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birthdate on resume This page explains how to write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and covering letter, used when applying for jobs in the UK. Author: Corinne Mills. Book! Date: January 2009. Author: Tracey Whitmore. Publisher: How To Books Ltd. Your CV ( curriculum vitae ) is a summary of research paperscomputer, your work experience and education, used for job applications. A resume (properly written as resumé) is an American English term for a CV.
A covering letter is a letter sent with your CV which explains details about your application to a particular company. Book! A reference is a formal letter to an employer, from somebody who knows you well, describing your character or ability. A referee is a person who provides a reference for and division on pets you. How should I design the layout of book report feedback, my CV? There are many ways to design a CV. This section gives an example. Print your CV on on shoppers, good quality white paper.
The paper size should be A4 (this is 21.0 cm wide and 29.7cm tall). Usually you should not attach a photograph. Leave wide margins (there should be a gap of at feedback least 2 centimetres on the top, bottom, left and right). A good font size to example of a mini, use is 12 (or 10 if you want to put more information on your CV). The document should use only one font style, for example Times New Roman.
Use bold ( Bold ) or italics ( Italics ) to emphasise important words. Report! Only underline section titles (or do not underline any words). If you make a list (for example, a list of your job achievements), consider using bullet points. Try to resume, keep the CV on one side of paper, or use two sides if you have a lot of report feedback, relevant work experience or qualifications. Keep your sentences short and simple. A typical section order is: There is an example CV shown below.
When writing your name, always put your own name first and your family name last (even if you write the family name first in research paperscomputer your own country). Include the full postcode in your address. Make sure that you will be able to collect all mail sent to this address (if you move, ask the owner to book feedback, forward letters to you). If you have a mobile telephone, put this number on your CV, so that you can be contacted easily. If you use a voicemail service, it will be easier for callers to leave a message for category thesis you. If you do not have a mobile telephone, give the number of the report feedback telephone at your accommodation.
The telephone number should start with the area code, written in brackets; for example, a London number should be written (020) xxxx xxxx. Research Paperscomputer Science! If the telephone has an book feedback answering machine, make sure that you check the messages every day. If you are sharing someone else's telephone, ask that person's permission before using their number on your CV. Write your e-mail address next to your telephone number, and check your messages regularly. Hih Insurance! Create two columns. Use the left-hand column for book feedback dates. For start and resume, end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the book right-hand column, provide information about example research, each of your job roles. Book! Start by writing the paperscomputer name of the company (in bold) and its location. On the next line you might give a brief description of report feedback, what the company does.
You might give a title for your job (and perhaps a department name) on another line (highlighting this in bold italics) You should list your main responsibilities and achievements within each role (perhaps using bullet points) Give more detail for recent jobs. Make sure that you mention skills which may be useful in the job for which you are now applying. If possible, avoid any date gaps unless they are covered within the classification on shoppers Education section. Don't mention how much you were paid. When describing your achievements, use positive action verbs (for example: achieved, arranged, assisted, co-ordinated, completed, dealt with, developed, established, expanded, handled, helped, implemented, improved, increased, interviewed, introduced, maintained, managed, negotiated, organised, planned, processed, programmed, proposed, promoted, purchased, redesigned, reduced, reorganised, revised, sold, solved, streamlined, supervised, trained, translated, worked, wrote). You should not use the word I on your CV; this is understood. For example, you might write Increased sales at feedback the shop, but not I increased sales at research science the shop. Remember that the person reading your CV may not be familiar with the education system in your country.
Create two columns. Use the left-hand column for the dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, list the name of the school or university on report, one line, followed by further details (the course name or the number of exam subjects passed) on the next line. List formal educational qualifications only in powerbuilder this table (eg university and secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the most recent (and highest level) qualifications first. If you have been to a post-graduate school or college, put the name of book report, this after a label such as Post-graduate studies: so that the level is clear. If you have been to custom category pages wordpress, a university, use the word University in the name, or put a label such as University: before the name so that the level is clear. If the university is one of the top universities in your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it).
State the name of the town and country after the book feedback university's name. In the resume powerbuilder description, put the name of the main subject studied (try to book feedback, avoid using the words major or minor, which are used in research science American English). If you studied English, the book feedback subject should perhaps be described as English language and literature, not just English literature. Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g. 80%, or top grade) - the example mini research British university grade system is probably different from that in report your country.
You should list any schools you have attended between the ages of custom category thesis, about 15 and book report feedback, 18, but not before this age. You should add the label Secondary school: before the name of the study school, or include the words High School in the name. If you took exams in a wide range of subjects, you may prefer to list only the number of subjects passed instead of the subject names, or if you have been to university you may choose not to list any secondary school qualifications. If you are studying in the UK, you may want to include details of this course. If so, write this in a line under the main table. For example, you could write Currently studying English at report ABC school, London (since January 2001). If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these. English exams which you have passed (eg Passed Cambridge First Certificate of English).
Computer skills (eg Good knowledge of standard office software, including e-mail and the internet) Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for powerbuilder data entry or secretarial jobs) An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to drive for the job) Create two columns; use the left-hand column for labels and the right-hand column for information. The exact list of book feedback, personal details you want to give may depend on your circumstances and what the job requires, but the list below will give you a guide. Write Date of birth:, followed by the day you were born in the second column, eg 3 Feb 1980. Note that the date should be written in resume powerbuilder British date order (day, month, year), not in American date order (month, day, year). Write Nationality:, followed by your nationality eg Japanese. You may want to book, write Gender:, followed by Male or Female, if this is not obvious to a British person from your name. Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for some jobs. Write Work status:, followed by a description of the status implied by resume the stamp in your passport, for example, Student visa or EC citizen (no work permit required). Report Feedback! Write Interests: followed by custom category wordpress thesis a short list of perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests. As you have come to the UK to study, you can probably include interests such as travel, learning languages, or international cultures. Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to discuss at an interview.
Include interests which may show the interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in the job (for example, computer or language skills). If you think it is necessary, write References:, followed by book Available on classification on shoppers, request. You should only provide references if your employer asks for them. If you do need to give a reference, make sure that you have asked the book report person beforehand. On Shoppers! Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer. It may complicate your application if you give the name of a referee who lives abroad; if you want to feedback, do this, make sure that the person will be able to provide comments in English, and give an classification and division essay e-mail address so that delays can be minimised. 52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT. Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail: [email protected] · Advised the main shop's customers about organic and health foods. · Developed new business in smaller satellite stores, explaining the book feedback benefits of paperscomputer, supplements and organic food to potential new customers. · Increased sales at both the main and the satellite shops. The extra profits were used to expand the business by report establishing a new shop. · Examined incoming mail and classification and division, redirected this to the appropriate division. · Translated foreign letters (written in English) into book, Japanese. · Dealt with customs enquiries and procedures.
Computer literate: good knowledge of Word and Excel, as well as e-mail and the internet. Example Of A Research Paper! Fluent in report feedback Japanese; practical knowledge of English and Korean. If you are sending an application directly to a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to accompany your CV (a covering letter). The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to a large company) or written neatly by hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal). There is an example covering letter shown below.
State what type of visa you have, so that the potential employer knows that you will be able to work legally. You may want to mention the ltd case level of book report feedback, your English ability. Explain in your letter how you can be contacted. If you are about to change your accommodation, you should ask to be contacted either on your mobile telephone or by e-mail. If you give the telephone number of example of a research, your host family, you should ask them for their permission first, and you should check if they have an answering machine. Book Report! EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER. Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014) I would like to apply for the job of a part-time sales assistant in the food section of Fortnum Mason's in Piccadilly, as advertised in Loot Recruit on 2 August. Please find attached a copy of my CV. Classification Essays On Shoppers! My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in an organic food shop in Japan.
This has given me experience of dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and a basic knowledge of food retailing. I have been living in book London since last September, and classification, am currently studying English at report feedback a language school. I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the Cambridge First Certificate in English exam). Classification! My fluency in book feedback Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers. Hih Insurance! I am an enthusiastic worker, and book report feedback, enjoy working in a team. My student visa entitles me to science, work up to 20 hours per week (or longer during my school holidays), and I could start work immediately. Report Feedback! I would welcome the opportunity to category pages wordpress thesis, discuss the job vacancy with you on report feedback, the telephone or at an interview. Resume Powerbuilder! I can be contacted most easily on my mobile telephone or by feedback e-mail (see details at of a research paper the top of this letter). SENDING YOUR APPLICATION.
Check your CV and covering letter carefully before you send them. Use the book feedback spell-checker on the computer (set the language to British English rather than American English). Ask a native English speaker to research paperscomputer science, check what you have written, and ask this person for any comments they may have. If sending your application by post, send it by first class rather than by second class (it shows that you care about getting the job). Book Report Feedback! If you send an application by e-mail, telephone to example mini research paper, make sure that it has arrived, or send an application in the post as well. Alternatively, you may wish to hand in your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to find out more about the book report company and ask when you can expect to hear from them. If you have not heard from the company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the closing date for applications, if there is one), telephone the company to check that your job application has been received and custom pages wordpress thesis, that there haven't been any problems contacting you. It is often the report case that people are invited for an interview for only a small number of the jobs to which they apply.
Try not to feel depressed if it takes a long time to get a job. If you are rejected by a company, ask them to give you some comments, so that you can improve the quality of your later applications. Prepare for a job interview: Work/Interview. Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.
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Grant And Lee A Study In Contrasts By Bruce Catton Essays and Research Papers. GRANT AND LEE : A COMPARISON AND CONTRAST Ulysses S. Report. Grant and Robert E. . Lee are two of the most effective military leaders in powerbuilder, American history. These men have become symbolic of the two nations at conflict during the Civil War. Both had very different backgrounds and personalities that caused them to book feedback, differ in their military leadership and accomplishments. Even though General Lee would surrender his army to custom category thesis, General Grant , Lee throughout the course of the war proved himself. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Battle of report, Gettysburg 1886 Words | 6 Pages.
Grant And Lee: A Study In Contrasts. Abstract: Grant and Lee : A Study in Contrasts Wars and classification conflicts may determine the rise or fall of . Book. great leaders. Even today, such leaders are portrayed as martyrs for their impeccable courage and essays on shoppers valor on the battlefield. Report. In Bruce Catton's essay, Grant and example of a mini research paper Lee : A Study in Contrasts , he reveals the book feedback, different leadership styles of both generals and essay then presents the strength of two conflicting currents that entered into a final collision, the Civil War. Book Report. Catton introduces a sentiment of excitement and. American Civil War , Appomattox Court House National Historical Park , Battle of research, Gettysburg 722 Words | 2 Pages.
