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Biochemistry for Medics Lecture Notes. Scale Mcat. An 18 –year- old female reported to tragic essay the physician for essay scale consultation. She complained of generalized weakness, lethargy and inability to do the writing for money routine work from the essay previous few months. On further questioning she revealed that she was having excessive bleeding during menstruation from the annotated previous six months. She complained of breathlessness and palpitations while climbing stairs for her house. Grading Scale. She also had experienced periods of light-headedness, though not to download job resume the point of fainting. Other changes she had noticed were cramping in her legs, a desire to crunch on ice, There was no history of any fever, drug intake or abdominal discomfort. Her appetite had also decreased and essay she was taking meals only once a day. Upon examining, her physician found that she had tachycardia, pale gums and resume nail beds, and her tongue was swollen. Given her history and the findings on her physical examination, the physician suspected that the patient was anemic and ordered a sample of essay, her blood for examination.

The results were as shown below: Red Blood Cell Count -3.5 million/mm 3. Mean Corpuscular Hb Concentration (MCHC)- low. Total Iron Binding Capacity in the Blood (TIBC)- high. What is the cause of anemia in this patient? What are the possible complications in the untreated cases? Case Discussion- The most likely diagnosis is iron deficiency anemia.

Generalized weakness, exercise intolerance, dyspnea, palpitations, history of assignment help, blood loss during menstruation, tachycardia and low Hb, all are suggestive of iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency is the grading scale mcat most prevalent single deficiency state on a worldwide basis. Iron deficiency, is related in econometrics part to abnormal iron metabolism. Overview of iron metabolism. The balance of iron in mcat humans is tightly controlled and designed to conserve iron for reutilization. There is tragic, no regulated excretory pathway for iron, and the only mechanisms by which iron is lost from the essay grading scale mcat body are blood loss (via gastrointestinal bleeding, menses, or other forms of bleeding) and resume the loss of epithelial cells from the skin, gut, and genitourinary tract. Normally, the only route by which iron comes into the body is essay scale, via absorption from essays food or from medicinal iron taken orally. Essay Scale. Iron may also enter the body through red-cell transfusions or injection of tragic hero essay, iron complexes. The margin between the amount of iron available for absorption and the requirement for iron in growing infants and the adult female is narrow; this accounts for the great prevalence of iron deficiency worldwide—currently estimated at one-half billion people. Essay Mcat. The amount of resume, iron required from the diet to replace losses averages about 10% of body iron content a year in men and 15% in women of childbearing age. Dietary iron content is closely related to total caloric intake (approximately 6 mg of elemental iron per 1000 calories).

Iron bioavailability is affected by the nature of the foodstuff, with heme iron (e.g., red meat) being most readily absorbed. Certain foodstuffs that include phytates and phosphates reduce iron absorption by about 50%. Essay. Infants, children, and adolescents may be unable to maintain normal iron balance because of the demands of body growth and lower dietary intake of iron. During the last two trimesters of pregnancy, daily iron requirements increase to 5–6 mg. That is the reason why iron supplements are strongly recommended for pregnant women in download developed countries. Iron absorption takes place largely in the proximal small intestine and is a carefully regulated process.

In general, there is no regulation of the amounts of nutrients absorbed from the gastro intestinal tract. A notable exception is iron, the reason that absorption must be carefully regulated is that the essay grading scale mcat body does not possess a physiological mechanism to eliminate much iron from the job resume body. The small amount of iron that is lost each day (about 1-2 mg) is matched by dietary absorption of iron. Mechanism of iron absorption. Iron is found in essay grading the diet is in twee, present as ionic (non-haem) iron and essay grading scale mcat haem iron. Absorption of these two forms of iron occurs by different mechanisms. Absorption is hero, a multistep process involving the uptake of iron from the intestinal lumen across the apical cell surface of the villus enterocytes and the transfer out of the essay scale enterocyte across the essays basolateral membrane to the plasma. Ionic iron is present in the reduced (ferrous) or oxidised (ferric) state in the diet and the first step in the uptake of scale, ionic iron involves the reduction of bibliography, iron. Recently, a reductase that is capable of reducing iron from its ferric to ferrous state has been identified.

It is a membrane bound haem protein called Dcytb that is expressed in the brush border of the duodenum. Next, ferrous ion is transported across the lumen cell surface by scale a transporter called divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) that can transport a number of other metal ions including copper, cobalt, zinc, and lead. Ics Canada Resume. Once inside the gut cell, iron may be stored as ferritin or transported through the cell to be released at the basolateral surface to plasma transferrin through the membrane-embedded iron exporter, ferroportin. The function of ferroportin is negatively regulated by hepcidin, the principal iron regulatory hormone. More the Hepcidin levels lesser is the iron absorption and vice versa. Essay Mcat. In the resume process of release, iron interacts with another ferroxidase, hephaestin, which oxidizes the iron to the ferric form for transferrin binding. Hephaestin is similar to ceruloplasmin, the copper-carrying protein.

Figure- 1-Showing the mechanism of iron absorption. Factors affecting iron absorption. Iron absorption is essay, influenced by a number of hero essay, physiologic states. 1) Erythroid hyperplasia stimulates iron absorption, even in the face of normal or increased iron stores, and in this state hepcidin levels are inappropriately low. The molecular mechanism underlying this relationship is not known.

Thus, patients with anemias associated with high levels of ineffective erythropoiesis absorb excess amounts of dietary iron. Over time, this may lead to iron overload and tissue damage. In iron deficiency, hepcidin levels are low and iron is much more efficiently absorbed from a given diet; the contrary is true in grading states of job resume, secondary iron overload. 2) Hypoxia- Both the rate of erythropoiesis and hypoxia regulate iron absorption. Expression of ferroportin and Dcytb are increased in hypoxia, resulting in scale more iron absorption. 3) Body Stores Iron absorption is stimulated if the level in body stores is low. Hepcidin is produced by hepatocytes when iron stores are full, hepcidin makes a complex with ferroportin resulting in assignment help its degradation and thus iron is not transported to the blood and remains in the enterocyte in the form of ferritin. 4) Interfering substances- Iron absorption is decreased by phytic acid (in cereals) and oxalic acid(in leafy vegetables) due to essay the formation of ics canada, insoluble salts. 5) Other Minerals- Calcium, copper, zinc, lead and phosphates also inhibit iron absorption. 6) Inflammation can also stimulate hepcidin production resulting in lower iron absorption.

Iron is a critical element in the function of all cells, although the amount of iron required by individual tissues varies during development. Essay Grading. At the same time, the body must protect itself from free iron, which is highly toxic in that it participates in chemical reactions that generate free radicals such as singlet O 2 or OH – . Consequently, elaborate mechanisms have evolved that allow iron to be made available for physiologic functions while at the same time conserving this element and handling it in such a way that toxicity is avoided. Iron absorbed from the diet or released from essays for money stores circulates in the plasma bound to transferrin , the essay iron transport protein. Transferrin (Tf) is a bilobed glycoprotein with two iron binding sites. Tf is normally about one-third saturated with iron Transferrin that carries iron exists in two forms— monoferric (one iron atom) or diferric (two iron atoms). The turnover (half-clearance time) of transferrin-bound iron is very rapid—typically 60–90 min.

The half-clearance time of iron in the presence of iron deficiency is as short as 10–15 min. With suppression of erythropoiesis, the plasma iron level typically increases and job resume the half-clearance time may be prolonged to several hours. The iron-transferrin complex circulates in the plasma until it interacts with specific transferrin receptors on the surface of essay grading, marrow erythroid cells. Diferric transferrin has the job resume highest affinity for essay grading mcat transferrin receptors; apo transferrin (transferrin not carrying iron) has very little affinity. While transferrin receptors are found on cells in many tissues within the body—and all cells at some time during development will display transferrin receptors—the cell having the greatest number of download, receptors (300,000 to grading scale mcat 400,000/cell) is the developing erythroblast.

Once the iron-bearing transferrin interacts with its receptor, the complex is internalized via clathrin-coated pits and transported to an acidic endosome, where the iron is released at the low pH. The iron is then made available for heme synthesis while the assignment help transferrin-receptor complex is recycled to grading mcat the surface of the cell, where the bulk of the transferrin is released back into circulation and the transferrin receptor re anchors into the cell membrane. At this point a certain amount of the ics canada resume transferrin receptor protein may be released into circulation and grading can be measured as soluble transferrin receptor protein. Within the erythroid cell, iron in excess of the amount needed for hemoglobin synthesis binds to a storage protein, apoferritin , forming ferritin . This mechanism of iron exchange also takes place in other cells of the body expressing transferrin receptors, especially liver parenchymal cells where the ics canada resume iron can be incorporated into essay grading scale mcat heme-containing enzymes or stored. The iron incorporated into hemoglobin subsequently enters the download job resume circulation as new red cells are released from the bone marrow. Scale. The iron is then part of the red cell mass and will not become available for reutilization until the red cell dies. Figure-2 showing the internalization of schrijven weken, Iron- Transferrin complex, utilization of essay mcat, iron and transport to other cells via Transferrin from the hepatocyte. In a normal individual, the average red cell life span is 120 days. Thus, 0.8–1.0% of red cells turn over each day. At the end of its life span, the red cell is recognized as senescent by the cells of the reticuloendothelial (RE) system , and the cell undergoes phagocytosis. Once within the RE cell, the hemoglobin from the ingested red cell is broken down, the globin and other proteins are returned to the amino acid pool, and the iron is shuttled back to the surface of the RE cell, where it is presented to circulating transferrin.

It is the efficient and highly conserved recycling of iron from senescent red cells that supports steady state (and even mildly accelerated) erythropoiesis. Persistent errors in iron balance lead to either iron deficiency anemia or hemosiderosis. Both are disorders with potential adverse consequences. Ferritin and Haemosiderin are iron-containing compound meant for storage of iron. Ferritin is a protein bound, water-soluble, mobilizable storage compound and is the major source of storage iron. Haemosiderin is a water-insoluble form that is help, less readily available for use. When the amount of total body iron is essay mcat, relatively low, storage iron consists predominately of tragic hero, ferritin. When iron stores are high, Haemosiderin predominates. Unlike ferritin, Haemosiderin stains with the Prussian blue stain (Pens reaction) and may be observed in tissues. Storage forms normally comprise approximately 30% of total body iron. Essay Grading. Iron stores provide a source of iron when physiologic demand is high, e.g., blood loss, pregnancy, and periods of rapid growth.

Iron is essay, vital for all living organisms because it is essential for multiple metabolic processes, including oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and electron transport. The major role of essay grading, iron in mammals is to carry O 2 as part of hemoglobin. O 2 is also bound by myoglobin in muscle. Iron is a critical element in resume iron-containing enzymes, including the cytochrome system in mitochondria. Without iron, cells lose their capacity for electron transport and energy metabolism. In erythroid cells, hemoglobin synthesis is impaired, resulting in anemia and reduced O 2 delivery to tissue. a) Haem containing proteins.

Hemoglobin, Myoglobin, Cytochromes, Catalase, Peroxidase, Lactperoxidase and tryptophan pyrrolase. Essay Grading. b) Non haem containing proteins. Aconitase, Phenyl alanine hydroxylase, Transferrin, Ferritin and hemosiderin. Adrenodoxin, Complex-III of job resume, Electron transport chain, Succinate dehydrogenase and Xanthine oxidase. Demand and supply imbalance. Since each milliliter of red cells contains 1 mg of elemental iron, the essay scale mcat amount of tragic essay, iron needed to replace those red cells lost through senescence amounts to 16–20 mg/d (assuming an adult with a red cell mass of 2 L). Any additional iron required for essay grading mcat daily red cell production comes from the diet. Normally, an adult male will need to absorb at least 1 mg of elemental iron daily to meet needs, while females in the childbearing years will need to absorb an average of 1.4 mg/d. However, to achieve a maximum proliferative erythroid marrow response to anemia, additional iron must be available. With markedly stimulated erythropoiesis, demands for iron are increased by as much as six- to eightfold. With extravascular hemolytic anemia, the rate of red cell destruction is increased, but the iron recovered from the red cells is efficiently reutilized for hemoglobin synthesis.

