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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Most of us are certain that we have free will, though what exactly this amounts to is much less certain. According to David Hume, the question of the nature of free will is in internet, “the most contentious question of metaphysics.” If this is correct, then figuring out services mains essay, what free will is will be no small task indeed. In Internet Source. Minimally, to say that an agent has free will is to problems, say that the agent has the capacity to choose his or her course of action. But animals seem to satisfy this criterion, and we typically think that only persons, and not animals, have free will.
Let us then understand free will as the capacity unique to persons that allows them to control their actions. It is controversial whether this minimal understanding of what it means to have a free will actually requires an citing in internet paper agent to have a specific faculty of will, whether the term free will is simply shorthand for services mains essay paper, other features of persons, and whether there really is such a thing as free will at in internet source, all. This article considers why we should care about free will and how freedom of case will relates to freedom of action. Paper Research Source. It canvasses a number of the dominant accounts of what the will is, and then explores the study law interview, persistent question of the relationship between free will and causal determinism, articulating a number of different positions one might take on the issue. In Internet Paper Source. For example, does determinism imply that there is no free will, as the incompatibilists argue, or does it allow for free will, as the compatibilists argue? This article explores several influential arguments that have been given in dryden of dramatic favor of these two dominant positions on the relationship between free will and causal determinism. Finally, there is a brief examination of how free will relates to theological determinism and logical determinism. 1. Free Will, Free Action and Moral Responsibility. Why should we even care whether or not agents have free will?
Probably the best reason for caring is citing in internet paper research, that free will is closely related to two other important philosophical issues: freedom of what be an american essay action and citing in internet research, moral responsibility. However, despite the close connection between these concepts, it is important not to conflate them. We most often think that an agent’s free actions are those actions that she does as a result of exercising her free will. Consider a woman, Allison, who is contemplating a paradigmatic free action, such as whether or not to walk her dog. Allison might say to herself, “I know I should walk the dog—he needs the exercise. And while I don’t really want to walk him since it is cold outside, I think overall the best decision to make is that I should take him for a walk.” Thus, we see that one reason we care about free will is john an essay poesie, that it seems necessary for citing source, free action—Allison must first decide, or choose, to walk the dog before she actually takes him outside for his walk. If we assume that human actions are those actions that result from the rational capacities of humans, we then see that the possibility of free action depends on the possibility of free will: to say that an queen victoria agent acted freely is paper source, minimally to say that the agent was successful in carrying out a free volition or choice. Various philosophers have offered just such an account of freedom. Thomas Hobbes suggested that freedom consists in there being no external impediments to an agent doing what he wants to do: “A free agent is victoria thesis, he that can do as he will , and citing source, forbear as he will, and that liberty is the absence of external impediments .” In An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding , David Hume thought that free will (or liberty, to use his term) is simply the “power of acting or of not acting, according to the determination of the will: that is, if we choose to remain at rest, we may; if we choose to move, we also may.… This hypothetical liberty is universally allowed to carbon paper, belong to everyone who is not a prisoner and in chains.” This suggests that freedom is simply the ability to research source, select a course of queen thesis action, and an agent is in internet, free if he is not being prevented by some external obstacle from completing that course of action. Thus, Hobbes and mains 2013 essay, Hume would hold that Allison is free to in internet paper research, walk her dog so long as nothing prevents her from carrying out her decision to walk her dog, and she is free not to walk her dog so long as nothing would compel her to walk her dog if she would decide not to. However, one might still believe this approach fails to make an important distinction between these two related, but conceptually distinct, kinds of freedom: freedom of will versus freedom of action.
This distinction is motivated by services essay, the apparent fact that agents can possess free will without also having freedom of action. In Internet Research. Suppose that before Allison made the choice to walk the dog, she was taking a nap. And while Allison slept, there was a blizzard that moved through the area. The wind has drifted the study law interview, snow up against the front of her house so that it is impossible for citing source, Allison to queen, get out her front door and walk her dog even if she wanted to. So here we have a case involving free will, because Allison has chosen to take the dog for a walk, but not involving free action, because Allison is not able to citing in internet, take her dog for a walk. Whether or not one can have freedom of action without free will depends on one’s view of what free will is. Also, the truth of causal determinism would not entail that agents lack the freedom to american, do what they want to do. An agent could do what she wants to do, even if she is citing paper source, causally determined to do that action. Thus, both Hobbes and of dramatic, Hume are rightly characterized as compatibilists. Even if there is a distinction between freedom of will and freedom of action, it appears that free will is necessary for the performance of free actions.
If Allison is citing research, brainwashed during her nap to want to walk her dog, then even if no external impediment prevents her from carrying through with this decision, we would say that her taking the dog for case, a walk is not a free action. Presumably, the reason why it would not be a free action is because, in the case of brainwashing, Allison’s decision does not arise from in internet research, her free will. Thus, it looks like free will might be a necessary condition for free action, even if the two are distinct. Case Study. In what follows, the paper research source, phrase acting with free will means engaging in an action as the result of the utilization of free will. Use of the what is to be an, phrase does not deny the distinction between free will and free action. The second reason to care about free will is that it seems to be required for research source, moral responsibility. While there are various accounts of problems what exactly moral responsibility is, it is widely agreed that moral responsibility is citing paper, distinct from causal responsibility. Consider a falling branch that lands on a car, breaking its window.
While the branch is causally responsible for study, the broken window, it is not morally responsible for it because branches are not moral agents. Depending on one’s account of causation, it also might be possible to be morally responsible for an event or state of affairs even if one is not causally responsible for that same event or state of affairs. For present purposes, let us simply say that an agent is morally responsible for an event or state of affairs only if she is the appropriate recipient of moral praise or moral blame for citing paper source, that event or state of affairs (an agent can thus be morally responsible even if no one, including herself, actually does blame or praise her for monoxide research paper, her actions). According to the dominant view of the relationship between free will and moral responsibility, if an agent does not have free will, then that agent is not morally responsible for her actions. For example, if Allison is coerced into doing a morally bad act, such as stealing a car, we shouldn’t hold her morally responsible for citing paper research, this action since it is not an action that she did of her own free will. Some philosophers do not believe that free will is required for moral responsibility. Is To Be An. According to John Martin Fischer, human agents do not have free will, but they are still morally responsible for their choices and actions. Citing. In a nutshell, Fischer thinks that the kind of control needed for moral responsibility is weaker than the kind of control needed for free will.
Furthermore, he thinks that the truth of causal determinism would preclude the kind of control needed for free will, but that it wouldn’t preclude the kind of control needed for moral responsibility. See Fischer (1994). As this example shows, virtually every issue pertaining to free will is contested by various philosophers. However, many think that the thesis statement, significance of free will is not limited to its necessity for free action and moral responsibility. Various philosophers suggest that free will is also a requirement for agency, rationality, the autonomy and dignity of persons, creativity, cooperation, and the value of friendship and love [see Anglin (1990), Kane (1998) and Ekstrom (1999)].
We thus see that free will is central to many philosophical issues. Nearly every major figure in citing paper the history of case study philosophy has had something or other to say about free will. Citing In Internet Research Source. The present section considers three of the most prominent theories of what the will is. The faculties model of the will has its origin in paper the writings of ancient philosophers such as Plato and citing in internet paper research source, Aristotle, and it was the dominant view of the will for much of medieval and modern philosophy [see Descartes (1998) and the discussion of Aquinas in queen statement Stump (2003)]. It still has numerous proponents in the contemporary literature. Citing. What is distinct about free agents, according to this model, is their possession of certain powers or capacities. All living things possess some capacities, such as the capacities for growth and reproduction. What is unique about free agents, however, is that they also possess the capacities for intellection and volition. Another way of carbon monoxide research paper saying this is that free agents alone have the faculties of intellect and paper research, will. Study. It is in virtue of having these additional faculties, and paper research source, the interaction between them, that agents have free will. The intellect, or the rational faculty, is the power of cognition.
As a result of its cognitions, the intellect presents various things to the will as good under some description. Practice Problems. To return to the case of Allison contemplating walking her dog, Allison’s intellect might evaluate walking the dog as good for the health of the dog. Furthermore, all agents that have an intellect also have a will. The will, or the volitional faculty, is an appetite for citing in internet, the good; that is, it is naturally drawn to goodness. The will, therefore, cannot pursue an option that the intellect presents as good in is to american essay no way. The will is also able to command the in internet, other faculties; the will can command the body to move or the intellect to consider something. In the what is to, case of Allison, the will could command the body to pick up the leash, attach it to the dog, and go outside for a walk. As Aquinas, a proponent of this view of the paper source, will, puts it: “Only an agent endowed with an intellect can act with a judgment which is free, in so far as it apprehends the common note of goodness; from which it can judge this or the other thing to case, be good. Consequently, wherever there is intellect, there is free will” ( Summa Theologiae , q. 59 a. 3). Thus, through the interaction between the intellect and will, an citing source agent has free will to pursue something that it perceives as good.
A widely influential contemporary account of the will is Harry Frankfurt’s hierarchical view of the will [see Frankfurt (1971)]. This account is also sometimes called a structuralist or mesh account of the will, since a will is free if it has a certain internal structure or mesh among the various levels of desires and is to be an american, volitions. According to the hierarchical model, agents can have different kinds of desires. Some desires are desires to do a particular action; for example, Allison may desire to go jogging. Call these desires 1st order desires. But even if Allison doesn’t desire to go jogging, she may nevertheless desire to be the kind of person who desires to citing in internet paper research source, go jogging. In other words, she may desire to have a certain 1st order desire. Call desires of practice algebra problems this sort 2nd order desires. If agents also have further desires to have particular 2nd order desires, one could construct a seemingly infinite hierarchy of desires. Not all of an agent’s desires result in action.
In fact, if one has conflicting desires, then it is paper research, impossible for an agent to satisfy all her desires. What Is To. Suppose that Allison not only desires to citing paper source, run, but that she also desires to john dryden of dramatic poesie, stay curled up in bed, where it is nice and warm. Citing Paper Source. In such a case, Allison cannot fulfill both of her 1st order desires. If Allison decides to act on her desire to run, we say that her desire to run has moved her to action. An effective desire of this sort is called a volition; a volition is victoria thesis statement, a desire that moves the agent all the way to action.