Grant and Lee a Study in Contrasts. “ Grant and Lee : A Study in Contrasts ,” written by Bruce Catton compares . and contrasts the characteristics and lives of two leaders of the Civil War. Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee , two very strong and very different generals, met on April 9, 1865 at Appomattox Court House in Virginia to book report, bring to a close the Civil War. Classification On Shoppers. By this time, America had become a country that was starting over with the simple core belief in book feedback, equal rights for classification, everyone. Lee , who is from Virginia, had very traditional and. American Civil War , Appomattox Court House National Historical Park , Battle of book, Gettysburg 686 Words | 2 Pages. Francisco’s Chinatown. His name was Bruce Lee ; a famous film actor and a martial arts expert. Essays On Shoppers. He was not only a domestic film . Book Feedback. star; he was an international superstar which made the influence in the early Hollywood moviedom. Bruce Lee's father Lee Hoi-Chuen was a Hong Kong Cantonese opera singer and film actor. Before Bruce Lee was born, Lee Hoi-Chuen and his wife were in San Francisco for custom category, a one-year U.S.
Tour with his Cantonese Opera Company. While they are in the tour, Bruce Lee was born, and he officially. Actor , Bruce Lee , Chinese martial arts 2403 Words | 6 Pages. amazing Bruce Lee and report his incredible movies in the early 1970s, it's arguable whether or not the martial arts film genre would . have ever penetrated and influenced mainstream western cinema audiences the way it has over the past three decades. The influence of Asian martial arts cinema can be seen today in category thesis, so many other film genres including comedies, action, drama, science fiction, horror and animation. and they all have their roots in the phenomenon that was Bruce Lee Bruce Lee was born. Bruce Lee , Chinese martial arts , Game of Death 1600 Words | 4 Pages. Differences and Similiarities Between Grant and Lee During the Overland Campaign. differences between Robert. E. Lee and Ulysses Grant affect the book, outcome of the Wilderness Campaign during the American Civil War . The American Civil War (1861-1865) was the first true industrial war.
With technological developments, most notably railroads, mass-produced rifles and telegraphs leading to drastic changes in tactics. Of A Mini Research Paper. With any change in feedback, how a war can be and is fought the largest test falls on the commanders ability to adapt. Resume. A good example of this and the contrasts between styles of leadership. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Army of Northern Virginia 939 Words | 3 Pages. Grant and Lee Throughout the course of my history career, which is book report feedback not very long, teachers and professors have always focused . on the point that General Grant was a butchering alcoholic who won the war solely on the account of his stubborn personality. And on paper the other hand, teachers portrayed General Lee as a masterful strategist, who used Christian values in order to win the rebellion. However, in report, Fuller's account of the two Generals, he alleges through data and personal intuition that General. American Civil War , Battle of resume, Antietam , Confederate States Army 927 Words | 3 Pages. * Lecture - Compare / Contrast Essay * Lecture Compare/ Contrast Essay - Text Transcript of book feedback, Audio * Readings . Readings | * Find out example mini research paper more about coherence and transitions between ideas. * Introduction to book report feedback, Transitions and Connecting Words. * Visit organizational chart for transitions. * Read about the nature of Comparative Writing. * Explore Comparison/ Contrast as a pattern of development. * See Patterns for powerbuilder, Comparison and Contrast . * Notes about writing. Bruce Catton , English language , Internet 467 Words | 3 Pages. November 2013 Bruce Lee One of the report, most famous persons in resume powerbuilder, the world has changed the book feedback, way society perceives the use martial arts . are of course Bruce Lee . Hih Insurance Study. Were we no longer limit ourselves to one style but multiple styles for various situations, and today we use these fighting styles in various action films.
Bruce Lee is the most influential martial artist and action film star of the twentieth century. Report. Now days we have a sport called MMA, mixed martial arts, if it wasn’t for Bruce Lee this might have. Bruce Lee , Chinese martial arts , Grappling 2243 Words | 6 Pages. Battles of the stars: Bruce Lee vs. Jackie Chan. ? Battles of the powerbuilder, stars: Bruce Lee vs. Jackie Chan . English 111 Professor DeJesus June 15, 2013 OUTLINE I. Report. Thesis Statement. Bruce Lee , Chinese martial arts , Enter the Dragon 1432 Words | 5 Pages. Bruce Lee the Dragon of classification essay, American Films. Bruce Lee the Dragon of American Films Did you know that one of the Chinese superstitions in the 1940’s was that demons . Feedback. would try and steal male children? Well Bruce Lee’s parents were all for example of a mini research, it and dressed poor Bruce as a girl and sent him to an all-girl school for feedback, the first few years of school (E-Encyclopedia of custom category pages, World Biography).
He started his acting career during school. But although he was a good actor he was also a very good dancer and this helped him in book report, many of and division essay on pets, his future accomplishments. Bruce Lee , Chinese martial arts , Game of Death 991 Words | 3 Pages. Bruce Lee was born in San Francisco, California at a Chinese Hospital. On November 27, 1940 to his Chinese father . Lee Hoi-Chuen and Chinese-German mother Grace Lee , where his parents were on a one-year U.S. tour with the Cantonese Opera Company. Bruce's Cantonese given name, (Jun Fan Cantonese: Janfaan Pinyin: Zhenfan), literally means invigorate San Francisco. Feedback. When he was born, he was given the classification essay on pets, English name Bruce by the doctor that delivered him. His name Bruce was never used with his family.
Bruce Lee , Chinese martial arts , Dan Inosanto 2633 Words | 7 Pages. Name: Zovin Chong Tutorial Grp: W18 Date: 15 September 2014 Title: Commemorative speech Topic: Bruce Lee Specific purpose: . (I want my audience)…to know the reasons why I want to pay tribute to Bruce Lee . Central Idea: What are the various achievements and accomplishments that he has and what made him the famous icon people recognized him as today. Report Feedback. ___________________________________________________________________ Introduction Born between 6 and 8am on example mini research paper November 27 1940, both the hour and. Bruce Lee , Chinese martial arts , Jeet Kune Do 1264 Words | 2 Pages. Evolution of Bruce Lee as a Martial Artist and Filmmaker. Martial Art films- Trace the evolution of Bruce as a martial artist and film maker Bruce Lee was an influential . Report Feedback. figurehead in both realms of martial arts and the film industry. The main philosophy of his beliefs as both a martial artist and a filmmaker was created via the integration and shaping of different concepts of martial arts, his belief of Taoism and powerbuilder ancient Chinese paradigms and the integration of this concept into report feedback his films. Through these, he has revolutionized the martial arts industry. Bruce Lee , Chinese martial arts , Chinese philosophy 1763 Words | 5 Pages. Case Study Reflection: Bruce /Brenda Gabriel R. Boynton Abnormal Psychology Professor Wolfson September 24, 2012 . Diagnostic Overview: Gender Identity Disorder (GID) is defined as: “strong and persistent cross gender identification” and “persistent discomfort with his or her sex or sense of inappropriateness in the gender of that sex (DSM-IV)”.
Put simply: it is a painful inner conflict between a person’s physical gender, and the gender he or she identifies as. For example, a person who. David Reimer , Female , Gender 1814 Words | 5 Pages. Brian Johnson’s PhilosophersNotes More Wisdom in Less Time TM THE BIG IDEAS Don’t Waste Time Not if you value life. Striking Thoughts . Bruce Lee’s Wisdom for Daily Living BY BRUCE LEE · TUTTLE PUBLISHING © 2002 · 256 PAGES Knowing Is Not Enough We must apply. Will-Power Is the Supreme Court of the mind. Letting the Spiritual Rise Get aligned with it. Adversity Is Beneficial It’s a powerful teacher. “Self-actualization is the important thing. And my personal message.
Abraham Maslow , Bruce Lee , Idea 3090 Words | 11 Pages. Book Bruce Lee : They Died too Young, writer Jon Lewis tells the story of the greatest martial artist that ever lived. Known as . Lee Jun Fan only to his family, Bruce Lee was an hih insurance ltd case enthusiastic boy who took a special interest in the martial arts. Unfortunately,his life was cut short at the age of only thirty-two. Through this short yet unbelievably incredible life, Bruce Lee still proves to be an feedback excellent role model due to his discipline,determination, and hih insurance study self-improvement. #9;One of Bruce Lee's. Bruce Lee , Chinese martial arts , Enter the Dragon 728 Words | 2 Pages.
Book Bruce Lee : They Died too Young, writer Jon Lewis tells the story of the greatest martial artist that ever lived. Known as . Lee Jun Fan only to his family, Bruce Lee was an enthusiastic boy who took a special interest in the martial arts. Unfortunately,his life was cut short at the age of only report thirty-two. Through this short yet unbelievably incredible life, Bruce Lee still proves to be an excellent role model due to his discipline,determination, and self-improvement. One of Bruce Lee #8217;s. Bruce Lee , Chinese martial arts , Enter the Dragon 731 Words | 2 Pages. Bruce Lee's Speed Training by Bruce Lee and on shoppers M. Uyehara What is speed in fighting?
Is it the book report feedback, velocity of hih insurance study, your . Book. hands, feet and body movement? Or are there other, prevalent essentials in a good fighter? What is a good fighter? A good fighter is one who can hit his opponent quicker, harder, without much perceptible effort, and yet avoid being hit. He doesn't only classification essays on shoppers possess a pair of fast hands and feet and quick body movement, but he has other qualities such as non-telegraphic moves, good coordination.
Boxing , Bruce Lee , Finger 1511 Words | 5 Pages. Lee : The Gentlemen’s Gentleman Robert E. Lee was considered by book feedback, many in the South and even by some in the North to be the research, . epitome of what a gentleman should be. Report Feedback. Ulysses S. Grant was the North’s answer to Lee . “They were two strong men, these oddly different generals, and they represented the strengths of two conflicting currents that, through them, had come into final collision” (429). Hih Insurance. He was even considered to be an book report feedback aristocrat in classification essays on shoppers, many social circles. “ Lee embodied the noblest elements of this. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Battle of Gettysburg 777 Words | 2 Pages. ?Running Head: Matt Grant Case Study Brandee Pohlson Matt Grant Case Study . Entrepreneurship Grantham University ABSTRACT Matt Grant is an ambitious businessman who has found himself at a critical life crossroad as he faces possible discharge from his corporate career while conceptualizing an innovative business endeavor.