In contrast, with intravascular hemolysis or blood loss anemia, the rate of red cell production is limited by weken the amount of iron that can be mobilized from stores. Typically, the mcat rate of mobilization under these circumstances will not support red cell production more than 2.5 times normal. Tragic Essay. If the delivery of iron to the stimulated marrow is suboptimal, the marrow#8217;s proliferative response is blunted, and hemoglobin synthesis is impaired. Essay Mcat. The result is writing essays in college, a hypoproliferative marrow accompanied by microcytic, hypochromic anemia. Menstrual blood loss in women plays a major role in iron metabolism. The average monthly menstrual blood loss is approximately 50 mL, or about 0.7 mg/d. However, menstrual blood loss may be five times the average. Grading Mcat. To maintain adequate iron stores, women with heavy menstrual losses must absorb 3–4 mg of iron from the diet each day. This strains the thesis in twee weken upper limit of what may reasonably be absorbed, and women with menorrhagia of this degree will almost always become iron deficient without iron supplementation. Pregnancy may also upset the iron balance, since requirements increase to 2–5 mg of iron per scale mcat, day during pregnancy and lactation.

Normal dietary iron cannot supply these requirements, and medicinal iron is needed during pregnancy and lactation. Tragic Hero. Repeated pregnancy (especially with breast-feeding) may cause iron deficiency if increased requirements are not met with supplemental medicinal iron. Decreased iron absorption can on essay grading scale mcat very rare occasions cause iron deficiency and usually occurs after gastric surgery, though concomitant bleeding is frequent. By far the most important cause of iron deficiency anemia is blood loss, especially gastrointestinal blood loss. Chronic aspirin use may cause it even without a documented structural lesion.

Iron deficiency demands a search for a source of gastrointestinal bleeding if other sites of annotated bibliography, blood loss (menorrhagia, other uterine bleeding, and repeated blood donations) are excluded. Essay Scale. Chronic hemoglobinuria may lead to iron deficiency since iron is lost in the urine; traumatic hemolysis due to a prosthetic cardiac valve and other causes of intravascular hemolysis (eg, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria) should also be considered. Frequent blood donors may also be at risk for iron deficiency. While blood loss or hemolysis places a demand on thesis schrijven in twee the iron supply, conditions associated with inflammation interfere with iron release from essay scale mcat stores and can result in a rapid decrease in the serum iron level. Summary of Causes of Iron Deficiency. Conditions that increase demand for iron, increase iron loss, or decrease iron intake or absorption can produce iron deficiency; Increased demand for iron and/or hematopoiesis rapid growth in infancy or adolescence pregnancy erythropoietin therapy Increased iron loss chronic blood loss menses acute blood loss blood donation Phlebotomy as treatment for polycythemia vera. Decreased iron intake or absorption inadequate diet malabsorption from writing in college disease (sprue, Crohn#8217;s disease) malabsorption from surgery (post-gastrectomy) acute or chronic inflammation. Essay Grading Scale Mcat. Iron deficiency is defined as decreased total iron body content. Iron deficiency anemia occurs when iron deficiency is sufficiently severe to writing essays for money in college diminish erythropoiesis and essay grading mcat cause the development of anemia.

Iron deficiency is the most prevalent single deficiency state on a worldwide basis. It is important economically because it diminishes the capability of individuals who are affected to perform physical labor, and it diminishes both growth and learning in children. In countries where little meat is in the diet, iron deficiency anemia is econometrics, 6-8 times more prevalent . This occurs despite consumption of a diet that contains an equivalent amount of total dietary iron because heme iron is absorbed better from the diet than nonheme iron. In certain geographic areas, intestinal parasites, particularly hookworm, worsen the iron deficiency because of blood loss from the grading mcat gastrointestinal tract. Anemia is more profound among children and premenopausal women in these environs. Econometrics Assignment Help. Chronic iron deficiency anemia is seldom a direct cause of death; however, moderate or severe iron deficiency anemia can produce sufficient hypoxia to aggravate underlying pulmonary and cardiovascular disorders. In children, the growth rate may be slowed, and essay a decreased capability to learn is reported.

As a rule, the only symptoms of iron deficiency anemia are those of the anemia itself (easy fatigability, tachycardia, palpitations and tachypnea on exertion). Annotated Bibliography Essay. Severe deficiency causes skin and mucosal changes, including a smooth tongue, brittle nails, and cheilosis. Grading. Dysphagia because of the formation of esophageal webs (Plummer–Vinson syndrome) also occurs. Many iron-deficient patients develop pica, craving for specific foods (ice chips, etc) often not rich in iron. CBC count This documents the severity of the anemia.

In chronic iron deficiency anemia, the cellular indices show a microcytic and hypochromic erythropoiesis, ie, both the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) have values below the normal range for the laboratory performing the test. Reference range values for in twee weken the MCV and MCHC are 83-97 fL and 32-36 g/dL, respectively. Often, the grading platelet count is elevated (450,000/µL). This normalizes following iron therapy. The WBC count is bibliography essay, usually within reference ranges (4500-11,000/µL).

If the CBC count is obtained after blood loss, the cellular indices do not enter the abnormal range until most of the erythrocytes produced before the bleed are destroyed at the end of their normal lifespan (120 d). Peripheral smear In the early stages, the MCV remains normal. Scale Mcat. Subsequently, the MCV falls and the blood smear shows hypochromic microcytic cells (see blood smear). With further progression, anisocytosis (variations in red blood cell size) and poikilocytosis (variation in shape of red cells) develop. Severe iron deficiency will produce a bizarre peripheral blood smear, with severely hypochromic cells, target cells, hypochromic pencil-shaped cells, and occasionally small numbers of nucleated red blood cells. The platelet count is commonly increased.(Figure-3) Combined folate deficiency and iron deficiency are commonplace in areas of the world with little fresh produce and meat. The peripheral smear reveals a population of macrocytes mixed among the essay microcytic hypochromic cells. This combination can normalize the MCV. Essay Scale. Figure –3- showing microcytic hypochromic cells in peripheral smear. Serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), and serum ferritin : Iron deficiency develops in stages. The first is depletion of iron stores.

At this point, there is anemia and no change in red blood cell size. The serum ferritin will become abnormally low. A ferritin value less than 30 mcg/L is a highly reliable indicator of iron deficiency. The serum total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) rises. After iron stores have been depleted, red blood cell formation will continue with deficient supplies of iron. Serum iron values decline to assignment help less than 30 mcg/dL and transferrin saturation to less than 15%.

A low serum iron and ferritin with an scale, elevated TIBC are diagnostic of iron deficiency. While a low serum ferritin is virtually diagnostic of iron deficiency, a normal serum ferritin can be seen in resume patients who are deficient in essay mcat iron and have coexistent diseases (hepatitis, anemia of chronic disorders). These test findings are useful in distinguishing iron deficiency anemia from other microcytic anemias A bone marrow aspirate can be diagnostic of iron deficiency. Bone marrow biopsy for evaluation of iron stores is now rarely performed because of thesis schrijven in twee, variation in its interpretation. Other laboratory tests are useful to establish the essay mcat etiology of iron deficiency anemia and to exclude or establish a diagnosis of 1 of the other microcytic anemias. Testing stool for the presence of hemoglobin is useful in establishing gastrointestinal bleeding as the etiology of assignment, iron deficiency anemia. Severe iron deficiency anemia can occur in patients with a persistent loss of less than 20 mL/d.

Hemoglobinuria and hemosiderinuria can be detected by laboratory testing . This documents iron deficiency to be due to essay grading scale renal loss of iron and incriminates intravascular hemolysis as the etiology. Hemoglobin electrophoresis and job resume measurement of grading scale, hemoglobin A 2 and fetal hemoglobin are useful in establishing either beta-thalassemia or hemoglobin C or D as the etiology of the microcytic anemia. Serum Levels of Transferrin Receptor Protein -Because erythroid cells have the highest numbers of transferrin receptors on their surface of any cell in the body, and because transferrin receptor protein (TRP) is annotated bibliography, released by cells into the circulation, serum levels of TRP reflect the total erythroid marrow mass. Another condition in which TRP levels are elevated is grading scale mcat, absolute iron deficiency. Normal values are 4–9 ?g/L determined by immunoassay. This laboratory test is becoming increasingly available and, along with the serum ferritin, has been proposed to distinguish between iron deficiency and the anemia of chronic inflammation. Other causes of microcytic anemia include anemia of thesis, chronic disease, thalassemia, and sideroblastic anemia. Anemia of essay mcat, chronic disease is characterized by normal or increased iron stores in the bone marrow and a normal or elevated ferritin level; the serum iron is low, often drastically so, and assignment the TIBC is either normal or low.

Thalassemia produces a greater degree of microcytosis for grading scale mcat any given level of anemia than does iron deficiency. Red blood cell morphology on the peripheral smear is abnormal earlier in the course of thalassemia. The diagnosis of download, iron deficiency anemia can be made either by the laboratory demonstration an iron-deficient state or evaluating the response to a therapeutic trial of iron replacement. Since the anemia itself is rarely life-threatening, the most important part of treatment is identification of the cause—especially a source of occult blood loss. Scale. Ferrous sulfate, 325 mg three times daily, which provides 180 mg of iron daily of which up to 10 mg is absorbed (though absorption may exceed this amount in cases of ics canada resume, severe deficiency), is the preferred therapy. The indications are intolerance to oral iron, refractoriness to essay grading mcat oral iron, gastrointestinal disease (usually inflammatory bowel disease) precluding the use of oral iron, and in twee weken continued blood loss that cannot be corrected. Because of the possibility of anaphylactic reactions, parenteral iron therapy should be used only in cases of persistent anemia after a reasonable course of scale mcat, oral therapy. Transfusion therapy is reserved for individuals who have symptoms of anemia, cardiovascular instability, continued and excessive blood loss from whatever source, and require immediate intervention. The management of these patients is less related to the iron deficiency than it is to the consequences of the severe anemia. Not only do transfusions correct the anemia acutely, but the transfused red cells provide a source of iron for reutilization, assuming they are not lost through continued bleeding. Hero. Transfusion therapy will stabilize the patient while other options are reviewed.

Iron deficiency anemia is an easily treated disorder with an excellent outcome; however, it may be caused by an underlying condition with a poor prognosis, such as neoplasia. Similarly, the prognosis may be altered by a comorbid condition such as coronary artery disease. Please help Biochemistry for Medics by CLICKING ON THE ADVERTISEMENTS above!

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Free Online Team Management Training | businessballs.com. Exit interviews and knowledge transfer- tips for employees and employers, sample questions and answers. Table of contents. exit interviews and knowledge transfer - tips for employees and employers, sample questions and answers [edit] Exit interviews are interviews conducted with departing employees, just before they leave. From the employer's perspective, the primary aim of the essay grading scale exit interview is to learn reasons for econometrics assignment help the person's departure, on the basis that criticism is a helpful driver for organizational improvement. Exit interviews (and prior) are also an opportunity for the organization to enable transfer of mcat, knowledge and experience from the departing employee to a successor or replacement, or even to brief a team on annotated bibliography, current projects, issues and contacts. Essay Mcat. Good exit interviews should also yield useful information about the employer organization, to assess and assignment, improve all aspects of the working environment, culture, processes and systems, management and development, etc.; in fact anything that determines the quality of the organization, both in terms of its relationship with its staff, customers, suppliers, third-parties and the general public. Many employers ignore the essay opportunity that exit interviews offer, chiefly because exit interviews have not been practised in the past, and starting them is thesis weken a difficult initiative to undertake, given the potentially subjective and essay mcat, 'fuzzy' nature of the results; the time involved; and the unspoken corporate urge to avoid exposure to writing essays criticism.

Exit interviews are nevertheless a unique chance to survey and analyse the opinions of departing employees, who generally are more forthcoming, constructive and objective than staff still in their jobs. In leaving an organisation, departing employees are liberated, and essay grading, as such provide a richer source of objective feedback than employed staff do when responding to annotated bibliography normal staff attitude surveys. As ever, corporate insecurity and defensiveness can be an obstacle to implementing exit interview processes, so if the organization finds it difficult to essay begin the practice as a matter of general policy, you can still undertake your own exit interviews locally with your own staff as and when they leave. From the departing employee interviewee perspective, an exit interview is a chance to give some constructive feedback, and to leave on a positive note, with good relations and mutual respect. Recrimination, blame, revenge and job resume, spite are destructive feelings and behaviours, so resist any temptation you might have to go out all guns blazing. Be calm, fair, objective and as helpful as possible. In the scale future you may wish to return to the organization (situations and job resume, people change..), and you may cross the paths of your ex-colleagues, managers in the future. The adage about essay scale, treating people well on your way up because you might meet them on the way down applies just as well on job resume, your way out.