Similarly, one can differentiate between a mere 2nd order desire (simply a desire to have a certain desire) and a 2nd order volition (a desire for a desire to citing paper research source, become one’s will, or a desire for a desire to essay, become a volition). According to the hierarchical view of the will, free will consists in having 2nd order volitions. In other words, an agent has a free will if she is able to have the sort of will that she wants to have. An agent acts on her own free will if her action is the result of a 1st order desire that she wants to become a 1st order volition. Hierarchical views of the will are problematic, however, because it looks as if certain sorts of questionable manipulation can be compatible with this view’s account of citing paper source free will. According to the view under consideration, Allison has free will with regard to going jogging if she has a 2nd order desire that her 1st order desire to go jogging will move her to case law interview, go jogging. Nothing in this account, however, depends on how she got these desires.
Even if she were manipulated, via brainwashing, for example, into having her 2nd order desire for her 1st order desire to go running become her will, Allison has the paper research source, right mesh between her various orders of desires to qualify as having free will. This is an untoward consequence. While more robust hierarchical accounts of the will have the resources for explaining why Allison might not be free in this case, it is john of dramatic poesie, widely agreed that cases of manipulation and coercion are problematic for citing paper source, solely structural accounts of the will [see Ekstrom (1999), Fischer (1994), Kane, (2005), Pereboom (2001) and john dryden an essay poesie, van Inwagen (1983)]. c. Paper Research. Reasons-Responsive View of the Will. A third treatment of free will takes as its starting point the carbon, claim that agency involves a sensitivity to certain reasons. Citing In Internet Paper Source. An agent acts with free will if she is responsive to carbon, the appropriate rational considerations, and she does not act with a free will if she lacks such responsiveness. To see what such a view amounts to, consider again the paper, case of Allison and what is to be an american essay, her decision to walk her dog. Paper Research Source. A reasons-responsive view of the civil 2013 paper, will says that Allison’s volition to walk her dog is free if, had she had certain reasons for paper source, not walking her dog, she would not have decided to walk her dog. Imagine what would have happened had Allison turned on queen victoria statement, the television after waking from her nap and citing in internet, learned of the practice, blizzard before deciding to walk her dog. Had she known of the blizzard, she would have had a good reason for deciding not to walk her dog.
Even if such reasons never occur to her (that is, if she doesn’t learn of the blizzard before her decision), her disposition to have such reasons influence her volitions shows that she is responsive to reasons. Thus, reasons-responsive views of the will are essentially dispositional in citing nature. Coercion and manipulation undermine free will, on practice algebra, this view, in virtue of making agents not reasons-responsive. Citing In Internet. If Allison has been brainwashed to walk the dog at a certain time, then even if she were to turn on research paper, the news and sees that it is snowing, she would attempt to walk the dog despite having good reasons not to. In Internet Research Source. Thus, manipulated agents are not reasons-responsive, and in virtue of this lack free will. [See Fischer and Ravizza (1998) for one of the primary reasons-responsive views of free will.] a. The Thesis of Causal Determinism. Most contemporary scholarship on free will focuses on whether or not it is compatible with causal determinism. Causal determinism is sometimes also called nomological determinism. It is carbon research, important to keep causal determinism distinct from other sorts of determinism, such as logical determinism or theological determinism (to be discussed below).
Causal determinism (hereafter, simply determinism) is the thesis that the course of the future is entirely determined by the conjunction of the past and in internet paper research source, the laws of nature. Imagine a proposition that completely describes the way that the entire universe was at some point in the past, say 100 million years ago. Let us call this proposition P. Is To American. Also imagine a proposition that expresses the conjunction of all the in internet paper research, laws of nature; call this proposition L. Determinism then is the thesis that the conjunction of P and L entails a unique future. Given P and L, there is only one possible future, one possible way for things to end up. To make the same point using possible world semantics, determinism is the thesis that all the states of affairs that obtain at some time in the past, when conjoined with the laws of nature, entail which possible world is the actual world. John Dryden Poesie. Since a possible world includes those states of affairs that will obtain, the truth of determinism amounts to the thesis that the past and the laws of nature entail what states of affairs will obtain in in internet the future, and that only those states of affairs entailed by the past and the laws will in fact obtain. A system's being determined is different from its being predictable. It is possible for victoria thesis statement, determinism to be true and for no one to be able to predict the in internet paper source, future.
The fact that no human agent knows or is able to know future truths has no bearing on whether there are future truths entailed by the conjunction of the past and the laws. However, there is a weaker connection between the thesis of determinism and the predictability of the future. Carbon Monoxide Research Paper. If determinism were true, then a being with a complete knowledge of P and L and with sufficient intellective capacities should be able to infallibly predict the way that the future will turn out. However, given that we humans lack both the relevant knowledge and the intellective capacities required, the fact that we are not able to predict the future is not evidence for the falsity of determinism. b. Citing. Determinism, Science and practice problems, Near Determinism Most philosophers agree that whether or not determinism is true is a contingent matter; that is, determinism is neither necessarily true nor necessarily false.
If this is so, then whether or not determinism is true becomes an empirical matter, to be discovered by investigating the way the world is, not through philosophical argumentation. This is not to deny that the truth of determinism would have metaphysical implications. For one, the truth of determinism would entail that the laws of nature are not merely probabilistic—for if they were, then the citing paper, conjunction of the past and case study law interview, the laws would not entail a unique future. Furthermore, as we shall see shortly, philosophers care very much about what implications the truth of determinism would have for free will. Citing. But the point to note is that if the truth of victoria determinism is a contingent truth about the way the world actually is, then scientific investigation should give us insight into this matter. Let us say that a possible world is deterministic if causal determinism is true in that world. There are two ways that worlds could fail to be deterministic. As already noted, if the laws of nature in paper research source a given world were probabilistic, then such a world would not be deterministic. 2013 Paper. Secondly, if there are entities within a world that are not fully governed by the laws of nature, then even if those laws are themselves deterministic, that world would not be deterministic.
Some scientists suggest that certain parts of physics give us reason to doubt the citing paper, truth of determinism. For example, the standard interpretation of Quantum Theory, the Copenhagen Interpretation, holds that the laws governing nature are indeterministic and probabilistic. According to this interpretation, whether or not a small particle such as a quark swerves in a particular direction at a particular time is described properly only by probabilistic equations. Thesis. Although the equations may predict the likelihood that a quark swerves to the left at a certain time, whether or not it actually swerves is indeterministic or random. There are also deterministic interpretations of Quantum Theory, such as the Many-Worlds Interpretation. Fortunately, the outcome of the debate regarding whether Quantum Theory is most properly interpreted deterministically or indeterminstically, can be largely avoided for our current purposes. Even if (systems of) micro-particles such as quarks are indeterministic, it might be that (systems involving) larger physical objects such as cars, dogs, and people are deterministic.
It is possible that the only indeterminism is on citing paper research, the scale of what is to essay micro-particles and that macro-objects themselves obey deterministic laws. Citing. If this is the case, then causal determinism as defined above is, strictly speaking, false, but it is nearly true. That is, we could replace determinism with near determinism, the thesis that despite quantum indeterminacy, the behaviors of all large physical objects—including all our actions—obey deterministic laws [see Honderich (2002), particularly chapter 6]. What would be the implications of the truth of either determinism or near determinism? More specifically, what would be the implications for questions of free will? One way to think about the implications would be by asking the following the question: Could we still be free even if scientists were to what be an american essay, discover that causal determinism (or near determinism) is true? c. Compatibilism, Incompatibilism, and Pessimism. The question at the end of the preceding section (Could we have free will even if determinism is citing, true?) is a helpful way to differentiate the main positions regarding free will. Compatibilists answer this question in the affirmative.
They believe that agents could have free will even if causal determinism is true (or even if near determinism is true. In what follows, I will omit this qualification). Is To Be An. In other words, the existence of free will in a possible world is compatible with that world being deterministic. For this reason, this position is known as compatibilism, and its proponents are called compatibilists. According to the compatibilist, it is possible for an agent to be determined in citing paper source all her choices and actions and still make some of her choices freely.
According to what be an american, incompatibilists, the existence of free will is in internet paper, incompatible with the truth of determinism. If a given possible world is deterministic, then no agent in that world has free will for that very reason. Furthermore, if one assumes that having free will is a necessary condition for being morally responsible for one’s actions, then the incompatibility of free will and determinism would entail the incompatibility of carbon moral responsibility and causal determinism. There are at least two kinds of incompatibilists. Some incompatibilists think that determinism is true of the actual world, and thus no agent in the actual world possesses free will. Such incompatibilists are often called hard determinists [see Pereboom (2001) for a defense of hard determinism].
Other incompatibilists think that the actual world is not deterministic and that at least some of the agents in the actual world have free will. These incompatibilists are referred to as libertarians [see Kane (2005), particularly chapters 3 and 4]. However, these two positions are not exhaustive. It is possible that one is an incompatibilist, thinks that the actual world is citing research, not deterministic, and yet still thinks that agents in the actual world do not have free will. While it is less clear what to law interview, call such a position (perhaps free will deniers), it illustrates that hard determinism and libertarianism do not exhaust the ways to be an incompatibilist. Since all incompatibilists, whatever their stripe, agree that the falsity of determinism is a necessary condition for free will, and since compatibilists deny this assertion, the following sections speak simply of incompatibilists and compatibilists. It is also important to keep in paper mind that both compatibilism and incompatibilism are claims about possibility. Carbon Monoxide Research Paper. According to the compatibilist, it is citing paper source, possible that an law interview agent is both fully determined and yet free. The incompatibilist, on the other hand, maintains that such a state of affairs is impossible.
But neither position by itself is making a claim about whether or not agents actually do possess free will. Assume for in internet paper, the moment that incompatibilism is true. If the truth of determinism is a contingent matter, then whether or not agents are morally responsible will depend on whether or not the actual world is deterministic. An Essay Of Dramatic. Furthermore, even if the actual world is indeterministic, it doesn’t immediately follow that the indeterminism present is of the sort required for free will (we will return to a similar point below when considering an objection to incompatibilism). In Internet Paper Research Source. Likewise, assume both that compatibilism is true and dryden an essay poesie, that causal determinism is true in citing in internet paper research the actual world. It does not follow from this that agents in the actual world actually possess free will. Finally, there are free will pessimists [see Broad (1952) and G. Strawson (1994)]. Study Law Interview. Pessimists agree with the citing in internet paper source, incompatibilists that free will is not possible if determinism is true. However, unlike the incompatibilists, pessimists do not think that indeterminism helps.
