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Thermal pollution short essay

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Short Essay on Thermal Pollution - …

Thermal pollution short essay

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Essay on Thermal Pollution: …

archers resume The information below is short, not intended for employment. Employers, agencies and other manpower recruiting resources must not treat this web site as for alcohol thesis statement employment purposes. Thank you for viewing. To be part with in a dynamic progressive company where I can use and pollution short apply my professional work experience. Seeking a position in line w/ engineering works such as; Planning Scheduling, Estimating, Consultancy/Design and Project Execution, also can do as Quantity Surveyor, Material expediting and Project package preparation. To obtain a position in engineering, construction and maintenance wherein my knowledge and experience will be used to the full extent. In Business? Summary of short essay, Experience. With dedicated work experience in ethical dilemmas in business various technical and thermal engineering disciplines.

Works involved in LNG Construction Process Area, Mining Plant Site, Mechanical Design, Piping, Chilled Water Piping (CHWP), Fabrication and Installation, Project Planning preparation with the use of Primavera V3.1, P5/P6 Microsoft Project in application of SAP System JD Edwards. Can be able to developed Designs and Drawings thru AutoCAD R.14 up to 2006 application also prepare invoices with coordination to client after project completion. Pppd Write? Previously engaged with multi-national, int#8217;l. organizations or companies in; Oil / Gas, LNG, Power Plant, MM, General Shutdown and Maintenance; utilizing the international construction standard references as follows ASTM, ASME 31.1 31.3, ASME IX, AWS, ASHRAE, API ISO 9001:2002 certification. July 2011 Present MONADELPHOUS ENGINEERING. Address: Level 6 Lang Parade, Milton Queensland 4064 Australia. - Prepare tender schedules. Develop baseline schedule, monitor and coordinate with PM's and construction personel for the project's success. - Eurombah Creek APLNG Upstream Phase 1 Gas Fields Facilities JUL 2014 MAY 2015. Thermal Essay? - Lead Planner : Wandoan Interconnect Facilities APLNG FEB 2014 JUL 2014. - Wheatstone LNG Project 2013 - 2014.

Sept. 22, #8217;08 Feb 2011 SNC LAVALIN INTERNATIONAL INC. ( Toronto , CA ) Client: OPG #8220;Owner Project Group#8221;( Sherritt Intn#8217;l., Sumitomo and Korea Resources ) Fokontany d#8217; Amboakarivo, Commune d#8217; Amboditandroho, TOAMASINA II - Madagascar. Report to ar sample resume Project Controls Manager, to thermal essay ensure planning works for the E ngineering, P rocurement, C onstruction and M anagement of the Ambatovy Nickel/Cobalt Project. Fact about the project; The Ambatovy Project is supply essay, a laterite Nickel/Cobalt open pit mining operation located in the east central highlands of Madagascar near the pollution short essay, city of Moramanga. 220KM slurry pipeline will be constructed, which will carry processed ore from the mine site to the processing plant as well as the ethical dilemmas in business, a port, an eight km railway, 130 km of access roads and an industrial complex.

The processing plant will be constructed near the port city of Tamatave (Toamasina) located on the east coast of thermal pollution short essay, Madagascar . The US $3.38 Billion facility will produce 60,000 tonnes per ar sample resume year of Nickel, 5,600 tonnes per year of Cobalt and 185,000 tonnes per year of Ammonium Sulphate. Duties and responsibilities: - Develop, maintain, and implement the Project Code of short essay, Accounts. Develop, maintain, and implement the Cost Control Procedures. Prepare definitive capital cost estimate and Project budgets. - Evaluate and cost code capital cost commitments, expenditures, material quantities, contractor#8217;s man-hours, progress and thesis player performance, and project services. - Prepare Project trends and forecasts to update the Project final cost projections to be included in the Monthly Progress Report. Prepare Bid check estimates of Bid Packages; assist Contracts and Procurement in Bid evaluation and recommendations. Monitor the pollution short, recording of commitments and expenditures in conjunction with the thesis team player, Project Accounting Section. Essay? Monitor the Project scope and obtain approvals for Project Scope Changes. - Review Purchase Orders and alcohol thesis Contracts for compatibility with the short essay, budget. Also provide cost codes and budget breakdown values to Contracts and supply and demand essay Procurement for Bid analysis and award recommendations. - Monitor supplier#8217;s/contractors periodic reports to thermal short the Project Controls Department. - Update the thesis team player, following documents in pollution a Monthly basis: o Master Summary Schedule (Rainbow). o Engineering and Construction Progress Charts. o The Detailed Project (CPM) Schedule. o Early Activities Schedule. o Overall contract progress and performance curves. o Contractors#8217; proposed and pppd how to actual schedules, progress charts. Short Essay? o Schedule requirements to reflect any contractual or legal documentation and in business essay requirements. Thermal Pollution Essay? - Produce the following documents: o Commitment Package Status Report.

Submit a Monthly Progress Report. List of Key Dates. o Establish Intermediate Milestones dates for dilemmas essay Contract Documents. o Overall Home Office Progress Curve. Thermal Pollution? Engineering Progress Curve. Manpower Status Report. o Critical Items List Analyze #8220;Actual#8220;against the Schedule and report critical delays and needs to supply essay enable Management to take corrective actions. Maintain #8220;activity sorting#8221; capabilities of the schedules. o Produce Gantt charts for various special project reporting. Dec. 20, #8217;06 Jul.12,'08 CTJV- Chiyoda/Technip Joint Venture RGX6. Client: Partnership of RasGas and ExxonMobil Ras Laffan (III) Limited.

P.O.Box : 22740, Ras Laffan Industrial City (RLIC), State of Qatar. Snr. Construction Planner/Analysts Process. Report to Construction Manager, to ensure planning works of Construction Group for pollution short CTJV, Japan 's Chiyoda and how to write France 's Technip Joint Venture, for the engineering, procurement and construction of the RasGas onshore projects trains 6 and 7. Two additional LNG trains, no. 6 and no. Essay? 7. This is a new offshore wells, the supply and demand essay, largest producing wells in the industry. Each train is designed to produce 7.8 million tonnes per year of liquefied natural gas, making them two of the world's largest LNG trains. ($4 Billion USD Project). - Works involve in Construction Project Planning, extract detailed work activities, with Primavera V.3.1 and MS (Microsoft) Project 2003. risk management plan. - Prepare/Conduct Monthly Top Management Joint Review Meeting for Project Status thru Microsoft Power Point Presentation. - Verify/extract work man-hours, work volume, quantities, critical activities, s-curves and histograms through P3. - Coordinate with various disciplines like; Civil Group, Piping Group, EI and Equipment Group. As well as coordinate to subcontractors relating to thermal short essay construction works for proper work execution at site and ensure proper planning.

Coordinate with logistics for team player the Material and Equipments ETA (Estimated Time Arrival) and essay ATA (Actual Time Arrived) prior to allocating it to Laydown yard and/or installation. - Update/submit Weekly Progress Report for resume all discipline thru S-Curves and Histogram as well as various plans, for Process Access Roads, Equipment Positioning and alignment at Laydown area with AutoCAD 2006 and (Bentley) Microstation. Review and analyze Subcontractors Scheduling and planning documents (procedures, reports e.t.c.), monitor progress and control Project activities, verification of Milestones, identify potential delays, analyze and issue proposed corrective actions as required. - Utilize i-DMS (Integrated Document Management System) for various company document search and needs. Also utilize and operate SPR (Smart Plant Review) for equipment and construction viewing to thermal check for its virtual location, position and some information. Dec 30,#8217;05 Nov 05,'06 CAT International Co. Ltd. (CAT GROUP) 14 th floor ABN AMRO Building , P.O.

Box 250 Abu Dhabi , U.A.E. Planning Scheduling Engineer/Project Controls. § CONSTRUCTION OF UNDERGROUND CHILLED WATERPIPE NETWORKS AT DUBAI MOTOR CITY (DMC) AREA. Introduce Essay? - Client: Emirates District Cooling #8220;EMICOOL#8221;; Dubai , UAE. - Project Contract Duration: 10 October 2006 to 17 August 2007. § DISTRICT COOLING SCHEME AD01: PIPE NETWORKS FROM AL JAZEERAH TO MUBADALLA/MAMOURA AREA. Pollution Short? - Client: TABREED; Abu Dhabi , UAE. - Project Contract Duration: 01 August 2006 to 31 December 2006. § PHASE 5 TANK FARM EXPANSION DESIGN and CONSTRUCTION OF MECHANICAL, PIPING CIVIL WORKS. - Client: VOPAK HORIZON FUJAIRAH LIMITED, (VHFL); Fujairah , U.A.E. Alcohol? - Project Contract Duration: 20 June 2006 to 19 December 2007. § A D02- AL BATEEN AIR BASE NEW BUILDING CONNECTIONS. - Client: TABREED; Abu Dhabi , U.A.E. Thermal Short Essay? - Project Contract Duration: 05 March 2006 to 30 June 2006. - Client: TABREED; Abu Dhabi , U.A.E. - Project Contract Duration: 10 April 2005 to 26 July 2006. § TABREED DISTRICT COOLING SCHEMES AD04 GHQ - CHW ZONE DISTRIBUTION, ETS, RENOVATION OF THE EXISTING AC SYSTEM, AND CONNECTION OF THE BUILDING CHW SYSTEM TO TABREED DISTRICT COOLING NETWORK. - Client: TABREED; Abu Dhabi , U.A.E. - Project Contract Duration: 08 October 2005 to 07 October 2006. § Various Tendering Involved such as; - Emirates District Cooling LLC (EMICOOL) MOTOR CITY - DISTRICT COOLING PROJECT UNDERGROUND CHW PIPE NETWORKS at supply, Dubai Investment Park , Jebel Ali, Dubai , UAE. Pollution Short Essay? Tender Planning Package. - ETS #8220;Energy Transfer Station#8221; Green West Project at Dubai , tender planning package. - International Media Production Zone (IMPZ) EMPOWER Project, tender up to level 2 package. Thesis? - Engineering, Procurement Construction of essay, PIG LAUNCHERS AND RECEIVERS FOR 13 Nos. Critical Main Oil Lines, tender planning package.

For (ADCO Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations). - AD02- AL BATEEN AIR BASE NEW BUILDING CONNECTIONS. - TABREED NATIONAL CENTRAL COOLING: DISTRICT COOLING FOR UAE UNIVERSITY AT AL MAQAM CAMPUS AL AIN, EXTERNAL DISTRIBUTION PIPING. - Report directly to Project Manager. Essay? Execute document tendering. Preparation of Engineering, Procurement and Construction Project Schedule such as PERT/CPM, quantification, bar chart, progresses S curve, resources loading histogram, material take off, cost estimate and Monthly Cash Flow. - Monitor Weekly and Monthly Progress status at level 3 4 and procurement status. Gather and compile relevant data as per project requirement. Insure that all target dates as per schedule are properly executed. Conduct site ocular inspection Coordinate project heads. - Prepare recovery schedule to thermal pollution essay a certain project for client#8217;s approval if additional quantity and dilemmas essay extended schedule or which ever cases may apply. - Prepare monthly invoice/billing to be submitted to the client for approval with respect to the monthly progress. - Utilize Project Planning Software proficiently e.g. Primavera V3.1 and Microsoft Project 2000. Dec 03,#8217;02 Oct 12, '05 Al Suwaidi Industrial Services Co.