The exit interview is an opportunity to shake hands and leave friends, not enemies. exit interviews and knowledge transfer. The days, weeks (or months in some cases) between the grading mcat decision for the employee to leave, and the employee's actual departure date offer a crucial opportunity for the organization to gather important information and writing in college, knowledge from the employee. This is essay grading scale especially relevant in roles where the employee has accumulated a significant amount of knowledge and personal connections, as typically applies in sales and buying roles, and obviously business unit management. The knowledge of the departing employee commonly has immense value, and the recovery of econometrics help, it is often overlooked altogether by the organization, until the employee has departed, or more likely been hurried out essay scale mcat, of the door holding the contents of writing essays in college, their desk in a cardboard box. When any employee resigns, or a decision is made for a person to leave for any reason, always ask: Should we spend some time thinking about how to enable some sort of essay, knowledge transfer? In other words, if we place a value on the knowledge that the departing employee holds, isn't it worth thinking about how to enable this knowledge to be passed to the appropriate people remaining in the organization?

Instead of course all too often, senior management's response to all the head-scratching after a vital person has left, is to ics canada resume rationalise the loss of information (and vital personal contacts often) with the old cliche, No-one is indispensable. Grading. The adage might ultimately be true, but that's not really the point. The fact is that most people who leave do actually possess useful (often critical) knowledge and experience. Moreover most departing employees are delighted to writing in college share this knowledge, to help a successor, or to brief a management team, if only the organization would simply ask them politely to scale do so (assuming their exit is handled decently of course, which the exit interview helps to enable). This is another good reason for thinking properly about the exit procedure, and for properly organising some form of exit interview process. So much depends of course on the atmosphere surrounding the departure. Often, particularly in sales, there is suspicion and imagined threat on both sides, which rather weakens the chances of help, a helpful hand-over. This mistrust should be diffused - it really does nobody any good. In an ideal world the essay grading scale mcat leaver should be encouraged and enabled (and arguably rewarded if necessary) to hold a briefing meeting, which all interested parties (and certainly the person's replacement if possible) can attend and learn what they need to know. Regrettably however, it is not unusual for thesis traditional-type 'theory-X' sales directors and managers to be so intoxicated with testosterone and the taste of blood that such suggestions rarely make it off the grading mcat stony ground of the board-room.

I would urge you to take a more open constructive view. Give people the benefit of doubt, and discourage the kill'em and eat'em advocates from retaliating before there's any suggestion of being attacked. Tragic Hero. There are some suggested enabling questions below. For organizations large and small, exit interviews therefore provide lots of advantages and opportunities: exit interviews aims and grading scale, outcomes [edit] They provide an assignment, opportunity to 'make peace' with disgruntled employees, who might otherwise leave with vengeful intentions.

Exit interviews are seen by existing employees as a sign of positive culture. They are regarded as caring and essay scale mcat, compassionate - a sign that the organisation is big enough to expose itself to criticism. Exit interviews accelerate participating managers' understanding and experience of managing people and organizations. Hearing and handling feedback is thesis schrijven weken a powerful development process. Exit interviews help to support an organization's proper HR practices. They are seen as positive and essay mcat, necessary for writing for money quality and effective people-management by most professional institutes and accrediting bodies concerned with quality management of people, organizations and service. Essay Grading. The results and analysis of exit interviews provide relevant and useful data directly into training needs analysis and training planning processes.

Exit interviews provide valuable information as to how to improve recruitment and bibliography essay, induction of scale, new employees. Exit interviews provide direct indications as to how to essay improve staff retention. Essay Grading. Sometimes an exit interview provides the chance to retain a valuable employee who would otherwise have left (organizations often accept resignations far too readily without discussion or testing the firmness of feeling - the exit interview provides a final safety net). A significant proportion of employee leavers will be people that the organization is actually very sorry to leave (despite the post-rationalisation and sour grapes reactions of many senior executives to job resume the departure of their best people). The exit interview therefore provides an excellent source of comment and opportunity relating to management succession planning. Good people leave often because they are denied opportunity to grow and advance. Wherever this is happening organizations need to know about it and scale, respond accordingly. Every organization has at any point in hero essay time several good people on the verge of leaving because they are not given the opportunity to grow and essay scale mcat, develop, at the same time, ironically, that most of the management and executives are overworked and stretched, some to the point of leaving too. Doesn't it therefore make good sense to raise the importance of essay, marrying these two situations to provide advantage both ways - ie., facilitate greater delegation of essay grading, responsibility to essay those who want it? Exit interviews are an excellent catalyst for grading scale mcat identifying specific mistakes and improvement opportunities in in twee this vital area of management development and succession.

Exit interviews, and a properly organised, positive exit process also greatly improve the chances of successfully obtaining and transferring useful knowledge, contacts, insights, tips and essay, experience, from the resume departing employee to all those needing to know it, especially successors and replacements. Most leavers are happy to help if you have the courage and decency to ask and grading, provide a suitable method for the knowledge transfer, be it a briefing meeting, a one-to-one meeting between the replacement and the leaver, or during the exit interview itself. Exit interviews are best conducted face-to-face because this enables better communication, understanding, interpretation etc., and it provides far better opportunity to writing for money probe and get to the root of sensitive or reluctant feelings. However, postal or electronic questionnaires are better than nothing, if face-to-face exit interviews are not possible for whatever reason (although I remain to be convinced that there is essay grading never a proper excuse for not sitting down for 30 minutes with any departing employee. Thesis In Twee Weken. ) In some cases perhaps a particularly shy employee may prefer to give their feedback in a questionnaire form, in which case this is fine, but where possible, face-to-face is best. In terms of managing the essay scale interview, listen rather than talk. Ics Canada Resume. Give the interviewee time and space to answer. Coax and reassure where appropriate, rather than pressurise.

Interpret, reflect and scale, understand (you can understand someone without necessarily agreeing). Keep calm, resist the urge to defend or argue - your aim is to econometrics assignment help elicit views, feedback, answers, not to essay scale lecture or admonish. Ask open 'what/how/why' questions, not 'closed' yes/no questions, unless you require specific confirmation about a point. 'When' and 'where' are also more specific qualifying questions, unless of writing essays in college, course they are used in a general context rather than specific time or geographic sense. 'Who' should be used with care to avoid witch-hunts or defamatory risks (moreover many exit interviewees will be uncomfortable if asked to name people or allocate personal blame - exit interviews are not about scale mcat, 'blame', the assignment allocation of which is not constructive and should be avoided for anything other than very serious complaints or accusations, which must then be suitably referred as follow-up would be beyond the normal exit interview remit. Prepare your exit interview questions and essay scale, topics that you'd like to explore, especially when you believe that the interviewee has good experience, appreciation and thesis weken, understanding. Take notes and/or use a prepared questionnaire form. Importantly, see also the job interviews page for interviews techniques, which relate to exit interviews too. Remember simple planning aspects such as arranging a suitable time and place, avoiding interruptions, taking notes, preparing questions, being aware of the body-language and essay grading scale, feelings of the interviewee and adjusting your own approach accordingly, etc. Obviously the style of exit interview is different for someone who is annotated essay being asked to grading leave, retiring, being made redundant, dismissed, or leaving under a cloud, compared to an employee leaving whom the organization would prefer to retain. However everyone who leaves should be given the opportunity of an exit interview, and essay, the organization can learn something from essay scale mcat, every situation. In certain situations (where appropriate) the exit interview also provides a last chance to change a person's mind, although this should not be the main aim of the help exit interview situation. When the interview is complete say thanks and grading scale mcat, wish the interviewee well.

If there is some specific checking or follow-up to tragic do then ensure you do it and report back accordingly. After the interview look at the answers and think properly - detached and objective - about grading, what their meaning and implications. Take action as necessary, depending on your processes for analysing and reporting exit interview feedback. If there's an urgent issue, or the person wants to essays stay and you want to keep them, then act immediately or the opportunity will be lost. exit interviews - responsibilities, process and outcomes [edit] Participation in exit interviews by the employee leaving is voluntary. Do not compel departing employees to attend exit interviews. Offer a questionnaire form alternative, which again must be voluntary. You cannot compel a departing employee to give you knowledge that is in their head, although the return of files, paperwork and material is normally something that an employer rightfully can insist happens. In any event, a positive constructive, grown-up approach is the best assurance of a happy outcome and an optimal transfer of knowledge and contact names, etc., should this be helpful, which often it will be.

If you hear any of essay scale, your people using the ridiculously confrontational maxim No-one is indispensable.., as a defence for not bothering to gather important knowledge from a departing employee it probably suggests that all opportunities for ics canada a cooperative hand-over have yet to be explored, so encourage people to explore them, or go explore them yourself. Ideally the organization should have a documented policy stating how exit interviews happen, when, and by whom. Some organizations hand the responsibility to a skilled interviewer in the HR or Personnel department. Alternatively line-managers or even supervisors can conduct the interviews. Essay Grading Scale Mcat. Interviewers need to writing in college be trained to interview, just as for normal job interviews. All types of interviews are sensitive emotional situations which require ability and maturity to manage properly, especially if interviewees are anxious or volatile. In large organizations HR or Personnel department should be responsible for designing the process, issuing guidelines and documentation, collecting results data, analysing and reporting findings, trends, opportunities and recommendations, especially including anything relating to health and safety, or employment law and grading scale, liability. If you design a questionnaire or exit interview form which will be used as an input document towards central analysis it is a good idea to convert questions wherever practicable into a 'scoreable' and/or multiple-choice format, which makes analysis far easier than lots of written opinions. Actions resulting from exit interview feedback analysis, in any size or type of organization, fall into annotated, two categories:

Remedial and preventative , for example improving health and safety issues, stress, harassment, discrimination., etc. Strategic improvement opportunities , for example improved induction, management or supervisory training, empowerment or team building initiatives, process improvement, wastage and essay, efficiencies improvements, customer service initiatives, etc. The head of HR or Personnel would normally be responsible for raising these issues with the download job resume board or CEO, and the conversion of exit interview feedback into action is a critical factor in essay grading justifying and maintaining a serious priority and operation of the process. For many organizations, exit interviews provide a major untapped source of 'high-yield' development ideas and tragic, opportunities. Use them. sample exit interview questions [edit] These questions can be used in face-to-face exit interviews, or to essay mcat compile exit interview proforma questionnaires or electronic feedback forms. If using these questions to thesis in twee weken compile forms to be used for essay grading large scale analysis take care to format the questions into a format which can be analysed numerically, as far as is reasonable (certain questions and answers will always be difficult to format in writing for money in college this way, for example the 'how do you feel about. ' and open-ended questions seeking ideas and suggestions - such questions and can only be analysed and reported 'by exception' when something of essay grading scale, particular note crops up, or of thesis in twee weken, a particular recurring theme is spotted). In face-to-face interviews particularly, use the word 'why' if you want to grading scale mcat probe, especially if the first answer is vague or superficial.

Questions beginning with 'what' and 'how' are better for annotated bibliography essay getting people to essay think and convey to you properly and honestly about hero essay, their views. Some of grading scale, these questions samples are more suitable for management employees, although always give people at all levels the chance to comment on issues normally 'above' their remit - you'll be surprised at how informed and insightful people can be. These questions examples are not in a sequential process, although broadly there is a logic to the order of the weken types of questions. There are lots more questions here than you would normally ask in a typical exit interview. Pick the questions that are most relevant to the leaving circumstances, the interviewee and your organization situation. Tell me about how you've come to decide to essay scale mcat leave?

What is your main reason for leaving? What are the other reasons for your leaving? Why is this important, or so significant for you? Within the (particular reason to leave) what was it that concerned you particularly? What could have been done early on to prevent the situation developing/provide a basis for you to hero stay with us? How would you have preferred the situation(s) to have been handled?

What opportunities can you see might have existed for the situation/problems to essay grading mcat have been averted/dealt with satisfactorily? What can you say about the annotated bibliography processes and procedures or systems that have contributed to the problem(s)/your decision to leave? What specific suggestions would you have for how the organization could manage this situation/these issues better in future? How do you feel about the organization? What has been good/enjoyable/satisfying for you in your time with us? What has been frustrating/difficult/upsetting to you in your time with us? What could you have done better or more for us had we given you the opportunity? What extra responsibility would you have welcomed that you were not given? How could the organization have enabled you to essay make fuller use of your capabilities and potential? What training would you have liked or needed that you did not get, and what effect would this have had?

How well do think your training and development needs were assessed and met? What training and development that you had did you find most helpful and ics canada resume, enjoyable? What can you say about essay grading scale, communications within the organization/your department? What improvements do you think can be made to customer service and relations? How would you describe the culture or 'feel' of the organization? What could you say about econometrics help, communications and relations between departments, and scale, how these could be improved?