In fact, they claim, rather than helping support free will, indeterminism undermines it. Consider Allison contemplating taking her dog for a walk. According to the pessimist, if Allison is case study, determined, she cannot be free. Citing In Internet Source. But if determinism is false, then there will be indeterminacy at some point prior to her action. Exactly where one locates this indeterminacy will depend on one’s particular view of the nature of free will. Let us assume that that indeterminacy is located in which reasons occur to Allison. It is hard to see, the pessimist argues, how this indeterminacy could enhance Allison’s free will, for the occurrence of her reasons is indeterministic, then having those reasons is not within Allison’s control. Case Law Interview. But if Allison decides on the basis of whatever reasons she does have, then her volition is based upon something outside of her control.
It is based instead on chance. Thus, pessimists think that the addition of indeterminism actually makes agents lack the kind of control needed for free will. While pessimism might seem to be the paper, same position as that advocated by free will deniers, pessimism is a stronger claim. Free will deniers thinks that while free will is possible, it just isn’t actual: agents in fact don’t have free will. Pessimists, however, have a stronger position, thinking that free will is impossible. Not only do agents lack free will, there is what be an, no way that they could have it [see G. Strawson (1994)]. The only way to preserve moral responsibility, for the pessimist, is thus to deny that free will is a necessary condition for moral responsibility. As pessimism shows us, even a resolution to citing in internet paper research source, the debate between compatibilists and incompatibilists will not by itself solve the debate about whether or not we actually have free will.
Nevertheless, it is to this debate that we now turn. 4. Arguments for Incompatibilism (or Arguments against practice algebra, Compatibilism) Incompatibilists say that free will is incompatible with the truth of determinism. Not all arguments for incompatibilism can be considered here; let us focus on two major varieties. The first variety is built around the idea that having free will is citing, a matter of having a choice about case study certain of our actions, and that having a choice is a matter of having genuine options or alternatives about what one does. The second variety of arguments is in internet paper, built around the idea that the truth of determinism would mean that we don’t cause our actions in the right kind of way. The truth of determinism would mean that we don’t originate our actions in a significant way and law interview, our actions are not ultimately controlled by in internet, us. In other words, we lack the ability for case law interview, self-determination. Let us consider a representative argument from each set. The most well-known and influential argument for incompatibilism from the first set of in internet arguments is called the Consequence Argument, and queen victoria, it has been championed by Carl Ginet and Peter van Inwagen [see Ginet (1966) and van Inwagen (1983)].
The Consequence Argument is based on a fundamental distinction between the past and the future. First, consider an informal presentation of this argument. There seems to be a profound asymmetry between the past and source, the future based on the direction of the john dryden poesie, flow of time and the normal direction of causation. The future is open in a way that the past is citing paper research, not. It looks as though there is nothing that Allison can now do about the fact that Booth killed Lincoln, given that Lincoln was assassinated by Booth in algebra problems 1865. This point stands even if we admit the possibility of time travel. For if time travel is possible, Allison can influence what the past became, but she cannot literally change the past. Consider the following argument: The proposition Lincoln was assassinated in 1865 is true.
If Allison travels to the past, she could prevent Lincoln from being assassinated in 1865 (temporarily assumed for citing, reductio purposes). If Allison were to travel to the past and prevent Lincoln from being assassinated in 1865, the proposition Lincoln was assassinated in 1865 would be false. A proposition cannot both be true and case law interview, false. In Internet. Therefore, 2 is false. So, at most the possibility of what be an american time travel allows for agents to have causal impact on the past, not for agents to change what has already become the past. The past thus appears to be fixed and unalterable. In Internet Paper Research Source. However, it seems that the same is research paper, not true of the future, for Allison can have an influence on the future through her volitions and subsequent actions.
For example, if she were to invent a time machine, then she could, at some point in the future, get in her time machine and travel to the past and try to prevent Lincoln from being assassinated. However, given that he was assassinated, we can infer that her attempts would all fail. On the other hand, she could refrain from research, using her time machine in this way. The asymmetry between past and john dryden, future is illustrated by the fact that we don’t deliberate about the past in the same way that we deliberate about the future. While Allison might deliberate about citing in internet paper research whether a past action was really the best action that she could have done, she deliberates about the victoria thesis statement, future in a different way. Allison can question whether her past actions were in fact the best, but she can both question what future acts would be best as well as which future acts she should perform. Citing In Internet Paper Research Source. Thus, it looks like the future is open to Allison, or up to her, in a way that the past is not. In other words, when an agent like Allison is carbon monoxide, using her free will, what she is doing is selecting from a range of different options for the future, each of which is possible given the past and the laws of nature.
For this reason, this view of free will is often called the Garden of Forking Paths Model. The Consequence Argument builds upon this view of the fixed nature of the citing, past to argue that if determinism is true, the future is what is to be an, not open in the way that the above reflections suggest. For if determinism is true, the future is as fixed as is the past. Remember from the above definition that determinism is the thesis the past ( P ) and the laws of nature ( L ) entail a unique future. Let F refer to any true proposition about the future. The Consequence argument depends on two modal operators, and two inference rules. Let the modal operator ? abbreviate It is logically necessary that. so that, when it operates on some proposition p , ? p abbreviates It is logically necessary that p . Let the modal operator N be such that N p stands for citing paper research source, p is true and no one has, or ever had, any choice about whether p was true. Call the following two inference rules Alpha and Beta: According to Alpha, if p is a necessary truth, then no one has, or ever had, any choice about whether p was true.
Similarly, according to Beta, if no one has, or ever had, any choice about is to be an p being true, and no one has, or ever had, any choice that p entails q , then no one has, or ever had, any choice about whether q is true. To see the plausibility of Beta, consider the following application. In Internet Paper Source. Let p be the proposition The earth was struck by a meteor weighing 100 metric tons one billion years ago, and let q be the proposition If the carbon paper, earth was struck by a meteor weighing 100 metric tons one billion years ago, then thousands of species went extinct. Since I have no choice about such a meteor hitting in in internet paper the past, and have no choice that if such meteor hits, it will cause thousands of species to go extinct, I have no choice that thousands of species went extinct. Beta thus looks extremely plausible. But if Beta is true, then we can construct an argument to show that if determinism is true, then I have no choice about anything, including my supposed free actions in the future. The argument begins with the definition of is to be an american essay determinism given above: Using a valid logical rule of research source inference (exportation), we can transform 1 into 2: Applying Alpha, we can derive 3: The second premise in the Consequence Argument is called the be an american, fixity of the past. No one has, or ever had, a choice about the true description P of the universe at some point in the distant past:
From 3, 4 and citing paper research source, Beta, we can deduce 5: The final premise in the argument is the fixity of the laws of be an nature. No one has, or ever had, a choice about what the laws of nature are (try as I might, I cannot make the law of universal gravitation not be a law of nature): And from 5 and 6, again using Beta, we can infer that no one has, or ever had, a choice about F : Given that F was any true proposition about the in internet, future, the Consequence Argument concludes that if determinism is true, then no one has or ever had a choice about any aspect of the future, including what we normally take to be our free actions. Law Interview. Thus, if determinism is research source, true, we do not have free will. The second general set of arguments for the incompatibility of free will and victoria thesis statement, determinism builds on the importance of the source of a volition for free will. Again, it will be helpful to begin with an citing in internet source informal presentation of the be an essay, argument before considering a formal presentation of it. Paper Source. According to this line of thought, an agent has free will when her volitions issue from the monoxide research paper, agent herself in citing in internet paper source a particular sort of way (say, her beliefs and case study law interview, desires). What is important for source, free will, proponents of this argument claim, is not simply that the causal chain for an agent’s volition goes through the agent, but that it originates with the mains 2013 essay, agent. In other words, an agent acts with free will only if she originates her action, or if she is the ultimate source or first cause of citing in internet paper research source her action [see Kane (1998)]. Consider again the claim that free will is a necessary condition for victoria, moral responsibility.
What reflection on cases of coercion and manipulation suggests to us is in internet paper, that even if a coerced or manipulated agent is poesie, acting on her beliefs and desires, this isn’t enough for moral responsibility. We normally assume that coercion and research, certain forms of manipulation undercut an agent’s moral responsibility precisely because a coerced or manipulated agent isn’t the originator of her coerced action. Queen Thesis Statement. If Allison is citing paper research, coerced into walking her dog via brainwashing, then her walking of the dog originates in the brainwashing, and not in Allison herself. Consider, then, the similarities between cases of civil services 2013 essay coercion and manipulation, on the one hand, and the implications of the truth of citing determinism on queen statement, the other. If determinism were true, it might be true that Allison chooses to walk her dog because of her beliefs and desires, but those beliefs and desires would themselves be the inevitable products of in internet paper source causal chains that began millions of years ago. Thus, a determined agent is at most a source, but not the ultimate source, of algebra problems her volitions. According to proponents of this sort of argument for citing in internet, incompatibilism, the john dryden poesie, truth of determinism would mean that agents don’t cause their actions in the kind of way needed for free will and, ultimately, moral responsibility.
We can represent a formal version of the argument, called the Origination Argument, as follows: An agent acts with free will only if she is the originator (or ultimate source) of her actions. If determinism is true, then everything any agent does is ultimately caused by events and circumstances outside her control. If everything an citing in internet research source agent does is ultimately caused by events and circumstances beyond her control, then the agent is not the originator (or ultimate source) of her actions. Therefore, if determinism is true, then no agent is the originator (or ultimate source) of her actions.
Therefore, if determinism is true, no agent has free will. The Origination Argument is valid. American. So, in evaluating its soundness, we must evaluate the truth of its three premises. Premise 3 is clearly true, since for an agent to be an in internet paper originator just is for that agent not to be ultimately determined by case, anything outside of herself. Premise 2 of this argument is true by the definition of determinism. To reject the conclusion of the citing in internet paper, argument, one must therefore reject premise 1. Earlier we briefly noted one account of free will which implicitly denies premise 1, namely the hierarchical model of free will. According to algebra problems, this model, an agent acts with free will so long as the causal chain for paper source, that action goes through the what be an american, agent’s 1st- and in internet paper research, 2nd-order desires. Queen Victoria. One way of emphasizing the need for origination over-against such a hierarchical model is to embrace agent-causation. If premise 1 is true, then the in internet paper research, agent’s volition cannot be the product of a deterministic causal chain extended beyond the agent.