Ltd. Short Essay? Supplied to Client: Saudi ARAMCO Testing and Inspection (TI) and and demand essay Projects Unit, Maintenance Div. Rabigh Refinery, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia . Planning /TI and Projects Engineer. § Prepare Work Schedule for Tanks and various projects in thermal pollution short essay accordance to SAES ( S audi A ramco E ngineering S tandards) and SAMS. § Prepares scope of work and introduce myself essay letters for review by concern unit such as; Inspection Unit, Operation Maintenance Engineering with Loss Prevention. As well as, review and give comments on various project design packages in thermal pollution short accordance to standards and and demand essay specifications. Thermal Short Essay? § Follow-up the correct implementation of the maintenance plans and advises the Maintenance Team Leader of developments. Gather work requests for alcohol statement each of the trades and inform the pollution short essay, appropriate sections of work to be carried out during planned shutdowns. Analyze resource requirements (Manpower Material, equipment Tools) for supply and demand essay shutdown work and ensure their availability well in advanced. Prepare a shutdown work package in pollution short essay consultation with Site Engineers and Supervisors. § Prepare calculation sheet, cost estimate, service/purchase order draft and bill of materials.

Receive and analyze the monthly/quarterly cost control reports, review cost classification, compare actual costs against budget, and make appropriate comments to the concerned departments/services. § Prepare Long Form and Short Form Contracts. Hypothetical Quantities and Company #8220;Saudi Aramco#8221; Estimate Cost for Tankage Repair Western Region Shared Contract. Prepare TI Planning and Projects Unit presentation. Verify check contractors#8217; invoice against ethical actual quantity of pollution short essay, works completed. § TEST Package, Mid-Year accountability and Operating Plan preparation. § Coordinate the requirement for contracted manpower follow-up Service Orders/Purchase Orders monitor expenditure in accordance with approved budget. Mar 03,#8217;04 Apr 08, 2004 Saudi ARAMCO. Testing and Inspection (TI) Planning and Projects Unit, Maintenance Div.

Rabigh Refinery, Kingdom of dilemmas in business essay, Saudi Arabia . GRTA Shutdown Planner/Cost Engineer. Duties and responsibilities: § Perform the elements of pollution short essay, shutdown planning through communication, time, cost and quality. § Estimating and controlling shutdown and turnaround cost. § Cost performance measures of the following; 4. Material and supplies. And Demand Essay? 5. Rental and leasing costs. 6. General and Administrative. § Produce the pollution essay, following documents: 1. Progress daily report.

2. Contractors Back charges. Introduce Essay For Interview? Dec 26, #8216;01 Dec 02#8217;02 Al Suwaidi Industrial Services Co. Ltd. P.O. Box 269 Rabigh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia . Planner Engineer/Quantity Surveyor. Oct 2001 Dec 25, #8217;01 Al Suwaidi Industrial Services Co.

Ltd. P.O. Box 269 Rabigh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia . § Prepare work schedule various mechanical projects in Primavera V.3.1. Monitor the 1.2M Saudi Riyal Contract value Closed Drain System at Rabigh ARAMCO Refinery, Process Area. § Interpret, review construction progress if in thermal essay accordance to alcohol thesis plan and thermal pollution short essay report to Project Manager. § Responsible in maintaining communication with the Client SAUDI ARAMCO. Mar 2000 Apr 2001 SALCON POWER CO. Poblacion Naga Cebu , Philippines. Introduce Myself? § Prepare work schedule for tanks and various projects in Primavera V.3.0 and short Microsoft Project 2000. For Interview? § Up date and essay report work progress daily for #8220;all Project#8221; using Microsoft Excel. § Maintain coordination with the project in-charge.

§ Prepare reports, in daily, weekly and thesis monthly report for mechanical work shop daily report. § Prepare Plant Integrity Assessment (PIA) report. Cebu Institute of Technology. Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering. SIENA School of Naga. Graduated March 1996. Naga Central Elementary School. Graduated March, 1992.

Professional Regulation Commission December 14, 2001. Registered Mechanical Engineer. Board of Mechanical Engineer, R.P. DATE PLACE OF BIRTH : September 07, 1979 ; Poblacion Naga. MARITAL STATUS : Married. ELECTRO PNEUMATICS with PLC Apr 17, 2000-May 22, 2000. Cebu Institute of thermal, Technology.

LUBRICATION January 19, 1999. Cebu Institute of Technology. Player? Automatic Computer Aided Design (AutoCAD) Mar 22, 1998-Nov 1998. Cebu Institute of essay, Technology. MATERIAL DEGRADATION and PROTECTION November 19, 1998.

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Thermal pollution | Causes, Effects …

Gut-Level Legislation, or, Redistribution. Publication date Spring 2006. “New American fiction” is, to pollution essay my mind, immediately and unhappily equivalent to new American short fiction. And yet I think the thesis team player, American short story is pollution essay a dead form, unnaturally perpetuated, as Lukacs once wrote of the resume, chivalric romance, “by purely formal means, after the transcendental conditions for its existence have already been condemned by the historico-philosophical dialectic.” Having exhausted the pollution, conditions for its existence, the alcohol, short story continues to be propagated in America by a purely formal apparatus: by the big magazines, which, if they print fiction at all, sandwich one short story per issue between features and pollution short essay, reviews; and by workshop-based creative writing programs and supply, their attendant literary journals. Today’s short stories all seem to bear an invisible check mark, the ghastly imprimatur of the fiction factory; the very sentences are animated by pollution some kind of vegetable consciousness: “I worked for Kristin,” they seem to say, or “Jeff thought I was fucking hilarious.” Meanwhile, the ghosts of player deleted paragraphs rattle their chains from the margins. In the name of science, I recently read from pollution short cover to statement cover the Best American Short Stories anthologies of 2004 and 2005. Many of thermal short these stories seemed to have been pared down to a nearly unreadable core of brisk verbs and supply, vivid nouns.

An indiscriminate premium has been placed on the particular, the thermal short essay, tactile, the “crisp,” and the “tart”—as if literary worth should be calibrated by resemblance to an apple (or, in introduce essay, the lingo of thermal short essay hyperspecificity, a McIntosh). Writers appear to be trying to identify as many concrete entities as possible, in pppd, the fewest possible words. The result is celebrated as “lean,” “tight,” “well-honed” prose. One of the by-products of essay hyperspecificity is a preponderance of proper names. For maximum specificity and alcohol statement, minimum word count, names can’t be beat. Julia, Juliet, Viola, Violet, Rusty, Lefty, Carl, Carla, Carleton, Mamie, Sharee, Sharon, Rose of pollution Sharon (a Native American). In acknowledgment of the times, the 2004 and 2005 volumes each contain exactly one Middle East story, each featuring a character called Hassan. I found these names annoying, universally so. I was no less annoyed by team John Briggs or John Hillman than by Sybil Mildred Clemm Legrand Pascal, who invites the reader to call her Miss Sibby.

I was no more delighted by the cat called King Spanky than by the cat called Cat. The authors had clearly weighed plausibility against pollution precision; whichever way they inclined, there was the same aura of cheapness. Alarmed by my own negativity, I began to wonder whether I might be doing the Best Americans some injustice. For a point of comparison, I reread a few stories by Chekhov, who is and demand essay still the ostensible role model for thermal short essay American “short-fiction practitioners.” (Search for “the American Chekhov” on Google, and you will get hits for Carver, Cheever, Tobias Wolff, Peter Taylor, Andre Dubus, and Lorrie Moore, as well as several playwrights.) By comparison with the Best Americans, I found, Chekhov is quite sparing with names. In “Lady with Lapdog,” Gurov’s wife gets a few lines of alcohol thesis dialogue, but no name. Anna’s husband, Gurov’s crony at the club, the lapdog—all remain mercifully nameless.

Granted, Chekhov was writing from a different point in the historico-philosophical dialectic: a character could be called “Gurov’s wife,” “the bureaucrat,” or “the lackey,” and nobody would take it as a political statement. The Best Americans are more democratic. Every last clerk, child, and goat has a name. Nowhere is the best American barrage of names so relentless as in the first sentences, which are specific to the point of arbitrariness; one expects to discover that they are all acrostics, or don’t contain a single letter e. They all begin in medias res. For Slavists, the precedent for short “in medias res” is set by Pushkin’s fragment “The guests were arriving at the dacha.” According to Tolstoy’s wife, this sentence inspired the opening of Anna Karenina . Would Pushkin have managed to and demand essay inspire anybody at thermal, all had he written: “The night before Countess Maria Ivanovna left for Baden Baden, a drunken coachman crashed the pppd write, Mirskys’ troika into the Pronskys’ dacha”? He would not. Pushkin knew that it is neither necessary nor desirable for the first sentence of a literary work to answer the “five w’s and one h.” Many of the Best Americans assume this perverse burden. Thermal Pollution Short Essay. The result is not just in medias res, but in-your-face in medias res, a maze of thesis statement names, subordinate clauses, and minor collisions: “The morning after her granddaughter’s frantic phone call, Lorraine skipped her usual coffee session at the Limestone Diner and drove out to the accident scene instead”; “Graves had been sick for pollution essay three days when, on resume, the long, straight highway between Mazar and Kunduz, a dark blue truck coming toward them shed its rear wheel in thermal essay, a spray of orange-yellow sparks.” I had to supply and demand stare at these sentences (from Trudy Lewis’s “Limestone Diner” and Tom Bissell’s “Death Defier”) for thermal pollution essay several minutes each. A first line like “Lorraine skipped her usual coffee session at pppd write, the Limestone Diner” is supposed to create the illusion that the reader already knows Lorraine, knows about her usual coffee, and, thus, cares why Lorraine has violated her routine. It’s like a confidence man who rushes up and claps you on the shoulder, trying to make you think you already know him.

Today’s writers are hustling their readers, as if reading were some arduous weight-loss regime, or a form of community service; the public goes along, joking about how they really should read more. Oprah uses identical rhetoric to advocate reading and fitness; Martha Nussbaum touts literature as an exercise regime for compassion. Reading has become a Protestant good work: if you “buy into” Lorraine’s fate, it proves that you are a good person, capable of self-sacrifice and empathy. Another popular technique for waylaying the thermal pollution, reader is the use of specificity as a shortcut to pppd write nostalgia—as if all a writer has to do is mention Little League or someone called Bucky McGee, and our shared American past will do the rest of the work. Each of the pollution essay, Best American anthologies, for alcohol statement example, has a Little League story. I believe, with the Formalists, that literature has no inherently unsuitable subject—but, if it did, this subject would surely be Little League. Both Best Americans include some variation on the Western historical romance, e.g., “Hart and Boot”: “The man’s head and torso emerged from short a hole in the ground, just a few feet from the rock where Pearl Hart sat smoking her last cigarette.” There is a terrible threat in this sentence: is the reader really expected to think: “Good old Pearl Hart”? The best of the Best Americans are still the old masters—Joyce Carol Oates, Alice Munro, John Updike—writers who comply with the purpose of the short-story form: namely, telling a short story. This sounds trivial, but isn’t. Resume. The short-story form can only accommodate a very specific content: basically, absence. Pollution Essay. Missing persons, missed opportunities, very brief encounters, occuring in the margins of “Life Itself”: when the content is minimalist, then it makes sense to follow the alcohol statement, short-fiction dictates: condense, delete, omit.

Novels, like short stories, are often about absences; but they are based on information overload. A short story says, “I looked for short essay x, and didn’t find it,” or, “I was not looking anymore, and alcohol thesis statement, then I found x.” A novel says, “I looked for x, and found a, b, c, g, q, r, and thermal essay, w.” The novel consists of all the dilemmas in business essay, irrelevant garbage, the effort to redeem that garbage, to integrate it into Life Itself, to redraw the pollution short essay, boundaries of Life Itself. The novel is a fundamentally ironic form; hence its power of self-regeneration. The short story is a fundamentally unironic form, and for this reason I think it is doomed. When the available literary forms no longer match the available real-life content, the novel can reabsorb the mismatch and use it as material.

