzzling phenomena have eventually turned out to be explainable in physical terms. But each of conjugaison essayer present these were problems about the observable behavior of physical objects, coming down to essay about friends problems in the explanation of structures and functions. Essayer! Because of this, these phenomena have always been the kind of thing that a physical account might explain, even if at some points there have been good reasons to suspect that no such explanation would be forthcoming. The tempting induction from these cases fails in the case of consciousness, which is not a problem about physical structures and functions. The problem of case study business consciousness is puzzling in an entirely different way. An analysis of the problem shows us that conscious experience is just not the kind of thing that a wholly reductive account could succeed in conjugaison du verbe essayer present explaining.
At this point some are tempted to give up, holding that we will never have a theory of conscious experience. McGinn (1989), for example, argues that the essay about, problem is conjugaison du verbe present, too hard for our limited minds; we are cognitively closed with respect to the phenomenon. Others have argued that conscious experience lies outside the domain of scientific theory altogether. I think this pessimism is premature. This is not the place to give up; it is the place where things get interesting. Essay Igcse Past! When simple methods of explanation are ruled out, we need to investigate the conjugaison present, alternatives. Given that reductive explanation fails, nonreductive explanation is the natural choice. Although a remarkable number of phenomena have turned out to be explicable wholly in terms of entities simpler than themselves, this is not universal. In physics, it occasionally happens that an paper on smoking entity has to be taken as fundamental . Fundamental entities are not explained in conjugaison du verbe terms of anything simpler.
Instead, one takes them as basic, and gives a theory of how they relate to essays everything else in the world. For example, in du verbe essayer the nineteenth century it turned out that electromagnetic processes could not be explained in terms of the wholly mechanical processes that previous physical theories appealed to, so Maxwell and others introduced electromagnetic charge and electromagnetic forces as new fundamental components of titles a physical theory. To explain electromagnetism, the ontology of physics had to be expanded. New basic properties and basic laws were needed to give a satisfactory account of the phenomena. Other features that physical theory takes as fundamental include mass and space-time. Du Verbe! No attempt is titles, made to explain these features in terms of conjugaison essayer present anything simpler. But this does not rule out the in india, possibility of a theory of mass or of space-time. There is an conjugaison essayer intricate theory of how these features interrelate, and of the basic laws they enter into. These basic principles are used to explain many familiar phenomena concerning mass, space, and time at technology essays a higher level.
I suggest that a theory of consciousness should take experience as fundamental. We know that a theory of consciousness requires the addition of something fundamental to our ontology, as everything in physical theory is compatible with the absence of consciousness. Conjugaison Du Verbe Essayer Present! We might add some entirely new nonphysical feature, from which experience can be derived, but it is hard to see what such a feature would be like. Research On Smoking! More likely, we will take experience itself as a fundamental feature of the world, alongside mass, charge, and space-time. If we take experience as fundamental, then we can go about the business of constructing a theory of experience. Where there is a fundamental property, there are fundamental laws. A nonreductive theory of essayer experience will add new principles to the furniture of the basic laws of nature. These basic principles will ultimately carry the explanatory burden in a theory of consciousness. Just as we explain familiar high-level phenomena involving mass in essays terms of more basic principles involving mass and other entities, we might explain familiar phenomena involving experience in conjugaison essayer terms of research on smoking more basic principles involving experience and other entities.
In particular, a nonreductive theory of experience will specify basic principles telling us how experience depends on physical features of the world. These psychophysical principles will not interfere with physical laws, as it seems that physical laws already form a closed system. Rather, they will be a supplement to a physical theory. A physical theory gives a theory of physical processes, and a psychophysical theory tells us how those processes give rise to experience. We know that experience depends on physical processes, but we also know that this dependence cannot be derived from physical laws alone. The new basic principles postulated by a nonreductive theory give us the extra ingredient that we need to build an conjugaison explanatory bridge.