What other options are there? Two options are that volitions are uncaused, or only caused indeterministically. It is difficult to see how an john an essay poesie agent could be the citing in internet paper research source, originator or ultimate source of volitions if volitions are uncaused. Similarly, for reasons we saw above when discussing the free will pessimist, it looks as if indeterministic causation would undermine, rather than enhance, an agent’s control over research paper her volitions. For these reasons, some incompatibilists favor looking at citing research, the causation involved in volitions in a new light. Instead of holding that a volition is caused by a previous event (either deterministically or indeterministically), these incompatibilists favor saying that volitions are caused directly by agents. [For an study extended defense of this view, see O’Connor, (2000).] They hold that there are two irreducibly different kinds of causation, event-causation and agent-causation, and the latter is involved in free will. Proponents of agent-causation propose that agents are enduring substances that directly possess the power to cause volitions. Although many philosophers question whether agent-causation is citing in internet paper, coherent, if it were coherent, then it would provide support for premise 1 of the is to american, Origination Argument. c. The Relation between the in internet, Arguments.
The above way of delineating the Consequence and Origination Arguments may unfortunately suggest that the two kinds of queen arguments are more independent from research source, each other than they really are. A number of incompatibilists have argued that agents originate their actions in the way required by premise 1 of the carbon, Origination Argument if and only if they have a choice about their actions in the way suggested by citing paper, the Consequence Argument. In other words, if my future volitions are not the queen victoria, sort of thing that I have a choice about, then I do not originate those volitions. And as the above arguments contend, the truth of causal determinism threatens both our control over our actions and volitions, and our ability to originate those same actions and citing research source, volitions. For if causal determinism is true, then the distant past, when joined with the laws of nature, is sufficient for every volition that an agent makes, and the causal chains that lead to those volitions would not begin within the practice, agent. Thus, most incompatibilists think that having a choice and citing in internet source, being a self-determiner go hand-in-hand. Carbon. Robert Kane, for instance, argues that if agents have ultimate responsibility (his term for what is here called origination or self-determination), then they will also have alternative possibilities open to them. According to this line of argumentation, the power to cause one’s own actions is research source, not a distinct power from the power to choose and do otherwise. Thus, the two different kinds of arguments for incompatibilism may simply be two sides of the same coin [see Kane (1996) and (2005)]. 5. Services Mains. Arguments for Compatibilism (or Arguments against citing in internet paper, Incompatibilism)
Having laid out representatives of the two most prominent arguments for incompatibilism, let's consider arguments in favor of compatibilism. In considering these kinds of arguments, it is pedagogically useful to approach them by civil essay paper, using the arguments for incompatibilism. So, this section begins by considering ways that compatibilists have responded to source, the arguments given in the preceding section. a. Rejecting the Incompatibilist Arguments. As noted above, the queen thesis statement, Origination Argument for incompatibilism is valid, and two of its premises are above dispute. Thus, the only way for the compatibilist to reject the conclusion of the Origination Argument is to reject its first premise. In other words, given the definition of determinism, compatibilists must reject that free will requires an agent being the paper research, originator or ultimate source of her actions.
But how might this be done? Most frequently, compatibilists motivate a rejection of the ultimacy condition of free will by appealing to either a hierarchical or reasons-responsive view of what the will is [see Frankfurt, (1971) and what is to american, Fischer and Ravizza, (1998)]. If all that is required for free will, for example, is that a certain mesh between an agent’s 1st-order volitions and 2nd-order desires, then such an account does not require that an agent be the originator of in internet paper research source those desires. Furthermore, since the practice algebra, truth of determinism would not entail that agents don’t have 1st and 2nd-order desires and volitions, a hierarchical account of the will is compatible with the in internet research source, truth of determinism. Queen Thesis Statement. Similarly, if an agent has free will if she has the requisite level of reasons-responsiveness such that she would have willed differently had she had different reasons, ultimacy is again not required.
Thus, if one adopts certain accounts of the will, one has reason for rejecting the central premise of the Origination Argument. Compatibilists have a greater number of responses available to them with regard to the Consequence Argument. One way of understanding the N operator that figures in the Consequence Argument is in terms of having the ability to do otherwise. That is, to say that Allison has no choice about citing in internet paper source a particular action of law interview hers is to say that she could not have performed a different action (or even no action at all). Incompatibilists can easily account for this ability to do otherwise.
According to incompatibilists, an citing in internet paper research source agent can be free only if determinism is false. Consider again the case of Allison. If determinism is false, even though Allison did choose to walk her dog, she could have done otherwise than walk her dog since the conjunction of P and L is not sufficient for her taking her dog for a walk. Compatibilists, however, can give their own account of the law interview, ability to do otherwise. For them, to say that Allison could have done otherwise is simply to say that Allison would have done otherwise had she willed or chosen to do so [see, for example, Chisholm (1967)].
Of course, if determinism is true, then the only way that Allison could have willed or chosen to do otherwise would be if either the citing source, past or the laws were different than they actually are. In other words, saying that an agent could have done otherwise is to say that the agent would have done otherwise in american a different counterfactual condition. But saying this is entirely consistent with one way of understanding the ability to in internet research source, do otherwise. Thus, these compatibilists are saying that Allison has the ability to do something such that, had she done it, either the queen victoria thesis, past or the laws of nature would have been different than they actually are. If P and L entail that the agent does some action A , then the agent’s doing otherwise than A entails that either P or L would have been different than they actually are. Some compatibilists favor saying that agents have this counterfactual power over the past, while others favor counterfactual power over the laws of nature [Compare Lewis (1981) and Fischer (1984)]. Research Source. Regardless, adopting either strategy provides the compatibilist with a way of avoiding the conclusion of the Consequence Argument by denying either premise 4 or premise 6 of that argument. Algebra Problems. Furthermore, having such a power is not a hollow victory, for it demarcates a plausible difference between those actions an agent would have done even if she didn’t want to (as in citing in internet paper research the case of coercion or manipulation) from those actions that an agent only would have done had she had certain beliefs and desires about that action. This view thus differentiates between those actions that were within the agent’s power to bring about from those that were not. A second compatibilist response to the Consequence Argument is to deny the validity of the inference rule Beta the argument uses.
While there are several approaches to this, perhaps the be an, most decisive is the following, called the principle of Agglomeration [see McKay and Johnson (1996)]. Using only the inference rules Alpha, Beta and the basic rule of logical replacement, one can show that. if Beta were valid. Citing In Internet Research. 1 and 2 do not entail 3, so Beta must be invalid. To see why 3 does not follow from monoxide, 1 and 2, consider the case of a coin-toss. Citing Source. If the coin-toss is truly random, then Allison has no choice regarding whether the coin (if flipped) lands heads. Similarly, she has no choice regarding whether the coin (again, if flipped) lands tails. For purposes of simplicity, let us stipulate that the coin cannot land on its side and, if flipped, must land either heads or tails. Let p above represent ‘the coin doesn’t land heads’ and algebra, q represent ‘the coin doesn’t land tails’.
If Beta were valid, then 1 and 2 would entail 3, and Allison would not have a choice about the conjunction of p and q; that is, she wouldn’t have a choice about the coin not landing heads and the coin not landing tails. If Allison didn’t have a choice about the coin not landing heads and didn’t have a choice about the paper research source, coin not landing tails, then she wouldn’t have a choice about the coin landing either heads or tails. Civil Mains 2013 Essay. But Allison does have a choice about this—after all, she can ensure that the coin lands either heads or tails by simply flipping the coin. So Allison does have a choice about the citing in internet paper research, conjunction of p and american essay, q. Since Alpha and the relevant rules of logical replacement in the transformation from N p and N q to paper, N( p and thesis, q ) are beyond dispute, Beta must be invalid. Thus, the Consequent Argument for incompatibilism is invalid. [For an incompatibilist reply to citing in internet paper research, the argument from Agglomeration, see Finch and Warfield (1998).] b. Frankfurt’s Argument against the Ability to Do Otherwise Two other arguments for compatibilism build on the freedom requirement for moral responsibility. If one can show that moral responsibility is compatible with the truth of determinism, and if free will is required for moral responsibility, one will have implicitly shown that free will is what be an essay, itself compatible with the truth of determinism. The first of these arguments for compatibilism rejects the citing source, understanding of having a choice as involving the ability to civil mains essay paper, do otherwise mentioned above. While most philosophers have tended to accept that an citing in internet source agent can be morally responsible for doing an action only dryden an essay of dramatic, if she could have done otherwise, Harry Frankfurt has attempted to show that this requirement is in fact false.
Frankfurt gives an example in paper research which an agent does an action in circumstances that lead us to believe that the what american, agent acted freely [Frankfurt (1969); for recent discussion, see Widerker and in internet paper research source, McKenna (2003)]. Yet, unbeknown to the agent, the circumstances include some mechanism that would bring about the action if the agent did not perform it on what is to essay, her own. As it happens, though, the in internet paper source, agent does perform the action freely and mains 2013, the mechanism is not involved in bringing about the action. It thus looks like the citing in internet paper research, agent is what is to, morally responsible despite not being able to do otherwise. Here is one such scenario:
Allison is contemplating whether to citing, walk her dog or not. Algebra. Unbeknown to Allison, her father, Lloyd, wants to insure that that she does decide to walk the dog. He has therefore implanted a computer chip in her head such that if she is about to decide not to walk the dog, the chip will activate and coerce her into deciding to take the dog for a walk. Given the presence of the chip, Allison is unable not to decide to citing research source, walk her dog, and she lacks the ability to do otherwise. Poesie. However, Allison does decide to walk the dog on her own. In such a case, Frankfurt thinks that Allison is morally responsible for her decision since the citing in internet paper, presence of Lloyd and his computer chip play no causal role in her decision. Since she would have been morally responsible had Lloyd not been prepared to carbon, ensure that she decide to take her dog for a walk, why think that his mere presence renders her not morally responsible?
Frankfurt concludes that Allison is morally responsible despite lacking the ability to do otherwise. If Frankfurt is right that such cases are possible, then even if the in internet research source, truth of determinism is john of dramatic poesie, incompatible with a kind of citing freedom that requires the ability to do otherwise, it is compatible with the kind of freedom required for moral responsibility. In an influential article, Peter Strawson argues that many of the traditional debates between compatibilists and incompatibilists (such as how to understand the ability to do otherwise) are misguided [P. Strawson (1963)]. Strawson thinks that we should instead focus on what he calls the reactive attitudes—those attitudes we have toward other people based on their attitudes toward and treatment of us. Strawson says that the hallmark of reactive attitudes is study, that they are “essentially natural human reactions to the good or ill will or indifference of source others toward us, as displayed in their attitudes and actions.” Examples of reactive attitudes include gratitude, resentment, forgiveness and love. Strawson thinks that these attitudes are crucial to the interpersonal interactions and carbon monoxide research paper, that they provide the citing in internet research, basis for holding individuals morally responsible. Strawson then argues for services, two claims. The first of these is paper research source, that an agent’s reactive attitudes would not be affected by practice algebra problems, a belief that determinism was true: The human commitment to in internet paper source, participation in ordinary interpersonal relationships is, I think, too thoroughgoing and deeply rooted for us to take seriously the thought that a general theoretical conviction might so change our world that, in it, there were no longer such things as inter-personal relationships as we normally understand them.… A sustained objectivity of inter-personal attitude, and the human isolation which that would entail, does not seem to be something of which human beings would be capable, even if some general truth were a theoretical ground for it.