Trekking through a handful of book report feedback, failed corporate projects with the company he currently works for, he must decide whether he wants to play it safe and remain. Business , Business school , Economics 1242 Words | 4 Pages. ? Bruce Lee Bruce Lee , born in San Francisco, California November 1940, was raised in Hong Kong, . Research Paperscomputer Science. China. Book Feedback. Lee died at study, the early age of 33 in 1973 from a cerebral edema, but not before he changed not only American culture, but society throughout the world. Bruce Lee’s success that shaped society can be contributed to several phenomenons Malcolm Gladwell speaks about in his book Outliers. At the age of 13 Bruce Lee began training with Master Yip Man, learning the arts of book feedback, Gung Fu, a martial arts kept.
Bruce Lee , Chinese martial arts , Hong Kong 1082 Words | 5 Pages. Bruce Lee and the Influence He Had in the West. Bruce lee and the influence he had in the west ( 1940 – 1973 ) on thesis November 27, 1940, in book report, San Francisco, His father, a Hong Kong . opera singer, moved with his wife and three children to the United States in 1939; Lee’s mother called him “ Bruce ,” which means “strong one” in paperscomputer science, Gaelic. Bruce appeared in his first film at feedback, the age of three months, when he served as the category thesis, stand-in for an American baby in Golden Gate Girl. In 1941, the Lees moved back to Hong Kong, Bruce Lee appeared in roughly 20 films as. Brandon Lee , Bruce Lee , Chinese martial arts 1164 Words | 3 Pages. ?Case Study : Sara Lee 1. What is Sara Lee’s corporate strategy? How has its retrenchment strategy changed the feedback, nature of its . Example Of A Research. business lineup? - new CEO wanted to transform Sara Lee into a more profitable company - a part of new strategy is the elimination of eight branded apparel business because of poor economic performance and decreasing sales ? this leads to concentration of its financial and managerial resources into smaller and report better positioned business segments. ? goal: reaching of economies. Economics , Generally Accepted Accounting Principles , Management 799 Words | 3 Pages. Bruce believed that the most important thing in the world is the individual and that each individual mush have knowledge of himself before . he can relate to other people.
An innovative martial artist, not only in training but on film. Politically, socially, and economically diverse, Hong Kong, the powerbuilder, asian equivalent of Manhattan. If he could make it their he could make it anywhere. Feedback. But Bruce had an bad start as a well known local trouble maker in Hong Kong as a kid. Throughout his entire life.
Bruce Lee , China , Chinese language 464 Words | 2 Pages. Bruce Lee , being the best martial artist in the world was the result for what he did to get there, yet his death was widely . misunderstood. Custom. Bruce Lee was born in the year of the feedback, dragon in classification on shoppers, San Francisco November 27 1940. Throughout life, the reputation he gained was not just by routine training; rather, he took his own form of workout to a whole new level. Report Feedback. As good things don't last forever, Bruce Lee , unfortunately, suffered a sudden death on ltd case study July 20, 1973. As his misinterpreted death spread worldwide. Bruce Lee , Capoeira , Chinese martial arts 467 Words | 2 Pages. Bruce Lee Thesis Statement: To inform my audience about the feedback, heritance, productions, and paperscomputer science departure of Bruce . Lee . Introduction I. “If you truly love life, don’t waste time; because time is what life is made of.” These words come from report feedback a man that is wise in custom thesis, many aspects of life. As he also lived to these very words that he spoke. Book Feedback. II.
Bruce Lee was a philosopher, film director, screenwriter, and a martial arts instructor. In his time he made a multitude of classification and division on pets, movies, but was recognized for more. Bruce Lee , Chinese martial arts , Game of feedback, Death 699 Words | 2 Pages. ? Bruce Lee : Martial Artist Actor With a fast flurry of resume, kicks and punches you would be down in almost less than a minute. He was . the book feedback, type of mini research, person you wouldn’t want to meet on the streets and/or threaten or anger. By using his special techniques he was known as one of the top champions who competed in many martial arts tournaments. His fast movements could startle you as you would have no choice, but to awe in utter amazement as you helplessly watched bodies fly. Who is this incredible man who.
Bruce Lee , Chinese martial arts , Jeet Kune Do 700 Words | 3 Pages. Bruce Lee and Hong Kong Kung Fu Films Culture. Asia and the world. There are different stages of the book feedback, industry and the success of Kung Fu films in the 1970s is definitely a marked stage. Indeed, martial . arts films help present Hong Kong and Chinese Culture to the eyes of the world. No doubt, Bruce Lee has played a significant role of promoting Chinese Kung Fu to example research paper, the world though the production of Kung Fu films in book report feedback, the 1970s. From the balletic intensity of example of a paper, him to the gravity-defying swordplay of Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, the Chinese martial. Bruce Lee , Chinese martial arts , Cinema of Hong Kong 2091 Words | 6 Pages. over 40 years the company had acquired a series of related and unrelated business. Feedback. Over this course of time, management struggled to manage the research paperscomputer science, company’s . broadly diversified and geographically scattered operations.
With the retrenchment strategy, Sara Lee Corporation is able to transform it into a more tightly focused food, beverage, and household products company. Management believed concentrating its financial and report managerial resources on a smaller number of business segments in which market prospects. Brand management , Food , Food industry 856 Words | 3 Pages. Who was the classification essays on shoppers, superior general, Robert E. Book Report Feedback. Lee or Ulysses S. Custom Pages Wordpress. Grant? ?Why Ulysses S. Grant Was a Superior General to report, Robert E. Lee Bullets rained down on the men as they trampled over the enemy, . And Division Essay On Pets. battling their way to victory at book, the command of their beloved general. On Pets. During the book, Civil War, Soldiers greatly admired their generals. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Robert E. Custom Category Wordpress Thesis. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant emerged as two of the most distinguished generals in book report feedback, American history.
Robert E. Lee , a devoted Virginian, fought for the Confederacy. Ulysses S. Grant , a hero of the science, Mexican. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Army of Northern Virginia 1106 Words | 4 Pages. Compare and Contrast of book report feedback, Annabel Lee and Porphyria's Lover. Compare and contrast poetry essay The poems ‘Annabel Lee ’ by Edgar Allan Poe and ‘Porphyria’s lover’ by Robert Browning are . emotion and thought provoking. They are both about essay on pets, romance and grief with the main themes clearly being love and death. The largest similarity is the way the poems can be interpreted and the biggest difference is the book report, way the women in question died. There are more similarities than there are differences between these two poems.
The first and most prominent similarity between. Annabel Lee , Death , Difference 905 Words | 3 Pages. Character Evolution of essay, Bruce Wayne and Batman. Character Evaluation The character of Bruce Wayne, more commonly known as Batman, is a very complex and interesting character who really . Book Report. embodies a wide extreme of each of the five major trait clusters in the big five model. What makes this character extraordinary is the ability to classification essay, be on both ends of the spectrum at the same time through each of the two personas that he embodies. The openness to experience is very evident throughout the development of the report, Batman persona, and is shown through his. Alfred Pennyworth , Batman , Batman Begins 926 Words | 3 Pages. EARLY LIFE Bruce was born in essay, San Francisco's Chinatown. Book Report. * His father was a famous opera singer and film actor and 1941 they moved back to . china which was then occupied by the Japanese. Resume Powerbuilder. * The Hong Kong neighborhood Lee grew up in report, became over-crowded, dangerous, and full of gang rivalries it was a tough place to ltd case study, grow up. Gangs ruled the city streets and Lee was often forced to fight them.
Bruce's street fighting began to escalate * Eventually, Lee's father decided for him to leave Hong. Bruce Lee , Enter the Dragon , Golden Harvest 612 Words | 2 Pages. The Privileged Vs. The self-Reliant. The Privileged Vs. Report. The self-Reliant In the research paperscomputer, essay “ Grant and Lee : A Study in Contrasts ,” . Feedback. Bruce Catton claims that the two Civil War generals represented “two diametrically opposed elements in American life.” For Catton , Lee symbolized an science aristocrat, while Grant embodied a democrat.
This opposition does still exist in the country today. As Catton observes, Lee came from a “privileged” class from which “the county would get its leadership.” “He embodied a way of life that had come down through. American Civil War , Battle of Gettysburg , Bruce Catton 479 Words | 2 Pages. The Leadership Styles of General Robert E. Lee and feedback General Grant During the Civil War. Robert E. Lee and General Grant during the Civil War. Ltd Case. Ulysses S. Grant was not as well known at the start of the book report, . Civil War as Robert E. Lee but proved to example paper, be just as valuable during the war.
As a soldier, Grant believed, “When in book report feedback, doubt, fight.” And he did fight. Paperscomputer. He won fame for demanding unconditional (complete) surrender from the Southern commanders he was fighting. In fact, people in the North began saying Grant’s initials, “U.S.,” stood for book, “Unconditional Surrender.” In battle, Grant was tough. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Confederate States Army 2136 Words | 6 Pages. ? Bruce Chatwin’s Effects on Today’s Society: During the twentieth century there have been many well-known talented writers, . such as, Martin Amis, William Golding, William Gibson, and many more, which have affected many people in resume powerbuilder, an influential way. Bruce Chatwin was also one of the brilliant writers and novelists of the twentieth century who has touched many lives with his writings.
Bruce Chatwin was the foremost traveler writer and English novelist of 1980’s. He was born on book May. Bruce Chatwin , Creative writing , In Patagonia 2006 Words | 6 Pages. Bruce Lee and the Making of Kung Fu Masculinity. Bruce Lee and the making of kung fu masculinity 1 Course: Men and example of a research paper Masculinities in East Asia Spring term 2011 Essay by . maria Filisch Bruce Lee and the making of kung fu masculinity In his introduction to report feedback, the book “Masculinities and custom category thesis Hong Kong Cinema” Pang (2005) emphasises how gender, and in book report feedback, particular masculinity, has been an important “theme, ideology, and industrial structure that has ruled Hong Kong cinema for so many years” (p.2). While Bruce Lee is arguably one of the most popular. Action film , Bruce Lee , Enter the Dragon 6882 Words | 19 Pages. Our five Essay Samplers include works by the first major English essayist (On Studies , by Francis Bacon), the classification on shoppers, first great Irish satirist (A . Report Feedback. Modest Proposal, by Jonathan Swift), and the most notable American essayist of the 19th century (Self-Reliance, by on shoppers, Ralph Waldo Emerson). You will also find several pieces by three major essayists of the 20th century: Virginia Woolf, George Orwell, and E. B. White. Report. If your reading interests are more contemporary, have a look at the essays by journalist. 2007 , A Modest Proposal , George Orwell 532 Words | 5 Pages.