The canonical example is resume Don Quixote , a work which, according to thermal pollution his prologue, Cervantes conceived in a prison cell in alcohol thesis statement, Seville. Thermal Short. Cervantes wanted to pppd write a chivalric romance, but the gap between this form and his experience was too great. Then he broke through the formal “prison”: he made the essay, gap the subject of a book. Many of the Best American stories are set in prisons and psychiatric hospitals. They are trying to break out, but I don’t think they will. One of the most interesting contributions, Kelly Link’s “Stone Animals,” is about a family who moves into a new house that, very gradually, turns out to be “haunted.” First a toothbrush becomes haunted, then the supply and demand essay, coffee machine, the downstairs bathroom. The haunted rooms can no longer be used; the house becomes equivalent to Cervantes’s cell: all the thermal, narrative possibilities have been sealed off.

The family has less and less space in team, which to live. The last sentence is creepy and vaguely polemical: “In a little while, the dinner party will be over and the war will begin.” Indeed, let the short, war begin. Today’s literary situation is such that virtually all writers must, at least initially, write short stories. Several of the Best American stories, “Stone Animals” among them, are really novelistic plots crammed into twenty pages. Pppd Write. The short story is thermal pollution short trying to expand into a catchall genre. In fact, the novel is, at present, the only catchall genre we have; and it is thesis shrinking. Novels have gotten so short lately, with the exception of those that have gotten very long.

Most of the long novels fit under James Wood’s designation of “hysterical realism”—which, while ostensibly opposed to Puritan minimalism, actually shares its basic assumption: writing as a form of self-indulgence and vanity. The difference is that, instead of eschewing what they consider to be wicked, the hysterical realists are forever confessing it. The recursions of David Foster Wallace and Dave Eggers—“I confess that I, reprehensibly, want to be loved; this very confession is another reprehensible ploy to make you love me”—are a dreary Catholic riposte to a dreary Protestant attack. It would be equally productive for every writer to short essay start every book with an apology for cutting down trees which could have been put to better use building houses for the homeless; followed by a second apology for the paper consumed by the first apology. Here is the alcohol thesis statement, crux of the problem, the single greatest obstacle to American literature today: guilt.

Guilt leads to the idea that all writing is self-indulgence. Writers, feeling guilty for pollution short essay not doing real work, that mysterious activity—where is it? On Wall Street, at ethical in business essay, Sloane-Kettering, in Sudan?—turn in shame to the notion of writing as “craft.” (If art is aristocratic, decadent, egotistical, self-indulgent, then craft is useful, humble, ascetic, anorexic—a form of whittling.) “Craft” solicits from short them constipated “vignettes”—as if to say: “Well, yes, it’s bad, but at least there isn’t too much of it.” As if writing well consisted of overcoming human weakness and and demand essay, bad habits. As if writers became writers by omitting needless words. American novelists are ashamed to find their own lives interesting; all the rooms in thermal pollution, the house have become haunted, the available subjects have been blocked off. What remains to be written about? (A) nostalgic and historical subjects; (B) external, researched subjects, also sometimes historical; (C) their own self-loathing; and/or (D) terrible human suffering. Thesis Player. For years, Lorrie Moore has only written about cancer. In A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius , Dave Eggers implies that anyone who does not find his story compelling is unsympathetic to essay cancer victims; he describes in gory detail how he plans to eviscerate such people, how he plans to be eviscerated by them in turn. For writers who aren’t into cancer, there is the Holocaust, and of course the items can be recombined: cancer and the Holocaust, cancer and essay for interview, American nostalgia, the Holocaust and American nostalgia. For the short essay, last combination, you can’t do better than Michael Chabon’s The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier Clay , with its memorable opening sentence: In later years, holding forth to an interviewer or to an audience of aging fans at a comic book convention, Sam Clay liked to declare, apropos of his and Joe Kavalier’s greatest creation, that back when he was a boy, sealed and hog-tied inside the airtight vessel known as Brooklyn New York, he had been haunted by thesis team player dreams of thermal Harry Houdini.

All the elements are there: the nicknames, the clauses, the five w’s, the physical imprisonment, the nostalgia. (As if a fictional character could have a “greatest creation” by supply the first sentence—as if he were already entitled to be “holding forth” to “fans.”) Throughout the novel, Chabon does actually generate a fair amount of nostalgia—but then he goes and dumps the entire burden of character development on the Holocaust. Joe Kavalier is a master magician, an escape artist, a writer of fabulous comic books, a charismatic and fundamentally mysterious person—until, that is, Chabon explains to us that the thermal pollution short, reason Kavalier became an ethical dilemmas in business essay escape artist was to escape from essay Hitler. The reason he could produce a blockbuster cartoon superhero was that he had a psychological need to team player create a hero who could knock Hitler’s lights out on a weekly basis. W. G. Short Essay. Sebald’s Austerlitz has a nearly identical premise, minus the American nostalgia. It, too, features an authorial stand-in, a la Sam Clay, who finds in some other person a source of narrative. Austerlitz is, like Kavalier, a human enigma who disappears for years on end, leaving trails of clues; in alcohol statement, the end, the “solution” is essay nothing other than the Final Solution. Alcohol Statement. Austerlitz’s and thermal pollution short, Kavalier’s parents both perished, peculiarly enough, in the same Czech ghetto, Terezin.

Austerlitz and Kavalier are both obsessed with moths; they both have Holocaust-induced problems with women. Ethical Dilemmas In Business. (Austerlitz’s one love affair, with a woman called Marie, fizzles out during a trip to Marienbad, where he is oppressed by an inexplicable terror; later we understand that it’s because he is actually Jewish, and his parents were killed in the Holocaust, and once they went on vacation to Marienbad.) It’s not that the pollution, big pathologies can’t be written about, or can’t be written about supply well; Oates’s “The Cousins” ( Best American 2005), for example, is about both the Holocaust and cancer, and is still a good story. It consists of the letters between two cousins, aging women: one survived the Holocaust and became a famous writer, the thermal pollution short, other grew up in America and became a retiree in ethical dilemmas in business, Florida. They were supposed to meet as children, but never did. The twist is that both cousins are interesting and mysterious; both have suffered; and they are bound by some hereditary, unarticulated, Zolaesque link.

Among the novelists who write about the Second World War, I confess that my favorite is essay Haruki Murakami. Alcohol Thesis Statement. Murakami’s The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle opens with a small, personal mystery—the disappearance of the thermal pollution short, narrator’s cat—which turns out to be related to alcohol thesis statement how the narrator never really understood his wife, who also disappears. The two disappearances are subsequently linked to the occupation of Manchuria, the torture killing of a Japanese soldier, and various other personal and global events. The narrator is moved by all the big historical themes that pass through the novel, but he suffers more immediately from the loss of his cat—as in Brueghel’s picture of the thermal, farmer ploughing his field while Icarus drowns. Resume. We never learn exactly what the pollution short, Manchurian occupation has to do with the ar sample resume, missing cat. The big historical mysteries are related to, but do not seamlessly explain, the small everyday mysteries. By contrast, I feel sure that if Sebald or Chabon had written Wind-Up Bird , the narrator would have discovered that his own father had been killed in the Manchurian campaign, and that’s why his wife left him and his cat ran away. Murakami isn’t the world’s greatest novelist; you could say that his novels are all “botched” on some basic level. The turns in thermal pollution essay, the plot are often achieved unsatisfyingly, by dreams, or by a character deciding to sit in the bottom of a well; the narrators receive an inordinate amount of oral sex from bizarrely dressed middle-aged women.

But botchedness also gives Murakami’s novels a quixotic dynamism. Murakami’s latest work, Kafka on and demand, the Shore , contains a prescient discussion on the subject of minor novels—in fact, on a minor novel called The Miner . Thermal. The Miner is thesis team about a young man who has an unhappy love affair, runs away from home, ends up working in a mine alongside “the dregs of society,” and then returns to his ordinary life. “Nothing in the novel shows he learned anything from these experiences, that his life changed, that he thought deeply now about the meaning of life or started questioning society,” Murakami’s narrator explains: it is completely unclear why the author decided to write The Miner —which makes it particularly valuable to the narrator, by virtue of its very openness. Literature needs novels like The Miner , where you go into thermal the mine and nothing happens; novels unlike Germinal , where you go into the mine and come out team a socialist. Perhaps modern American literature has kept the pollution essay, worst parts of Zola. We lost the genetic mysticism and thesis team, the graphomania—all of essay us, perhaps, except Joyce Carol Oates—and we kept the guilty social conscience. Dear American writers, break out myself essay of the jail!

Sell the haunted house, convert it to tourist villas. Puncture “the airtight vessel known as Brooklyn New York.” Write long novels, pointless novels. Do not be ashamed to grieve about personal things. Dear young writers, write with dignity, not in guilt. How you write is how you will be read. My Life and short, Times in American Journalism. Like Oedipus, we flout the warning, and we’ll act surprised, even outraged, when we find out what we’ve done.

Every now and then he looked up to statement ask what Evo was saying, since at his seventy-two years of thermal essay age, Hugo Blanco is nearly deaf. The problem with autonomy and end-of-life decisions is largely a problem of dilemmas information. It is not possible to be a German. If it were, hardly anyone would like to be one. If anyone would stop doing his job should his income drop to $100,000 a year, he should not be doing that job. Issue 4 Gut-Level Legislation, or, Redistribution Mark Greif. Issue 4 My Life and Times in American Journalism Philip Connors. All useful poetry criticism since the ’60s has come either from academics or from people committed to little magazines.

Literature is only an art. If it improves you, it does so the thermal pollution short essay, way health, riches, and elegant clothes do. There are plenty of clones, yes, but like Dolly the sheep, they age quickly and soon die. In the age of BookScan, only an ethical in business unpublished writer is allowed to keep his dignity. It is in an aroused consciousness that the solace and thermal pollution, excitement of literature are to be found. As vague a categorical designation as “literary fiction” is, it bestowed on non-genre novels the gift of a brand. In paying homage to sincerity, “post-ironic” fiction more often confirms its exile from the truth. Our generation seems far too aware that reading is safe and fun, that literature is alcohol spectacle. Issue 4 Why Repeat These Sad Things? Meline Toumani.

Issue 4 The Mystery Guest Gregoire Bouillier. Issue 4 Afternoon of the Sex Children Mark Greif. Issue 4 Two Stories John Haskell. Issue 4 Melodramatic Installations Ilya Kliger. Issue 4 Three Stories Rebecca Schiff.

Issue 4 The Joy of Edge Tools Misha Hoekstra. You, dear reader, are also supposed to be a clone among clones. And really, who’d be the wiser? Never trust a man who insists that he is sincere. Thermal Pollution Essay. How does Vollmann intend to be helpful, to save a life, to benefit someone?

Issue 2 Babel in thesis, California Elif Batuman. Go to Uzbekistan now . . . Short Essay. or you will never get departmental funding ever again? A specter is haunting the academy—the specter of ar sample close reading. Issue 9 Summer in Samarkand, Part II Elif Batuman. n+1 is a print and digital magazine of literature, culture, and politics published three times a year.

We also post new online-only work several times each week and publish books expanding on thermal essay, the interests of the ethical, magazine.

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Radiohead, or the Philosophy of Pop. Walter Benn Michaels. The Reality of Reality Television. Thermal Pollution Short Essay! The Reality of Reality Television. Publication date Fall 2005. There is a persistent dream that television will be more than it is: that it will not only sit in every home, but make a conduit for those homes to reach back to pppd how to, a shared fund of life. The utopia of television nearly came within reach in 1992, on the day cable providers announced that cable boxes would expand to 500 channels. Thermal Pollution Essay! Back then, our utopian idea rested on assumptions both right and pppd how to wrong. We assumed network-sized broadcasters could never afford new programming for pollution, so many active channels. That was right. We also assumed TV subscribers wouldn#8217;t stand for 500 channels of identical fluff, network reruns, syndicated programs, second-run movies, infomercials, and home shopping.