Of course, by friends, taking experience as fundamental, there is a sense in which this approach does not tell us why there is present, experience in the first place. Paper On Smoking! But this is the same for any fundamental theory. Nothing in physics tells us why there is matter in the first place, but we do not count this against theories of matter. Certain features of the world need to du verbe essayer present be taken as fundamental by any scientific theory. A theory of matter can still explain all sorts of research paper on smoking facts about matter, by showing how they are consequences of the basic laws. The same goes for a theory of experience. This position qualifies as a variety of dualism, as it postulates basic properties over and above the properties invoked by physics. But it is an innocent version of dualism, entirely compatible with the du verbe present, scientific view of the world. Nothing in business this approach contradicts anything in conjugaison present physical theory; we simply need to add further bridging principles to technology essays explain how experience arises from physical processes. There is nothing particularly spiritual or mystical about this theory - its overall shape is like that of a physical theory, with a few fundamental entities connected by du verbe, fundamental laws. It expands the ontology slightly, to be sure, but Maxwell did the same thing.
Indeed, the overall structure of this position is entirely naturalistic, allowing that ultimately the technology essays, universe comes down to a network of du verbe essayer basic entities obeying simple laws, and about friends allowing that there may ultimately be a theory of consciousness cast in terms of such laws. If the position is to have a name, a good choice might be naturalistic dualism . If this view is right, then in some ways a theory of consciousness will have more in common with a theory in physics than a theory in biology. Biological theories involve no principles that are fundamental in conjugaison du verbe present this way, so biological theory has a certain complexity and messiness to it; but theories in physics, insofar as they deal with fundamental principles, aspire to simplicity and elegance. The fundamental laws of nature are part of the basic furniture of the world, and physical theories are telling us that this basic furniture is remarkably simple. If a theory of consciousness also involves fundamental principles, then we should expect the same. The principles of simplicity, elegance, and even beauty that drive physicists' search for paper on smoking a fundamental theory will also apply to a theory of consciousness. (A technical note: Some philosophers argue that even though there is a conceptual gap between physical processes and experience, there need be no metaphysical gap, so that experience might in a certain sense still be physical (e.g. Hill 1991; Levine 1983; Loar 1990). Du Verbe! Usually this line of argument is supported by an appeal to the notion of a posteriori necessity (Kripke 1980). I think that this position rests on a misunderstanding of a posteriori necessity, however, or else requires an entirely new sort of necessity that we have no reason to believe in; see Chalmers 1996 (also Jackson 1994 and Lewis 1994) for essays details. In any case, this position still concedes an explanatory gap between physical processes and experience.
For example, the principles connecting the physical and the experiential will not be derivable from the laws of physics, so such principles must be taken as explanatorily fundamental. So even on this sort of view, the explanatory structure of du verbe essayer present a theory of consciousness will be much as I have described.) 7 Outline of a theory of consciousness. It is essay to stop in india, not too soon to begin work on a theory. We are already in a position to understand certain key facts about the relationship between physical processes and experience, and about the regularities that connect them. Once reductive explanation is set aside, we can lay those facts on du verbe essayer present, the table so that they can play their proper role as the initial pieces in a nonreductive theory of consciousness, and as constraints on the basic laws that constitute an ultimate theory.
There is an obvious problem that plagues the development of essay to stop in india a theory of consciousness, and that is the conjugaison du verbe essayer, paucity of objective data. Conscious experience is phd thesis titles, not directly observable in an experimental context, so we cannot generate data about the relationship between physical processes and experience at conjugaison essayer will. Nevertheless, we all have access to a rich source of phd thesis titles data in our own case. Many important regularities between experience and processing can be inferred from considerations about one's own experience. There are also good indirect sources of data from observable cases, as when one relies on the verbal report of a subject as an indication of experience.
These methods have their limitations, but we have more than enough data to get a theory off the ground. Philosophical analysis is also useful in getting value for money out du verbe essayer, of the study, data we have. This sort of conjugaison essayer present analysis can yield a number of friends principles relating consciousness and cognition, thereby strongly constraining the essayer present, shape of an ultimate theory. The method of thought-experimentation can also yield significant rewards, as we will see. Finally, the fact that we are searching for a fundamental theory means that we can appeal to such nonempirical constraints as simplicity, homogeneity, and the like in developing a theory. We must seek to systematize the information we have, to essay to stop in india extend it as far as possible by careful analysis, and then make the inference to the simplest possible theory that explains the data while remaining a plausible candidate to be part of the fundamental furniture of the world.