Campair and Contrast Assay on classification essay Studies in report, Arts and Science. Uday J Vyas Dr. Colbert Dennis ENG 106 NLM 20th July 2013. This assay compares and contrasts between two main fields of . studies which are Arts stream and Science stream and reflects on similarities and distinguishing features of respective fields of studies . Both of category pages wordpress thesis, these fields of feedback, studies have wide scope of learning through various branches. Arts offers literary arts, more often called literature – including poetry, novels and short stories among others and performing arts. Fields of science , Human , Mathematics 798 Words | 3 Pages. 14 Task- Section One (Questions A-G are answered) There is no official percentage rate recorded of hih insurance ltd case study, crimes committed in the U.S done so by . people that are diagnosed to be mentally ill.
However in the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study I found that 31% of report feedback, people who had both a substance abuse disorder and a psychiatric disorder committed at least one act of violence in a year, compared with the 18% of research, people who committed a crime with a psychiatric disorder alone. Most crimes. Disability , Mental disorder , Mental health 981 Words | 4 Pages. Sara Lee Case Study This paper will discuss the Sara Lee Case Study . It will identify how . Book Report Feedback. diversification is classification on shoppers used by Sara Lee in its business strategy. Book Report. It will evaluate how effectively it is being implemented in essays, general and book as it impacts shareholder wealth and risk management. Finally, it will provide recommendations for improvement of diversification based on your evaluation. Sara Lee Established in paperscomputer science, 1942, Sara Lee has had a history of book feedback, acquisitions. (Sara Lee , 2012).
Before their decision to. Business , Company , Corporation 1078 Words | 3 Pages. 3 March 2014 Compare and Contrast Essay: Group Study or Independent Study Deciding whether to study . alone or in a group setting can be challenging. These study methods are very different in resume, many aspects. Book Report. The variations in study methods reflect the student's ability to focus, troubleshoot, and stay motivated. Many students surmise either study method to be equally beneficial and hih insurance study efficient. Book Report. However, one method of study is more advantageous than the other. Group study sessions are overall more. Education , Learning , Motivation 792 Words | 2 Pages. Ulysses S. Grant On April 27, 1822 a boy was born to Jesse Root Grant and Hannah Simpson Grant in the small . Ltd Case Study. town of Point Pleasant, Ohio.
They named their son Hiram Ulysses Grant . In 1823 the family moved to a town nearby called Georgetown, Ohio, where Ulysses' father owned a tannery and some farmland. Grant had two brothers and three sisters born in Georgetown. Ulysses attended school in Georgetown until he was 14. He then spent one year at report feedback, the academy in Maysville, Kentucky, and. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Confederate States of paperscomputer science, America 1596 Words | 5 Pages. described the way he saw and report experienced the river in a sequence as they occurred. In addition, he stared an essay by custom category, telling an book event in the past and ended . it in the present. Wordpress. That is the time order organization.
He might have used the comparison and contrast method as the alternative methods because he compared two different ways of seeing the book report feedback, same river. The knowledge and the experience would have been gained or lost. 4. Yes, Twain feels he has “gained most or lost most”. He has gained the knowledge. 2008 singles , American films , English-language films 447 Words | 2 Pages. attractiveness of the industries represented in Sara Lee Corp.’s business portfolio? Each industry that Sara Lee executives . chose to remain within their portfolio of products is consistently a top producer with several brands that are number one in their category and others that have significant increasing revenues so the long term outlook is better with the remaining businesses.
3. What is your assessment of the essays, competitive strength of Sara Lee Corp.’s different business units? The competitive. Business , Corporation , Food 851 Words | 3 Pages. Allan Poe “Annabel Lee ” In the poem of “Annabel Lee ” by report feedback, Edgar Allan Poe, the speaker reminiscence about ltd case study, his long-lost love . Annabel Lee . When you think about book report feedback, love lots of words come to mind. Love has many meanings, states, and attitudes. On Pets. You can love someone or something in so many ways. When you search the meaning of love it means that you have a strong feeling of affection and book report concern for another person. Classification Essay On Pets. When I think of love first think comes to book feedback, mind is the poem of “Annabel Lee ”, this poem really. Annabel Lee , Edgar Allan Poe , Eulalie 1057 Words | 6 Pages.
? Bruce Munro’s Light Installations Bruce Munro is a British installation artist. Installation art is three-dimensional and . is mostly site-specific. They are intended to change space perception. Bruce Munro has taken installation art to new heights. Resume. He does large-scale installations that usually encompass entire parks to create entire exhibitions. Feedback. His primary medium is light.
He uses light to completely transform an research area. His exhibitions are very unique. Typically in an exhibition. Diode , Encyclop?dia Britannica , Incandescent light bulb 989 Words | 8 Pages. 'Simon Lee , The Old Huntsman, With an report feedback incident in which he was concerned' is a poem by William Wordsworth. Written in classification and division, 1798 (Anthology p420), . 'Simon Lee ' was one of the poems included by Wordsworth in book report, his Lyrical Ballads. The purpose or meaning of this poem is debatable, but in study, his own Preface to the Lyrical Ballads, Wordsworth says that he wishes to 'follow the book report, fluxes and refluxes of the mind when agitated by the great and simple affections of our nature' in the case of research paperscomputer science, Simon Lee , 'by placing my. Iamb , Meter , Phonology 1563 Words | 4 Pages. l Fibrinolytic vs. PCI therapy Grant Proposal Francesca Tierney UWF, College of book, Letters and Sciences, Biology . Department, SAHLS Health Science Research Seminar, HSC4050 James Hunt 11/16/2012 Executive Summary Fibrinolytic therapy has been a significant means of establishing reperfusion in patients whom have had a myocardial infarction or some sort of blood clot.
However, limitations to the use of thrombolytic therapy that must be. Artery , Atheroma , Atherosclerosis 906 Words | 4 Pages. changed the company's name to Consolidated Grocers?1945. The operation went public in 1946 and and division essay on pets was renamed Consolidated Foods Corporation in 1954. Book Feedback. Two . years later CFC bought the example, Kitchens of Sara Lee , a Chicago bakery founded by Charles Lubin 1951. Introduced in book feedback, 1949 and and division essay on pets named after Lubin's daughter, Sara Lee cheesecake had become his most popular product. Report Feedback. Soon after, CFC began building its international markets with its first European acquisition in 1962. Subsequent to classification, that purchase, it expanded. Kiwi , Sara Lee Corporation 1499 Words | 4 Pages.
* a Comparative Study Of Price Earnings Multiple Of Top It Sector Companies Of India Using Stable Dividend Discount Model A COMPARATIVE . STUDY OF PRICE EARNINGS MULTIPLE OF TOP IT SECTOR COMPANIES OF INDIA USING STABLE DIVIDEND DISCOUNT MODEL. Report By PRIYA BATRA (PGDM No 11101. Premium * Research Report On Consumer Prefrence Towards Mobile Handsets Study of Consumer Buying Behavior regarding the different Brands of Mobile Handsets (Research Project Report) Submitted to. Premium *. Brand , Business , Chain store 638 Words | 3 Pages. Giles @02623399 Black Diaspora Shelton Jackson Lee , also known as Spike Lee was born on March 20, 1957 in Atlanta, GA. Spike . Lee is one of the most famous African American filmmakers of all time.
He is feedback known for his innovative and groundbreaking films that uplift the African American community and classification and division define our culture. Book Report. Lee is credited to be one of the most prolific African American artists of all time. From his extensive work in both television and custom category thesis film, Lee has given voice to race relations and issues. African American , African diaspora , Black people 1065 Words | 3 Pages. To What Extent Did the book feedback, Contrast from Both Our Study of of a paper, Judith Wright, Oodgeroo Noonuccal and Bruce Dawe Make You Aware Poets Present Different Responses to the Same Issues? To what extent did the contrast from book feedback both our study of Judith Wright, Oodgeroo Noonuccal and Bruce Dawe make you . aware poets present different responses to the same issues? Bruce Dawe and Judith Wright both present their readers with similar themes, although their style of writing differs. Hih Insurance. While Wright’s poetry is mainly focusing on the concerns about the book report, natural world and society itself, Dawe’s poetry focuses on ordinary people in the suburbs and confronting their everyday problems. Although. Australian poets , Holy Spirit , Meter 1063 Words | 3 Pages. Bruce Lee - the Art of Expressing the study, Human Body.
c. I I I --I iii compiled and edited by John Little » I » . c I c.n The Bruce. ibrarij -- As revealed . through the report, notes, letters, diaries, interviews, reading annotations, and library of Bruce Lee The 8rt of Expressing the Human Hod. By John Little TUTTLE PUBLISHING To kyo · Rutland , Verm ont · Sin gapore Disclaimer: Please note that the essays, publisher and author(s) of this instructional book are NOT RESPONSIBLE in report, any manner whatsoever for resume, any injury. Brandon Lee , Bruce Lee , Copyright 323 Words | 2 Pages. of giants, ogre and book report feedback witches, super heroes’ comics give you that for ltd case study, older people.” Stanley Martin Lieber, also known as Stan Lee was born . in Manhattan, lived there most of his young live.
Two of his biggest influences were books and movies. He loved Tarzan, Jules Vern, King Kong he loved anything that was imaginative. His favorite hero was Errol Flynn. Stan lee has affected the world in many different ways. Book Feedback. One of the ways he impacted the world is by his writing.
To the people who don’t who. Fantastic Four , Hulk , Jack Kirby 1016 Words | 3 Pages. Grant Wood I recently took a trip to the Jocelyn Art Museum. There they had many great painting in hih insurance, the permanent art collection. One . that caught my eye, which I had seen many times before, but never knew any thing about, was a painting called Stone City, Iowa , which was created by Grant Wood in 1930. Report. This painting is oil on wood panel and is 30 ? X 40 inches. Grant Wood is a famous philosopher who was born in February in the year 1891 in Anamosa, Iowa. Wood was born to Quaker parents.
American scene painting , Art Institute of Chicago , Grant Wood 1020 Words | 3 Pages. M/W History 1301 History essay: Ulysses S Grant Hiram Ulysses Grant was born April 27, 1822 in the state of Ohio. . Grant was born to an average working family who moved to classification and division essay on pets, Georgetown Ohio shortly after Grant’s birth. Report. At the age of 17 Grant did not want to follow his father’s footsteps and carry on the family leather business, Grant’s father had his son join into the United States Military Academy at of a research paper, West Point. Book Report. Grants birth name was Hiram Ulysses Grant , upon registering in resume, the United States Military. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Battle of Fort Donelson 1779 Words | 5 Pages. Robert E. Lee - Southern Hero When we think of the south, we usually tend to think of home-cooked meals, big family outings, and warm . weather. But narrow that topic down to the Civil War; now what comes to mind? Things like the Union, the Confederacy, and the freedom of slaves are what we usually remember. Book. But one defining factor about the Civil War would have to be Robert E. Lee , general of the Confederacy, and one of the South’s biggest heroes.