Were you developed/inducted adequately for econometrics assignment help your role(s)? What improvement could be made to the way that you were inducted/prepared for your role(s)? (For recent recruits of less than a year or so:) What did you think about the way we recruited you? How did the reality alter from your expectations when you first joined us? How could we have improved your own recruitment? How could your induction training have been improved? How could you have been helped to better know/understand/work with other departments necessary for the organization to perform more effectively? What can you say about the way your performance was measured, and the feedback to essay grading mcat you of resume, your performance results? How well do you think the appraisal system worked for grading you? What would you say about how you were motivated, and help, how that could have been improved? What suggestion would you make to grading improve working conditions, hours, shifts, amenities, etc? What would you say about equipment and machinery that needs replacing or upgrading, or which isn't fully/properly used for any reason?

What can you say about the annotated bibliography way you were managed. On a day to day basis. And on a month to essay mcat month basis? How would you have changed the expectations/objectives/aims (or absence of) that were placed on you? . And why? What, if any, ridiculous examples of policy, rules, instructions, can you highlight? What examples of ridiculous waste (material or effort), pointless reports, meetings, bureaucracy, etc., could you point to?

How could the ics canada resume organization reduce stress levels among employees where stress is an issue? How could the organization enabled you to have made better use of your time? What things did the organization or management do to make your job more difficult/frustrating/non-productive? How can the grading organization gather and make better use of the views and assignment help, experience of its people? Aside from the reason(s) you are leaving, how strongly were you attracted to essay grading scale mcat committing to a long and developing career with us? What can the organization do to retain its best people (and not lose any more like you)? Have you anything to say about your treatment from a discrimination or harassment perspective? Would you consider working again for us if the situation were right? Are you happy to say where you are going (if you have decided)?

What particularly is it about them that makes you want to join them? What, importantly, are they offering that we are not? (If appropriate:) Could you be persuaded to renegotiate/stay/discuss the possibility of writing essays for money, staying? Can we be of any particular help to you in this move/deciding what to do next (we can't promise anything obviously)? And, to address opportunities for knowledge-transfer prior to departure, possibly in grading mcat advance of exit interview: knowledge transfer questions [edit] Start thinking about using these questions when the employee and the organization knows that the employee will be leaving. Bibliography Essay. Don't leave these questions until the exit interview. How might we benefit from your knowledge, experience, introductions to your contacts, etc., prior to your departure? Would you be happy to take part in scale mcat a briefing meeting with managers/replacements/successor/colleagues so that we can benefit from your knowledge and experience, prior to your leaving? What can we do to enable you to pass on as much of your knowledge and experience as possible to your replacement/successor prior to your departure?

How and when would you prefer to pass on your knowledge to your successor? I realise that you'll not be happy with the thesis schrijven in twee weken situation surrounding your departure, however we would really appreciate it if you could help us to understand some of the essay scale important things you've been working on - how might we agree for thesis schrijven in twee weken this knowledge to essay grading mcat be transferred? We'd be grateful for you to introduce (name of successor) to your key contacts before you go - are you happy to help with this?

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Resume Fonts, Margins, Style #038; Paper Selection. Building a resume is a process that requires finesse. If it’s stuffed with good content but formatted poorly, it will often get tossed into the “no” pile; leaving many job candidates confused as to why they never received a call back. Essay Grading Scale? On the ics canada other hand, if it’s clean and professional ( even if it’s filled with fluff ), it will frequently catch the eye of a hiring manager and land you an interview. Although content is ultimately the most significant element of essay grading, your resume, it’s important to resume not underestimate the scale mcat power of appearance. The reason we need the adage “don’t judge a book by its cover” is because we do judge things by econometrics, their appearance frequently , whether we like it or not. This guide will help you take advantage of scale, that fact . Finding the best aesthetic font , outlining ideal margins and even discussing your paper selection —we will cover it all. 1.) Best font for download, a resume: Style, size color. Creating a clear, succinct resume requires multiple elements working in harmony. For this to essay grading scale mcat happen, one thing is certain: don’t use Comic Sans . Download? Choosing an aesthetic font might seem daunting, but it doesn’t need to scale be.

People often ask us: is bibliography, there a best style? We’ve crunched the numbers, and essay grading scale mcat we have an answer. The best font for writing essays for money, a resume is… Tricked you—there isn’t truly a single best font, but there are several options that stand out amongst the rest! We will give you some solid choices and essay grading scale mcat you can take it from there. Consider downloading some resume templates and see which ones are most attractive to you. Writing Essays In College? Select your favorite, and try out that font! First, consider this: how will you be sending your resume? Printed fonts and essay grading scale mcat those read on download a computer monitor appear differently to the reader.

There are two key groups of fonts used globally: serif and sans-serif (i.e. “non-serif”). Serif fonts have accentuated corners that make them appear more distinct, especially when printed. Essay Grading? Sans-serif fonts simply don’t have these accents, which make them clearer at smaller sizes as well as on a computer screen. Example of serifs on a capital F, using Garamond Sans-serif capital F, Calibri. Keep these ideas in mind when constructing your resume.

Here’s a breakdown of our top three serif and sans-serif options: Top 3 serif choices: Times New Roman : Times New Roman is a classic serif that looks good both on paper and on a computer screen. It’s a safe, standard choice for any resume. Garamond : Garamond is an attractive option for people who enjoy a classic, graceful font. Georgia : Georgia is also a popular choice. Econometrics Assignment Help? Clear, familiar and functional, it’s a nice change for people who like Times New Roman but want something a little different. Top 3 sans-serif choices: Arial : An excellent choice if you prefer the sans-serif style. Essay? It is easy to read, and familiar to many people due to its appearance on thesis in twee commonly used web applications like gmail.

Calibri : Popular amongst professionals. If you’ve ever opened a Microsoft Word document, you’ve used Calibri—its use as a Word default makes it palatable for most readers. Scale Mcat? Verdana : The spacing of Verdana is tragic essay, slightly wider than Arial and quite more so than Calibri. Choose this style if you’re aiming for ease-of-reading. Font size is another area that you’ll need to play with to find your ideal option. Each style handles sizing differently– for essay grading mcat, example, Garamond is noticeably smaller than Arial at 12.

Many experts consider 11 to hero essay be the essay perfect size, but this depends on the font. The most important thing is essay, that it’s clear and essay scale mcat large enough to read . A rule of assignment, thumb is to choose between 10 and 12; adjusting it according to your style. If you’re leaning toward a smaller font, consider selecting a sans-serif option. The simpler design will help keep visual clarity, which serif styles lose at essay grading scale mcat, smaller sizes. Before you shrink your words too much though, try changing the wording to see if you can organically make it smaller. This should be your first course of econometrics help, action, but if necessary, it’s acceptable to grading mcat make minor changes to the font size margins. The majority of ics canada, resumes use a standard black and white format. Essay Scale Mcat? There is a reason for essay, this– bright colors are distracting and mcat take away from your actual content. With that said, you are allowed to use some color if you want, just make sure it complements your content rather than detracts from it. Bibliography Essay? Your name, as well as the headers throughout your resume can be modified– but make sure you use the same color here to keep things uniform. A dark red, blue or green can be a nice touch, but using neon colors is a surefire way to grading scale mcat make the hiring manager take you less seriously.

2. Resume margins, length alignment. The size and shape of your resume are just as important, if not more so, than the font. At a glance, the structure already expresses certain ideas to the reader– for example, larger margins make your content seem lacking, whereas smaller margins make things feel cluttered. Ics Canada? You don’t want your resume to scale mcat get noticed for its formatting. Playing it safe is advisable. Avoid extremes and you’ll be in good shape (pun intended). Standard one inch by one inch margins are a good choice , but you do have some flexibility. The smallest margins considered to be acceptable are half an inch by half an inch (.5 by in college, .5), but even this format will appear a bit heavy on the words unless done correctly. A good visual balance would be keeping your top and bottom margins between .5? and essay grading mcat 1? , and moving between .6? and 1? for your left and right margins . This will help decrease reader fatigue and make your resume more palatable for essays for money in college, whoever is looking at essay scale mcat, it. Assignment Help? Take a look at the following sample to get an idea of good, balanced margins:

The next image is a snippet of essay mcat, a resume with extremely narrow margins. Notice how they push to the very bottom of the page– this gives a cramped feeling to the reader. Narrow margins can make reading anything a chore. For most people the ideal resume length is one page, using reasonable margins as discussed above. Occasionally two pages is acceptable, but three pages is almost always in danger of being too wordy. Here are some reasons you may need to thesis make yours longer than one page: You have a large quantity of relevant experience. Many candidates can fill a resume with work experiences, but it’s usually possible to narrow them down to the most relevant ones and fit them onto a single page.

If you have many examples of essay scale mcat, related experience that make your application stronger, don’t be afraid to include them! You are a published scientist or academic . Proper citations can take up a lot of space, so hiring managers in these fields expect this. Landing an resume executive position is your goal . These posts require large amounts of essay, relevant experience, so it’s alright if they’re a bit extensive. Before deciding upon a multi-page resume, ask yourself: is the information you’ve added worth the additional page? Or will the hiring manager find it unnecessary? Your resume is a tool to efficiently convey your qualifications to a potential employer so you can proceed to thesis weken the interview process– you don’t need to list every piece of work you’ve ever performed. Quality is more important than quantity. If you really do need to scale mcat cut the length down, you could try using a resume profile instead of a career objective or qualifications summary. Here’s a table to check if you’re okay at your current page length, or if yours could do with a little trimming.

The best alignment makes your resume easy to read. Download? We learn to read English from the essay grading scale mcat left, therefore left alignment is always a safe bet . Ics Canada Resume? Your name and grading mcat contact information is usually centered , but the headers (“Professional Experience”, “Education”, “Additional Skills”) and your introduction/objective can be left aligned or centered. This depends on the template you’re following, as well as your personal taste. Left-aligned Resume Sample. Center-aligned Resume Sample. Left-aligned Resume Sample. Center-aligned Resume Sample.

You don’t need your resume to tragic essay be as stylish as this guy, but it doesn’t hurt to grading scale try! Another way to thesis schrijven in twee weken accent yours is to use style elements like lines, symbols and text boxes . If implemented effectively, these can help direct the grading scale reader’s attention to your stronger sections, and make the thesis in twee weken overall reading experience more pleasant. If used haphazardly though, they can hurt your chances at getting an interview. Grading Scale? There are some general rules to follow if you want your style game to be on point. Lines, like many things, must be enjoyed in moderation. Placing a strategic line after your objective makes the econometrics reader subconsciously linger on essay grading scale your objective. This is a good tactic if you want them to give your objective that additional attention. Lines can also be used in a functional resume to draw the reader’s attention toward your skills section and assignment away from your work history. Functional resumes are great if you have are trying to mask your 1) lack of or 2) abundance of experience. They are also helpful if you have large gaps in your work history or have been jumping from company to company, which are two things hiring managers don’t like to see.

Whether you’re inexperienced, over-experienced or just have a tendency to essay grading job-hop, you can use our wide range of free resume templates to learn how to cover employment blemishes and emphasize your strongest areas. Pugs are cute, but this is not the time to put a clip art image of an adorable little Pug puppy on your Veterinarian resume. The only flashy aspect should be your relevant work experience ; others are used to make this experience clear to thesis in twee the reader . This holds true for symbols. Bullet points come in different shapes and sizes, and essay scale are the primary symbol used in a resume because they draw the hiring manager’s attention to your achievements and skills. If there’s a time to get a bit creative, it’s here– just remember to assignment help keep things clear. You can’t go wrong with the circle bullet, but arrows diamonds are also nice choices for the less conventional job applicant. Mantis Resume Template (arrows)

Lynx Resume Template (squares) Mantis Resume Template (arrows) Lynx Resume Template (squares) Some experts advise against text boxes because they are worried the essay Applicant Tracking System (ATS) will skip over the content placed inside, but this bias is a bit outdated. As ATS software improves, text boxes have become a viable stylistic option for job resume, your resume.

If you’re feeling conservative then feel free to steer clear of grading scale, them, but if you do want to use a text box or two (or several), go for download, it! Text boxes can be an ally in your quest to achieve aesthetic harmony. One way a well-placed text box can help your resume stand out is by emphasizing certain pieces of grading scale, information , like your name. Notice in the following image how a text box around the applicant’s name, “Chris Jones,” makes it jump off the page. A hiring manager is much more likely to download remember this applicant as a result, which helps later on in the grading hiring process. An applicant’s name in a text box.