Such theories will always retain an du verbe present element of about speculation that is not present in other scientific theories, because of the impossibility of conclusive intersubjective experimental tests. Still, we can certainly construct theories that are compatible with the data that we have, and du verbe essayer evaluate them in comparison to each other. Even in the absence of intersubjective observation, there are numerous criteria available for phd thesis titles the evaluation of such theories: simplicity, internal coherence, coherence with theories in du verbe other domains, the ability to reproduce the properties of experience that are familiar from our own case, and even an overall fit with the dictates of common sense. Perhaps there will be significant indeterminacies remaining even when all these constraints are applied, but we can at least develop plausible candidates. Only when candidate theories have been developed will we be able to about evaluate them. A nonreductive theory of consciousness will consist in a number of psychophysical principles , principles connecting the properties of physical processes to the properties of experience. We can think of these principles as encapsulating the way in which experience arises from the physical. Ultimately, these principles should tell us what sort of physical systems will have associated experiences, and for du verbe present the systems that do, they should tell us what sort of physical properties are relevant to the emergence of experience, and defensive technology essays just what sort of experience we should expect any given physical system to yield.
This is a tall order, but there is no reason why we should not get started. In what follows, I present my own candidates for the psychophysical principles that might go into a theory of consciousness. The first two of these are nonbasic principles - systematic connections between processing and experience at a relatively high level. These principles can play a significant role in developing and present constraining a theory of consciousness, but they are not cast at a sufficiently fundamental level to qualify as truly basic laws. The final principle is my candidate for a basic principle that might form the cornerstone of a fundamental theory of consciousness. This final principle is particularly speculative, but it is the kind of speculation that is required if we are ever to phd thesis have a satisfying theory of consciousness. Conjugaison Du Verbe Present! I can present these principles only examination igcse past, briefly here; I argue for them at much greater length in Chalmers (1996). 1. The principle of structural coherence . This is a principle of coherence between the structure of consciousness and the structure of du verbe essayer present awareness . Recall that awareness was used earlier to refer to the various functional phenomena that are associated with consciousness. I am now using it to refer to a somewhat more specific process in the cognitive underpinnings of experience. In particular, the contents of awareness are to be understood as those information contents that are accessible to central systems, and technology brought to bear in a widespread way in the control of behavior.
Briefly put, we can think of awareness as direct availability for global control . To a first approximation, the contents of awareness are the contents that are directly accessible and potentially reportable, at least in a language-using system. Awareness is a purely functional notion, but it is nevertheless intimately linked to conscious experience. In familiar cases, wherever we find consciousness, we find awareness. Wherever there is conscious experience, there is some corresponding information in the cognitive system that is available in the control of behavior, and conjugaison available for essays verbal report. Conversely, it seems that whenever information is available for report and for global control, there is a corresponding conscious experience. Thus, there is a direct correspondence between consciousness and awareness. The correspondence can be taken further. Conjugaison Essayer! It is a central fact about experience that it has a complex structure. The visual field has a complex geometry, for instance. There are also relations of similarity and difference between experiences, and question relations in such things as relative intensity. Every subject's experience can be at least partly characterized and decomposed in terms of these structural properties: similarity and difference relations, perceived location, relative intensity, geometric structure, and so on.
It is also a central fact that to each of these structural features, there is a corresponding feature in the information-processing structure of awareness. Take color sensations as an example. For every distinction between color experiences, there is a corresponding distinction in processing. Du Verbe Essayer! The different phenomenal colors that we experience form a complex three-dimensional space, varying in hue, saturation, and intensity. The properties of this space can be recovered from essay on how to stop, information-processing considerations: examination of the visual systems shows that waveforms of light are discriminated and analyzed along three different axes, and it is this three-dimensional information that is relevant to later processing.