Robert Edward Lee , born in Stratford, Virginia. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Confederate States of America 892 Words | 3 Pages. ? Bruce Tuckman and pages thesis the Group Development Model Bruce Wayne Tuckman a well-respected psychologist was born in 1938. Report. In 1960 . he completed a Bachelor of research paper, Science at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute situated in New York. Book Report. After completing his bachelor, he attended Princeton University where he received his Masters and PhD in Psychology.
Tuckman finished his studies in resume powerbuilder, 1964 respectively, and since then has worked in feedback, many universities. He is currently Professor Emeritus of Educational Psychology. Group development , Group dynamics 1769 Words | 5 Pages.
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Analysis of teenagers talk - accents, slang and peoples perceptions. Book? Extracts from hih insurance this document. The way in which we speak and the way in which we write are so tangibly different from book report each other that somebody could say it is completely another language and essays on shoppers it would be a true statement. There are a lot of factors which may cause it but in that particular essay I will concentrate on the teenagers' language. Each person has its own idiolect. Let's start with definition of that word. In a dictionary you may find that idiolect is report feedback, a personal language; the words people choose and classification and division essay on pets any other features that characterise their speech. Staying familiar with the above definition and the fact that I still belong to teenagers' group, I can ask myself in what way I speak? Well, it is quite difficult to recognise your own way of speaking, however, when I asked some adults how they find my way of talking; if they suffer from book feedback hearing me or is maybe anything special about my accent, most people answered in similar way. I found out that I speak quite well and most adults understand me pretty well because I do not use a lot of slang words while talking to them. Mini? . read more.
I always try to feedback be aware who I am talking to and use proper words, so that I can be easily understood by everyone. Moreover, I come to conclusion that a great impact on my way of speaking have my friends. As all of us like Maths, we can always laugh at the mathematical jokes which might seem silly for people who do not understand them and very often imitate way of talking of a few mathematicians. I noticed that sometimes I speak in similar way without even thinking about it. Pages Wordpress? This is how it affects on report, me. Resume? Let's pass on to the next issue, namely sociolect. I have raised a subject of book report it in a small degree when I showed my different attitude to different groups of people. For example, I would not say to my teacher: You're so stupid mate because you may think that I am off my head. Custom Category? On the other hand, it would be stupid to call my friend sir.
Therefore, I have to be aware where I am and who is the person next to me I want to talk to. Book Feedback? . read more. Lukas, a Polish guy, uses in his speech lots of ltd case contractions which suggests that he is one of plenty of teenagers who use them because it makes a speech quicker and more intelligible, however, his accent is not perfect and book feedback I could distinguish that he is resume powerbuilder, not a native speaker. Darryl is book report feedback, more interesting example of teenager. He uses lots of fillers and slang words. Sup, Dayum or Nah are words he uses. Sup means what's sup and example of a research paper is a creation of book report a new word which is perfectly understood but only in teenagers community. Resume Powerbuilder? They both use nicknames as 'buddy' or 'dude' which is more popular than calling each other by their own names. In conclusion, never have I thought it might be such an interesting experiment.
I found out book feedback, a lot about adults attitude to teenagers talk and the reasons why they tolerate or cannot stand using slang or new words created from scratch. I also think that this essay drew my attention because it made me more aware of the way I should speak with different people but not only that. It showed that I still have to work on classification essay on pets, my accent to make my English better but I think I am on the good way to achieve that. ?? ?? ?? ?? . read more. Report Feedback? This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Language: Context, Genre Frameworks section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Here's what a star student thought of this essay. This A level coursework piece is concentrating on of a, how language in teenagers is affected by environmental influences such as education, upbringing, friends, idiolects and sociolect. Book Report? It retains an on pets, acceptable focus on the question, though often the examples provided in order . This A level coursework piece is concentrating on book report, how language in teenagers is affected by environmental influences such as education, upbringing, friends, idiolects and resume sociolect. It retains an acceptable focus on the question, though often the examples provided in book feedback, order to illustrate their analytical points are skewed by the fact that almost all are their own personal experiences. Whilst this may help in some cases (such as the fact that English is not their first language), it often limits the extent of generalisation of their points.
The Level of Analysis shown here is fine, but there could be an improvement made in the examples given and powerbuilder also the depth to which the candidate goes to address the question steer. There is an adequate explanation of language and it's indelible difference between talk in book, life and talk in writing. There could, however, be a better insight given to how upbringing shapes language (this is where the mentioning of dialect should be but isn't analysed). Also, in conjunction with the point made earlier, the depth of the analysis does not show many signs of a candidate that looks beyond their own experiences. Personal experiences are something that can greatly enhance an answer, but the sum analysis should not be solely placed on it. Factual sources must be seeked out to back up, which the research paperscomputer science candidate has done to some extent (dictionary definitions) but not to an extent that shows an independent researcher who strives for higher grade boundaries. The Quality of Written Communication is report feedback, poor, but this is most likely due to the candidate's first language being something other than English. For this reason, special considerations are taken into account in category pages, all exam/coursework tasks. Join over book report feedback 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month.
Related AS and A Level Language: Context, Genre Frameworks essays. Investigating how language has changed in children's literature; in relation to interaction between . who had no misgivings, and gave no uncertain word of command, and, let who would yield or make truce, would fight the fight out essays on shoppers, (so every boy felt) to the last gasp and the last drop of blood. Other sides of his character might take hold and influence boys here. Feminism Essay by Helene Cixous amp;quot;Sortiesamp;quot; These provisions always typically favour the masculine aspect; 'And all these pairs of oppositions are couples. Is the book fact that Logocentrism subjects thought-all concepts, codes and values - to a binary system, related to the couple, man/woman.'2 Secondly Cixous argues for the issue of negative influence of descriptions such as passivity. Investigation into Gender Differences in the Language of Personal Profiles on Dating Websites. women from the three age categories my sample is divided into 20s, 40s and 60s. The data is presented below. The chart above shows that there are no significant differences in the number of hedges used in the dating website profiles of the females in my sample based on their age. Through the example of a mini research paper use of report figurative language, Wilding is able to create a negative image of Erica and therefore challenge society's traditional views of custom pages wordpress thesis masculinity. Report Feedback? Furthermore, specific dialogues enable the reader to develop understandings of the science characters and hence the messages they portray. Explain the difference between competence and performance and book discuss whether this is something that . Chomsky supported this theory by research paperscomputer science illustrating that humans do not necessarily act upon knowledge intuitively due to circumstance and social constraints, this culminates in the paradigm that linguistic behaviour is book, socially conditioned by many external contributing factors aside from linguistic erudition.
Reflect on some aspects of your own personal talk (idiolect) including perhaps criticisms made . My mother has noticed that I frequently use words which are not particular to the region. I would say ?lush? instead of beautiful, which I may have picked up from of a mini my geography teacher who has a Welsh dialect. Book Report Feedback? I would have blending our idiolects, where I would frequently select words or phrases to suite my particular circumstance. Example Of A Mini Paper? Language Investigation. This essay will show the evolvement of feedback gender fairness in and division essay on pets, the . In the princess and the Frog, the man (the frog) is trying to seduce the woman, therefore it is only fitting that he uses most of the politeness. Shang: You.
You fight good. Mulan: Thank you. This is an book report feedback, exert from Mulan, the politeness used comes from both the man. Analyse and research paperscomputer science comment on the way your idiolect changes depending on who you talk . Many people from older generations will not understand most of the terms teenagers use, which is why it gives us a feeling of community, something our parents are not a part of. However, I adapt my idiolect according to the situation I am in, and to who I am talking to. of report feedback student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the custom category pages wordpress thesis anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? Sign up to view the whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month.
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civilization essay Introduction: New Paradigms, Old Lessons. There was a great Nintendo commercial a few years back in book feedback which a kid on vacation with his Game Boy starts seeing everything as Tetris blocks. Mount Rushmore, the Rockies, the Grand Canyon - they all morph into rows of research, squares, just waiting to drop, rotate, and slide into place. Book Report. The effect is eerie, but familiar to anyone who's ever played the research paperscomputer science, game. The commercial captures the most remarkable quality of video and computer games: the way they seem to restructure perception, so that even after you've stopped playing, you continue to look at the world a little differently. This phenomenon can be dangerous - as when I finished up a roll of quarters on Pole Position, walked out to my car, and didn't realize for a half mile or so that I was still driving as if I were in a video game, darting past cars and hewing to the inside lane on curves. Report. More subtly, when the world looks like one big video game, it may become easier to classification and division essay on pets lose track of the human consequences of feedback, real-life violence and war. But the distinct power of computer games to reorganize perception also has great potential.
Computer games can be powerful tools for communicating not just specific ideas, but structures of thought - whole ways of making sense of the world. Just as Tetris, on the simple level of spatial geometry, encourages you to discover previously unnoticed patterns in the natural landscape, more sophisticated games can teach you how to classification recognize more complex interrelationships. The simulation game SimCity, for example, immerses you in the dynamics of building and developing a city, from report, zoning neighborhoods to building roads to managing the police force. In learning how to play the game, you develop an essay on pets intuitive sense of how each aspect of the city affects and is affected by other aspects of the city - how, for example, the development of a single residential area will affect traffic, pollution, crime, and feedback, commerce throughout the city. The result, once the game is over and you step outside, is a new template with which to classification and division on pets interpret, understand, and cognitively map the city around you. You no longer see your neighborhood in isolation, but as one zone influenced by and influencing the many other zones which make up your town.1. Any medium, of book, course, can teach you how to see life in new ways. When you read a book, in and division essay on pets a sense you're learning how to think like the author. And as film theorists have long noted, classical Hollywood narrative teaches viewers not just how to report feedback look at a screen, but how to custom pages thesis gaze at the world. But for the most part, the opportunities for these media to reorient our perceptions today are limited by their stylistic familiarity.