Furthermore, Strawson also argues for a normative claim: the truth of determinism should not undermine our reactive attitudes. Dryden Of Dramatic Poesie. He thinks that there are two kinds of cases where it is appropriate to suspend our reactive attitudes. Citing Research Source. One involves agents, such as young children or the mentally disabled, who are not moral agents. Strawson thinks that we should not have reactive attitudes toward non-moral agents. The second kind of case where it is appropriate to suspend our reactive attitudes are those in which while the agent is monoxide paper, a moral agent, her action toward us is not connected to source, her agency in the correct way. Queen Victoria Statement. For instance, while I might have the reactive attitude of resentment towards someone who bumps into me and makes me spill my drink, if I were to find out that the research, person was pushed into me, I would not be justified in resenting that individual. The truth of determinism, however, would neither entail that no agents are moral agents nor that none of an agent’s actions are connected to her moral agency. Thus, Strawson thinks, the truth of determinism should not undermine our reactive attitudes. Since moral responsibility is based on the reactive attitudes, Strawson thinks that moral responsibility is compatible with the truth of determinism. And if free will is practice, a requirement for moral responsibility, Strawson’s argument gives support to compatibilism.
The above discussion should help explain the perennial attraction philosophers have to the issues surrounding free will, particularly as it relates to citing in internet, causal determinism. However, free will is also intimately related to a number of other recurrent issues in the history of philosophy. In this final section, I will briefly articulate two other kinds of determinism and show how they are connected to free will. The debate about of dramatic free will and causal determinism parallels, in many ways, another debate about free will, this one stemming from what is often called ‘theological determinism’. Some religious traditions hold that God is ultimately responsible for in internet research, everything that happens. According to these traditions, God’s willing x is necessary and civil services paper, sufficient for paper source, x . But if He is ultimately responsible for everything in virtue of what He wills, then He is ultimately responsible for all the actions and volitions performed by carbon monoxide research, agents. God’s willing that Allison take the dog for in internet paper research, a walk is thus necessary and sufficient for Allison taking the dog for a walk.
But if this is true, it is hard to see how Allison could have free will. The problem becomes especially astute when considering tradition doctrines of eternal punishment. The traditional Christian doctrine of Hell, for example, is that Hell is a place of eternal punishment for non-repentant sinners. But if theological determinism is true, then whether or not agents repent is ultimately up to God, not to the agents themselves. This worry over free will thus gives rise to a particular version of the problem of evil: why does God not will that all come to faith, when His having such a will is carbon, sufficient for their salvation? [For a discussion of these, and related issues, see Helm, (1994).] In addition to the causal and theological forms of determinism, there is also logical determinism.
Logical determinism builds off the law of excluded middle and holds that propositions about what agents will do in the future already have a truth value. For instance, the proposition Allison will take the dog for a walk next Thursday is already true or false. Assume that it is true. Since token propositions cannot change in truth value over time, it was true a million years ago that Allison would walk her dog next Thursday. Citing Paper Research Source. But the truth of the relevant proposition is sufficient for her actually taking the dog for a walk (after all, if it is true that she will walk the is to, dog, then she will walk the citing in internet source, dog). But then it looks like no matter what happens, Allison will in fact take her dog for a walk next Thursday and case, that this has always been the case.
However, it is hard to see how Allison’s deciding to walk the dog can be a free decision since she must (given that the relevant token proposition is true and was true a million years ago) decide to walk him. In response to this problem, some philosophers have attempted to in internet research source, show that free will is case study, compatible with the existence of true propositions about what we will do in the future, and others have denied that propositions about future free actions have a truth value, that is, that the law of in internet research excluded middle fails for some propositions. [For an introduction to these issues, see Finch and Warfield, (1999) and Kane, (2002).] If God is a being who knows the truth value of every proposition, this debate also connects with the debate over the relationship between divine foreknowledge and free will. From this brief survey, we see that free will touches on central issues in metaphysics, philosophy of human nature, action theory, ethics and the philosophy of 2013 religion. Furthermore, we’ve seen that there are competing views regarding virtually every aspect of free will (including whether there is, or even could be, such a thing). Perhaps this partially explains the perennial philosophical interest in the topic.
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Alfred the Great: The Most Perfect Man in History? Barbara Yorke considers the reputation of in internet source King Alfred the practice algebra problems Great, and the enduring cult around his life and citing, legend. King Alfred of Wessex (r.871-99) is probably the best known of carbon monoxide research all Anglo-Saxon rulers, even if the citing in internet source first thing to come into many people’s minds in connection with him is something to do with burnt confectionery. Algebra? The year 1999 saw the 1100th anniversary of citing paper his death on October 26th, 899, at the age of about 50. The occasion is being marked with conferences and exhibitions in Winchester, Southampton and London, but the scale of celebrations will be modest compared with those which commemorated his millenary, and culminated in the unveiling by Lord Rosebery of his statue in Winchester. Dryden An Essay? Alfred’s reputation still stands high with historians, though few would now want to follow Edward Freeman in claiming him as ‘the most perfect character in history’ ( The History of the research Norman Conquest of England, 5 volumes, 1867-79). Alfred is carbon someone who has had greatness thrust upon him. How and why did he acquire his glowing reputation, and how does it stand up today? There can be no doubt that Alfred’s reign was significant, both for citing research source the direction of the country’s development and for the fortunes of his descendants.
After the kingdoms of Northumbria, East Anglia and Mercia had fallen to the Vikings, Wessex under Alfred was the an essay of dramatic poesie only surviving Anglo-Saxon province. Alfred nearly succumbed to the Vikings as well, but kept his nerve and won a decisive victory at the battle of Edington in 879. Further Viking threats were kept at bay by a reorganisation of military service and particularly through the ringing of Wessex by a regular system of garrisoned fortresses. Paper Source? At the same time Alfred promoted himself as the defender of all Christian Anglo-Saxons against the pagan Viking threat and began the liberation of neighbouring areas from Viking control. He thus paved the way for the future unity of England, which was brought to fruition under his son and grandsons, who conquered the what be an american remaining areas held by the Vikings in the east and north, so that by the mid-tenth century the England we are familiar with was ruled as one country for the first time.
His preservation from the Vikings and unexpected succession as king after the death of four older brothers, seem to have given Alfred a sense that he had been specially destined for high office. With the help of advisers from other areas of England, Wales and Francia, Alfred studied, and even translated from Latin into Old English, certain works that were regarded at the time as providing models of ideal Christian kingship and ‘most necessary for all men to know’. Citing Paper Research? Alfred tried to practice algebra problems, put these principles into practice, for instance, in the production of his law-code. He became convinced that those in paper authority in church or state could not act justly or effectively without the mains 2013 ‘wisdom’ acquired through study, and set up schools to ensure that future generations of priests and secular administrators would be better trained, as well as encouraging the nobles at in internet paper his court to emulate his own example in reading and mains, study. Alfred also had the foresight to commission his biography from Bishop Asser of Wales. Asser presented Alfred as the embodiment of the ideal, but practical, Christian ruler. In Internet Paper Research? Alfred was the practice ‘truthteller’, a brave, resourceful, pious man, who was generous to research, the church and anxious to poesie, rule his people justly. One could say that Asser accentuated the positive, and ignored those elements of ruthless, dictatorial behaviour which any king needed to survive in ninth-century realpolitik.
Alfred and Asser did such a good job that when later generations looked back at his reign through their works they saw only a ruler apparently more perfect than any before or after. Alfred is often thought to have provided his own epitaph in this passage from his translation of the Consolation of Philosophy by Boethius: I desired to live worthily as long as I lived, and to leave after my life, to the men who should come after me, the memory of me in good works. Alfred, particularly as presented by Asser, may have had something of a saint in him, but he was never canonised and citing paper source, this put him at something of a disadvantage in the later medieval world. The Normans and their successors were certainly interested in presenting themselves as the legitimate heirs of their Anglo-Saxon predecessors, but favoured the recognised royal saints, especially Edmund of the East Angles, killed by the Danish army which Alfred defeated, and Edward the what american Confessor, the last ruler of the old West Saxon dynasty. St Edmund and St Edward can be seen supporting Richard II on the Wilton diptych, and members of the later medieval royal houses were named after them. Nor were Alfred’s heroic defeats of the pagan Vikings enough to make him the favoured military hero of the post-Conquest period. None of the Anglo-Saxon rulers qualified for this role. Paper Source? After Geoffrey of Monmouth’s successful promotion, the British Arthur was preferred – a man whose reputation was not constrained by inconvenient facts, and who proved extremely adaptable to changing literary conventions. However, Alfred was lauded by Anglo-Norman historians, like William of Malmesbury, Gaimar and Matthew Paris, and their presentations, and occasional embellishments, of his achievements would be picked up by later writers.
Alfred’s well-attested interest in learning made him the obvious choice to be retrospectively chosen as the dryden poesie founder of Oxford University when that institution felt the need to establish its historical credentials in the 14th century. Alfred’s lack of a saintly epithet, a disadvantage in the high Middle Ages, was the salvation of his reputation in a post-Reformation world. As a pious king with an interest in citing research source promoting the use of English, Alfred was an ideal figurehead for the emerging English Protestant church. The works he had commissioned or translated were interpreted as evidence for the pure Anglo-Saxon church, before it had become tainted by civil services 2013 essay, the false Romanism introduced by the Normans. With a bit of selective editing, Anglo-Saxon ecclesiastical provision came to bear an uncanny resemblance to Elizabethan Anglicanism. Archbishop Matthew Parker did an important service to Alfred’s reputation by in internet paper, publishing an edition of Asser’s Life of law interview Alfred in 1574, even if he could not resist adding the story of the in internet paper research burnt cakes which came from a separate, later, Anglo-Saxon source. Perhaps even more significant for getting Alfred’s reputation widely known was the enthusiastic notice of him in John Foxe’s Book of Martyrs (1570 edition), where material derived from sources of Alfred’s own time was mixed with stories with a later currency, such as his visit to the Danish camp as a minstrel which was first recorded in a post-Conquest account.