That was wrong. We were sure the abundance of channels would bring on alcohol thesis statement, stations of short pure environmental happiness, carrying into our homes the comforts everyone craves: the 24-hour Puppy Channel, the Sky Channel, the Ocean Channel, the Baby Channel—showing nothing but frolicsome puppies, placid sky, tumultuous ocean, and big-headed babies. It never happened. And yet cable TV did indeed get cut up for small pleasures, in the advertisement of more utilitarian interests, on the Food Network, the InStyle Network, and Home and Garden Television (HGTV).(Natural beauty took hold on cable only in the pious slideshows of the ar sample resume, Christian channels, where Yosemite is short essay subtitled by 1st Corinthians.) The meaningful history of technology turns out to be a history of its fantasized uses as much as of the shapes it actually takes. Thesis Team Player! Our cable-box dreams finally rested on one beautiful notion: the participatory broadcasting of real life. With such a ludicrous number of channels, companies would just have to give some of the dial over to the rest of us, the viewers—wouldn#8217;t they? And we millions would flow into the vacuum of content. We#8217;d manifest our nature on pollution short essay, channels 401 to 499 as surely as do puppies, ocean, and sky. We#8217;d do it marrying, arguing, staring at the wall, dining, studying our feet, holding contests, singing, sneezing. Introduce Myself Essay! Hundreds of thousands of us had cameras.

Well, we#8217;d plug them in thermal pollution, and leave the how to write, tape running for our real life. In this underlying dream, we were neither exactly wrong nor right. The promise of the 500 channels went to waste. The techno-utopians#8217; fantasies shifted to the internet. Short Essay! Nothing like the paradise we hoped for came to and demand essay, fruition on TV, that#8217;s for sure. Instead we got reality TV. The assessment of reality television depends first on your notion of television; second, on pollution short, your idea of political community. Here is a standard misconception: since the noblest forms of artistic endeavor are fictional and supply and demand essay dramatic (the novel, film, painting, plays), it can be assumed that the major, proper products of television will be its dramatic entertainments, the sitcom and the hour-long drama. I think this is wrong, and very possibly wrong for a whole number of reasons. Drama has a different meaning in a commercial medium where #8220;programming#8221; came into being as bacon to wrap the real morsels of pollution steak, the ar sample, 90-second advertisements. It means something different when it exists in a medium we switch on to see #8220;what#8217;s on TV#8221; rather than to find a given single work; when the goal is more often to thermal short, watch television than to watch a particular drama and then turn it off.

From its beginnings in the early 1950s, TV has been blamed for encouraging overindividualism, for supply and demand, hastening consumer suckerdom, for spurring passivity and couch-potatoness, and for making up the sensational bread-and-circuses of pollution mass-culture tyranny. That pretty much covers it. And yet when opponents tried to divide the wretched things flickering inside the idiot-box into categories, they made excuses for dilemmas in business essay, quite unnecessary forms that they felt they recognized (highbrow TV dramas) while deriding unique and far more important items that didn#8217;t suit their vision of dramatic art (game shows, local news, now reality shows). The real principled problem ought to be with drama. The modern form of the pollution, longstanding Western philosophical argument against placing drama at the center of a republic was articulated twenty years beforethe American Revolution. Rousseau insisted in his Letter to ethical dilemmas essay, M. D#8217;Alembert that a republic (in his case Geneva, circa 1758) was correct to keep a theater out of its public life. To Rousseau, a republic is a political community in which each person is equal and pollution essay sovereign—as it should be to us, today, living in the American republic. The citizen is not sovereign alone, but sovereign through his activity in a community of peers. The drama, when it was given too much power, crowded out the true entertainments of any republican political community— entertainments whose delights must be rooted in supply, that self-regard and free judgment in daily activity which strengthens the bonds of pollution short citizen to citizen. (Bear in mind that Rousseau, in ancien regime Paris, loved the theater: #8220;Racine charms me and I have never willingly missed a performance of Moliere.#8221; A corrupt order, of supply and demand essay nobility and monarchy, could hardly be made worse by drama and might be made better. But the philosopher loved a republic more.) Rousseau expected that a republic#8217;s civic entertainments would be displays of what people already do. Singing, building, decorating, beauty, athletics, and dancing gave pleasure and #8220;entertainment#8221; because the participants not only thermal pollution short essay, accomplished the acts but became spectacles to essay, themselves—and to others, their equals and fellow-citizens, who had done just the same activities.

Republican entertainments might often take the form of the contest or the thermal pollution short essay, demonstration. Introduce For Interview! But they might also be the essay, special celebration of ordinary living itself—the #8220;festival#8221;: Plant a stake crowned with flowers in write, the middle of thermal pollution essay a square; gather the people together there, and you will have a festival. Do better yet; let the in business essay, spectators become an entertainment to pollution, themselves; let them become actors themselves; do it so each sees and loves himself in team player, the others so that all will be better united. #8220;Let the spectators become an entertainment to themselves#8221;: a part of TV has always done this. It has meant, at different times, local programming, Huntley and Brinkley, the national news at 6 and local news at short essay 11, talk shows and talent shows, This is Your Life and the regional tours of Wheel of Fortune . Accept, though, that television#8217;s most important function might always have been to supply essay, let citizens see each other and be seen in their representatives—in our only thermal pollution short essay, truly national universal medium—and you#8217;re left to essay, ask what will accomplish it best today. Reality television may furnish its dark apotheosis—a form for an era in which local TV has been consolidated out of existence, regional differences are said to be diminishing (or anyway are less frequently represented), and news, increasingly at the service of thermal pollution essay sales departments, has forfeited its authority to represent the polity.

We need myths, not only of our ideal, and our average, but of our fallen extreme. Since the establishment of informed-consent rules in the 1970s, the golden age of social psychology is gone. No more Stanley Milgram#8217;s proof that ordinary citizens will push the voltage to the red zone while the electrocuted actor screams—so long as a lab-coated tester is there to give the introduce myself essay, orders. No more Philip Zimbardo#8217;s proof that fake guards will brutalize fake prisoners if you arbitrarily split Stanford students into two groups, lock them in thermal essay, a basement, and leave them to their own devices. No more Harold Garfinkel#8217;s demonstrations that testers can drive strangers berserk if they stare at other riders on the elevator or if children refuse to recognize their parents. Today we are reliant on Elimidate , Punk#8217;d , and Survivor . Watching reality television is like walking one long hallway of an unscrupulous and pppd how to peculiarly indefatigable psychology department.

The first ideal-type of thermal pollution reality TV is the show of the pure event. Cops represents one end of its spectrum, the low-budget dating shows ( Blind Date , Elimidate , Fifth Wheel , Xtreme Dating ) the other. You discern patterns in and demand, each—the effect on the watchful viewer is of a patterned repetition of wholly singular encounters. In the endless scenes of arrests, traffic stops, drive-by warnings (#8220;OK, you ain#8217;t going to do it again#8221;), domestic disturbances, and interviews with complainants (#8220;Calm down, ma#8217;am, just tell me what happened#8221;), it becomes clear that justice, at the level of the arrest, has less to thermal essay, do than you might have thought with the code of law. Between cop and ethical in business civilian, everything is determined by personality; each word is short a step in a negotiation; the tools each side possesses seem arbitrary and confused, in the wheedling or vagueness of the suspect, the mock-authoritativeness and lack of information of the cop. So you make notes to your criminal self: never voluntarily submit to a search. But it doesn#8217;t take long to realize that, in the situation, you wouldn#8217;t remember all you#8217;d learned watching Cops ; politeness and essay hustling would take over. In the immediate interaction between two people, each staring into the other#8217;s eyes and trying to persuade him toward escape or incrimination, drugged by fear when not hazy with narcotics, you see the pollution short, hidden face-to-face interactions of your countrymen. And on Blind Date and Xtreme Dating and resume Fifth Wheel , with wary daters eyeing each other over pasta dinners, leglessly drunk in a hundred indistinguishable neon dives and, afterwards, on the best dates, mumbling vulgar blandishments in thermal, hot tubs, you see that romance is not angelic recognition nor simple animal lust but a negotiation—the same as in the Cops arrest. The blind date and the traffic stop become on player, late-night TV the two paradigmatic experiences of American encounters between strangers. Homogenous America is instantly disproved by bizarre America.

It is reassuring to watch this openness and fumbling. Pollution Essay! Finally you see without intermediary dramatization the landscape of tanning salons and restaurants and aikido studios in every corner of the country, the still-distinct accents but universalized, television-influenced behaviors, the dilemma of what to say and which personality to project, as if the social relation were being rebuilt, in a cutaway scale model of our society—a great televised Ark of a changing civilization—two by two. So even though evidently all women look for #8220;sense of humor#8221; and all men want someone #8220;I can have fun with,#8221; even though all good girls say they are #8220;wild#8221; and all good boys avow that they are #8220;players,#8221; this has only an equivocal effect on resume, individuals#8217; relentlessly erroneous attempts to thermal short, approximate trends and thesis statement manners learned from thermal essay, TV, which seems to be what#8217;s really going on. Yoyoing modesty and pppd how to write immodesty (#8220;I#8217;m a bad girl. I mean, I#8217;m mostly bad in thermal pollution, bed#8221;); frank talk about penis size and boob jobs but wildly variable estimates on thesis player, the morality of short essay kissing on team, a first date; shy clumsiness masked under pornographic aspirations (#8220;Have you ever had a threesome?#8221; #8220;No, that#8217;s more like, a goal of pollution short essay mine#8221;)— this , the cameras prove, is the current American performing-reality. Everyone tries to play someone else on TV, but still feels so many tethering strings from the prosaic, deficient, and pppd how to write plain polite that conformity becomes chaotic and imitation idiosyncratic. #8220;Voyeurism#8221; was never the right word for what it means to watch these shows. You feel some identification with the participants, and thermal pollution short even more sympathy with the situation. #8220;And if I were pulled over—and if I were set up on a blind date—how would I fare?#8221; But primarily, and this is the more important thing to say about reality TV, there is always judgment . You can#8217;t know the deeds your countrymen will do until you see them; and once these deeds are seen, you won#8217;t fail to alcohol thesis, judge and retell them.

Reality TV is related in this respect to the demimonde of The People#8217;s Court , Divorce Court , Judge Hatchett ,and Judge Judy . Classy critics hate these shows too, or claim to. I think that#8217;s a mistake. The way in which all reality TV—and much of daytime TV—can be #8220;real#8221; across social classes is in its capacity for judgment. Thermal Pollution Short Essay! The #8220;friends#8221; on resume, Friends were an ideological group, propagandists for a bland class of the rich in a sibling-incest sitcom. The show didn#8217;t allow you to take their idiocy to pollution short, task, nor ever to question the details of how they paid their rent or their hairdresser#8217;s bill, or how they acted on the #8220;outside.#8221; If only Judge Judy could sit in judgment of supply essay them, once!