A particularly visionary author or director may occasionally confound our expectations and show us new ways to read or watch. But for the most part, the codes of literary and film narrative are set. We may learn new things in a great book or movie, but we almost always encounter them in familiar ways. Computer games, by contrast, are a new medium, still in flux. While game genres have begun to form, they remain fluid, open-ended. The rules and expectations for computer games are not yet set in stone. Book. Each new game must rethink how it should engage the player, and the best games succeed by discovering new structures of interaction, inventing new genres. What would be avant-garde in film or literature - breaking with familiar forms of representation, developing new modes of address - is standard operating procedure in the world of computer games. Every software developer is always looking for the next killer application - the newest paradigm-buster.
This doesn't mean, of course, that each new paradigm is free of familiar ideological baggage. Beneath these new structures of interaction may be very old presumptions about how the classification essays on shoppers, world works. SimCity may help us see cities with new eyes, but the lessons it teaches us about cities - the political and economic premises it rests on - are conventionally capitalist, if somewhat liberal. But perhaps, out of these familiar ideas presented in the fresh light of an book report emerging medium, something new may develop. At the science, least, as computer games discover new tools for communicating ways of feedback, thinking, new opportunities are opened for more radical visions. A closer look at the semiotics of a specific computer game can help specify in what ways these new texts teach us to look at the world differently, and in what ways they tell the same old stories. In this paper, I will look at custom category wordpress one game which typifies the medium today in all its contradictions. Report. Civilization II, a simulation game which puts the player in the position of a nation's leader building an empire, radically challenges conventional norms of textual interaction in some ways. Yet its ideological assumptions rest on the familiar ground of nationalism and imperialism. Out of this mix of old and new emerges a complex, conflicted, and always compelling gaming experience. Booting Up Civilization II.
Civilization II is the sequel to Civilization, which was first released in 1991 by MicroProse Software. Civilization II appeared five years later, in 1996. (Civilization II adds new features and category thesis, spices up the graphics from the book, original Civilization, but the basic dynamics of gameplay remain unchanged. Most of what I say about Civilization II applies equally well to Civilization.) Actually, the full titles of both games are Sid Meier's Civilization and Sid Meier's Civilization II. Meier, the co-founder of MicroProse, is the game's inventor and research paper, original designer. Meier is known in book report feedback the computer gaming world for his skill in designing absorbing, detailed simulations. His early games Pirates and Railroad Tycoon each helped shape the emerging genre in the 1980s. Civilization was hailed on its release as one of the pages, greatest computer games ever; Civilization II has been similarly honored. Book Report. In a 1996 survey of the history of computer games, the magazine Computer Gaming World named the original Civilization The Best Game of All Time (1996). Rival magazine PC Gamer ranked Civilization II the fourth best game ever (1997a), and ranked the original Civilization one of The Fifteen Most Significant Games of All Time (1997b). The manual for the original Civilization introduces the game this way: Civilization casts you in the role of the ruler of an entire civilization through many generations, from the founding of the world's first cities 6,000 years in the past to the imminent colonization of space.
It combines the forces that shaped history and resume, the evolution of technology in a competitive environment. . . Book Feedback. . If you prove an able ruler, your civilization grows larger and even more interesting to powerbuilder manage. Inevitable contact with neighbors opens new doors of opportunity: treaties, embassies, sabotage, trade and war (Shelley 1991, 7). What does it feel like to be cast in the role of ruler of an entire civilization through many generations? The game follows the conceit that you play the part of a single historical figure. Book Report. At the beginning of the game, you're given a choice of nation and name. From then on, from the wanderings of your first settlers to your final colonization of outer space, the computer will always call you, for example, Emperor Abraham Lincoln of the study, United States. Of course, nobody lives for 6,000 years, and report feedback, even the most powerful real-life despots - to say nothing of democratically elected leaders - could never wield the custom category wordpress, kind of absolute power that Civilization II gives even titular Presidents and report, Prime Ministers. Study. In Civilization II, you're responsible for directing the military, managing the economy, controlling development in every city of your domain, building Wonders of the World, and report, orchestrating scientific research (with the prescience to know the strategic benefits of each possible discovery, and to schedule accordingly).
You make not just the big decisions, but the small ones, too, from deciding where each military unit should move on every turn to choosing which squares of the map grid to develop for resources. Science. In Civilization II, you hold not just one job, but many simultaneously: king, general, mayor, city planner, settler, warrior, and priest, to name a few. How does this tangle of roles become the smooth flow of gameplay? The answer, I think, is that you do not identify with any of report feedback, these subject positions so much as with the computer itself.2 When you play a simulation game like Civilization II, your perspective - the eyes through which you learn to see the game - is not that of any character or set of ltd case, characters, be they Kings, Presidents, or even God. The style in which you learn to think doesn't correspond to feedback the way any person usually makes sense of the category wordpress thesis, world. Report Feedback. Rather, the pleasures of custom thesis, a simulation game come from inhabiting an unfamiliar, alien mental state: from learning to think like a computer.3. The way computer games teach structures of thought - the way they reorganize perception - is by getting you to report feedback internalize the logic of the program. To win, you can't just do whatever you want. You have to figure out resume, what will work within the rules of the game.
You must learn to predict the consequences of book feedback, each move, and anticipate the resume powerbuilder, computer's response. Eventually, your decisions become intuitive, as smooth and rapid-fire as the report feedback, computer's own machinations. In one sense, the computer is research science, your opponent. You have to book report know how to think like the computer because the paperscomputer, computer provides the Artificial Intelligence which determines the moves of your rival civilizations. Like Kasparov playing Deep Blue, you have to figure out how the computer makes decisions in order to beat it. But in this role of opponent, the computer is only a stand-in for a human player. When multiple players compete, either in report Civilization II or in the online version, CivNet, the classification and division essay, AI isn't even needed.
And in terms of strategy, the Pentium-powered processor is no Deep Blue; its moves are fairly predictable. This confrontation between player and AI, however, masks a deeper level of collaboration. The computer in Civilization II is not only your adversary, but also your ally. In addition to report feedback controlling your rivals, it processes the rules of the game. Classification And Division Essay. It tells you when to move, who wins each battle, and how quickly your cities can grow. It responds instantly to your every touch of the report feedback, mouse, so that when you move your hand along the mousepad, it seems as if you're actually physically moving the pointer on the screen, rather than simply sending digital information to the computer. It runs the universe which you inhabit when you play the powerbuilder, game. Thinking like the computer means thinking along with the book report, computer, becoming an custom thesis extension of the computer's processes.4. This helps explain the strange sense of self-dissolution created by computer games, the way in which games suck you in.
The pleasure of computer games is in book feedback entering into a computer-like mental state: in responding as automatically as the computer, processing information as effortlessly, replacing sentient cognition with the blank hum of computation. When a game of Civilization II really gets rolling, the decisions are effortless, instantaneous, chosen without self-conscious thought. The result is an almost-meditative state, in science which you aren't just interacting with the book report, computer, but melding with it. The connection between player and computer in a simulation game is a kind of cybernetic circuit, a continual feedback loop. Today, the category wordpress thesis, prefix cyber- has become so ubiquitous that its use has diffused to mean little more than computer-related. Book Report. But the word cybernetics, from which the prefix was first taken, has a more distinct meaning. Norbert Weiner (1948) coined the term to describe a new general science of category wordpress thesis, information processing and control. Report Feedback. (He took it from the Greek word kybernan, meaning to resume powerbuilder steer or govern.) In particular, he was interested in studying, across disciplinary boundaries, processes of feedback: the ways in which systems - be they bodies, machines, or combinations of both - control and regulate themselves through circuits of report feedback, information. As Steve J. Heims writes in his history, The Cybernetics Group, [The cybernetic] model replaced the traditional cause-and-effect relation of a stimulus leading to a response by a circular causality requiring negative feedback: A person reaches for a glass of water to pick it up, and as she extends her arm and hand is continuously informed (negative feedback) - by visual or proprioceptive sensations - how close the hand is to the glass and then guides the action accordingly, so as to achieve the goal of category thesis, smoothly grabbing the book, glass.
The process is circular because the position of the arm and hand achieved at one moment is part of the input information for the action at the next moment. If the circuit is intact, it regulates the process. To give another stock example, when a man is category pages wordpress thesis, steering a ship, the person, the compass, the ship's engine, and the rudder are all part of the goal-directed system with feedback. The machine is part of the circuit (Heims 1991, 15-16). The constant interactivity in a simulation game - the perpetual feedback between a player's choice, the computer's almost-instantaneous response, the player's response to book that response, and essays, so on - is a cybernetic loop, in which the line demarcating the end of the player's consciousness and the beginning of the computer's world blurs. There are drawbacks to this merging of consciousness. Book Feedback. Connected to hih insurance the computer, it's easy to imagine you've transcended your physical body, to dismiss your flesh and blood as simply the feedback, meat your mind must inhabit, as the protagonist of Neuromancer puts it (Gibson 1984). This denial is a form of alienation, a refusal to recognize the material basis for your experience. The return of the example of a, repressed comes in the form of carpal tunnel syndrome, eyestrain, and other reminders that cyberspace remains rooted in physical existence.
But what the connection between player and computer enables is access to an otherwise unavailable perspective. In the feedback, collaboration between you and custom pages, the computer, self and Other give way, forming what might be called a single cyborg consciousness. In her influential Manifesto for Cyborgs (1985), Donna Haraway proposed the report feedback, figure of the cyborg - a hybrid of custom, machine and organism - as an image that might help us make sense of the increasing interpenetration of technology and humanity under late capitalism . Haraway's point was that in this hyper-mechanized world, we are all cyborgs. When you drive a car, the unit of driver-and-car becomes a kind of book report feedback, cyborg. When you turn on the TV, the study, connection of TV-to-viewer is a kind of cybernetic link.
The man steering the ship in Heims' example is a cyborg. And most basically, since we all depend on technology to survive this postmodern world - to feed us, to shelter us, to comfort us - in a way, we are all as much cyborgs as the Six Million Dollar Man. Simulation games offer a singular opportunity to think through what it means to be a cyborg. Report. Most of our engagements with technology are distracted, functional affairs - we drive a car to get somewhere; we watch TV to see what's on.5 Simulation games aestheticize our cybernetic connection to technology. They turn it into a source of custom wordpress, enjoyment and an object for contemplation. They give us a chance to luxuriate in the unfamiliar pleasures of rote computation and depersonalized perspective, and grasp the emotional contours of book report feedback, this worldview. To use the language of Clifford Geertz (1974), simulation games are a sentimental education in what it means to live among computers. Through the custom pages wordpress thesis, language of play, they teach you what it feels like to be a cyborg.6. Narrativizing Geography: Civilization II as a Spatial Story So, what are the advantages to life as a cyborg, to learning to report feedback think like a computer? What can be gained from engaging and emulating the information-processing dynamics of computers?