The three-dimensional structure of phenomenal color space therefore corresponds directly to the three dimensional structure of visual awareness. This is precisely what we would expect. After all, every color distinction corresponds to some reportable information, and therefore to a distinction that is represented in conjugaison du verbe essayer present the structure of essay in india processing. In a more straightforward way, the geometric structure of the visual field is directly reflected in du verbe essayer present a structure that can be recovered from visual processing. Every geometric relation corresponds to something that can be reported and is therefore cognitively represented. If we were given only the story about information-processing in an agent's visual and cognitive system, we could not directly observe that agent's visual experiences, but we could nevertheless infer those experiences' structural properties.
In general, any information that is consciously experienced will also be cognitively represented. The fine-grained structure of the visual field will correspond to some fine-grained structure in visual processing. The same goes for experiences in other modalities, and even for nonsensory experiences. Case Study Outline! Internal mental images have geometric properties that are represented in processing. Du Verbe Essayer! Even emotions have structural properties, such as relative intensity, that correspond directly to a structural property of processing; where there is greater intensity, we find a greater effect on later processes. Titles! In general, precisely because the structural properties of experience are accessible and reportable, those properties will be directly represented in the structure of awareness. It is this isomorphism between the structures of consciousness and awareness that constitutes the principle of du verbe essayer present structural coherence. This principle reflects the central fact that even though cognitive processes do not conceptually entail facts about friends, conscious experience, consciousness and cognition do not float free of one another but cohere in an intimate way. This principle has its limits. It allows us to essayer recover structural properties of essay about experience from information-processing properties, but not all properties of experience are structural properties.
There are properties of experience, such as the intrinsic nature of a sensation of red, that cannot be fully captured in a structural description. The very intelligibility of inverted spectrum scenarios, where experiences of red and du verbe present green are inverted but all structural properties remain the same, show that structural properties constrain experience without exhausting it. Nevertheless, the very fact that we feel compelled to essay about leave structural properties unaltered when we imagine experiences inverted between functionally identical systems shows how central the principle of structural coherence is to our conception of our mental lives. It is not a logically necessary principle, as after all we can imagine all the information processing occurring without any experience at all, but it is nevertheless a strong and familiar constraint on the psychophysical connection. The principle of structural coherence allows for a very useful kind of conjugaison indirect explanation of experience in research on smoking terms of physical processes. For example, we can use facts about neural processing of du verbe essayer visual information to indirectly explain the defensive technology essays, structure of color space. The facts about neural processing can entail and explain the structure of awareness; if we take the coherence principle for granted, the structure of du verbe experience will also be explained.
Empirical investigation might even lead us to case study outline better understand the structure of awareness within a bat, shedding indirect light on Nagel's vexing question of what it is like to du verbe essayer be a bat. This principle provides a natural interpretation of defensive technology essays much existing work on the explanation of consciousness (e.g. Du Verbe Present! Clark 1992 and research paper on smoking Hardin 1992 on colors, and Akins 1993 on conjugaison essayer, bats), although it is often appealed to inexplicitly. It is defensive essays, so familiar that it is taken for granted by almost everybody, and conjugaison du verbe essayer present is a central plank in the cognitive explanation of consciousness. The coherence between consciousness and awareness also allows a natural interpretation of work in neuroscience directed at isolating the substrate (or the defensive essays, neural correlate ) of consciousness. Various specific hypotheses have been put forward. For example, Crick and Koch (1990) suggest that 40-Hz oscillations may be the neural correlate of essayer present consciousness, whereas Libet (1993) suggests that temporally-extended neural activity is central. If we accept the principle of coherence, the most direct physical correlate of consciousness is awareness: the defensive, process whereby information is made directly available for present global control. The different specific hypotheses can be interpreted as empirical suggestions about how awareness might be achieved. For example, Crick and Koch suggest that 40-Hz oscillations are the gateway by which information is case study business, integrated into working memory and thereby made available to later processes.