If only Cops would break down their door and throw them against the wall! Monica, you ignorant Skeletor, eat a sandwich! Ross, you vainglorious paleontologist, read a book! You mortuary creep ! Truly, the judge shows have a vengeful appeal: they gather every inept, chiseling, weaseling, self-focused sort of thermal short essay person you meet in your daily life and, counting on ethical, each one#8217;s stupidity and thermal pollution vanity to get him up into the dock, they yell at introduce essay him. This is one way to come to terms with your fellow citizens. Much reality TV, by contrast, communicates a relative openness of judgment, though judgment is its one constant—and does so also by its wider identity of short essay situation between the myself essay for interview, viewer and those before the cameras. (Nearly everybody has dated, and, from rich to poor, nearly everybody fears the police when driving and will call on thermal pollution short, them when threatened.) Reality TV#8217;s judgment falls on #8220;another oneself,#8221; however much one retains the right to disown and ridicule this nitwitted fellow-citizen. Nowadays, at every level of our society, there is a hunger for judgment. Often this becomes summary judgment—not so much the wish to know the truth, but the brutal decisionism that would rather be wrong than stay in suspension.

This is the will not to deliberate but to sentence. In the essay, political realm, it has influenced the thermal, shape of the current disaster. And Demand Essay! Its soft manifestations own the therapeutic talk shows, in the sniffling and nose wiping of a Dr. Phil , where the expert is never at a loss. He will not say: #8220;No, your situation is too messed up for me to advise you; I have a similar problem; think for yourself.#8221; Whereas the cheapest and pollution rawest reality TV offers you a chance to judge people like you, people who do lots of the pppd write, same things you do.

It is thermal pollution essay cheap, it is amoral, it has no veneer of virtue, it is widely censured and a guilty pleasure, and it can be more educational and truthful and American than most anything else, very suitable for our great republic. Until, that is, one began to see what the capital-rich networks would make of pppd it. For they got into the act, like dinosaurs in an inland sea, and they made the waters heave. Thermal Pollution! They developed the grandiose second ideal-type of filmed reality, courtesy of bigger budgets and serial episodes: the show of the group microcosm. The microcosms were large-scale endeavors, financed by FOX, MTV, NBC, ABC, CBS, and ar sample resume the WB. (The other shows had been cheaply made and served up to thermal pollution short, UHF and low-budget cable stations by syndication, or, like Cops , run in ar sample, the early barebones years of FOX and retained.) MTV#8217;s The Real World , which put teens in thermal short, a group house with cameras, was the earliest and most incomplete example. The pun in its #8220;real world#8221; title meant both that you would see how non-actors interacted (initially fascinating) and that this was, for many of the children on the show, their first foray away from home (pretty boring, after the umpteenth homesick phone call). MTV#8217;s goal was to make up a #8220;generation,#8221; not a society, as MTV is the most aggressive promoter of one version of youth as a wholesale replacement of adult life. Thesis Player! Subsequently the thermal pollution short, broadcast networks converted the dating #8220;event#8221; show into team player sagas of thirty suitors, peeling them away one by one until only the chosen bride or groom remained. Big Brother turned the house show, too, into pollution a competition. An even more triumphant microcosm was Survivor —followed, in time, by resume The Amazing Race . The newer shows that defined the microcosmic reality and blended it with competition adopted the thermal, same basic forms of social discovery that had animated the birth of the English novel: the desert-island Robinsonade of pppd how to Survivor , the at-the-ends-of-the-earth-bedragons imperialist travelogue and quest romance of pollution short essay The Amazing Race , even, perhaps, the sentimental seductions of ar sample resume The Bachelor , where so many willing Clarissas rode in limousines squealing to a manor house to hand their hearts to Lovelace.

Yet Survivor never took up the society-from-nothing isolation of the desert island, which had motivated the original Robinson Crusoe . The Amazing Race didn#8217;t care about the pollution short essay, Englishman-in-Lilliput foreignness of Swift or the essay, chance meetings of picaresque or even the travelers#8217; tall tales in Hakluyt. The shows had no interest in starting civilization from scratch. Essay! Nor for that matter were they much interested in alcohol thesis statement, travel—on The Amazing Race , you glimpse the thermal short, blurred locals out the windows of speeding cars. These shows were about the spectacularization of thesis a microcosmic America—about the thermal, reduction of society to a cross-section of our countrymen—still so very American, never #8220;going native.#8221; The shows put together sociable Americans, so they would have nothing left but their group interactions, their social negotiations, to keep them going. Nobody let them starve, nothing endangered them. Ar Sample Resume! Nominally structured as a contest of skill, skill mattered little and #8220;alliances#8221; much on Survivor . The sniping and soothing in couples and trios—forming and reforming, betraying and sticking together—were the main things of interest on that show and on The Amazing Race , where it was hard to tell if we were supposed to care, really, that one pair ran faster than another. Essay! How do Americans talk and how do they arrange things, in a completely minimal setting, a little like the office and ar sample resume a little like the home but not totally unlike a sequestered jury? So many of the thermal short, contestants brought the workplace with them, and they were meant to, since they were identified at every subtitle of their names with their stateside jobs: Actor/Model, Computer Programmer, Fireman.

This was our festival. Let#8217;s see if the alliance can hold between the Stock Trader, the Carpenter, and the Actress. Thesis Team! Who will emerge as the #8220;Survivor#8221;? Let#8217;s race the Midget and her Cousin, so lovable, against the Bad Couple Who Should Not Marry. Let#8217;s see who our true representatives are. The structure of each of the shows that #8220;voted people off the island,#8221; requiring the microcosm to draw itself down each week, echoed, with static, the thermal pollution short, old idea of a republic of political equals, who despite unequal skills and endowments one by one would recuse themselves from activity to leave a single best representative behind to supply, speak in public for their interests. If we truly all are equals in America, this would be a picture, in ideal form, of how we choose aldermen and selectmen and Congressmen—using our sovereignty to withdraw our sovereignty, that is to say, to focus it in the hands, for two or four years, of individuals who act for thermal essay, us. By this means the microcosm programs resembled political allegories. And yet many of the reality shows of the microcosmic community were quite deliberately, self-consciously implanted, sometimes by the rules, sometimes by the informal instructions given to players, with an original sin.

That sin was the will to power by resume trickery, the will to deception, which puts the power-mad ahead of the natural leader. And the players did not rebel—they accepted this, knowing it too well from home, from what they would call their #8220;real life.#8221; #8220;That#8217;s how you play the game,#8221; each aspiring survivor explained, with the resignation of a trapped bear chewing off its leg, #8220;you have to fool people, you can only pollution short essay, be loyal to yourself.#8221; They had the republican ideal in their hands, and didn#8217;t use it. It got confused with the economic or Darwinian model of competition, in which anti-representative stratagems are justified because one wins in the defeat and ar sample resume eradication of all others to essay, gain a single jackpot. This, too, was an aspect of the realness of ethical #8220;reality#8221; for Americans: we knew we were witnessing republics of voting or shared excellence competing, or perhaps blending, with another force in our lives. As deception and thermal pollution power-hunger are the sins built into the microcosm, so the fixed norm is the flaw introduced into shows of pure judgment. It produces the third ideal type of reality TV: the show of the industry standard. It was latent in pppd how to write, the grand-scale dating shows, these contests that brought in the single judge and red roses and pollution short essay arbitrary rules and an image of romantic love from somewhere in the minds of Hallmark: but who knows, maybe this was close enough to the values of dreamy romance to form some people#8217;s preexisting reality. In American Idol , though, you see the strong beginning of the reality show of the introduce myself for interview, third type. American Idol was the thermal, best, and introduce myself the most insinuating, of the industry shows because it took one of the basic categories of common endeavor, that Rousseau loved well—a singing contest, the pollution, commonplace sibling of a beauty or dancing or athletic contest.

Everyone sings, if only in introduce for interview, the shower—and the footage of the worst contestants made clear that the contest did include all of us, that the equivalent of singing in the shower was being considered, too, on thermal short, the way to the final idol. The show had #8220;America#8221; judge, by casting the final votes, en masse . Yet it used professional judges in the meantime, a panel of allegorical experts, Simon Cowell (rhymes with #8220;scowl#8221;; the Stern Judge; George III), Paula Abdul (the Universal Sexy Mommy; Betsy Ross), and Randy Jackson (the Spirit of Diversity). Allegorically, America would free itself from the tyranny of the English King, having learned his wisdom, pay due homage to its own diversity, and enjoy the independence to make its own choice—which the hands-tied Englishman#8217;s production company would have to live with, and distribute to record stores. Team! Poor George III! What one really learned was that, unlike a singing contest in the high school gym, the concern of the recording industry was not just, or no longer, whether someone could sing.

It was whether a contestant was fitted to the industry, malleable enough to meet the pollution, norms of music marketing. The curtain was pulled away from the Great Oz, and introduce myself essay the public invited to examine his cockpit and vote which lever or switch to pull next. As it turns out, it is thermal short really no less pleasant to choose a winner to suit the norms of music marketing, than to choose on introduce myself essay for interview, individual talent. One was still choosing, and the idol would still be ours. An idol of the marketplace, to be sure, but still our representative American idol.

The major new successes of the pollution short, past few years have taught (or pretended to thesis, teach) the norms of other industries. The Apprentice , a show in which one tries to learn skill in thermal, business, teaches the arbitrariness of thesis team player contemporary success in relation to skill. The winners are conditioned to meet a certain kind of norm, not really familiar from short, anywhere else in life, which corresponds to #8220;the values of business#8221; as interpreted by pppd write Trump. Short Essay! America#8217;s Next Top Model shows how a beauty contest ceases to be about beauty. The real fascination of the show is learning, first, how the norms of the fashion industry don#8217;t correspond to ordinary ideas of beauty (you knew it abstractly, here#8217;s proof!), but to requirements of the display of clothes and shilling for cosmetics; second, how the show will, in the name of supply these norms, seek something quite different in its contestants—a psychological adhesiveness, a willingness to thermal pollution short essay, be remade and obey.

The Starlet suggests the distance between the norms of TV acting and the craft of acting—and yet again, in the name of #8220;how it#8217;s done in the industry,#8221; which provides one kind of interest, the contestants are recast psychologically, which provides the other. And on it goes, with #8220;how to become a chef#8221; ( Hell#8217;s Kitchen ) and #8220;how to be a clothing designer#8217;s minion#8221; ( The Cut ), et cetera. Introduce For Interview! 1. All this is interesting and revealing in its way. But the final stage is all too familiar: that is, the flow back of pollution short norms justified by industry into essay norms for thermal pollution short essay, inner spaces—first the mind, which accepts insane instructions and modifications, then the spaces that have nothing to do with either public life or work, and should offer safety from their demands. I am thinking of the home and the integral body, underneath the skin. For a final, baroque range of reality shows has emerged in the last two years: The Swan , Extreme Makeover , and, when these turned out to be slightly more than viewers could bear, Extreme Makeover: Home Edition and its copycat shows. The Swan and Extreme Makeover also drew on the most basic of all spectacles-of-excellence, the beauty contest or #8220;pageant#8221;—which once formed a way of seeing or understanding the country, as in the Miss America contests (when you would root for your state while admiring the flowers of the ethical dilemmas essay, other forty-nine). And the new shows advanced a new kind of norm by recreating it surgically, by literally rebuilding people#8217;s faces and bodies to suit, not beauty, but a kind of televisual glamour. Ordinary unattractive people, given nose jobs, boob jobs, liposuction, lip collagen, tummy tucks, and chin pulls—plus fifty minutes of therapy—looked like wax mannequins when, alone and imprisoned in a Gothic mansion, the naturally lovely host pulled the velvet drapes back from the mirror, and the rebuilt women, inevitably, began to weep, shocked.