It was also writers of the sixteenth century who promoted the designation of Alfred as ‘the Great’, an monoxide research paper, epithet that had never been applied to citing in internet paper research, him in the Anglo-Saxon period. Comparable claims of the contribution of the Anglo-Saxons to English life were used to support radical political change in the seventeenth century, when it was argued, for instance, that the right of all freemen to vote for research representatives in citing paper research source Parliament was a lost Anglo-Saxon liberty. The relative abundance of case study law interview sources from Alfred’s reign, including his surviving law-code and Asser’s description of his interest in law and administration, naturally meant that attention was drawn to him by citing in internet paper source, those searching for an ancient constitution to serve contemporary needs. Alfred himself was an unlikely champion for the more radical movements, and was more readily adopted by those who wanted to show Stuart, and eventually Hanoverian, rulers, how they could become successful constitutional monarchs by emulating their most famous Anglo-Saxon ancestor. Robert Powell, in his Life of Alfred, published in 1634, attempted to draw parallels between the reigns of Alfred and civil services mains, Charles I, something which often called for considerable ingenuity, and his hope that Charles would share the same respect for English law as that apparently shown by Alfred proved misplaced. Rather more impressive as a work of scholarship was Sir John Spelman’s Life of King Alfred , which drew upon citing paper research source an extensive range of is to be an primary material and itself became a source for later biographers. The work was dedicated to the future Charles II when Prince of Wales, and citing research source, was completed during the practice problems Civil War in 1642, in the royalist camp at Oxford. Citing In Internet? Spelman was to practice problems, die the following year of camp fever, and publication of the citing paper research source biography was delayed until more propitious times. In fact, any attempts to monoxide research, interest Stuart monarchs in their Saxon forebears had only a limited success. The Stuarts’ preferred cultural reference points were from the classical world rather than the history of their own islands. The common Saxon heritage of the Hanoverians and in internet, the Anglo-Saxons provided more fertile ground for the promotion of a cult of King Alfred.
His first aristocratic and royal backers came from the algebra circle which gathered around Frederick, Prince of research source Wales (1707-51), the eldest son of George II, and mains paper, was united by the opposition of its members to the prime minister Robert Walpole. Walpole’s opponents called themselves ‘the Patriots’, and Alfred was the first ‘Patriot King’, who had saved his country from tyranny, as it was devoutly hoped Frederick himself would do when he succeeded his father. A number of literary works centred upon Alfred were dedicated to the prince. Sir Richard Blackmore’s Alfred: an Epick Poem in in internet paper research source Twelve Books (1723) enlivened the conventional accounts of what essay Alfred’s reign with an extensive description of in internet paper research his imaginary travels in Europe and Africa, in which were concealed many heavy-handed compliments to Prince Frederick. Of much more lasting worth was Thomas Arne’s masque Alfred , which was first performed in 1740 at the prince’s country seat of what is to be an american essay Cliveden. The main text was provided by two authors already active in Frederick’s cause, James Thomson and David Mallett, but included an ode by citing paper research, Viscount Bolingbroke, one of the leaders of the opposition to Walpole who had defined their political philosophy in his essay ‘The Idea of a Patriot King’ (1738). A visual representation of this political manifesto was provided in Lord Cobham’s pleasure grounds at Stowe. Alfred’s bust was included alongside those of other Whig heroes in ‘The Temple of monoxide research paper British Worthies’ completed in 1734-35 by William Kent. Alfred is described as ‘the mildest, justest, most beneficient of kings’ who ‘crush’d corruption, guarded liberty, and citing in internet, was the founder of the English constitution’, in paper pointed reference to qualities which George II was felt to lack. Alfred’s bust was placed next to that of the Black Prince, a Prince of Wales whose noble qualities were perceived as having been inherited by Frederick, particularly if he followed the example of King Alfred rather than that of his father.
The Stowe landscape gardens also contain a Gothic Temple, in which ‘Gothic’ should be understood as ancient Germanic. Citing In Internet Research Source? The building was dedicated ‘to the Liberty of our Ancestors’, and john of dramatic, was surrounded by statues of Germanic deities (albeit in Classical pose), while the ceiling of the dome was decorated with the arms of the citing in internet paper source earls of Mercia from services mains essay, whom Lord Cobham claimed descent. This new interest in the Germanic past began to trickle down to other sectors of society. Those who could not afford to erect their own monuments to Alfred’s greatness might nevertheless find remembrances of him in the Wessex landscape. In Internet Research Source? In 1738, the antiquarian Francis Wise, hoping to improve his promotion prospects at the University of Oxford, produced a pamphlet ‘concerning some antiquities in Berkshire’ in carbon paper which he argued that the White Horse of Uffington had been cut to commemorate Alfred’s victory over paper, the Vikings at the battle of Ashdown, and that all other visible antiquities nearby had some connection with the campaign.
His claims were entirely spurious, but helped to publicise the idea that Alfred’s influence permeated the very fabric of the country. Those who could not have a Saxon memorial in their grounds or in the nearby countryside could at law interview least own a print of the new genre of History painting. Alfredian topics, especially ‘Alfred in the neatherd’s cottage’ (the cake-burning episode), were among those frequently reproduced. Alfred at citing in internet research source Stowe was also remembered as one ‘who drove out the Danes, secur’d the seas’, and his role as defender of the country and supposed founder of the British navy ensured him increasing fame as the country found itself embroiled in frequent foreign wars as the monoxide reign of Frederick’s son, George III, progressed. A series of patriotic Alfred plays, opera and ballets were performed, particularly during the French Wars (1793-1815). More often than not they ended with the rousing anthem which had closed Arne’s Alfred, ‘Rule Britannia’, which became increasingly popular as an expression of loyalty to in internet paper research source, the crown under the threat of foreign attack.
It was from this period that ‘Alfred’ became favoured as a Christian name at all levels of society. As in other European countries, a new national pride in nineteenth-century England had an important historical dimension, and an accompanying cult of the heroes who had made later success possible. The English, it was believed, could trace language and constitutional continuity back to the fifth century when they had defeated the effete Romans, and research paper, it became increasingly felt that other, positive, facets of ‘the national character’ could be traced back this far as well. Citing In Internet Paper Research Source? These characteristics were felt to have made those of Anglo-Saxon descent uniquely programmed for success, and to rule other less fortunately endowed peoples, and the best of what is to american essay them were represented by King Alfred himself. Alfred was fast being rediscovered as ‘the most perfect character in history’, and alongside his defence of in internet source constitutional liberties, his country and true religion, was added renewed admiration for his Christian morality and sense of duty. Anglo-Saxonism, and the accompanying Alfredism, could be found on both sides of the Atlantic. Thomas Jefferson had ingeniously argued that, as the Anglo-Saxons who had settled in Britain had ruled themselves independently from their Continental homelands, so the English settlers of America should also be allowed their independence. He believed both countries shared an Anglo-Saxon heritage, and proposed a local government for civil services mains 2013 essay paper Virginia based on a division into hundreds, an citing in internet paper research, Anglo-Saxon institution widely believed then to have been instituted by Alfred. A less attractive side of this fascination with Anglo-Saxon roots was that it helped foster a belief in racial superiority, as celebrated in a shortlived periodical called The Anglo-Saxon (1849-50), which aimed to demonstrate how ‘the whole earth may be called the what be an Fatherland of the citing paper research Anglo-Saxon. He is a native of every clime – a messenger of heaven to every corner of this Planet.’ One of the queen victoria thesis statement chief supporters of The Anglo-Saxon , who wrote large segments of it if no other copy was available, was Martin Tupper, the author of several volumes of popular, highly sentimental and moralistic verses. Alfred was one of Tupper’s particular heroes, largely because he felt many of the citing in internet source King’s writings anticipated his own, and it was through his impetus that the millenary of Alfred’s birth at Wantage was celebrated in 1849, one of the earliest of all such jubilees.
The event was not the success for carbon monoxide paper which Tupper had hoped, largely because he left arrangements rather late in the day and had no influential backers. Many of the details were still not fixed on the eve of the event to the indignation of the few local gentry inveigled into attending, but the event still managed to attract crowds estimated at 8,000-10,000 who enjoyed traditional games and an ox-roast, as well as Tupper’s specially composed Jubilee song: Anglo-Saxons! – in love are we met. To honour a name we can never forget! Father, and paper research, Founder, and King of a race. John Dryden An Essay Of Dramatic Poesie? That reigns and rejoices in citing in internet paper every place, Root of a tree that o’ershadows the earth. First of a Family blest from his birth. Blest in this stem of civil services 2013 essay paper their strength and their state.
Alfred the Wise, and the Good, and the Great! During the reign of Victoria, who gave birth to the first Prince Alfred since the Anglo-Saxon period (b.1844), King Alfred was accepted as founder of the in internet nation and its essential institutions to such an extent that one commentator was moved to complain ‘it is what is to be an surely a mistake to make Alfred, as some folks seem to do, into a kind of ninth-century incarnation of a combined School Board and County Council’. Alfred was no longer a mirror for princes, but an exemplar for people at paper research source all levels of society and, above all, for children. Practice Algebra Problems? Charles Dickens’s A Child’s History of England (1851-53) can stand for many such works where Alfred was used to in internet source, demonstrate the best of the is to be an american essay English character: The noble king . in his single person, possessed all the Saxon virtues. Citing Research Source? Whom misfortune could not subdue, whom prosperity could not spoil, whose perseverance, nothing could shake. Who was hopeful in defeat, and study, generous in success. Who loved justice, freedom, truth and knowledge. So much had Alfred become the epitome of the citing in internet research source ideal Victorian that Walter Besant, in monoxide research paper a lecture on Alfred in citing paper research 1897, thought it entirely appropriate to apply to him verse that Alfred, Lord Tennyson had written to commemorate Prince Albert. Alfred was no longer the victoria thesis totem of one political party. In 1877 Robert Loyd-Lindsay, Conservative MP for Berkshire and a perfect exemplar of the paternal landlord of Disraeli’s ‘Young England’ movement, provided Wantage with the statue that Tupper had hoped to raise in 1849, but for which he had failed to get funds.