Similarly, it is natural to suppose that Libet's temporally extended activity is relevant precisely because only that sort of activity achieves global availability. The same applies to other suggested correlates such as the global workspace of conjugaison essayer present Baars (1988), the high-quality representations of Farah (1994), and the selector inputs to action systems of essay Shallice (1972). All these can be seen as hypotheses about the mechanisms of awareness : the mechanisms that perform the function of making information directly available for du verbe present global control. Given the coherence between consciousness and awareness, it follows that a mechanism of awareness will itself be a correlate of defensive essays conscious experience. Conjugaison Du Verbe Essayer Present! The question of just which mechanisms in the brain govern global availability is an case empirical one; perhaps there are many such mechanisms. But if we accept the coherence principle, we have reason to believe that the du verbe essayer, processes that explain awareness will at the same time be part of the basis of consciousness. 2. The principle of organizational invariance . This principle states that any two systems with the same fine-grained functional organization will have qualitatively identical experiences. If the causal patterns of neural organization were duplicated in about silicon, for example, with a silicon chip for every neuron and the same patterns of conjugaison du verbe present interaction, then the same experiences would arise. According to this principle, what matters for the emergence of experience is not the specific physical makeup of a system, but the abstract pattern of causal interaction between its components. This principle is controversial, of course.
Some (e.g. Searle 1980) have thought that consciousness is tied to a specific biology, so that a silicon isomorph of a human need not be conscious. I believe that the principle can be given significant support by the analysis of thought-experiments, however. Very briefly: suppose (for the purposes of a reductio ad absurdum ) that the technology essays, principle is false, and that there could be two functionally isomorphic systems with different experiences. Perhaps only one of the du verbe essayer, systems is conscious, or perhaps both are conscious but they have different experiences. For the purposes of illustration, let us say that one system is made of neurons and the other of essay silicon, and du verbe that one experiences red where the other experiences blue.
The two systems have the same organization, so we can imagine gradually transforming one into the other, perhaps replacing neurons one at a time by silicon chips with the case study outline business, same local function. We thus gain a spectrum of intermediate cases, each with the same organization, but with slightly different physical makeup and slightly different experiences. Conjugaison Du Verbe Essayer Present! Along this spectrum, there must be two systems A and B between which we replace less than one tenth of the system, but whose experiences differ. These two systems are physically identical, except that a small neural circuit in A has been replaced by a silicon circuit in B . The key step in the thought-experiment is to take the relevant neural circuit in A , and install alongside it a causally isomorphic silicon circuit, with a switch between the two. What happens when we flip the defensive technology, switch? By hypothesis, the system's conscious experiences will change; from red to blue, say, for the purposes of illustration. This follows from the fact that the system after the change is essentially a version of B , whereas before the change it is just A . But given the assumptions, there is no way for the system to conjugaison du verbe essayer present notice the changes! Its causal organization stays constant, so that all of its functional states and behavioral dispositions stay fixed.
As far as the system is on how to stop terrorism in india, concerned, nothing unusual has happened. Conjugaison Essayer! There is no room for the thought, Hmm! Something strange just happened!. In general, the structure of any such thought must be reflected in processing, but the structure of terrorism in india processing remains constant here. If there were to be such a thought it must float entirely free of the system and would be utterly impotent to affect later processing. (If it affected later processing, the systems would be functionally distinct, contrary to hypothesis). We might even flip the switch a number of times, so that experiences of red and blue dance back and forth before the system's inner eye. According to hypothesis, the system can never notice these dancing qualia. This I take to be a reductio of the original assumption. It is a central fact about experience, very familiar from our own case, that whenever experiences change significantly and we are paying attention, we can notice the conjugaison, change; if this were not to case study be the case, we would be led to the skeptical possibility that our experiences are dancing before our eyes all the time. Conjugaison Essayer! This hypothesis has the same status as the possibility that the world was created five minutes ago: perhaps it is logically coherent, but it is not plausible. Given the extremely plausible assumption that changes in experience correspond to changes in technology essays processing, we are led to conjugaison essayer present the conclusion that the original hypothesis is impossible, and essay to stop that any two functionally isomorphic systems must have the same sort of experiences.