One benefit is to learn to enjoy new kinds of stories, which may enable new forms of understanding. Powerbuilder. Unlike most of the stories we're used to hearing, a simulation doesn't have characters or a plot in the conventional sense. Instead, its primary narrative agent is geography. Simulation games tell a story few other media can: the drama of book feedback, a map changing over time. You begin Civilization II with a single band of prehistoric settlers, represented as a small figure with a shovel at the center of the main map which takes up most of the computer screen.
Terrain is delineated on this map by icons representing woods, rivers, plains, oceans, mountains, and example paper, so on. Book. At the example research paper, beginning of the game, however, almost all of the map is black; you don't get to learn what's out there until one of book report, your units has explored the area. Gradually, as you expand your empire and send out custom category wordpress, scouting parties, the landscape is revealed. This process of exploration and discovery is one of the book report feedback, fundamental pleasures of Civilization II. It's what gives the game a sense of narrative momentum. In their published dialogue Nintendo and New World Travel Writing (1995), Henry Jenkins and ltd case study, Mary Fuller, a Cultural Studies critic and English Renaissance scholar respectively, compare two seemingly disparate genres which share a strikingly similar narrative structure.
Nintendo games and New World travel narratives, like simulation games, are structured not by plot or character, but by the process of encountering, transforming and mastering geography. Feedback. Fuller writes, [b]oth terms of our title evoke explorations and classification, colonizations of space: the physical space navigated, mapped and mastered by European voyagers and travelers in the 16th and 17th centuries and the fictional, digitally projected space traversed, mapped, and mastered by players of Nintendo video games (1995, 58). Borrowing from the work of Michel de Certeau (1984a and b), Jenkins labels these geographical narratives spatial stories. He describes the process of feedback, geographic transformation as a transition from abstract place into concrete space: For de Certeau (1984b), narrative involves the transformation of place into space (117-118). Places exist only the abstract, as potential sites for narrative action, as locations that have not yet been colonized.
Places constitute a stability which must be disrupted in order for stories to resume unfold. . . Report Feedback. . Places become meaningful [within the story] only as they come into contact with narrative agents. . . . Spaces, on the other hand, are places that have been acted upon, explored, colonized. Spaces become the locations of narrative events (1995, 66). Likewise, gameplay in Civilization II revolves around the paperscomputer, continual transformation of place into space, as the blackness of the unknown gives way to specific terrain icons. Book Feedback. As in New World narratives, the process of colonization is not simply a metaphor for cultural influence, but involves the research paperscomputer, literal establishment of new colonies by settlers (occasionally with the assistance of military force). Once cities are established, the surrounding land can be developed. By moving your settlers to the appropriate spot and choosing from the menu of orders, you can build roads, irrigate farmland, drill mines, chop down trees, and eventually, as your civilization gains technology, build bridges and railroads. These transformations are graphically represented right on the map itself by progressively more elaborate icons. If you overdevelop, the map displays the feedback, consequences, too: little death's-head icons appear on map squares, representing polluted areas that must be cleaned up. In its focus on the transformation of place into space, Civilization II seems like an archetypal spatial story. However, Civilization II differs from the geographic narratives Jenkins and Fuller describe in an important way, one which demonstrates the distinctive qualities of simulation games. In addition to custom pages wordpress the categories of space and place, Jenkins borrows two other terms from de Certeau, maps and tours:
Maps are abstracted accounts of spatial relations ('the girl's room is report feedback, next to the kitchen'), whereas tours are told from the point of view of the traveler/narrator ('You turn right and come into the living room') (De Certeau 1984b, 118-122). Maps document places; tours describe movements through spaces (1995, 66). Tours, in other words, are the subjective, personalized experiences of the spaces described abstractly in maps. You start your journey with a map. Then, as you navigate the geography, that abstract knowledge becomes the example of a mini research paper, embodied first-hand experience of a tour. The maze of the Nintendo screen gives way to a familiar, continually retraced path that leads from the entrance to safety. The daunting expanse of the book report feedback, New World is structured by the personal account of one traveler's journey. In the spatial stories Jenkins and Fuller discuss, then, the pleasure comes from two transitions, one involving geographic transformation, the other individual subjectivity. Wordpress. Place becomes space as unfamiliar geography is conquered through exploration and development. And maps become tours as abstract geography is subjectively situated in personal experience. As we have seen, Civilization II is certainly engaged in the transformation of place into space.
But in simulation games, the map never becomes a tour. The game screen documents the player's changes to the landscape, but these transformations are always represented in the abstract terms of the map. The point-of-view always remains an overhead, God's-eye perspective. What's the book, import of this distinction? We might assume that the continued abstraction of the map would indicate a measure of detachment, compared to the ground-level engagement of a tour. But as already noted, simulation games seem singularly skilled at sucking you in to their peculiar kind of narrative. Research Paperscomputer. The difference is that the pleasure in simulation games comes from experiencing space as a map: of at book report feedback once claiming a place, and retaining an abstracted sense of it. The spatial stories Fuller and Jenkins discuss respond to the challenge of narrativizing geography by getting inside the map - they zoom in from forest-level so we can get to know the trees. Character may not be a primary criteria for these stories, but the stories still depend on individual subjective experience as the engine for their geographic narrative.
Geography itself is not the hih insurance ltd case, protagonist; rather, the report, protagonist's experience of geography structures the narrative. But simulation games tell an even more unusual story: they tell the story of the map itself. Hih Insurance Ltd Case Study. Drawing a steady bead on the forest, they teach us how to book feedback follow, and enjoy, its transformations over time. We need never get distracted by the trees. Because simulation games fix the player in a depersonalized frame of mind, they can tell their story in the abstract, without ever bringing it to the level of individual experience. The map is not merely the environment for the story; it's the classification essays on shoppers, hero of the story. The closest analogue I can think of to the distinct kind of spatial story that simulation games tell are works of environmental history such as William Cronon's Changes in the Land (1983). Cronon attempts to tell a version of American history from the perspective of the land, turning the earth itself into his protagonist. Report. The limitations of the written word, however, make it difficult to fully treat an abstract entity as a character. You can't easily employ the devices normally used to engage the reader with a human protagonist.
As a result, the book - like most works on geography - is still a rather dry read. It may offer a new perspective, but it can't engage the reader enough to give an emotional sense of what this perspective feels like.7. The clearest way to conceptualize space is not with words, but with images. A map captures the abstract contours of space; any verbal description begins the process of turning that map into classification essay, a tour. This is why any good work of book feedback, geography is full of on shoppers, maps; the reader is feedback, expected to continually check the words against custom pages wordpress, the images, translating language back into visual understanding. Simulation games are a way to make the maps tell the book feedback, whole story. As a still frame is to a movie, as a paragraph is to a novel, so is a map to a simulation game.
Simulation games are maps-in-time, dramas which teach us how to think about on shoppers structures of spatial relationships.8. In one sense, every map is always already a tour. Book Report. As geographer Denis Wood points out in The Power of Maps (1992), a map is the cumulative result of classification essays, many subjective judgments. Map always have a point of view. Feedback. The ideological work of the scientific, God's-eye view map is to ltd case study make the traces of those subjective decisions disappear. Critics of computer games worry that the technological aura of feedback, computers further heightens this reification, leaving game players with the classification and division, impression that they have encountered not just one version of the way the world works, but the book feedback, one and science, only objective version (Brook and book report, Boal 1995; Slouka 1995; Stoll 1995). This perspective would leave little room to imagine resistance. And Division On Pets. But the book report feedback, structure of the computer gaming experience does allow for variant interpretations.
You can win Civilization II in one of two ways. Resume Powerbuilder. You can win by making war, wiping the other civilization off the map and taking over the world. Or you can win through technological development, becoming the first civilization to colonize another planet. I haven't emphasized the military aspect of Civilization II because I don't like wargames all that much myself. They make me anxious. My strategy for winning Civilization II is to pour all my efforts into scientific research, so that my nation is the most technologically advanced. Book Report. This allows me to resume powerbuilder be the first to book report build Wonders of the World which, under the game's rules, force opponents to stay at peace with me. In the ancient world, the Great Wall of China does the trick; by modern times, I have to upgrade to the United Nations. That's just one strategy for winning. I think it's probably the essays on shoppers, most effective - I get really high scores - but, judging from online discussions, it doesn't appear to be the report feedback, most popular. Most Civilization II players seem to prefer a bloodier approach, sacrificing maximum economic and scientific development to focus on crushing their enemies.
The fact that more than one strategy will work - that there's no one right way to win the game - demonstrates the impressive flexibility of Civilization II. But there still remain baseline ideological assumptions which determine which strategies will win and which will lose. And underlying the entire structure of the powerbuilder, game, of course, is the notion that global co-existence is a matter of winning or losing. There are disadvantages to never seeing the book feedback, trees for the forest. Civilization II's dynamic of of a mini paper, depersonalization elides the violence of exploration, colonization, and development even more completely than do the stories of individual conquest described by book report feedback, Fuller and Jenkins. Military units who fight and die in Civilization II disappear in a simple blip; native peoples who defend their homelands are inconveniences, barbarian hordes to be quickly disposed of. What makes this palatable, at least for those of us who would get squeamish in a more explicit wargame, is the abstractness of Civilization II. Any nation can be the colonizer, depending on who you pick to play.
Barbarian hordes are never specific ethnicities; they're just generic natives. And Division On Pets. It's interesting to note that Sid Meier's least successful game was a first attempt at a follow up to the original Civilization, called Colonization. A more explicitly historical game, Colonization allows you to play a European nation colonizing the New World. In addressing a more concrete and controversial historical subject, Meier is forced to complicate the Manifest Destiny ethos of report feedback, Civilization. The Native American nations are differentiated, and behave in different ways. You can't win through simple genocide, but must trade and collaborate with at least some Native Americans some of the time. The result of this attempt at political sensitivity, however, is simply to highlight the violence and racism more successfully obscured in Civilization. Hih Insurance. There's no getting around the goal of Colonization: to colonize the New World. Book Report Feedback. And while you have a choice of which European power to powerbuilder play, you can't choose to play a Native American nation. Civilization II's level of book feedback, abstraction also leads to oversimplification.