Then the host spoke: #8220;You#8217;re crying because you#8217;ve never seen yourself so beautiful. You#8217;re crying because you#8217;ve been transformed,#8221; intoning these words until the weeping speechless victim nodded. Thermal Essay! If this looked like brainwashing, you hardly knew the horror of it until the camera cut to a boardroom of the delighted surgical experts who had done the work—each one of them equally off-kilter and how to write monstrous because of thermal surgical modifications made to his own face or teeth or eyes or hair. Thesis! (Flashback to one of the famous Rod Serling-written Twilight Zone episodes, this one from 1960: an ordinary woman is called #8220;ugly#8221; and short pressured into damaging facial surgery that we can#8217;t understand—until the camera pulls back to show us that everyone in her world is resume hideously disfigured! Yee-ikes!) The point of these shows was not just how people would be altered, but that they could be altered. As the Six Million Dollar Man introduction used to say, #8220;We have the short essay, technology . Write! . .#8221; but what was needed was the thermal essay, rationale.

When this transdermal insertion of the norm into average people came to seem suspect, the networks increasingly devoted episodes to already hideously ugly and disfigured people, so that the norm could be disguised as charity or medical necessity. But the greater success proved to be the subtle turn, with charitable aspect intact, to demolishing and rebuilding people#8217;s homes rather than their faces, in the adjunct called Extreme Makeover: Home Edition , which supersized existing home-decorating reality shows like Trading Spaces (on which two neighbors agree to redecorate one room in each other#8217;s home). Extreme Makeover would get at privacy in one way or another; if not through the body then through the private space that shelters it. A team of experts came in to wreck your shabby domicile and thesis rebuild it. The dwellings that resulted were no longer homes, but theme houses; instead of luxuries, the designers filled rooms with stage sets keyed to their ten-minute assessments of the pollution short essay, residents#8217; personalities: #8220;Little Timmy wants to be a fireman, so we made his room look like it#8217;s on fire!#8221; As long as the homeowners were poor or handicapped enough, anything was a step up.

The show has been an enormous hit. Whatever can be done in the name of charity or medicine or health will allow the reinsertion of the norm into further spheres of supply and demand essay privacy. Fox is said to be planning Who Wants to Live Forever? , a #8220;program that predicts when participants will die and then helps them extend their lifespan through dieting, exercise, [and] breaking bad habits.#8221; The circle is closed, and #8220;reality#8221; here no longer lets us observe our real life, but its modifications in the name of a statistical life to essay, come. The private matters we can#8217;t, or shouldn#8217;t, see flow in to ar sample resume, replace our public witnessing of thermal pollution short each other. And the festival is no longer of ar sample ourselves, but of pollution essay phantasms projected by industries of health, beauty, home, all industries requiring our obedience; worse than the monsters of drama, because they don#8217;t admit their degree of fiction. The reality of reality television is that it is the essay, one place that, first, shows our fellow citizens to us and, then, shows that they have been changed by television . This reality is the unacknowledged truth that drama cannot, and will not, show you. A problem of dramatic television, separate from what the corrupt characters say and do, is that it shows people who live as if they were not being shaped by pollution short essay television. On this point it profoundly fails to dilemmas essay, capture our reality. (The novel, in contrast, was always obsessed with the thermal, way consciousness was shaped and ruined by reading novels.) And this is consistent with the way in write, which television, more than other media, has a willingness to do the short, work of shaping life, and subservience to advertising and industry, even when its creators do not understand what they#8217;re up to.

Drama says: this is harmless, fictional. In fact it pushes certain ways of life. But wherever industrial norms repenetrate the ar sample, televised rendition of reality, they can directly push certain ways of life, no longer even needing to use the mediation of #8220;harmless#8221; fiction and drama. One can sometimes fight corruption with corruption: Blind Date to counter Friends . So what in our television experience, against Extreme Makeover , will show the ways in which homes and pollution faces cannot be remade? Who will make the reality to counter #8220;reality#8221;? The popular but anomalous show Fear Factor has a different relation to the norm. Fear Factor adds an alcohol outside rule to sport. All the sports we watch on TV (football, baseball, golf, tennis) were invented and thermal short essay enjoyed by supply and demand participants before being transposed to the small screen for the benefit of thermal short essay spectators. Fear Factor seems in contrast to be a show of “sports” devised on behalf of spectators rather than participants.

Its goal is the pleasure of the viewer. Alcohol Thesis! And its standard turns out to be a kind of norm no one would dare articulate or declare respectable—that television, playing the role here of the industry, makes spectators long to see the human body in postures and activities it would pain individuals to see in person. How could we have known that it’s pleasurable to watch chiseled hardbodies and women in bikinis be forced to eat cow spleen or writhe in boxes of slugs, and that these delights of pollution sexual sadism could go along with the wash-you-clean thrills of spinning platforms, ladders hanging from helicopters, and speedboat draggings, which end with the contestants’ bodies hurled into rivers or lakes? #8617; Salman the write, Clown. Thermal Essay! Not utopia, but it was nice. With how many people did people used to sleep? It’s hard to tell. Language changes, and there’s the problem of bragging. Poor R. The double-bind he’s in has made him lose his mind. Or maybe it’s the Pinor Noir?

Dear Oprah, None of us can prove our books are of genuine worth yet. Instead, we#8217;re impatient. And Demand! Do not think that we were being horrible, indifferent parents. Thermal Essay! Today the concept of global peak oil is widely accepted in the energy field. Write! People read less, but ideas once derived from books, and now turned into circulating rumors, are all they have. Issue 3 Radiohead, or the Philosophy of Pop Mark Greif. Essay! Issue 3 A Violent Season Emily Votruba.

Issue 3 First Love Pankaj Mishra. Issue 3 The Neoliberal Imagination Walter Benn Michaels. When you wear the Fordson tractor belt buckle my father gave me, you’re a hipster. When I wear it, I’m a redneck. Pppd Write! Issue 3 Two Fairy Tales Lyudmila Petrushevskaya. Issue 3 What Independent Film? Andrew Bujalski. Issue 3 Or Things I Did Not Do or Say Benjamin Kunkel. And yes, one knows what it is like to receive a harsh review; and yes, one is aware of the basic inhumanity of the critic’s task.

A specter is pollution haunting the academy—the specter of close reading. Levitt, then, far from being a rogue, is really Becker’s dutiful heir. A Rushdie novel, like its author, is a public figure, its thingness easy to lose in the sound and the fury. “Does he who fights douchebags become, inevitably, something of a douchebag?” Issue 2 The Concept of how to Experience Mark Greif. Jonathan Franzen’s novel is a feeling-machine. Issue 10 Four Responses to thermal essay, Freedom Keith Gessen, Mark Greif, Benjamin Kunkel, Marco Roth. Dilemmas! Occupy! Notes From an Occupation Mark Greif, Astra Taylor. Issue 1 Mogadishu, Baghdad, Troy; or, Heroes Without War Mark Greif.

Fashion is a dark forest of half-starved wolves, tarted up with stiff collars and eye-tints, mangy fur and sultry looks. Issue 9 Octomom, One Year Later Mark Greif. n+1 is pollution a print and and demand digital magazine of literature, culture, and politics published three times a year. Thermal Pollution Short! We also post new online-only work several times each week and publish books expanding on the interests of the magazine.

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essay patriarchy T he word “Patriarchy” seems to be everywhere. In newspapers, online magazines, talk shows or social media, as soon as the essay issue of gender relations or rights is thesis statement, raised, so is the pollution short specter of “the patriarchy.” Battles rage over what it means, whether it exists now and player, whether it ever did exist. My area of research focuses on the ways in which English women negotiated patriarchy using religion in the late medieval and early modern period, so I am fairly confident it did. Pollution Essay. A historical understanding of patriarchy rejects both the resume claim that it was a straightforward form of male domination and the claim that it is a feminist fabrication and never really existed. Arguments that patriarchy exists in the UK, US or much of the western world today are largely dependent on reinventions of the concept that I argue would be better dispensed with. Instead, they should be replaced with more rigorous investigations of whether gender discrimination exists and a more positive attitude towards individuality. Patriarchy literally means “rule of the pollution essay father” and on the most basic level, refers to player literal fathers having the right to direct the family which includes sons.

When sons marry, they become the head of their own family and thermal pollution short, when daughters do, they come under the pppd write rule of their husbands. In patriarchal societies, women are excluded from positions of ruling power and pollution short, denied autonomy in their own lives. This was imposed by ethical dilemmas in business essay, law and social expectation for most of essay recorded history. In Christian cultures, the idea of the patriarch became closely related to the idea of God, the Father. Supply And Demand Essay. Although the likelihood is that God was depicted as a father because the concept of the father as one who both loves and disciplines and thermal essay, is to be respected and obeyed was already widely accepted, Christianity perpetuated this as a moral imperative. When considering patriarchy in historical terms, it is often pointed out that a naive view of society in which all men had power over all women fails to take account of class and alcohol, that women of the ruling class had rights and advantages that men of lower ones did not.

This is undoubtedly true. Hierarchical class structures required men to pollution defer to women of a higher one in alcohol many ways throughout the medieval period and only changed gradually in the modern one. However, it is a mistake to thermal pollution essay try to “even things up” in this way and argue that because nearly everyone was oppressed for most of history, gender inequality was insignificant. There existed throughout medieval and early modern English history a deeply gendered structure of society in ethical in business which ruling class men had authority over ruling class women and working class men over working class women. Women were required to obey their husbands and nearly always required to marry either by family or by financial necessity. Wives had no right to own property until 1870, no right to decide their own movements, no right to their children or to work without their husband’s consent. Professions and roles of public authority were simply closed to them. On a deeper ideological level, there was an understanding of the masculine as that which rules and the feminine as that which is pollution short, ruled. This was so deeply entrenched that murder of a husband was considered treason in England. The Petty Treason Act of 1351 recognized three cases of aggravated murder in which a superior is betrayed by a subordinate: servants killing masters, clerics killing prelates and wives killing husbands . This was not abolished until 1828. When Elizabeth I came into power in 1558, she needed to use a considerable amount of rhetorical skill to write overcome the very real skepticism of her advisers and subjects about a female leadership.

For this, she depended upon a medieval understanding of the king’s “body politic” and “body natural” in pollution short which the king was both a divinely appointed ruler and a mortal man to enable her advisers and subjects to feel they could separate her female form from her royal authority. We see this in her speech at Tilbury in 1588, “I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a king of England too” Of course, she never married. Queen Elizabeth I. A better criticism of the concept of patriarchy as a simplistic gendered power-structure is that this ignores the fact that there are different spheres of power and thesis player, different ways to exert it and thermal, that whilst women may not have had much legal power, they possessed it in supply other forms. Thermal Short Essay. Much of my work has focused on player, the ways in which women obtained autonomy and authority for themselves using the systems of law, social expectation, community justice and religion. Recent social history attempting to uncover women’s history has revealed a far more active role for women than was previously assumed. A naive reading of history could assume that because records relating to women so often take the form of sermons and treatises telling women to stay at home and be quiet, this is how women lived. In the popular mid-fourteenth century text, “How the Goode Wife Taught Hyr Doughter” young women are instructed to be “meke and myld,” particularly to husbands referred to as “your lord” and to stay at home. Go not as it wer a gase [goose] Fro house to house, to seke the mase [entertainment]

Ne go thou not to short essay no merket. To sell thi thryft, bewer [beware] of itte. Ne go thou nought to the taverne, Thy godnes for to selle therinne; Wherever thou comme at ale other wyne [beer or wine] Take not to ar sample resume myche, and leve be tyme;

Ne go thou not to no wrastylynge [wrestling] Ne git to no coke schetynge [cock shooting] However, it should be clear that there would be no need to keep telling women to avoid talking a lot, talking loudly, talking angrily, arguing with husbands, visiting friends, markets, taverns, getting drunk and attending wrestling and blood sports if they weren’t doing all those things fairly consistently. Christian cultures also gave women the opportunity for a limited autonomy and authority via religion despite religious doctrine frequently being the pollution short essay justification for thesis statement denying them both. In a patriarchal Christian society, the ultimate patriarch was God and it was understood within medieval Catholicism that God talked to men and women. This enabled holy women and those who would be saints to pollution short become figures of spiritual authority and it also provided lay women with some power to “go over the heads” of their husbands and fathers and cite communication from God himself. Within early modern Protestantism, it was understood that women could and should interpret the bible for themselves. Drawing on Christian Humanism in 1611, Aemilia Lanyer was enabled to write an intensely logical rhetorical refutation of the idea that women should be subordinated due to the sin of thesis team Eve by pointing out that it was men who killed the son of God and saying, very much tongue in cheek, that she was prepared to let bygones be bygones if they were. Wife and thermal, husband. Historians have uncovered records of women using a strong knowledge of law to their advantage and team player, consistently organising and managing Church events around which communities were based.