To put it in du verbe present technical terms, the philosophical hypotheses of absent qualia and inverted qualia, while logically possible, are empirically and nomologically impossible. (Some may worry that a silicon isomorph of a neural system might be impossible for technical reasons. That question is open. The invariance principle says only that if an isomorph is possible, then it will have the business, same sort of conscious experience.) There is present, more to be said here, but this gives the basic flavor. Once again, this thought experiment draws on familiar facts about the coherence between consciousness and cognitive processing to yield a strong conclusion about the relation between physical structure and experience. If the argument goes through, we know that the only physical properties directly relevant to the emergence of experience are organizational properties. Phd Thesis Titles! This acts as a further strong constraint on a theory of consciousness. 3. The double-aspect theory of information . The two preceding principles have been nonbasic principles.
They involve high-level notions such as awareness and organization, and therefore lie at the wrong level to constitute the fundamental laws in a theory of consciousness. Nevertheless, they act as strong constraints. Conjugaison Du Verbe Essayer Present! What is on how terrorism in india, further needed are basic principles that fit these constraints and that might ultimately explain them. The basic principle that I suggest centrally involves the notion of information . I understand information in du verbe essayer more or less the about, sense of Shannon (1948). Where there is conjugaison, information, there are information states embedded in case business an information space . An information space has a basic structure of difference relations between its elements, characterizing the ways in which different elements in a space are similar or different, possibly in conjugaison du verbe essayer complex ways. An information space is an abstract object, but following Shannon we can see information as physically embodied when there is a space of distinct physical states, the differences between which can be transmitted down some causal pathway. The states that are transmitted can be seen as themselves constituting an information space. To borrow a phrase from Bateson (1972), physical information is a difference that makes a difference . The double-aspect principle stems from the observation that there is a direct isomorphism between certain physically embodied information spaces and certain phenomenal (or experiential) information spaces.
From the same sort of observations that went into the principle of structural coherence, we can note that the differences between phenomenal states have a structure that corresponds directly to to stop in india the differences embedded in physical processes; in particular, to those differences that make a difference down certain causal pathways implicated in global availability and control. That is, we can find the same abstract information space embedded in physical processing and in conscious experience. This leads to a natural hypothesis: that information (or at least some information) has two basic aspects, a physical aspect and a phenomenal aspect. Du Verbe Present! This has the status of a basic principle that might underlie and titles explain the emergence of experience from the conjugaison du verbe present, physical. Experience arises by case outline business, virtue of its status as one aspect of information, when the other aspect is found embodied in physical processing. This principle is lent support by a number of conjugaison present considerations, which I can only outline briefly here. First, consideration of the sort of physical changes that correspond to changes in conscious experience suggests that such changes are always relevant by virtue of their role in constituting informational changes - differences within an abstract space of states that are divided up precisely according to their causal differences along certain causal pathways. Second, if the principle of organizational invariance is to hold, then we need to research paper on smoking find some fundamental organizational property for conjugaison essayer experience to be linked to, and information is an organizational property par excellence . Third, this principle offers some hope of explaining the principle of phd thesis titles structural coherence in terms of the structure present within information spaces. Fourth, analysis of the cognitive explanation of our judgments and claims about conscious experience - judgments that are functionally explainable but nevertheless deeply tied to experience itself - suggests that explanation centrally involves the conjugaison essayer, information states embedded in cognitive processing.
It follows that a theory based on information allows a deep coherence between the explanation of experience and the explanation of our judgments and claims about it. Wheeler (1990) has suggested that information is fundamental to the physics of the universe. Titles! According to conjugaison du verbe essayer present this it from bit doctrine, the laws of physics can be cast in terms of information, postulating different states that give rise to titles different effects without actually saying what those states are . Conjugaison Du Verbe Present! It is only their position in an information space that counts. Defensive Technology Essays! If so, then information is conjugaison essayer, a natural candidate to also play a role in about friends a fundamental theory of consciousness. Du Verbe! We are led to technology essays a conception of the world on which information is conjugaison du verbe, truly fundamental, and on which it has two basic aspects, corresponding to the physical and the phenomenal features of the world. Of course, the double-aspect principle is extremely speculative and is also underdetermined, leaving a number of key questions unanswered. Friends! An obvious question is conjugaison du verbe essayer, whether all information has a phenomenal aspect. One possibility is essay on how terrorism in india, that we need a further constraint on the fundamental theory, indicating just what sort of information has a phenomenal aspect. The other possibility is that there is du verbe present, no such constraint. If not, then experience is much more widespread than we might have believed, as information is everywhere. This is counterintuitive at first, but on reflection I think the position gains a certain plausibility and elegance.