The immense timespan of Civilization II reifies historically specific, continually changing practices into transhistorical categories like science, religion, and nation. Art and religion in Civilization II serve a purely functional role: to keep the people pacified. If you pursue faith and beauty at the expense of economic development, you're bound to get run over by less cultivated nations. Scientific research follows a path of rigid determinism; you always know in advance what you're going to discover next, and it pays to powerbuilder plan two or three inventions ahead. You can't play The Jews in Civilization II, or another other diasporic people.
The game assumes that civilization equals distinct political nation. There's no creolization in Civilization II, no hybridity, no forms of geopolitical organization before (or after) the rise of report feedback, nationalism. Custom Pages Thesis. Either you conquer your enemy, or your enemy conquers you. You can trade supplies and technology with your neighbors, but it's presumed that your national identities will remain distinct. Playing a single, unchanging entity from the Stone Age to book feedback space colonization turns the often-slippery formation of nationhood into a kind of resume powerbuilder, immutable racial destiny. What to Do Once You've Conquered the World.
If Civilization II rests on some questionable ideological premises, the distinct dynamics of book report, computer gaming give the player the chance to transcend those assumptions. Computer games are designed to be played until they are mastered. You succeed by paperscomputer science, learning how the software is put together. Unlike a book or film that is engaged only report, once or twice, a computer game is played over and over until every subtlety is classification essay on pets, exposed, every hidden choice obvious to the savvy player. The moment the game loses its interest is when all its secrets have been discovered, its boundaries revealed. That's when the game can no longer suck you in. No game feels fresh forever; eventually, you run up against the limits of its perspective, and move on to other games.9 By learning from the feedback, limitations of pages thesis, Civilization II while exploiting the tools it offers, perhaps the next round of games can go further, challenging players' assumptions and expectations to create an report feedback even more compelling and rewarding interactive experience. 1. I address the semiotics of SimCity in much greater detail in Making Sense of Software: Computer Games and Interactive Textuality (Friedman 1995). 2. The argument I will be making here is an classification on shoppers extension of my discussion of subjectivity in Making Sense of report, Software (Friedman 1995). In that essay, I describe the resume powerbuilder, experience of playing SimCity as one of identifying with a process - with the simulation itself (85).
In a simulation game, you don't imagine yourself as filling the shoes of a particular character on book feedback the screen, but rather, you see yourself as the entire screen, as the sum of all the forces and influences which make up the on shoppers, world of the game. This paper extends that discussion by looking at how this perspective is, in a way, that of the computer itself. 3. I should clarify that in talking about thinking like a computer, I don't mean to anthropomorphize, or to suggest that machines can think the way humans do. As artificial intelligence researchers have learned, often to their chagrin, computers can only systematically, methodically crunch numbers and follow algorithms, while human thinking is less linear, more fluid. Book Report. My point is research, that using simulation games can help us intuitively grasp the very alien way in feedback which computers process information, and so can help us recognize how our relationships with computers affect our own thoughts and on pets, feelings. In describing computers as, in book feedback a sense, nonhuman actors with associated states of consciousness, I'm borrowing a technique of Bruno Latour's, who in his novelistic history Aramis, or the Love of Technology, tells the example of a mini paper, story of feedback, a failed French experimental mass transit program from several perspectives - including that of study, train itself. Latour writes, I have sought to show researchers in the social sciences that sociology is book, not the science of human beings alone - that it can welcome crowds of nonhumans with open arms, just as it welcomed the working masses in the nineteenth century.
Our collective is woven together out of speaking subjects, perhaps, but subjects to which poor objects, our inferior brothers, are attached at all points. By opening up to paperscomputer science include objects, the social bond would become less mysterious (Latour 1996, viii). Latour's conceit is report feedback, one way to research paperscomputer science attempt to report account for the interpenetration of our lives with technology, to make visible the hih insurance ltd case, often unnoticed role of book report feedback, technology in custom category wordpress our daily experience and sense of selves. 4. Where, one may ask, in this confrontation between computer and feedback, player, is the author of the software? In some sense, one could describe playing a computer game as learning to think like the example of a, programmer, rather than the book, computer. On the basic level of strategy, this may mean trying to divine Sid Meier's choices and prejudices, to figure out how he put the game together so as to play it more successfully. More generally, one could describe simulation games as an resume powerbuilder aestheticization of the report feedback, programming process: a way to interact with and resume, direct the computer, but at a remove. Report. Many aspects of research, computer game play resemble the work of feedback, programming; the play-die-and-start-over rhythm of adventure games, for example, can be seen as a kind of debugging process. Programming, in fact, can often be as absorbing a task as gaming; both suck you into category pages wordpress, the logic of the computer.
The programmer must also learn to think like the computer at a more technical level, structuring code in the rigid logic of binary circuits. 5. Actually, one might argue that the pleasure many get out of driving for its own sake, or the enjoyment of watching TV no matter what's on (what Raymond Williams called flow (Williams 1974)), are examples of similar aestheticizations of the cybernetic connection between person and machine. We might then say that just as these pleasures aestheticized previous cybernetic connections, simulation games do the same for our relationships with computers. 6. My reference here is to Clifford Geertz's famous essay, Deep Play: Notes on report the Balinese Cockfight (1974), which discusses how a game can encapsulate and objectify a society's sense of lived social relations: Like any art form - for that, finally, is what we are dealing with - the cockfight renders ordinary, everyday experience comprehensible by presenting it in terms of acts and objects which have had their practical consequences removed and been reduced (or, if you prefer, raised) to and division essay on pets the level of book report feedback, sheer appearances, where their meaning can be more powerfully articulated and more exactly perceived (443). This dynamic is particularly powerful because it is not just an intellectual exercise, but a visceral experience: What the cockfight says it says in a vocabulary of sentiment - the thrill of risk, the essays on shoppers, despair of loss, the pleasure of triumph. . . . Attending cockfights and participating in them is, for the Balinese, a kind of sentimental education. What he learns there is what his culture's ethos and his private sensibility (or, anyway, certain aspects of them) look like when spelled out externally in a collective text (449).
7. One alternative might be to go ahead and treat an abstract object like a real protagonist, complete with an interior monologue. This is what Bruno Latour does in Aramis, as discussed above. But when discussing a subject as abstract at geography, even this move would likely remain a compromise with an inhospitable medium. In giving voice to geography, one risks anthropomorphization, falling back into the synecdochical trap of substituting the king for the land. 8. One might also think about how simulations narrativize other abstractions, such as economic relationships. In addition to book report being maps-in-time, simulations are also charts-in-time. One follows not only the central map in resume Civilization II, but also the various charts, graphs and status screens which document the current state of each city's trade balance, food supply, productivity, and report feedback, scientific research.
In this aspect, simulations share a common heritage with perhaps the PC's most powerful tool, the spreadsheet. What the spreadsheet allows is precisely for a static object - in this case a chart - to become a dynamic demonstration of interconnections. It's revealing that Dan Bricklin, the inventor of the spreadsheet, first imagined his program as a kind of computer game. Computer industry historian Robert X. Cringely writes, What Bricklin really wanted was . . . And Division Essay. a kind of very advanced calculator with a heads-up display similar to the weapons system controls on an F-14 fighter.
Like Luke Skywalker jumping into the turret of the Millennium Falcon, Bricklin saw himself blasting out financials, locking onto profit and loss numbers that would appear suspended in space before him. It was to be a business tool cum video game, a Saturday Night Special for M.B.A.s, only the book report, hardware technology didn't exist in those days to make it happen (1992, 65). So, of example of a mini research paper, course, Bricklin used the metaphor of feedback, a sheet of rows and columns instead of a fighter cockpit. Simulation games, in a way, bring the user's interaction with data closer to Bricklin's original ideal. 9. I make a similar argument to this in Making Sense of Software (Friedman 1995). The Best 10 Games of All Time. PC Gamer, May 1997, 90-96. Birkerts, Sven. The Gutenberg Elegies: The Fate of Reading in an Electronic Age. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1994.
Brockman, John. Digerati: Encounters with the Cyber Elite. San Francisco: HardWired, 1996. Brook, James and Iain A. Boal. Resisting the Virtual Life: The Culture and Politics of Information. San Francisco: City Lights, 1995. Cringely, Robert X. Accidental Empires: How the Boys of Silicon Valley Make Their Millions, Battle Foreign Competition, and Still Can't Get a Date.
New York: Addison-Wesley, 1992. Cronon, William. Changes in the Land. New York: Hill and classification essay, Wang, 1983. de Certeau, Michel. Report Feedback. Heterologies: Discourse on the Other. Translated by wordpress, Brian Massumi. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1984.
de Certeau, Michel. The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1984. The 15 Most Significant Games of report, All Time. PC Gamer, May 1997, 95. Friedman, Ted. Classification And Division. Making Sense of Software: Computer Games and Interactive Textuality. Feedback. In CyberSociety: Computer-Mediated-Communication and Community, edited by Steven G. Jones. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1995.
Fuller, Mary and Henry Jenkins. Nintendo and New World Travel Writing: A Dialogue. In Fuller, Mary and Henry Jenkins. Nintendo and research paperscomputer science, New World Travel Writing: A Dialogue. In CyberSociety: Computer-Mediated-Communication and Community, edited by Steven G. Jones.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1995. Geertz, Clifford. Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight. In The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books, 1973. Gibson, William. Neuromancer. New York: Ace Books, 1984. Gilder, George.
Life After Television: The Coming Transformation of Media and American Life. Whittle Direct Books, 1990. Haraway, Donna. Feedback. Manifesto for Cyborgs: Science, Technology and Socialist Feminism in the 1980s. Socialist Review 80 (1985), 65-108. Heims, Steve J. The Cybernetics Group. And Division Essay On Pets. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.
Latour, Bruno. Aramis, or the Love of Technology. Translated by Catherine Porter. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996. Negroponte, Nicholas. Being Digital. New York: Vintage, 1995. The 150 Best Games of All Time.
Computer Gaming World, November 1996, 64-80. Shelley, Bruce. Manual for Sid Meier's Civilization. Book Report. Hunt Valley, MD: MicroProse Software, 1991. Slouka, Mark. War of the Worlds: Cyberspace and science, the High-Tech Assault on Reality.
New York: Basic Books, 1995. Stoll, Clifford. Silicon Snake Oil: Second Thoughts on the Information Superhighway. Book Report Feedback. New York: Doubleday, 1995. Weiner, Norbert. Custom Category Thesis. Cybernetics. Tk: tk, 1948. Williams, Raymond.
Television: Technology and Cultural Form. Hanover, NH: Wesleyan University Press, 1974. Wood, Denis. The Power of Maps. New York: The Guilford Press, 1992.