The latter in particular put them very much in charge of the social lives of communities. Women could also call upon and enact forms of community justice to support them, and before the essay advent of policing, this was often the strongest form of law. There is a remarkable account from the late 14th century of a Leicestershire priest named William de Swynderby (William the ar sample Hermit); who preached so frequently about the failings and thermal pollution short essay, pride of women (de mulieribus defectibus et superbia) that the ethical in business essay townswomen plotted to stone him out of town. Pollution Essay. Hearing of this, he hastily turned his attention to merchants. He seems not to have felt that he could depend on the men of the town to stop the women and, in fact, his contemporary, Henry Knighton, describes this incident as an example of his flaw of myself for interview “not knowing when to stop” (finem facere nesciebat). Further complicating simplistic ideas of patriarchy is the fact that women were generally accepted to have the thermal short essay right to police the moral behaviour of other women.

On the 24th September 1531, the Venetian Ambassador, Lodovico Falier, wrote: “It is said that more than seven weeks ago a mob of from seven to pppd write eight thousand women of short London went out of the town to how to seize Boleyn’s daughter, the sweetheart of the king of England, who was supping at a villa on a river, the king not being with her; and having received notice of this, she escaped by crossing the river in a boat. The women had intended to kill her; and pollution essay, amongst the supply essay mob were many men, disguised as women. Short. Nor has any great demonstration been made about statement, this, because it was a thing done by women.” Falier’s observation that nothing was done “because it was a thing done by women” can only be understood by pollution short, recognizing the gendered spheres of thesis power and authority. If men were to try to thermal short kill the later queen, this would be regarded as a punishable political act, an act of treason against the king, a protest against the rise of Protestantism or an opposition to the rising power of the Boleyn/Howard faction. If women tried to attack Anne, this was more likely to be regarded as part of the unwritten right of women to punish other women; in this case, one who was attempting to steal another woman’s husband, and therefore none of men’s business. If Falier was correct and men disguised as women were part of the mob, this would have been done to conceal a political element and “legitimize” the assassination attempt as an established form of female community justice. If we read only ethical dilemmas laws and thermal short essay, sermons on the rights of women and the behaviour required of them by the Church, we get a simple picture of an oppressed and in business essay, subordinated class but accounts by individuals of how society worked in practice show things to have been more nuanced. Communities had a tendency to work justice and fairness out among themselves around the rules of thermal short essay church and state, as did individual couples.

The most detailed account of thesis a late medieval couple from the woman’s perspective is found in the Book of Margery Kempe written in pollution essay the 1430s but lost until the 1930s. This autobiography of resume a woman’s religious life has been of most interest to historians as social history. We see evidence of patriarchy when Margery is asked for evidence she had her husband’s permission to travel, when she is told she must not preach because she is a woman and when her protection from being thrown in short essay jail for doing both is the names of her powerful father and high-status husband. However, the book also revealed that she owned a considerable amount of money and started two businesses, one against her husband’s wishes. Alcohol Thesis Statement. More significant is that neither she nor her male scribe felt it necessary to explain how this was possible suggesting that her readers did not need an explanation. Further research has suggested that whilst all businesses needed to be registered in men’s names, some were, in thermal short essay practice, owned by dilemmas in business, women. Thermal Pollution. There were also private arrangements in which women’s husbands accepted them as the owners of the money they had inherited or earned even though, legally, they had no right to it. Margery describes her husband, John, as “always a good and statement, easy man to thermal pollution short her” and gives us glimpses of her marriage, “It happened one Friday, Midsummer Eve, in very hot weather — as this creature [Margery] was coming from York carrying a bottle of beer in myself her hand, and her husband a cake tucked inside his clothes against his chest — that her husband asked his wife this question: ‘Margery, if there came a man with a sword who would strike off my head unless I made love with you as I used to do before, tell me on thermal short, your conscience — for you say you will not lie — whether you would allow my head to be cut off, or else allow me to make love with you again, as I did at one time?’ ‘Alas, sir,’ she said, ‘why are you raising this matter, when we have been chaste for these past eight weeks?’ ‘Because I want to know the truth of your heart.’ And then she said with great sorrow, ‘Truly, I would rather see you being killed, than that we should turn back to our uncleanness.’

And he replied, ‘You are no good wife.’” Margery is showing her readers her commitment to her holy vow of alcohol thesis celibacy but modern readers have typically found this account humorous. On a psychological level, John’s thought experiment looks very much like a test of thermal short essay his wife’s feelings and his need to player know he is thermal pollution essay, important to her following the end of ethical their sexual closeness due to her newfound religiosity. Margery’s book is full of her power struggles with patriarchal Church authorities, but with her husband, we see more of a personal, emotional negotiation between her intense, zealous personality and thermal short, his easy-going, gentler one and much mutual affection. When looking at power relations, it’s necessary to consider not only the pppd official rules but also the community’s sense of fairness and the couple’s bond and need to make their relationship work.

The reality of English history shows that people who claim patriarchy to have utterly removed any power or agency from women are wrong. Women have always been an influential part of society, deeply involved in thermal pollution short essay forming and regulating cultural norms. They’ve also been loved by men who wanted them to be happy. However, people who claim that this and the class structure which gave some women more power than some men show that patriarchy did not exist are also wrong. Women were still explicitly and myself, systematically subordinated to men by a system of laws and church and short, community enforced rules. When married women did run their own businesses, decide their own movements and own their own money, this was because their husbands allowed them to and even then there were still many doors resolutely closed to them.

We cannot judge a system by the way the most just and compassionate people treat those they have power over but by how it allows the most unjust and cruel to treat them. A woman being visibly and severely abused would be likely to dilemmas in business draw condemnation from the community and the Church might intervene and insist he stop it or even give permission to the woman to leave him, but there was still a considerable amount of abuse which was quite legal and respectable. A man could refuse to short essay allow his wife to leave the house, set her unrealistic amounts of work and team player, beat her within accepted limits (a few strokes with a thin stick and not on the head) daily for any infraction with little consequence. He would be regarded as a “strict” husband but still respected in essay the community and approved by the Church. This was the experience of the Puritan Anne Wentworth in the late 17 th century but by this time there was a printing press she could use to publish her grievances. With his “barbarous actions,” Wentworth claimed her husband had “over-done such things as not only in the Spirit of them will one day be judged a murdering of, but had long since really proved so if God had not wonderfully supported and preserved me.” [He so over-did husbandly discipline that not only ar sample would he be judged guilty by God of a murderous spirit but could have literally killed her.] Her community did not protect her because “all esteem my husband as he is an honest, moral man full of thermal short essay blind zeal and ethical dilemmas in business essay, hath the gift of his tongue. A man very fit for business and thermal pollution, employment in this World, for he will not cheat or cozen any man” (p12.) It was simply true that men ruled women and so patriarchy — the rule of the ethical dilemmas essay fathers — existed in a literal form, as it does today in some parts of the world. Women did not have the right to autonomy or authority, to thermal pollution short essay own property or control their own movements and activities without their husband’s consent. They could not vote or access most positions of power or professions.

Although women with loving husbands and no ambition to and demand essay access positions only open to men could be happy in a patriarchy, it was an unjust system which restricted women and left them vulnerable to abusive men. Women partaking in the market. The dismantling of patriarchy in Britain began in the 19 th century, at the end of short which married women began to be able to own property and ethical, money and started to thermal short essay access professions including medicine and accountancy and to be able to live independently. This phenomenon was known as “the revolting daughters.” Throughout the 20 th century, rights and freedoms increased until women had attained the vote, access to all professions and qualifications, the right to equal pay for equal work and essay, the right to decline sex within marriage. By all historical understandings of thermal short essay patriarchy and by looking at patriarchal societies that exist now, it seems clear that the UK and the US and introduce myself, much of the pollution essay Western world are not patriarchal. How To. Women are no longer obliged to obey their husbands and have full legal equality with men and thermal pollution, access to all of the public positions that men do. Yet, within feminism in particular and to some extent in wider society, the word “patriarchy” is used to describe a problem in how to society that still needs to be overcome. How is this justified? Most often people point to statistics showing that men are very much over-represented in politics and short essay, business and say that this is evidence of a society ruled by men. However, there is no law that only men can access these positions and ar sample resume, some are held by women. Our current Prime Minister is, after all, a woman.

There is little evidence that the thermal pollution short imbalance is due to discrimination against essay, women rather than different choices made by men and women. Since women have had access to pollution short essay all professions, they have quickly come to dominate education, healthcare, publishing and psychology. Alcohol Thesis Statement. Does this make these heavily social fields, which guide how society thinks and thermal pollution essay, feels, matriarchal? It is perfectly possible that some sexist discrimination against women is going on in male-dominated professions but we cannot discover this or the extent of it if we only look at those areas and do so with an a priori assumption that discrimination is the cause whilst ignoring the ample evidence that men and women have different interests and priorities on average. We need data which incorporates the whole field of employment and factors in men and women’s choices and does not assume that male-dominated fields are superior and the only ones which have power in society. Another common argument for thesis team patriarchy is the fact that rapists and boorish men still exist. This is said to pollution short essay be evidence of a rape culture and is presented along with the fact that violent criminals, and particularly sex-offenders, are much more often men as evidence of a society which devalues women and in which men feel entitled to abuse women. The problem with this claim is that we have a society in pppd which violence by men against women is taken very seriously and punished more harshly than violence by men against men and much more than violence by thermal pollution short, women against anyone. Violence against women is also despised culturally and men are by far the greatest victims of violence. We have shelters for pppd how to women and very few for short essay men. We have a special register for sex-offenders and they have to be segregated from other violent offenders in prison because hatred of them is so profound.

It is very difficult to argue that a culture which regards sexual abuse of women as so abhorrent is a rape culture or that one which is team, so much more concerned about female victims of violence than male victims is a patriarchy in which women are devalued and abuse of thermal pollution essay them is acceptable. A more modest claim of patriarchy is that it is seen in the fact that sexist and domineering men still exist and can even attain positions of power. There are men who feel that patriarchy should still exist or act as though they think so by belittling women, doubting their capabilities, talking over them or condescending to them. Many of these accusations are justified. I have been told both rudely and dilemmas in business essay, politely that I am not the intellectual equal of men and cannot cope with public positions of responsibility and should stay at home and have babies.

This is a recognized ultra-conservative view. It is not reflected in wider society which recognizes my intellectual capabilities by awarding me academic qualifications and job opportunities. The mirror image of it is to be found in people who belittle men and generalize them according to the least ethical, intelligent and productive male members of society. However, it is demonstrably false to claim that society approves more of pollution short sexist men than sexist women. We saw Tim Hunt reduced to tears, contemplating suicide and feeling compelled to resign following a joke about sexist attitudes and pppd, recently an Uber director resigned following outrage that he had said a meeting with more women in it was a meeting with more talking. Meanwhile prominent female figures including politicians have been able to use the term “mansplaining” without comparable censure. The most reasonable and well-supported claims that contemporary society continues to be affected by thermal pollution, its patriarchal history relate to gender role expectations. Men can be expected to player be the main provider even if this means they see less of their children whilst women can be expected to be more responsible for children and domestic chores even if this limits their ability to focus on their career.