Wantage also got the grand occasion it had missed then as Edward, Prince of Wales, to whom Lindsay had once been an equerry, unveiled the statue carved by Count Gleichen, one of the Prince’s German cousins. In Internet Paper? In 1901, the year of Queen Victoria’s death, there were even greater celebrations to john dryden an essay poesie, commemorate the millenary of in internet paper research source that of Alfred. Problems with the calculation of Anglo-Saxon dates meant it was widely believed then that Alfred had died in john dryden of dramatic poesie 901, rather than 899, which is now recognised as the true date of his death, but at the time it seemed particularly apposite to many that the great Queen and her illustrious forebear had died a thousand years apart. Citing In Internet Research? On the surface the Alfred millenary appeared to fulfil its aim, as advertised in the National Committee’s prospectus, of being ‘a National Commemoration of the king to whom this Empire owes so much’. The procession through the heart of Winchester to the site of Hamo Thornycroft’s giant statue of the King, included representatives of Learned Societies and Universities ‘from all lands where the English speaking-race predominate’ (needless to say, they were all white males) and members of the monoxide research paper different armed forces.
Alfred was further commemorated in the same year by the launching of a new Dreadnought, the HMS King Alfred . But in 1901 Britain was embroiled in the Boer War, and the priority was the reality of the present rather than an imagined past. The National Committee did not raise nearly as much money as it had expected and had to in internet paper research, abandon many of its ambitious plans, including one for a Museum of Early English History. Many were worried at the direction Britain’s imperial policy was taking. Charles Stubbs, Dean of Ely, took advantage of the millenary year to suggest that Alfred’s standards were not only in advance of his own age, but in advance of those of many statesman of the present day, especially in their conduct of the Boer War, which had been prompted by ‘insolence of pride . by passion of thesis vengeance . by lust of gold’. But there was also a more positive side to the celebrations when Alfred was used, as he had been in the past, as a cloak for the introduction of change in society. It was not by chance that the statue was unveiled by the Liberal leader Lord Rosebery, for the former Whig support for British Worthies had never completely died away, and Liberals were prominent in the many commemorations of the latter part of the nineteenth century. It was a row over the statue of Oliver Cromwell, commissioned in 1895 by Rosebery from Thornycroft for the House of Commons, that precipitated the former’s resignation as Prime Minister. The most active members of the National Committee were leading Liberals and others, like the paper research positivist Frederic Harrison and litterateur Walter Besant, who were associated with them in research paper the promotion of Working Mens’ Colleges or the London County Council, formed in in internet 1888 with Lord Rosebery as its first Chairman. Most active of all in the promotion of Alfred was the secretary of the National Committee and mayor of Winchester, Alfred Bowker, who used the millenary as an opportunity to develop the profile and scope of the Corporation of Winchester by, for instance, purchasing the site of Alfred’s final resting-place at civil 2013 paper Hyde Abbey with adjoining land that could be used for public recreation (as it still is today). Lord Rosebery commented that the citing source statue he was to unveil in Winchester. Algebra Problems? can only paper research source be an effigy of the imagination, and so the Alfred we reverence may well be an civil services essay, idealised figure . we have draped round his form . all the highest attributes of in internet paper source manhood and kingship. Alfred, though no doubt gratified by his posthumous fame, would have trouble recognising himself in some of study his later manifestations, and would find it difficult to comprehend, let alone approve, some of the constitutional developments he was supposed to have championed.
One hopes that it will not be possible for such a wide divorce between an in internet, idealised Alfred and john dryden of dramatic, the reality of Anglo-Saxon rule to occur again, but it is possible that Alfred’s symbolic career is not over. Now that Britain is relapsing into its regional components, who better than Alfred, the champion of the paper research source English language and Anglo-Saxon hegemony, to be a figurehead of the new England? Barbara Yorke is Reader in History at King Alfred’s College, Winchester. Be An? Her latest book is Anglo-Saxons (Sutton Pocket Histories, 1999). Sign up for our free weekly email. First step on the road to citing paper, Waterloo. Queen Victoria Thesis? By Marisa Linton. By Susan Reed, Katya Rogatchevskaia. Citing In Internet Source? By Jeffrey Meyers. Brutal Saviours of the Black Patch. The French Revolution#039;s Angel of carbon Death.
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CNA Classes Guide: Salary Info and in internet research More. A complete guide on CNA jobs, CNA classes online and CNA salary info. Learn how to find CNA schools near you and earn your certification. If you are a compassionate and nurturing individual, then the case law interview certified nursing assistant (CNA) career can be ideal for you. Also known as State-Tested Nursing Aides (STNAs), Nursing Assistants (NAs) or Patient Care Assistants (PCAs), CNAs are professionals who help patients with basic healthcare needs, often under the supervision of registered nurses, licensed practical nurses and other healthcare professionals. Use the search box below to in internet research source, find cna schools by city or state or zip code or school name: What should you consider when choosing a certified nursing assistant school?
The school’s programs must meet the state certification requirements The programs must be approved by practice algebra the State’s Board of citing research, Nursing The school should have enough teachers, resources and an appropriate environment for learning practical skills The school should be supportive to students as they prepare for is to be an american the certification exams The school’s program should be flexible enough to accommodate your personal and educational needs The program cost should be within your reach. An ideal cna program should offer classes in: Anatomy and physiology Medical terminology Body mechanics Mental health care Patient Rights Nursing Skills such as restorative care, basic medical procedures, critical observation, infection control and citing communication. Find local and practice online Certified Nursing Assistant programs below. It’s free!
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Are Online CNA Programs right for research you? First, it’s always important to in internet paper, check out your state’s requirements. Before you jump into an online CNA program, you need to make sure that program adheres to case study, your state’s CNA guidelines. Citing Paper Research Source? To do this, check out your state’s Department of Public Health website. Here you will be able to find any information you need on CNA certification guidelines and CNA training programs in your area. Civil Mains 2013 Paper? You’ll also be able to find out in internet source which online programs have been approved and contact a state public health official that can answer any questions you might have. CNAnursing Expert Tip: Check out this short video about one of your CNA duties. What you’ll need to succeed online: In order to take advantage of online CNA courses and civil services 2013 essay paper distance learning, you’ll need:
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By typing the right keywords in the search engines, you can easily know when there are new job openings. Likewise, it is essential to register in websites, forums, blogs and newsletters that provide information on civil services mains 2013 essay paper, the latest CNA jobs. Check out in internet research nursing job boards: There are several nursing assistant sites that post the latest jobs. Checking out these sites can allow you to know of and john dryden an essay apply for a certified nursing assistant job as soon as it is advertised. Citing Research? Some of the job boards include: NursingCenter.com Healthjobsplus.com Careerbuilder.com Nursingworld.org Hospitaljobsonline.com NSNA.org Prepare and send your resume and cover letter: You should take your time to produce an algebra, appealing, descriptive and error-free resume and cover letter to send to in internet paper, your potential employer as soon as you locate a job opportunity. Prepare well for interviews: The interview can make or break your employment chances and you should not take it for granted. Make sure to review your course content, to look back at your practical experience in clinical settings and to research the history and operations of algebra problems, your potential employer. Also make sure to read some interview tips and to prepare yourself with answers for the most frequently asked questions. A successful performance in paper source an interview will help you to get your coveted certified nursing assistant job. The nursing assistant position holds good prospects for employment and john dryden of dramatic poesie wages.
The average annual salary for a CNA is $30,020. CNAs falling in the lowest 10-percent may earn less than $18,600 per year while the most experienced ones who fall in the upper 10-percent earn $38,780 or higher. Paper Research Source? Owing to increasing aging population, the CNAs have been on high demand and their salaries have been growing steadily. CNAnursing Expert Tip: Find your state below to services mains 2013 paper, see how much CNA’s get paid on average hourly/yearly. While the numbers of nurse aide jobs keep growing, the paper research source salaries earned by CNAs depend on law interview, a number of factors, including experience, certification, location and industry. In Internet Paper Research Source? For instance, experienced CNAs have more prestige in the field because of their wealth of knowledge and practical capacity. Therefore, they earn higher salaries than those who are just entering the field. An experienced nursing assistant can earn $38,740 per year or more while an algebra problems, inexperienced CNA can earn below $18,000 per citing in internet paper source year. Similarly, nursing aides with the requisite certifications will usually earn higher than those with fewer or no certifications. Equally, industries that absorb highly skilled nursing assistants, such as research and development services, the Federal Executive Branch and other industries, usually pay at least $24,650 per year to CNAs. CNA salaries also vary according to the location of the nurse aide.
For instance, states such as New York, Alaska and Connecticut are among the top-paying states. The top-paying states also boast of high-paying metropolitan areas, which offer salaries between $32,000 and $41,000. Top 5 States by CNA Salary. Alaska with average annual salary of $34,990 New York with average annual salary of $31,840 Connecticut with average annual salary of $31,660 Nevada with average annual salary of $31,270 District of Columbia with average annual salary of $30,300. Top 5 Metropolitan Areas. San Francisco-Redwood, CA with average annual salary of $41,010 Fairbanks, AK with average annual salary of $36,840 San Jose- Sunnyvale- Santa Clara, CA with average annual salary of $36,210 Nassau-Suffolk, NY with average annual salary of $36,000 Oakland-Freemont-Hayward, CA with average annual salary of $34,890.
Top 5 Industries By CNA Salary. Federal Executive Branch with average annual salary of $37,920 Universities, Professional Schools and Colleges with average annual salary of $34,410 Scientific Research and Development Services with average annual salary of $32,680 State Government with average annual salary of $32,120 Insurance Carriers with average annual salary of $31,649. Top 5 States with Highest CNA Employment Levels. California with over 110,400 jobs per year and average annual salary of $29,170 New York with over 109, 200 jobs per civil services paper year and average annual salary of $31,840 Texas with over 96,860 jobs per year and average annual salary of paper source, $23,150 Florida with over 94,750 jobs per year and john dryden an essay poesie average annual salary of $24,080 Pennsylvania with over citing in internet paper source 81,460 jobs per year and average annual salary of $27,290. Comparing CNA Salary to case law interview, the Salaries of Related Careers. Medical Assistant earns an average annual salary of in internet paper research, $29,370 Coding Specialist/Medical Billing Expert earns an john dryden an essay of dramatic, average annual salary of $34,160 Pharmacy Technician earns an average annual salary of $29,320 Health Information Manager earns an average annual salary of $88,580 Phlebotomy Technician earns an average annual salary of in internet paper, $29,730 Radiologic Technologist earns an average annual salary of $55,910 Dental Assistant earns an average annual salary of john of dramatic poesie, $34,500 Medical Transcriptionist earns an average annual salary of $34,020 Medical Lab Technician earns an average annual salary of $37,240 Medical Office Manager earns an average annual salary of $76,870 Veterinary Technician earns an average annual salary of $30,290 Surgical Technologist earns an average annual salary of paper, $41,790.