Text boxes also make your content clearer to the reader because they help break information into reasonable chunks. This makes you appear organized and thesis schrijven thoughtful, which are valuable traits in a job candidate. They also improve overall readability. Check out how these headers are highlighted through the use of each text box. Each header included in essay grading a text box. Text boxes can also give your resume some personality and make it stand out, but don’t go overboard! They have the power to strengthen and assignment weaken your application, so use every text box responsibly. 4. Resume paper: Color, weight, size texture. Woah, now. Essay? Your draft is resume, looking pretty solid, but don’t lose control– it’s not the right time to use that Egyptian papyrus you’ve been saving as printing material. I’d also advise against spraying it with cologne or perfume– that only works in the movies.

Legally Blonde might not be the place to grading scale mcat look for job application advice. With that said, it’s still important to consider what impressions different types of paper may give your hiring manager. Bring a printed copy of your resume to the interview! Even if you already emailed a copy to the hiring manager, it’s courteous and professional to bibliography have physical copies on hand. The paper color of your printed resume should be some shade of white or off-white; avoid colors like baby blue or hot pink unless you’re applying to be the Easter Bunny.

Plain white is definitely acceptable for most people, but if you’re feeling adventurous you could dabble in mcat the realm of ivory or cream-colored paper. These colors stand out job resume a bit from run-of-the-mill white paper, without standing out too much. They are like adding cuff-links to a nice dress shirt– they catch the eye and look nice, but aren’t needed to look stylish. Have you ever felt 100% cotton, 32lbs linen paper? It’s the Rolls Royce of the scale paper world, and it will instantly make your resume appear more important than its 24lbs counterpart. It’s soft yet sturdy, and gives the holder a strong urge to never let go.

Paper quality so good, you can’t help but hold it in two hands. If that paper weight texture is job resume, too inconvenient to find, see if you can still land a 32lbs option. Essay Grading Scale Mcat? 24lbs is better than your standard printer paper, but not by writing essays for money, much. Essay Scale? Use some serious paper to show that you’re a serious job applicant. There are many factors that can make or break your resume, and we’ve just covered the visual elements.

If it’s well-honed, it can be a valuable tool during the job hunt. Econometrics Assignment? Try not to underestimate the importance of grading mcat, good aesthetics ! If you’re ready to thesis schrijven in twee start, you can take a look at essay mcat, our templates pages or use our builder to construct a professional resume in minutes. Get more interviews with our Free Resume Builder. Our software has everything you need, including industry-specific bullet points, templates formatted to fit every type of job seeker, and exportable PDFs and Word docs.

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age essay old When last I wrote my will, I didn’t have a dog, a point that had begun to nag at grading scale mcat me. “When you’re dead, you’re dead,” I’d always told myself. “You’re childless, so what difference does it make who gets the money, if there’s any left, or the sentimental treasures?” By which I mean my mother’s “sterling” silver, which turned out to be plate, and my flea market discoveries. But my 10-year-old standard poodle was another story. Tragic! Unmentioned in essay grading scale mcat the existing document, Henry would be left alone after I died: unfed, unwalked, unloved. Would he die, too, only to be discovered by a neighbor when he started to stink up the joint? I owed him better. My elder care lawyer raised a skeptical eyebrow when I explained that the inspiration to update everything was my dog. I might as well review all the econometrics assignment, paperwork, I told him: the essay, power of attorney, the assignment help, health care proxy, the grading, living will, a codicil here and there, the list of friends’ children who had always been my beneficiaries. But a full year went by thesis while I looked guiltily at the file folder on my desk marked “new will.” That took me by surprise, as I’m not a procrastinator. Remember the hated kid in high school who always had her papers done way in essay scale mcat advance and went to the movies while everyone else was pulling an all-nighter? That was me.

But my lawyer, Gregg M. Weiss, was used to people starting the process and then disappearing. “That’s the No. 1 bane of econometrics assignment, my existence,” he said when I finally resurfaced, all papers ready to be signed. “Whatever is on anyone’s to-do pile, this typically goes to essay scale mcat the bottom. It’s avoidance, not facing the reality of death. The 80-year-olds we see are different. They don’t dillydally.” “And Then There Were None.’’ The title of Agatha Christie’s 1939 mystery, her masterpiece, spooled through my mind on assignment a recent visit to essay mcat the Hebrew Home at ics canada Riverdale, where my mother died 11 years ago.

Out on the patio, one man sat in the sunshine with his visiting children and grandchildren. On his left forearm was the telltale tattoo of time spent in Auschwitz, marking him a survivor of the scale, death camp where one million Jews lost their lives. Writing Essays For Money! The string of letters and numbers, vivid more than 70 years later, is a ghastly sight no matter how many times you’ve seen one. But each year, at an accelerating pace, there are fewer survivors left to grading scale mcat remind us of the last century’s atrocities. The number varies in assignment different accounts, but Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr. recently told the Senate’s Special Committee on Aging that 140,000 survivors remain in the United States. A decade ago at the Hebrew Home, there seemed to be hundreds. Now there are 40, among a total of essay, 800 residents. Annotated! They are cared for as the essay mcat, deaths they once barely escaped are bearing down again. Some have always lived in a fog of fear. Job Resume! Others are grateful to be alive, to the point of exuberance, and still others are guilty to have survived for no reason other than luck.

None are like the other aged residents here, facing death in its expected time. They have spent too long already staring into essay scale, the abyss. Job Resume! Rabbi Simon Hirschhorn, himself the son and grandson of grading mcat, Holocaust survivors, said that his multigenerational work with these families is the writing, most satisfying and important work he does. As a nursing home clergyman, he is always guiding parents and their adult children through what is arguably the most difficult transition of their lives. Some of the elderly survivors cry inconsolably but wordlessly, incapable or unwilling to articulate anything about the scale mcat, past.

Others, often dry-eyed, incessantly discuss the terrible things they saw and had to do to save their lives. Resume! “Mom, you’re only dizzy. What are you making such a big deal about?’’ That was me, the unsympathetic daughter, back when my mother took to her bed, complaining of nausea and disorientation. She had many faults, but whining wasn’t one of them. Even after she was paralyzed, incontinent and losing her speech, these occasional episodes were the only thing she ever complained about. So I should have known that she wasn’t just dizzy.

Or that she was dizzy in a way that was indeed a big deal. I also should have known that the essay, karma wheel would catch up to a mean daughter, which it has. Now I have joined the ranks of people who, like my mother, have Meniere’s disease, named for Dr. Prosper Meniere, a French physician who described the job resume, condition in an 1861 journal article. The condition affects the inner ear, which comprises an outer bony labyrinth and a membranous inner labyrinth. Scale Mcat! The latter is filled with fluid that instructs receptors in the brain where your body is in space. People with this condition aren’t always sure. Some 190 per annotated essay, 100,000 people have Meniere’s, most of essay scale, them women. There is no cure and thesis schrijven weken no reliable treatment.

The symptoms vary from person to person in frequency and severity, and the attacks come in clusters between periods of remission. My first attack of vertigo #8212; and no, that’s not the essay scale, same thing as being dizzy #8212; came on hero suddenly, a signature symptom of Meniere’s. Essay Grading! “Rotational” vertigo is the medically and colloquially accurate description: The room spins. The walls aren’t where the thesis schrijven weken, walls are supposed to be. The floor is only an idea, not a reality. One minute I was lying in bed, feeling perfectly normal, and grading the next minute, trying to get to schrijven in twee my feet, I was stumbling, grasping at grading furniture to hold myself upright. A lamp crashed to the floor. She lay so still as I approached her bed, I thought she was asleep. Or dead. Her eyes were open. “Mom?” I asked. Her gaze tilted toward me, but she said nothing. It was 8:30 a.m.

Only weeks earlier, she would have been in the kitchen by 8:30, asking me what was on the agenda for the day. Now, she wouldn’t move, her thin, knobby fingers resting on the coverlet. Bibliography! I didn’t know if my 93-year-old mother was depressed or if her dementia had suddenly worsened. She had been living in my upstate New York home for a year and a half, ever since I had convinced her she could no longer live alone. Normally she was lively and functional. She just couldn’t remember anything. Essay Grading Scale! I knelt by the bed, putting my hand over hers. “Are you O.K., Mom?” I asked. Schrijven! She looked at essay scale mcat me again, her eyes pale blue and watery, her white hair matted. Annotated Bibliography! “I don’t know,” she said. “Am I O.K.?” Her words chilled me.

A month before, we had suffered a trauma: the essay grading mcat, death of my eldest son, Spencer. And even though she never mentioned it, did not even seem to remember it, she had been declining ever since. Ics Canada! Pushing her pillows together, I helped her sit upright and gave her water to sip. Ten days earlier, we had been to essay scale see Mom’s doctor. Together, we decided to start Mom on a low dose of Zoloft, an antidepressant medication. Help! Usually animated and cheerful, Mom had become increasingly quiet and vague ever since the scale, dreadful news of Spencer’s suicide. “Mom,” I asked her, “are you thinking about Spencer?” “Spencer?” she echoed. “Do you remember Spencer?” She looked away. “I don’t know.” Dementia is really weird. It’s not like memories get permanently erased; sometimes they are there, and essays for money sometimes they’re not.

Caregiving is a delicate dance, with a gradual shift in who is leading and who is following. One partner is, often, a frail, widowed mother, upended by the loss of her husband and living in the family home, too big, costly and difficult to essay grading scale maintain. A dear old friend fits that profile: Stooped and finally reconciled to a walker, she grieves a husband lost to Alzheimer’s disease while ensconced in a dated four-bedroom house atop a canyon in ics canada resume the Bel Air section of Los Angeles. I’ve begged her to move more times than I can count, and surely more times than she wanted to hear. She has tolerated my entreaties with probably more forbearance than if she were my “real’’ mother, not a beloved surrogate. Her mind is clear, her will strong, and her way of making decisions #8212; slow and steady #8212; has always worked for her. So she’s held her ground. Along the way, she has taught me two lessons. Grading Scale Mcat! #8212; Know when to butt out, because you’re not always right.

#8212; Move the ics canada, furniture. The latter is essay grading mcat useful shorthand, like “shift your weight’’ when you get stuck in life. But it’s literal advice, too. Some will argue that rearranging the chairs is a superficial response to download a deep problem. Lately I’m not so sure.

Up in the hills of Los Angeles, my elderly friend (I’m not going to name her, as I suspect her children might object) has succeeded in scale mcat making changes to essays in college her home that have nothing to essay grading scale do with handicap accessibility (long ago done) and tragic everything to do with emotional well-being. Essay Grading Scale! She Wasn#8217;t So Ungrateful After All. Last November, the week of econometrics assignment, my mother#8217;s 86th birthday, her essay ran in this blog under the headline, “A Very Ungrateful Old Lady.” She explained #8212; somewhat humorously, more than a little bitterly #8212; that because of her very limited vision and essay grading scale mcat her weakening, aging body, she was increasingly dependent on her children, and that it made her feel like a burden to be cared for and tended, even when the thesis in twee weken, care came with love. I am the oldest child, the doctor daughter. My part of caring for her included a disproportionate amount of the medical stuff, from going with her on medical visits to grading scale sorting her daily medications into pill boxes, doling out the blood pressure medicine and the vitamins that she hoped would preserve what was left of her vision. When I last looked, there were more than 500 comments on my mother#8217;s post. They started coming in as soon as the essay was published, and they have continued to appear, more sporadically, over the six months since it appeared #8212; six months that, unfortunately, also encompassed the thesis, death of the author. My mother’s essay resonated with many readers, reminded them of their aging parents or of themselves. The piece also made a lot of readers kind of angry, and they wrote in to scold her, to tell her she needed psychotherapy or medication.

I’m not sure that everyone is scale mcat ready for certain kinds of honesty from ics canada resume people toward the end of life, trapped in bodies that are progressively betraying them after decades of service, facing the future with the daily reminders that come from losing friends and contemporaries, perhaps picking up messages in essay grading scale mcat the air on schrijven weken special frequencies not audible to essay grading mcat the rest of us. The thing is, my mother loved those comments. Econometrics! I think it’s possible she enjoyed the essay grading mcat, most negative and hostile comments the most. How often is a legally blind, 86-year-old writer told she deserves a spanking? Or reminded to be thankful because she could be legless in Calcutta? Twenty-five years ago, when the ics canada, twin daughters of a childhood friend were 7 and I was 41, I told them that someday, when they were grown, I’d babysit for grading scale mcat their children. “When I’m old enough to have a baby, you’ll be old as a bone,” one of the girls said. Now they’re 32, and thesis schrijven I’m 66. Neither woman has children, so I’m not babysitting, sad to grading scale mcat say. Still, it never occurred to me then, or now, that 66 could be “old as a bone.’’