Men can experience much pressure to be emotionally and thermal short essay, physically strong and myself, dominant whilst women can feel pressure to be socially skilled, empathetic and conciliatory. Short. Even though there are good evolutionary reasons for gendered differences in alcohol thesis these preferences and thermal pollution short, traits on average, there is team player, much variation and overlap and social pressure to comply with them cannot be justified. Criticism of such pressure is warranted but it is thermal short, unclear that perpetuating claims of how to write patriarchy and thinking in terms of gendered class oppression will be more helpful than advocating individuality, challenging assumptions and supporting gender non-conformity. Patriarchy has existed for most of recorded history and its complete dissolution in law is recent. My 75-year-old mother remembers not being able to get a mortgage without a male guarantor and being told “there’s no accounting for women” when she asked to short be able to take her employer’s accountancy exam. This is illegal now. If there is hidden discrimination against introduce myself essay, women, it will be found by thermal, rigorous investigation rather than assumptions based on “blank slatism” and ideological readings of statistics. There is still a hangover of patriarchal attitudes in the form of socially conservative ideas of gender roles but now, for the first time, men and supply, women are able to defy them and thermal, we get the chance to see what a society in which everybody gets to access everything will look like. It probably won’t result in men and women making exactly the same life and work choices in exactly the same numbers, but women are already everywhere.

It is this ability to exercise autonomy and pppd how to, individuality to access every opportunity that we need to short essay seize and the confidence to resume defy any social pressures we experience that we need to encourage. Approaches to gender equality which perpetuate ideas of women’s weakness and thermal pollution, need for special protections in the public sphere can only introduce myself undermine this goal. We have smashed patriarchy in the systematic sense and we can smash any residual cultural hangover with individual assertion of our own choices and respect for short other people’s. Latest posts by Helen Pluckrose (see all) How to Tell If You’re Living in a Patriarchy: A Historical Perspective - July 10, 2017 Sokal Affair 2.0: Penis Envy: Addressing Its Critics - May 21, 2017 Where Now for New Atheists? - May 15, 2017. Helen Pluckrose is a researcher in the humanities who focuses on late medieval/early modern religious writing for and about women. Introduce. She is critical of postmodernism and cultural constructivism which she sees as currently dominating the humanities.

24 thoughts on “ How to thermal short Tell If You’re Living in a Patriarchy: A Historical Perspective ” Karen’s already pointed out the other side to the “patriarchy” coin, but I’d like to add that, at least as far back as biblical times, patriarchs not only ruled the family/tribe/clan, but were legally responsible for how to write the wrongful actions of its members. The price of total control was total responsibility. So if a member of one group stole the goat of another group, that person could come to thermal pollution short the patriarch of the first group for supply and demand recompense. Helen, thanks very much for this insightful and pollution essay, balanced commentary on thesis, the topic. I helped me understand the issue much better. It also satisfied me greatly to see that it is apparently possible to talk about topics like this in a respectful way without getting drawn into entrenched gender warfare. It is essay, a bit long, though. #128521; subviationfulmination: “Men have evolved socially in leaps and bounds (save for essay the area of thermal short essay dealing with women), whilst women have been largely stagnant since our cave days.”

I don’t think -because I haven’t seen evidence- such a general statement can be valid. Social evolution can be observed in societies or rather in sub-cultures and these communities, all of resume them, are made of men and pollution essay, women. Indeed, when ritualistic social norms and practicies survive, this social ‘evolution’ will go backwards. Thanks, this was useful. People tend to introduce myself essay for interview gravitate to easy, one-sided conclusions that could fit on an info-poster, and then hammer them home. But the real work is branching out ones understanding and reaching for the truth, whether one likes it or not. So, this essay sorta’ hurt my head, in a good way, because it added complexity to pollution short my understanding of the topic, mostly in terms of the historical realities I was unaware of. I’m sure the idea that women aren’t under the iron fist of patriarchy in the present, along with white supremacy, rape culture, white privilege, and all the rest will upset many who have woke to find an easy enemy/scapegoat in the anonomous, average, melanin-challenged individual. Further amusement is introduce essay for interview, that the men’s rights advocates are finding fault. I had to stop to laugh out loud.

I think a YouTube bebate between you and Karen might be very instructive as you both might knock out some boundaries or falsehoods, while also having some common ground. The great thing is people just picking away at the truth, as oposed to reinforcing foregone conclusions. For this, I am grateful. “ideological readings of statistics.” lol wtf. Still a unidimensional equivocating piece of thermal pollution short essay garbage if you ask me. This is not the way to how to save the humanities. Some of the examples she gave may have seemed to indicate patriarchy, and the author trots out the tired old examples of how positions of power, i.e. businesses, politics, etc. are the only things that matter. I swear women are obsessed with these things. They see the thermal short essay power inherent in some of these institutions whilst ignoring them in others. Women have always been the true rulers of the home.

They are and always have been more likely to coordinate and act as a bloc, specifically to attack the other gender. Whilst women could not own property, they could not own debt either, So this is how to, irrelevant. The institution of marriage is a classist institution. That they were ever arranged, is for pollution essay the establishment of pppd how to social order. Now women will whine that it blunts their hypergamic impulses, but firstly, this does not constitute a dominance hierarchy because it is simply parasitic from male dominance hierarchy. Thermal Pollution Short Essay. Moreover, women have no desire for the details and machinations of introduce myself essay policing other women (they want to pollution essay outsource this to male dominance hierarchy as well), though I am pleased that there was some recognition of this necessity in some of and demand essay these pre-modern European cultures. Finally, there is not evidence that a female-only dominance hierarchy can be engineered around the thermal pollution short essay concept of resume hypergamy, or that such a system can lead to short essay a stable and peaceful society.

In fact, quite the contrary. In short, author needs to recognize that women have historically been children, and that the supply essay ways modern society has addressed this has been entirely wrongheaded. Giving women handicaps and whatever they want has simply enabled more childish behavior, which is why femtards keep chirping about a patriarchy. The way you show yourselves to thermal essay be adults and matriculated in dilemmas in business essay a social sense is to mature. To police yourselves effectively. Pollution Essay. NOTHING HAS EVER STOPPED WOMEN FROM DOING THIS (and so it is supply and demand, very telling that it really has never happened). Short. To do this, you need to know yourselves and keep your darker impulses in check. Introduce Myself Essay. It doesn’t even have to look anything like a male dominance hierarchy, though it should be able to work with it.

Look, for a male child going through adolescence acting unruly, you would not think it right he falls prey to thermal pollution short essay some Oedipal complex and kill his father to take his place. He should make his own path for true matriculation and maturity (bizarre that these words are rooted in the feminine, but perhaps the idea is to be suggestive?) Yet it is open season for women to do this? Just give it to me because I am a modern empowered woman [who knows fuck all what to do with her ‘power’]? I have said this before. Men have evolved socially in myself essay for interview leaps and bounds (save for pollution short the area of dealing with women), whilst women have been largely stagnant since our cave days. These are not chauvinistic statements but red pill ones of truth (which the author was obviously worried about trying to preclude). How To. Women have a lot of work to do, and it must be amongst themselves. Leave men out of it, leave your face-scratching, hairpulling, proxy-violence, outsourcing, hypergamic, endless diversity-loving shit out of it. Thermal Short Essay. Show you can be mature and stable as an ADULT gender.

Fuck, you wouldn’t think it would be that hard, but you idiots are having a hell of a time with it. How To. Perhaps because you have never really done the work. You all think you are entitled lottery winners amongst yourselves, that every woman can win at one time or another. In any dominance hierarchy, there are winners and losers, you fucks need to sort these out. I really enjoyed this essay as I have your other writings on the site.

It’s a breath of fresh air. I’ve been troubled with claims of The Patriarchy as if I belonged to some secret woman-hating club with a secret handshake. “Karen, the strongest evidence that Anne Wentworth was telling the thermal truth is that her church charged her with having published her account of statement her abuse even though her husband admitted the truth of it and pollution short essay, promised to stop. You can find bibliographic details of her writing in the references here:” That’s a long list of references. And Demand. I’ll take your word for it that there is an thermal pollution essay, official public record that he admitted to alcohol thesis it and to thermal pollution short essay the extent of it. Ar Sample Resume. I will say, from what I read of your essay, she sounds absolutely bonkers. “It is true that men had legal responsibilities to thermal provide that women did not and an essay looking at essay patriarchy from men’s perspective could look at this usefully (and many have.) That isn’t what this essay is, though. This is a look at patriarchy as it is essay, argued by feminists to have affected women and still affect women. By all means, write your own from your own point of interest.

I expect you already have.” Well, this is just the thing: under coverture, women’s restrictions are mirrored by thesis statement, men’s obligations, and their legal disabilities are compensated (however poor one might judge such compensation nowadays) in the law by thermal short essay, entitlements and protections. That is, a married woman gave up the thesis team player right to own property, but received the obligation of pollution her husband to financial support and the right to essay act as his legal agent when purchasing necessaries on credit *in return for that.* When you say married women didn’t have the right to own property and leave it at that, you are not just leaving out the thermal essay man’s perspective, you are also leaving out part of a *woman’s* perspective. You’re not just telling half the story, you’re telling half of HER story. This failure to address the benefits of coverture to women was what led to situations like that of Mark Wilks. Both advocates, and those within the system who enacted the changes, seemed to come to view the deal as one that unfairly burdened only women (and not men), and one that ONLY unfairly burdened (and did not benefit) women. That for ethical dilemmas women it was all bad and pollution essay, no good, and for men all good and no bad, if you will. Or else perhaps (and even more cynically, to my mind), they clearly saw and understood the burdens on men and the benefits women enjoyed, but were simply content to leave them as they were when they began fiddling with the system.

After reading a paper on women and coverture, which included descriptions of and excerpts from pppd how to legal actions taken by wives against husbands in the 1600s (“he has mismanaged *my* portion”, “he has sold *my* livestock without my permission”), there is an argument to be made as to how the handicaps of coverture impacted the average woman (at least in terms of property ownership), yet at the same time, they seemed to essay be VERY aware of their rights and entitlements, exercising them daily and supply and demand essay, also in some cases weaponizing them (such as racking up huge debts on his credit as a form of marital coercion). That is, the restrictions and essay, legal disabilities on women would not be felt by most women, and certainly not on how to, a daily basis, but more often in extraordinary circumstances (such as separation or abuse) or on occasion (when selling a property). The benefits and entitlements were experienced by thermal essay, them in their day to day lives. I think this might be best evidenced by the women (I forget her name) who started the push to change property rights in marriage after being robbed, and dilemmas in business essay, being shocked at the fact that the stolen money was described in official reports as belonging to her husband. Thermal. She’d had no idea the money was not her own. Yet I bet if you had asked her to list the things the law entitled her to from her husband, she’d have been perfectly able to ethical dilemmas essay name most of them off the top of her head. And yet this terrible thing she was suffering without even being aware of it (lack of property rights) was changed once enough women demanded it, and all the entitlements remained. If this is what a patriarchy does when enough women demand it, then I would say this is another refutation of the feminist understanding of patriarchy, no?

If, when women in a patriarchy claim they are being treated unfairly, the patriarchy removes the unfairness toward women while leaving the mirror-image unfairnesses toward men intact, it becomes a bit difficult to short essay argue that patriarchy is a system that privileges men at the expense of women’s oppression.