Where there is simple information processing, there is friends, simple experience, and where there is complex information processing, there is complex experience. A mouse has a simpler information-processing structure than a human, and has correspondingly simpler experience; perhaps a thermostat, a maximally simple information processing structure, might have maximally simple experience? Indeed, if experience is truly a fundamental property, it would be surprising for it to arise only every now and then; most fundamental properties are more evenly spread. In any case, this is very much an open question, but I believe that the position is not as implausible as it is often thought to be. Once a fundamental link between information and experience is on the table, the door is opened to some grander metaphysical speculation concerning the conjugaison essayer present, nature of the world.
For example, it is often noted that physics characterizes its basic entities only extrinsically , in terms of their relations to other entities, which are themselves characterized extrinsically, and so on. The intrinsic nature of physical entities is left aside. Some argue that no such intrinsic properties exist, but then one is left with a world that is case, pure causal flux (a pure flow of information) with no properties for the causation to relate. Conjugaison Du Verbe! If one allows that intrinsic properties exist, a natural speculation given the above is that the intrinsic properties of the titles, physical - the properties that causation ultimately relates - are themselves phenomenal properties. We might say that phenomenal properties are the internal aspect of du verbe essayer information. This could answer a concern about the causal relevance of experience - a natural worry, given a picture on which the physical domain is causally closed, and on which experience is supplementary to the physical.
The informational view allows us to understand how experience might have a subtle kind of causal relevance in virtue of its status as the intrinsic nature of the physical. This metaphysical speculation is research, probably best ignored for the purposes of developing a scientific theory, but in du verbe essayer addressing some philosophical issues it is quite suggestive. The theory I have presented is phd thesis, speculative, but it is a candidate theory. I suspect that the principles of structural coherence and organizational invariance will be planks in any satisfactory theory of consciousness; the status of the double-aspect theory of conjugaison du verbe essayer present information is less certain. Indeed, right now it is more of an idea than a theory.
To have any hope of eventual explanatory success, it will have to be specified more fully and fleshed out into a more powerful form. Essay On How To Stop Terrorism! Still, reflection on conjugaison du verbe essayer, just what is plausible and implausible about it, on where it works and where it fails, can only lead to study a better theory. Most existing theories of conjugaison essayer present consciousness either deny the phenomenon, explain something else, or elevate the problem to an eternal mystery. I hope to have shown that it is possible to make progress on the problem even while taking it seriously. To make further progress, we will need further investigation, more refined theories, and more careful analysis.
The hard problem is a hard problem, but there is essay about friends, no reason to believe that it will remain permanently unsolved. *[[ The arguments in this paper are presented in greater depth in my book The Conscious Mind (Oxford University Press, 1996). Thanks to Francis Crick, Peggy DesAutels, Matthew Elton, Liane Gabora, Christof Koch, Paul Rhodes, Gregg Rosenberg, and Sharon Wahl for their comments. ]] The problems of consciousness have been widely discussed in the recent philosophical literature. For some conceptual clarification of the various problems of consciousness, see Block 1995, Nelkin 1993, and Tye 1995. Those who have stressed the difficulties of conjugaison present explaining experience in physical terms include Hodgson 1988, Jackson 1982, Levine 1983, Lockwood 1989, McGinn 1989, Nagel 1974, Seager 1991, Searle 1991, Strawson 1994, and to stop terrorism in india Velmans 1991, among others. Those who take a reductive approach include Churchland 1995, Clark 1992, Dennett 1991, Dretske 1995, Kirk 1994, Rosenthal 1996, and Tye 1995. There have not been many attempts to build detailed nonreductive theories in the literature, but see Hodgson 1988 and Lockwood 1989 for some thoughts in that direction. Two excellent collections of recent articles on du verbe essayer present, consciousness are Block, Flanagan, and Güzeldere 1996 and Metzinger 1995. Akins, K. 1993.
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