I don’t feel that way or look that way. (New Old Age commenters who may have seen my photo and disagree: I’m ready for you. Thesis! Was it a mistake not to mcat “fix’’ my face while there was still time? Bring it on.) So how to explain the deference of writing essays, total strangers lately to what they apparently perceive to be my doddering old age? The very title of this blog suggests the continual shifting of ground underneath all of essay grading scale, us of a certain age. Whatever we thought old age meant yesterday, it means something different today. Sixty when the for money, blog began, I’m now 66. Scale Mcat! That’s not a complaint but an indisputable fact, and with the years come my own idiosyncratic observations. Annotated Essay! Hard-wired for pessimism, one would think they would be gloomy.

Mostly they aren’t. I love Medicare, Social Security, a fixed-benefit pension, senior movie tickets and even the occasional person who offers me a seat on the bus. I love caring less about grading scale what other people think of me and more about download what I think of myself. I’m hoping all that eventually balances the hard reality that goals and dreams from my 20s and 30s that haven’t happened yet aren’t going to essay (Pulitzer Prizes, children and grandchildren, running a marathon). I particularly love (pleasure and pain not being mutually exclusive) how the rooms where I live, even my nightly dreams and the conversations in my head, are more and more populated by ghosts #8212; loved ones now dead but blessedly not “gone.” They are always welcome here, and ics canada resume why would I want it otherwise? “Gone#8221; is too final. To me, it means six feet under, a memorial yahrzeit candle on the anniversary of a death, the prayer for the dead chanted in grading scale mcat Hebrew during the period of mourning and on certain religious holidays. “Gone#8221; doesn’t mean that life goes on in a better place. Hero! To chase my ghosts away, to scale silence their voices #8212; and I’m not sure I could #8212; would be in effect a second death. Weken! I don’t want them gone. The very day I turned 66, 177 of you wished me well on a decision to take the essay, advice I’d been giving others: To leave a house I loved as one loves something animate, not merely a construction of clapboard and stone, before the essay, inevitable crisis that would make it too hard to live there and also too hard to leave under my own steam.

My darling house belongs to essay grading somebody else now, and a bit more than a month has passed since I bought an apartment that’s nice enough – better than I expected, really, given the price I could afford. With the new year here, the days at essay their shortest and essay grading mcat a couple of snowfalls behind me, the ics canada, time seems ripe to revisit this move. Did I do the right thing? You betcha. At the right moment? Sure I did. Essay Grading Scale! There are pluses and minuses, upsides and downsides. But I’d still argue that anyone who waits much longer than I did to align her living circumstances to the inexorable march of time is kidding herself. “Anything is possible” and “you never know’’ apply to much of life. But I’ve yet to writing meet anyone, except on a movie screen (or in a state of essay grading scale mcat, denial), who doesn’t get older every day. Absent a guarantee I’d have died in my sleep while still able to walk up and down the stairs, use a chain saw, shovel snow and drive a car – to name just a few of the realities of suburban homeownership – waiting even a few years longer would have been folly.

What has been taxing now, both physically and ics canada resume emotionally, would have become geometrically harder with each year and impossible, perhaps in an eye blink, with one stroke of bad luck. Tracking a Thief, Once You Know There Is One. The first time my father was ever robbed, decades ago, he was vacationing in mcat England with my mom. A certified public accountant, he had certain fiscal habits, one of which was to count and order his money, highest denomination bill to lowest, all facing the same way in his wallet. He did this constantly, usually at home after work. In England, though, he performed the tragic hero essay, rite in the hotel pub. Mcat! My mother was furious. For good reason. That night, while they slept, someone broke into their room and stole his wallet. The second time he was robbed, earlier this year, there was no break-in. The thief, according to the police, was a staff member at my father’s assisted living facility on the Jersey Shore, a regular presence in in twee weken his room.

Financial elder abuse statistics are not easy to pin down. Estimates have run as high as five million incidents annually, but no one knows for sure. Experts consider financial elder abuse grossly underreported, in large part because the criminals are often also family members. It took some time to recognize that someone was actually stealing from my father. Essay Mcat! In fact, the hardest part of nabbing this crook was ascertaining whether my dad was telling the truth. Updated, 9:33 a.m. | Sheila Solomon Klass died on weken March 26, 2014. She was 86. Grading Mcat! I am a legally blind octogenarian. I have wonderful adult children who often help me, but I can never accept their help gracefully.

It is a terrible thing to be a burden. They say I am not, but I know better. Perhaps many of you have parents like me. My own parents, working class Orthodox Jews in Brooklyn, were ordinary people trying hard, but beset by the Depression and bad luck. And I was their burden: a second daughter when they needed a son. My parents were survivors and ics canada their fears were real, and I do not mean to belittle them.

But they left me with a lifelong fear and loathing of dependence. One day while playing kick-the-can on the street, a boy knocked the sharp edge of the open lid right into my knee. My weeping mother carried me to the doctor, who sewed it up for fifty cents, and for essay grading years afterwards my mother upbraided me for schrijven in twee weken playing rough boys’ games and essay grading scale costing so much money. I was determined never again to be a burden. Now I am 86 and almost blind. I cannot read the bills that come in the mail nor sign my own checks. I must be escorted to medical appointments. My busy children are kind beyond measure, but I am uncomfortable in these situations. And being uncomfortable makes me sharp and essay unpleasant. Grading! When my children run my errands, sort my medications, buy me delicacies, accompany me on medical trips #8212; even do my laundry! #8212; I am somehow reduced to that Brooklyn girl whose struggling parents just couldn’t cope #8212; and it was her fault. My children point out that this thinking makes no sense.

But that there’s no logic to this is irrelevant. We are the sum of our years and thesis in twee experiences, and I never could add properly. My daughter the doctor is constantly on call for me, and I am unable to grading scale mcat accept it with any grace. She takes me every two months for a shot in my eye that controls my macular degeneration. Schrijven In Twee Weken! The shot always scares me. With the open enrollment period for switching Medicare Part D drug plans upon us, the Kaiser Family Foundation has released two reports that both question the design of the plans and essay grading mcat the inattention of 23 million of us who have them. Signing up for all the other parts of Medicare #8212; hospitalization, out-patient physician visits #8212; requires one effortless phone call. But Part D is a far more complicated hybrid, administered by private insurance companies on behalf of the download job resume, government. In 2013, my first year of scale mcat, eligibility, I had 1,031 plans to choose from, offered in various iterations by Humana, Caremark, AARP, Aetna and the like. Each year Part D enrollees are asked to reconsider their plan’s monthly premium, its annual deductible, its authorized pharmacies and its formulary of drugs. Branded or generic?

In what dosages? How many tablets per month? Which drugs are in which price tier? Almost nine in 10 of us don#8217;t bother to switch, Kaiser has found. As one of the wide majority who chose inertia, this comes as no surprise. I had assumed that during this window of opportunity, I would revisit my Part D choices and decide whether to switch. Resume! Picking a plan is more onerous than filing income taxes every year, but I am the sort of person who is diligent about such things. Except, it turns out, I’m not. I’m staying put.

I’d get in grading scale mcat big trouble if I failed to file tax returns. But within months of essays, doing the Part D dance, I knew I’d never do it again. Being lazy wasn’t a crime. If the essay grading mcat, prices went up, so be it; the price of everything goes up. Annotated Essay! The Aetna CVS/Pharmacy drug plan includes all my medications, allows me to pay extra to use my neighborhood pharmacy and, to my surprise, always has been accommodating when I need special permission to essay grading cover a drug not normally on the formulary. Aetna was likely to schrijven in twee be my dance partner for life. “Mrs. Feld, you were confused!” Loudly, theatrically #8212; and for the umpteenth time #8212; my mother mimics the doctor’s accusation. I’ve already heard the story. Essay Grading Mcat! My mother awoke at 3 a.m. asking for coffee, which no one would bring. Writing For Money In College! “How hard could it be to bring her some decaf?” the nurses’ aide says to me, shaking her head. Grading Scale! My mother apparently was awake for a quite while, fussing, repeatedly requesting coffee.

Then, on morning rounds, the phalanx of doctors trooped in and told her she’d been confused during the night. “They come in early, waking patients up, towering over them with a million questions, and they wonder why patients are confused?” the aide says. My mother undoubtedly was confused. Admitted two days earlier with pneumonia and brain masses (which would turn out to be the result of metastatic lung cancer), it was only her second night in the hospital, and her first there alone. I’d flown up and essays slept in her hospital room that first night. But the following evening she had seemed stable, so I’d left to shower and sleep at her house. “Oh Ma, what a terrible night!” I say. “I’m so sorry I left you.” As my parents aged, I often thought that the main reason I went to medical school was to help them negotiate the health care morass. Mcat! To explain, translate and assignment advise. Essay Grading Scale Mcat! But most importantly, to help protect. While I could not shield them from disease or eventual death, I could protect them from abuse, from grading overzealousness, from drowning in a sea of invasive procedures and brusque, pushy strangers. Having just failed miserably at that task, I seek out assignment my mother’s nurse. I tell her I want to scale mcat be called if ever my mom has a problem or feels confused. Ics Canada! “My cellphone is always on,” I say, “and I don’t mind being woken up.” Together we make a sign that we post above my mother’s bed: Please call for any reason, any time . My phone number is in grading oversized numerals.

My mother lives in Scottsdale, Ariz., so packing for a summer 90th birthday visit was easy: Loose linen clothes, a sheet of baking parchment, and a three-ounce bar of ics canada resume, Scharffen Berger bittersweet chocolate because my sister wasn’t sure she’d bought enough. Grading Scale! I was going to bake my mom a birthday cake #8212; the chocolate cake her mother-in-law was known for, called “bachelor bait cake” on the little index card I inherited in annotated a box of family memorabilia. I tormented myself, a little bit, over which cake in my repertoire was the right one; I liked this one because it had history. My mother’s response, in the particular dry tone with which she addresses any kind of excess: “Why would you go to all that trouble?” Given that the question came after she considered my hair (“You’re going to do something with it, aren’t you?”) and my dress (“You’re wearing something else to dinner”), I had started to wonder, too. Still, I drove my little rental car over to essay grading mcat my sister’s the day before mom’s birthday, while she was napping, to make the chocolate and espresso ganache that’s so much nicer than regular buttercream. And I was up early on the day itself so I could bake the cake before my mom was ready to in college go to the beauty salon. Working in an unfamiliar kitchen is hard, even if it belongs to someone whose first notion of “kitchen” was the same as mine. The oven mitts and essay grading scale measuring spoons and measuring cups aren’t where I first look; the mitts take five tries before I find them. My aspirations spike, well, into the crazy range: This cake doesn’t just have to be tasty. It has to be good enough to retire the question of why I’d go to all this trouble.

It has to be better than store-bought. It has to resume compensate for the fact that as far as my mom is essay concerned, we can’t do anything at all, not really. Oh sure, everybody pitches in. My sister, who lives 20 minutes from mom, does a ton of download, stuff, from the weekly dinner to shopping and the organizing of the closet and calendar and doctors’ visits, along with a daily phone call. Since I live farther away, I go for phone calls and increasingly frequent visits. Getting While the Getting Is Good. “Don’t wait for a crisis,” I told a friend whose elderly parents were struggling to care for themselves and a big Connecticut home. “Don’t wait for a crisis,” I told another friend, his mother recently widowed, lonely and essay grading scale overwhelmed, rattling around in a family house that was now her solo responsibility. “Don’t wait for a crisis,” I told a third friend, whose widowed father-in-law dropped his daily insulin regimen after his live-in girlfriend left him. “Don’t wait for a crisis,” I’ve told readers of tragic hero essay, “The New Old Age,” no doubt ad nauseam. Essay Scale Mcat! As just about everyone who has cared for an aging parent knows, getting old is both an essay, inexorable and maddeningly unpredictable forward march. Everything is essay grading scale mcat OK.

Then it’s not. Then it is again. What felt early on like a roller coaster becomes the thesis schrijven in twee, new normal. In between swerves and essay grading mcat plummets, it is almost possible to doze off. And planning for all possible eventualities is useless #8212; after the essential documents are in place, the annotated, family has talked openly and often about end-of-life wishes, they understand the difference between Medicare and scale mcat Medicaid, they know how much money is help available and essay scale mcat that it is probably not going to in twee be enough. Caregivers and scale their elderly charges both know, in a spoken or unspoken way, that on the horizon is The Crisis. That’s the one that demarcates “before” and “after.” Your parents are at home, say, when they really shouldn’t be, and don’t want to leave. The Crisis, when it appears, will be an awful milestone for them and probably so for resume you, the adult child. Scale Mcat! Then one day the roles shift and the crisis on the horizon could be yours.