To earn higher salaries, CNAs can opt for careers that give them more authority in the medical field. Dryden Of Dramatic? There are several specialties that can suite their work schedules and immediate lifestyle, and which can also help them to in internet paper research, transition quickly from their jobs to law interview, higher levels. Some specialties that CNAs should consider for their advancement include: Advanced Practice Nursing: By taking a degree program in advanced nursing practice, CNAs can specialize in critical care, gynecology, palliative care, psychiatric nursing and citing research source other areas that pay more and what is to be an have more potential for citing paper career growth. Is To Be An American Essay? Radiology/Sonography: Opting for in internet training in dryden radiology or sonography will help the nursing aide to play a part in the diagnosis and citing in internet source treatment process, and to algebra, earn more salary and paper research have greater career advancement opportunities. Psychiatric Nursing: Psychiatric nurses deal with a highly sensitive group of patients and typically earn higher salaries that nursing assistants. Medical school: For nursing assistants who find the medical environment perfect for their career development, opting to enroll in a medical school is a huge and positive step. However, the poesie CNAs will need to take up to 12 years of schooling before they can finally become physicians and earn more than triple the citing in internet paper research source CNA salary. If you seek to move from a CNA into a nursing or medical degree program, you should follow these guidelines in order to keep a smooth transition: Do not quit your day job: Advanced training in nursing or medicine requires a lot of money and civil services mains can easily throw you into debt.
Hence, you should keep your job to get some money to in internet paper research source, pay your fees. Besides, some employers will even offer to pay your continuing education fees if you accept to work for research paper a certain minimum amount of time every day. Citing In Internet Paper Source? If you find that the classes consume much of what be an american, your time and you cannot take overtime duties, at citing in internet source, least keep your day job. Choose a specialty: As a practicing CNA, you will be fortunate to john an essay poesie, have experience in the hospital environment and in specific sections of health care. Make sure to citing source, choose a specialty in which you are experienced. Also, ask your facility supervisor to write a recommendation letter to be attached to your application credentials.
Network: Working in a hospital or health facility exposes you to a number of people in the nursing community. Queen? It is prudent to network with these people and to inform them of your intention to pursue higher nursing or medical education. Networking can easily help you to secure admission into a nursing college or university. Keep learning: Even before you begin your advanced training, you should continuously study and learn new things in the field. Citing In Internet Paper Research Source? New technologies are always affecting the procedures of nursing practice and carbon monoxide paper keeping up with the changes will make your qualifications and experience relevant at work and during your studies. Make sure to read peer-reviewed medical journals frequently and to attend continuous education sessions in your facility of practice. Certified nursing assistants are front line patient care professionals who perform vital responsibilities to minimize the stress of sickness on patients, especially those who are incapable of caring for themselves. CNAs are found in every setting where there is need for personal patient care as they are relied upon to offer basic care and free up LPNs and RNs to perform more complex procedures and tasks that require advanced training and citing in internet expertise. While the queen victoria thesis statement duties of a nursing assistant may vary from one setting to in internet paper research source, another, the professionals typically provide hands-on contact with patients through helping the practice problems patients with basic tasks such as dressing, eating, bathing, getting in and out of bed, grooming, exercises, walking and getting into wheelchairs.
The core duties of CNAs include: Ensuring high-degree personal hygiene for patients by helping with baths and showers, assisting with movement to bathrooms and toilets, and giving shampoos, shaves, backrubs, urinals, bedpans and baths. Providing daily living activities such as feeding patients, serving meals, ambulating, positioning and turning patients, and providing nourishment and freshwater between meals. Providing adjunct care through administration of douches, enemas, non-sterile dressings, heat treatments, surgical preps, ice packs, sitz baths and therapeutic baths; and applying restraints. Maintaining patient stability through prompt checking of citing in internet, vital signs and john dryden of dramatic poesie weight, recording intake and output volumes, and testing urine. Ensuring patient comfort by applying appropriate materials and resources, transporting patients, answering patient calls, and paper research source reporting observations and changes to nursing supervisors. Documenting activities by completing forms, logs, records and reports. Maintaining best nursing practices by adhering to be an, procedures and policies. Protecting the citing in internet research organization’s value to the patient by keeping all patient data confidential. Serving and protecting the hospital community by observing professional standards, federal, state and civil services mains essay paper local requirements, jcaho standards, and hospital procedures and policies.
Enhancing the reputation of the citing in internet paper research source nursing desk and hospital by exploring opportunities for value addition in daily tasks. Updating professional knowledge and practical competence through reading professional publications, participating in continuous education opportunities, maintaining licensure, and participating in relevant professional organizations. Typically, the nursing assistants work in hospitals, retirement communities, physician offices, community care centers and nursing care facilities where may take and record vital signs, administer medications, deliver lab samples, change bedpans, make beds, listen to patient concerns, and report mental and physical changes in patient condition to is to be an american, other members of the healthcare team, and monitor patient nutrition and hydration. In some patient care facilities, the CNAs act as the primary caregivers and offer emotional and in internet paper research social support to patients. And whereas NAs in hospital environments often work with different patients each day, the CNAs in long-term care settings usually foster closer relationships with few patients.
CNAs are not authorized to give medical advice or to research paper, diagnose patients. Since the work environment is taxing, individuals aspiring to be CNAs must have strong work ethic and in internet research unwavering resilience. The job is essay, often performed indoors, but it requires physical ability. For instance, nurse aides lift equipment, food, clothing, bedding and citing paper source other supplies, and move patients when necessary. John Of Dramatic Poesie? Certified nursing assistants generally work the same number of hours as other healthcare personnel, often in three 12-hour shifts a week or in five 8-hour shifts a week. The CNAs may also work overtime, at citing paper research source, nights, holidays and victoria thesis weekends because most hospitals, long-term care facilities and nursing homes are usually opened all day long. Nonetheless, the CNA is an ideal choice for in internet paper all individuals who are seeking career stability and those who are committed to monoxide research, helping others. Careers Similar to Nursing Assistant.
CNAs, psychiatric aides, medical assistants and orderlies are usually grouped together into one large class, and citing research source while the jobs share a number of duties, there are fundamental differences. Here are the differences: Psychiatric Aides: The career is similar to the nursing assistant job except for the work setting. John Poesie? Psychiatric aides work in psychiatric hospitals and mental health wards where they follow different routines compared to citing in internet paper source, regular hospital environments. Monoxide Research Paper? Psychiatric aides also deal with unique privacy concerns and exclusive patient care and treatment needs. Orderlies: Orderlies are hospital attendants who deal with non-medical patient care and handle general maintenance for systematic operations.
They do not need certificates or degrees to enter their careers, and in internet research they typically interact with patients only during non-treatment activities. Medical Assistants: These personnel do not need certificates or degrees to practice and their core duties are to help nurses and doctors with their daily tasks. Medical assistants have lesser authority to queen victoria thesis statement, indulge in citing research source patient treatment and care than CNAs. Certified Nurse Assistants: CNAs interact with the patients directly and participate in patient care and treatment more often. Queen Victoria? They take vital signs, collect patient data, maintain patient hygiene and citing research source administer basic care. John An Essay Of Dramatic Poesie? Due to citing in internet source, their certification and training, the CNAs have more authority to participate in patient treatment than medical assistants. In fact, CNAs are paid better than medical assistants. To become a certified nursing assistant, you must first complete a technical training program in order to master the skills necessary for success in the field.
The requirement for entry into the nursing assistant training program is a high school diploma, a GED or any relevant form of post-secondary education. The NA certificate programs take 6-12 weeks and are offered in community colleges, medical facilities, trade schools, online schools, and institutions of higher learning. The coursework in CNA programs include basic nursing skills, anatomy, physiology, nutrition, personal care skills, basic restorative services, infection control, resident’s rights, caring for cognitively impaired patients, social service needs, mental health and pharmacology. Practical skills are usually learned by the students during clinical activities and be an american essay supervised training with residents of in internet, nursing homes. After completing a formal CNA training program, you will complete a state certification exam before you can earn the title CNA. To be successful in the exams and in the field, you should be well-organized and efficient as well as having proper mastery of the course details. Attention to queen victoria thesis, detail and ability to multi-task are also critical for success as a nursing assistant. There are many employment opportunities to nurse aides, which arise from new openings and research source high rates of problems, turnover, but you must be aggressive enough to secure the best opportunities. Indeed, while some degree of research source, training and professionalism is required in nursing assisting, the queen thesis barriers to entry into in internet research the career are much fewer than for many other positions in the healthcare sector.
Therefore, if you are passionate about working in the medical industry, then the CNA career can be an easier option. Moreover, the nursing assistant position can provide a path to career development and advancement into higher fields in the nursing and healthcare industry. If you want to become a certified nursing assistant, you must have a high school diploma or a GED in order to register for a certificate program in a nursing assistant course. The courses you take in high school should include biology, chemistry and extra science classes in order to prepare you for dryden of dramatic poesie training. Paper? While you do not need a degree to practice as a nursing assistant, you will need to complete 75-150 hours of training and to take a state-sanctioned competency exam before you can earn the title CNA. Prior to enrolling in a training program, you will need to what be an essay, take a background check and drug tests, which must confirm your integrity and good health before admission into the training programs. In Internet Paper? Since as a nursing assistant you will be a principal link between patients and LPNs or RNs, you must also have strong communication skills and queen the ability to work in citing in internet paper source a team. If you choose to get your training via a local healthcare facility, make sure to read and comprehend the facility’s contract before accepting it. Some facilities require aspiring CNAs to problems, work for a certain minimum length of time before receiving their certification.
If you find such contracts with local hospitals inconveniencing, you should opt for training in vocational schools, community colleges, online training programs and in internet paper source other organizations such as the Red Cross. Regardless of where you take the monoxide course, the training program will last 6-12 months, with most classes focusing on on-site training. Nonetheless, you must make sure that the program is accredited by the National League for Nursing Accredited Commission (NLNAC) and in internet source is approved by thesis your state in order to avoid wasting your time and money on non-accredited courses. To practice as a nursing g assistant, you must take a competency test comprising of multiple choice and practical questions to demonstrate your nurse skills theoretically and practically. If you pass the competency tests, you will be issued with a completion certificate in readiness for the state certification exam in 3-4 months. While some states allow trained NAs to practice without state certification, federal legislation requires certification.
Therefore, you should prioritize certification as soon as possible to increase your employment opportunities, earn more pay and rise quickly in the nursing assistant ladder.