Maybe your parents are dead or maybe not, but you’re now an old person. It happens even if you’re diligent about antioxidants and fish oil, exercise both body and annotated bibliography essay mind, have a cheery attitude, good genes and a wide social network. If you’re not there yet, you’ll have to essay grading scale take my word for it. Ics Canada! The blog is ending, but our coverage of caregiving and essay grading aging is not. The New Old Age will run as a twice-monthly column by Paula Span on nytimes.com and frequently in Science Times. Readmore#8230; At many nursing homes and assisted living places, a resident#8217;s passing may be hardly noted.Readmore#8230; Circumstances had changed, and for money in college all these documents needed to change, too.

Readmore#8230; Lifestyle modification prevents Type 2 diabetes even more effectively in the elderly than in essay grading mcat middle-aged patients.Readmore#8230; Julianne Moore gives a wonderful performance in schrijven in twee #8220;Still Alice,#8221; but the film skirts the scale, truth about dementia.Readmore#8230; Thanks to the marvels of writing, medical science, our parents are living longer than ever before. Grading Scale Mcat! Most will spend years dependent on others for ics canada resume the most basic needs. That burden falls to their baby boomer children. The New Old Age blog explored this unprecedented intergenerational challenge. Paula Span will continue to essay scale mcat write New Old Age columns twice monthly at nytimes.com/health and the conversation will continue on Twitter (@paula_span) and Facebook. A few medical institutions have opened their doors to patients’ own dogs and download cats.

Scheduling and grading scale medication errors plague patients with Parkinson's. Bibliography Essay! Dementia doesn't respect public stature. Essay Grading Scale! Is there life after caregiving, and if so what it is like? Useful information, tools, and links to essays for money in college organizations around the essay mcat, Web. Comprehensive reference and special reports about diseases, conditions, tests, injuries and surgeries.

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Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. The Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering is recognized as the official technical journal of the Canadian Society for essay grading mcat Civil Engineering. It is published monthly by Canadian Science Publishing, with articles in either English or French. It is intended the Journal will reflect and stimulate the download job resume, practice of civil engineering in essay grading scale Canada. Papers submitted for econometrics assignment publication are assessed by essay grading mcat, the refereeing system. The Journal will not publish papers that are clearly in the domain of the Canadian Geotechnical Journal or the Canadian Surveyor . describing and critically discussing the planning, design, economic analysis, construction, management, operation, and performance of significant engineering projects in Canada or elsewhere containing research results and methods of significance to the practice of civil engineering. Authors of specialized theoretical papers or papers that deal with specific topics without particular relevance to problems encountered by annotated, Canadian engineers may be advised to essay scale mcat refer their papers to a specialty journal describing the ics canada, body of scientific and essay grading scale mcat technical information forming the basis for tragic essay national codes and standards affecting the practice of civil engineering reviewing the essay grading mcat, state of the art in areas of current interest on the history of civil engineering. The Editorial Board is particularly interested in download job resume obtaining papers that describe significant civil engineering projects and grading scale mcat design processes. Ics Canada Resume. However, these papers should contain a unique contribution to the practice of civil engineering and not simply describe the application of planning and design principles that are used on a routine basis by essay, the civil engineering profession.

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Authors who so choose can have a pdf of the accepted version of their manuscript (prior to copy editing and page composition) loaded to the Journal’s Web site while their paper is undergoing the regular production process. To learn more about this, see our FAQ page on “Just-IN” manuscripts. Note that during the copy-editing process, it may be determined that additional Permission license forms are required and the corresponding author will be notified of this accordingly. Reprints and e-prints — If reprints are desired, the author must follow instructions for essay grading ordering from Rightslink forwarded with the galley proofs. Other customers can order reprints directly from the “Reprints and permissions” link for hero essay the published article on the Web site. The Journal does not provide free offprints or reprints, and these are not mailed until an order is placed through Rightslink. PDFs can be ordered directly from NRC Research Press for a fee. The ethical standards expected of scale mcat, authors, referees, and editors are described in the NRC Research Press Publication Policy (published on writing for money the Journal Web site at http://nrcresearchpress.com/page/about/policies/pub, or available upon request). The Editorial Board considers a paper not eligible for publication if most of the content of the paper ( i ) is under consideration for publication or is published in a journal, or book chapter; ( ii ) is under consideration for publication or is published in a conference proceedings or a government publication with a substantial circulation (distributed to 100 or more individuals over essay grading mcat a wide area). Thesis Schrijven In Twee Weken. Authors may post a copy of scale mcat, their submitted (pre-print) or accepted (post-print) manuscript on their own Web site, an institutional repository, a pre-print server, or their funding body’s designated archive.

We encourage authors to insert hyperlinks from preprints and post-prints to the final published version on the NRC Research Press Web site . Ics Canada Resume. Abstracts or extended abstracts related to conferences do not constitute prior publication. Extended abstracts are usually under 2000 words and do not include presentation of detailed tables and essay grading graphics of the results of the study. Plagiarism (publishing a substantial portion of one’s own previously published research results without acknowledgement of such republication or using work published by another author without attribution) is a serious offence. Job Resume. Because NRC Research Press is committed to combating plagiarism, it participates in CrossCheck. CrossCheck is a multi-publisher initiative to grading scale mcat screen content for originality using the econometrics assignment help, software iThenticate, which compares submitted manuscripts against the CrossCheck database of scholarly literature and detects instances of overlapping and essay scale mcat similar text. Tragic Hero. To find out more about CrossCheck visit http://www.crossref.org/crosscheck.html.

Conflict of essay mcat, interest and disclosure. The Editor recognizes that authors and peer reviewers may have real or perceived conflicts of econometrics assignment help, interest arising from intellectual, personal, or financial circumstances of their research. Submitted manuscripts should include full disclosure of funding sources for the research and the letter of essay grading scale, transmission should include an explanation of any real or perceived conflicts of interest that may arise during the download job resume, peer review process. Failure to disclose such conflicts may lead to essay scale mcat refusal of a submitted manuscript. Experiments involving humans or animals. All authors, regardless of their country of origin, who describe experiments on vertebrate animals are required to give assurance in econometrics the Materials and methods that the animals were cared for in accordance with the Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals (Vol. 1, 2nd ed., 1993, and Vol. Essay Mcat. 2, 1984, available from the Canadian Council on Animal Care, 190 O’Connor St, Suite 800, Ottawa, ON K2P 2R3, Canada, or on their Web site at www.ccac.ca) or the Guide for annotated bibliography the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (1996, published by National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20055, USA) and that their use of animals was reviewed and approved by the appropriate animal care review committee at the institution(s) where the scale, experiments were carried out. Authors who describe experiments on humans are required to provide assurance in ics canada the manuscript that appropriate standards for human experimentation have been followed, that the experiment has been reviewed and grading approved by their institution’s ethics review committee, and that the subjects have given informed consent prior to participating in the study.

Authors must certify that research involving endangered species was conducted in conformance with all applicable laws. Photos of people and photo manipulation. If a person pictured in a photo is identifiable, his or her permission is required to publish the photo. The person will be asked to sign a letter or form allowing NRC Research Press to publish the photo. Authors should be aware that the Journal considers digital images to be data. Bibliography. Hence, digital images submitted should contain the same data as the original image captured. Any manipulation using graphical software should be identified in the methods, including both the name of the scale, software and the techniques used to ics canada resume enhance or change the graphic in any way. Such a disclaimer ensures that the methods are repeatable and ensures the scale, scientific integrity of the work. The removal of artefacts or any (nonintegral) data held in the image is discouraged. The manuscript should be double-spaced , on paper 8.5 in. × 11 in. (or ISO A4). Econometrics. Each page should be numbered, beginning with the title page.

Lines in the manuscript must be numbered, continuously, beginning with the title. For material that is to grading scale mcat be set in italics, use an tragic hero essay, italic font; do not underline. Essay Grading Scale. Use capital letters only when the tragic hero essay, letters or words should appear in scale mcat capitals. The manuscript will include, in the following order, title page, abstract, main body of the text, acknowledgements, references, list of symbols, tables, list of ics canada, figure captions, and appendices. All tables and equations are required to be in a workable format that can be physically manipulated. Equations should be represented in true editable format, preferably using a math editor (MathType); however, authors should insert simple inline equations in text without using MathType. When inserting symbols from Word's Symbol palette, authors should use the essay scale, “normal text” or symbol fonts. Symbols should be inserted using MathType ONLY if they cannot be found in the Symbol palette under one of those two fonts. Tables and equations must not be submitted in .gif, .jpg, or other picture formats (neither within the manuscript nor as separate files). Tables must be in ics canada resume a workable table format (preferred), an Excel spreadsheet format, or typed into the text. The title page should contain the following. Scale. ( i ) The full title of the paper. ( ii ) Authors listed in the order in download which they are to appear at the head of the printed article. ( iii ) Affiliation and address for each author.

This should reflect the affiliation and address at the time of the study. Indicate current affiliations and addresses that differ from those in the by-line in essay grading scale a footnote. ( iv ) Name, address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address of the author responsible for correspondence. ( v ) Word count. Presenting a manuscript to maximize its online discoverability. Authors can structure their manuscript to maximize its online discoverability by following a few simple guidelines. In particular, the wording of the title and abstract is especially important, because these are freely available to all readers and are used by a wide variety of annotated essay, systems to find and retrieve content, such as search engines, indexers, and digital catalogs. Consider the following suggestions: — Include keywords in your abstract that are reflective of the paper. These should be included right in grading scale mcat the text of the abstract, and can be repeated if it makes sense to do so. When choosing keywords, consider what words you yourself would enter into a search box if you were to search for your work online. — Where possible and practical in the abstract, include synonyms for your keywords which laypersons would understand.

— Use your keywords in the body of the paper where appropriate. — Ensure that abstracts are complete, such that they include a clear definition of the problem, methods, and results. Both titles and abstracts provide information for assignment help contemporary alerting and information retrieval services , and should therefore be informative but brief. Titles are also the essay grading mcat, most heavily weighted element of a paper for online search engines and should therefore contain important descriptive phrases that relate to the topic. In compliance with a request from the Chemical Abstracts Service, the resume, Editors urge all authors to use full forenames rather than initials and (or) one forename. Authors are encouraged to include uniform resource locators (URLs) and digital object identifiers (DOIs) to enable readers to find material on the Web. URLs and DOIs for references cited should be placed after the reference in the reference list; other URLs and DOIs should be placed in context in the text. An abstract is required for every contribution and should contain accurate descriptive words that will draw the reader to the content.

Its content is scale, particularly important for alerting services, search engines , and for readers who scan the abstract to decide whether to download and read the rest of the paper. Writing In College. The abstract should be well written and essay grading mcat contain three to four descriptive keyword phrases that will draw the reader to the content. Because search engines look for assignment help duplication of terms, repeating keyword phrases in the title and abstract increases the chance that a paper will be found during an online search; care should be taken, however, because excessive repetition of a term can cause a search engine to reject a Web page. The abstract should state the academic rationale (purpose) of the work, the design and methods used in the study, key results and trends, and lastly implications and grading conclusions of your work. The abstract should not be more than 150 words (shorter for notes), and on a separate page. The concise abstract should present the paper content accurately and should supplement, not duplicate, the title in this respect. References should not be cited in the abstract. Key words should not exceed 10 and resume should be placed directly below the abstract.

Ideally, all key words used will be referenced in the Thesaurus of Engineering and Scientific Terms , published by the American Association of Engineering Societies, Washington, D.C. Authors are encouraged to submit a graphical abstract with their manuscripts. The purpose of essay mcat, a graphical abstract is to visually describe a concept or finding from the paper to entice readers and econometrics help encourage understanding of the main message of the paper. Mcat. The graphical abstract may consist of an illustration, diagram, equation, or other informative visual that serves to explain the subject of the article. Graphical abstracts appear online only. Footnotes to material in the text should not be used unless they are unavoidable, but their use is encouraged in tables. Thesis In Twee. Where used in the text, footnotes should be cited in grading scale mcat the manuscript by superscript Arabic numbers (except in resume the tables, see below) and should be numbered serially beginning with any that appear on the title page.

Each footnote should be typed on the manuscript page upon which the reference is made; footnotes should not be included in the list of references . References to nonrefereed documents (e.g., contract reports) must include the address where they can be obtained. Examples of types of references, including electronic references. The following bibliographic citations illustrate the punctuation, style, and abbreviations for references. Redwood, R.G., and Jain, A.K. 1992. Code provisions for scale seismic design for concentrically braced steel frames.

Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 19 (6): 1025–1031. Journal article available online only (with URL): van der Sanden, J.J., and Hoekman. D.H. 2005. Review of relationships between grey-tone co-occurrence, semivariance, and autocorrelation based image texture analysis approaches. Canadian Journal of tragic essay, Remote Sensing, 31 (3): 207–213. Available from http://pubs.casi.ca.nrc/doi/abs/10.5589/m05-008 [accessed 9 September 2005].

Journal article available online only (with DOI): van der Sanden, J.J., and Hoekman. D.H. 2005. Review of relationships between grey-tone co-occurrence, semivariance, and autocorrelation based image texture analysis approaches. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 31 (3): 207–213. doi:10.1139/rs03-011. Sanders, W.W., Jr., and Elleby, H.A. 1970. Distribution of wheel loads in highway bridges.

National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 83, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Williams, R.A. Essay Scale Mcat. 1987. Communication systems analysis and tragic hero design. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Healey, M.C.

1980. The ecology of juvenile salmon in Georgia Strait, British Columbia. Scale Mcat. In Salmonid ecosystems of the North Pacific. Bibliography. Edited by W.J. Essay Mcat. McNeil and D.C. Himsworth. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, Oreg. pp. 203–229. Hardin, B.O. 1978. The nature of download job resume, stress–strain behaviour for soils.

State-of-the-art report. In Proceedings of the Specialty Conference on essay Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics, Pasadena, Calif., 19–21 June 1978. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, pp. 3–90. Institutional publications and pamphlets:

Dzikowski, P.A., Kirby, G., Read, G., and Richards, W.G. 1984. The climate for agriculture in Atlantic Canada. Available from the Atlantic Advisory Committee on Agrometeorology, Halifax, N.S. Publ. ACA 84-2-500. Agdex No.

070. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Pollution Control Federation. Econometrics Help. 1975. Standard methods for scale mcat the examination of water and download wastewater. Essay Grading. 14th ed. Essay. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, D.C. Keller, C.P. 1987. The role of polysaccharidases in grading scale acid wall loosening of epidermal tissue from young Phaseolus vulgaris L. hypocotyls. M.Sc. thesis, Department of Botany, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.

Quinion, M.B. 1998. Citing online sources: advice on online citation formats. Available from worldwidewords.org/articles/citation.htm [cited 20 October 2005]. Tremblay, R. 1998.

Development of design spectra for long-duration ground motions from Cascadia subduction earthquakes. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 25 (6): 1078–1090. Available from http://nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/l98-028 [accessed 20 October 2005]. Tremblay, R. 1998. Development of design spectra for long-duration ground motions from Cascadia subduction earthquakes. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 25 (6): 1078–1090. doi:10.1139/L04-079. Tables must be typed on separate pages, placed after the for money in college, list of references, and essay mcat numbered using Arabic numerals in the order cited in the text. The title of the table should be a concise description of the content. Thesis Schrijven In Twee. Column headings should be brief, but may be amplified by footnotes.

Vertical rules should not be used. A copy of the Journal should be consulted to see how tables are set up and where the lines in them are placed. Footnotes in tables should be designated by symbols (in the order *, †, ‡, §, ll, ¶, #) or superscript lowercase italic letters. Essay. Descriptive material not designated by a footnote may be placed under a table as a Note . Numerous small tables should be avoided, and the number of tables should be kept to a minimum. Figure captions should be double-spaced and listed on a separate page and placed after the tables. Figures and tables used in an appendix should be numbered sequentially but separately from writing essays in college, those used in the main body of the paper, for example, Fig. A1, Table A1, etc. An appendix should have its independent list of symbols.

It is not the policy of the Journal to publish detailed printouts of computer program statements. Grading. Where the availability of these details enhances the usefulness of the paper, the resume, author should submit two copies of the mcat, program for deposit (see “Supplementary material”). Supplementary material (or data) consists of extra tables, figures (maps), detailed calculations, and ics canada datasets produced by the authors as part of grading scale, their research, but not essential for understanding or evaluating the paper, and not published with the article in hero the print edition of the journal. This material is never edited, converted, or scanned, and therefore will appear exactly as submitted. This is to prevent any errors from being inadvertently introduced during file manipulation or printing. Tables and figures should be numbered in mcat sequence separate from those published with the paper (e.g., Fig.

S1, Table S1) and all supplementary material should be referred to in the manuscript by footnotes. Essay. Supplementary material must be submitted with the article in electronic format. During Web submission (ScholarOne), relevant files should be attached under “Supplementary data”. Essay Scale Mcat. If an electronic copy is ics canada resume, provided, it will be made available in its native file format on the journal Web site (at no cost to readers). “With the exception of fixing errors in figures, NRC Research Press will not be making any editing changes or corrections to the figures submitted by the authors, including units or labels in graphs.

For the most part, figures will only be sized to fit appropriately within the layout of the manuscript.” Unless specifically noted, the following applies to all Journals. Manuscripts containing illustrations that ignore the following specifications will be returned to grading scale mcat the authors for appropriate revision prior to acceptance of the essay, paper. See the essay, electronic graphics list at thesis schrijven http://nrcresearchpress.com/page/authors/information/graphics for accepted file formats. Each figure or group of figures should be planned to fit, after appropriate reduction, into the area of grading, either one or two columns of text.

The maximum finished size of a one-column illustration is 8.6 cm × 23.7 cm (3.4 in. × 9.3 in.) and that of a two-column illustration is 18.2 cm × 23.7 cm (7.2 in. × 9.3 in.). Component figures must be combined into help, one figure. Essay Scale. The figures (including halftones) must be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals, and each one must be referred to in the econometrics assignment, text and must be self-explanatory. All terms, abbreviations, and symbols must correspond with those in the text. Essay Mcat. Only essential labelling should be used, with detailed information given in the caption.

If various degrees of grey shading are used, ensure that they are varied enough to differentiate among them or you may need to tragic hero essay also insert patterns over the greys (e.g., stippling, hatching). Submission of essay grading scale mcat, noncontinuous (screened) photographs and scanned illustrations is not acceptable, as moirés develop; a moiré is a noticeable, unwanted pattern generated by rescanning or rescreening an illustration that already contains a dot pattern.) All lines must be sufficiently thick (0.5 points minimum) to reproduce well, and all symbols, superscripts, subscripts, and decimal points must be in good proportion to resume the rest of the drawing and large enough to allow for any necessary reduction without loss of detail. Grading Scale. Avoid small open symbols; these tend to fill in thesis upon reproduction. The same font style and lettering sizes should be used for all figures of similar size in any one paper. Original recorder tracings of NMR , IR , ESR spectra , etc., are not acceptable for reproduction; they must be redrawn. Proper attribution must be given to the source of map data. Essay Mcat. Permission requirements can generally be found on download the website of the grading mcat, map source, and attribution information generally appears on annotated bibliography the bottom corner of the map. See attribution guidelines for Google Maps, for example, at https://www.google.ca/permissions/geoguidelines/attr-guide.html.

Please provide the attribution information in the figure caption if it is not clearly visible on the map. Maps must have very clear, bold patterns and must show longitudes and latitudes (or UTM coordinates) and a scale, to ensure proper identification of essay mcat, study locations. On maps of Quebec , the official name of municipalities must be used (e.g., Québec, Montréal, Clarke City) and writing in college physical features must be in grading scale mcat French (e.g., Lac Bienville) except for those that are considered of pan-Canadian significance (see list below). Areas of pan-Canadian significance have an official form in English and French (e.g., Atlantic Ocean and Océan Atlantique) and should appear in ics canada resume the language of the paper. Essay Grading. Quebec (the province) must also appear in the language of the ics canada, paper. Names that should be presented in the language of the paper on essay grading scale a map of Quebec are as follows: Lake Abitibi / Lac Abitibi Anticosti Island / Île d'Anticosti Atlantic Ocean / Océan Atlantique Chaleur Bay / Baie des Chaleurs Hudson Strait / Détroit d'Hudson James Bay / Baie James Laurentian Mountains / Les Laurentides Ottawa River / Rivière des Outaouais Quebec (province) / Québec Restigouche River / Rivière Ristigouche Saguenay River / Rivière Saguenay Saint John River / Rivière Saint-Jean St. Lawrence River / Fleuve Saint-Laurent Gulf of econometrics, St. Lawrence / Golfe du Saint-Laurent Lake Timiskaming / Lac Témiscamingue Ungava Bay / Baie d'Ungava.

Photographs should be continuous tone, of high quality, and with strong contrast. Only essential features should be shown. A photograph, or group of them, should be planned to fit into the area of either one or two columns of scale mcat, text with no further reduction . Electron micrographs or photomicrographs must include a scale bar directly on the illustration. Please do not use magnification. The best results will be obtained if the authors match the contrast and density of all figures arranged as a single plate.

Colour illustrations will be at the author’s expense. Thesis Weken. Authors must submit a Colour Authorization Form with approval of the author or institution who will pay for the colour reproduction. Further details on prices are available from the Journal Editorial Office . Colour illustrations should use contrasting colours rather than colours very close in hue, or differentiate similar colours by inserting patterns over the colours (e.g., stippling, hatching). When a figure is to appear in colour online and in black and white in essay scale mcat print, authors must supply only hero a single colour version of the illustration (rather than one colour version and one black-and-white version). The figure caption should provide a clear explanation of the figure whether the grading mcat, figure is being viewed in the online or print version of the Journal (for example, instead of “the red and blue symbols”, write “the red circles and blue squares”). Structures and schemes should be placed on separate pages (not within the text). Download. Use of a computer drawing program such as ChemDraw or ChemWindows is essay scale mcat, highly recommended. Single-width bold and broken lines are preferred to wedges for stereochemical notation; 12-pt Helvetica font should be used for atom labels. Graphical abstracts are published as part of the Table of Contents (applies to CJC only). The graphical abstract may consist of a small structural diagram, equation, or other informative drawing that serves to illustrate the subject of the article. Authors should note that the maximum allowable size of the final reproduction is 40 mm high by 85 mm wide without text (except necessary labels) and annotated should plan accordingly.

The graphical abstract must be submitted in an electronic format. Preparation of scale mcat, electronic illustration files. NRC Research Press prefers the assignment, submission of illustrations, figures, and other artwork (such as multimedia) for accepted manuscripts in an electronic format and will use these electronic files whenever possible to essay grading scale ensure accuracy, clarity, and the highest level of detail. Windows or Macintosh versions of True Type or Type 1 fonts should be used. Do not use bitmap or nonstandard fonts . All figures should be submitted at the desired published size. In College. For figures with several parts (e.g., a, b, c, d, etc.) created using the grading, same software application, assemble them into one file rather than sending several files. Remember that the help, more complex your artwork becomes, the greater the possibility for problems at essay scale output time. Avoid complicated textures and shadings, especially in vector illustration programs; this increases the chance for a poor-quality final product. Bitmap (raster) files the proper resolution should be used when submitting bitmap artwork. The minimum requirements for resolution are 600 dpi for help line art, 1200 dpi for fine lines (line art with fine lines or shading), 300 dpi for essay mcat halftones and colour, and 600 dpi for combinations (halftones with lettering outside the photo area). All colour files submitted must be as CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, and annotated essay black).

These colours are used in full-colour commercial printing. RGB graphics (red, green, and grading blue; colours specifically used to produce an image on schrijven in twee a monitor) will not print correctly. Vector files are image files produced using elements such as lines and shapes. Typically these files are used for line drawings. Bitmaps inside vector files Bitmaps can be imported into vector/draw applications only for essay the purpose of adding and overlaying information, lines, text, etc. Bitmaps should not be resized, cropped, rotated, or otherwise manipulated after importing. The Journal allows authors to incorporate audio and video clips into their paper; these are published in the online version of the Journal, adding a dimension to the paper that cannot be achieved in the printed version.

For submission guidelines and accepted formats, see the List of Accepted Graphic Files at http://nrcresearchpress.com/page/authors/information/graphics . How to comply with funding agencies’ open access requirements. Are you required by your funding agency to make your research articles open access? Or do you wish to make your articles freely available after publication? Please visit this page to essays for money in college review your options and for further information. CSP established a partnership with TSpace, University of Toronto Libraries‘ free and essay mcat secure research repository. Through this partnership we are able to provide, to interested authors, free automatic deposit of their accepted manuscript into the TSpace repository thus meeting the new Tri-agency OA requirements.Learn more here. http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/page/authors/services/online-repository.

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