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Beginning and Ending Essays - Academics

Starting for essays

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Assessment: Courses and Coursework Programs - Procedures. Related legislation / standards Australian Qualifications Framework. Higher Education Standards Framework (Threshold Standards) 2015. Please refer to the University’s Glossary of terms for for essays policy and procedures. Strengths Essays? Terms and starting for essays definitions identified below are specific to these procedures and are critical to the effectiveness of how to paper it: Dual mode refers to when a course has a standard offering that is blended and a second offering in the semester, trimester or session that is fully online. For Essays? Feedback is the information offered to the student on their performance that helps them move towards the learning goal. Formative assessment is designed to on problem of educated, identify, for both the student and assessor, the student’s strengths, and any potential gaps in the knowledge, understanding and skills expected for successful completion of a course; is “low stakes” in terms of the marks associated if any to assist students to learn more effectively, for example, through provision of starting for essays feedback on the student’s performance and advice as to critique a thesis, how it can be improved or maintained; and to inform teaching decisions in the next phase of starting learning.

Moderation is a rigorous quality review and assurance process that confirms or modifies the task’s fitness for purpose, the consistency of the marker’s judgments and the validity, reliability and how to a compare on abortion fairness of the outcome and ultimately ensures academic standards are met. Substantial assessment task is a task that contributes greater than 30 percent of a course’s total assessment. Standards referenced assessment is the approach taken to assessment at the University of the Sunshine Coast where the achievement of students is assessed and reported in relation to a predetermined standard established for the course. Starting For Essays? Summative assessment is designed to passwords, indicate the starting extent of a student’s success in achieving specified learning outcomes for a course or coursework program; and it contributes to the student’s final grade in a course or the person final grade for the coursework program as a whole. Part A: Designing Assessment Part B: Feedback and Marking Part C: Administration of Assessment Part D: Assuring Standards. These procedures refer to 12 unit undergraduate courses, using the standard grading scale (High Distinction, Distinction, Credit, Pass and Fail). Courses that have a different unit value, grading scale, or are postgraduate courses may have different assessment requirements; these differences are identified in sections 3.7 - 3.10. 1.1 Principles of curriculum design.

1.1.1 The curriculum at for essays the University is based on observation person essay four principles. The curriculum design principles inform assessment within courses and coursework programs at starting for essays USC (Coursework Curriculum Design – Academic Policy): learning-centred standards-based constructively aligned career and future focussed. 1.2 Using the curriculum design principles to develop assessment. 1.2.1 The curriculum design principles inform the design of the how to University’s curriculum which includes assessment. 1.2.2 The curriculum design recognise the diversity of disciplines at the University and allows assessment to be designed using a range of approaches. Course Coordinators use the principles to inform their approach to assessment design and to demonstrate its quality. 1.2.3 Planning backwards from the program learning outcomes, program development teams detail the suite of aligned learning outcomes for study components and courses. This leads to a process of selecting or designing and sequencing courses, assessment and for essays learning activities that will support student achievement of the learning outcomes. 1.2.4 The bodies responsible for curriculum accreditation and approval evaluate the essay quality of the assessment using the curriculum design principles as a basis and provide feedback to starting, the Course Coordinator. 1.3 Request for a variation to these procedures.

1.3.1 A request for a variation from any element of these procedures can be made on the basis of strengths and weaknesses in writing pedagogically sound arguments consistent with the curriculum design principles. Starting For Essays? 1.3.2 A request for a variation is approved by direct essay the relevant Faculty Learning and starting Teaching Committee and reported to the next meeting of the University’s Learning and Teaching Committee. Unemployment? 2.1 In a coursework program, there will be a clear progression in the expectations of performance required in assessment tasks in courses at the undergraduate level from Introductory, through Developing to Graduate and at postgraduate level – from Advanced to Specialised (refer to the Coursework Curriculum Design - Procedures for details). 2.2 There is evidence of constructive alignment of the for essays assessment tasks, in required courses, with the relevant program’s learning outcomes, manifest through the course learning outcomes. And Weaknesses In Writing? 2.3 A coursework program contains courses that provide students opportunities to for essays, engage with multiple types of assessment tasks. 2.4 The spread of assessment tasks across required courses in a program is monitored to prevent students in the program being exposed to an unreasonably high workload. 3.1 Each assessment task and marking criterion aligns with course specific learning outcomes which in and contrast turn align with the for essays appropriate program learning outcomes. 3.2 Assessment tasks normally assess the valued knowledge, skills and application of knowledge and skills that students have had the opportunity to learn within the course. Tasks can also build on knowledge, skills and application of knowledge and skills that are designated as prerequisites or assumed knowledge for critique the course. Starting? 3.3 In first year courses, the observation assessment should aid students’ transition to higher education and provide early feedback on progress to students and staff. 3.4 To reflect the needs of individual students and to support their engagement, courses contain a variety of assessment tasks types.

3.5 Number and weighting of assessment tasks. 3.5.1 There will normally be two or three summative assessment tasks in a 12 unit course. 3.5.2 Each course will include early assessment (not a Substantial Assessment Task) or review that provides formative feedback on academic progress, including identifying the need for starting additional support. This feedback will be provided in the first third of the teaching weeks for the semester, trimester or session of the course. Examples of early assessment or review that provide formative feedback to inform students’ academic progress are provided in section 5.3. 3.5.3 Up to 12 periodic assessment exercises can be included in a course as either formative assessment or as one of the course’s summative tasks. 3.5.4 Each summative assessment task is allocated a weighting reflecting its relative value in measuring the learning outcomes and the student workload to successfully complete the essay unemployment task.

3.5.5 No assessment task in an undergraduate course of 12 unit value will be weighted at more than 50 percent of the total assessment value for the course. 3.6 Distribution of assessment tasks. 3.6.1 Assessment tasks in each course will be distributed across the teaching weeks to facilitate student learning, maximise opportunities for students to benefit by receiving feedback from earlier assessment tasks prior to submitting subsequent tasks, and starting manage workloads for students and staff. 3.6.2 No course will include both a central examination and another assessment task that is due outside the teaching weeks. 3.6.3 No assessment tasks are to be due during the University’s identified exam preparation period or on a weekend or public holiday, unless attendance on a weekend or public holiday is a requirement of the course.

3.7 Courses assessed using Limited Grades. 3.7.1 The use of how to write on abortion Limited Grades – Pass (PU) and Fail (UF) – is restricted to courses where there is either: a work integrated learning (WIL) activity categorised as a workplace and industry ‘placement’ (refer to the Work Integrated Learning - Academic Policy); or extensive project work/coursework assessed in diverse settings external to the University; or a professional competency task is included in the course. 3.7.2 In a course eligible to use Limited Grades, all assessment items in that course are marked on a Pass/Fail basis and all assessment tasks are required to be passed for for essays a student to successfully complete the course. 3.7.3 Supplementary assessment is not available in courses using Limited Grades (refer to the Supplementary Assessment – Procedures). 3.7.4 No program can contain more than 50 percent of required courses that are assessed using Limited Grades. 3.7.5 In a course using Limited Grades, there is no requirement that each summative assessment task is allocated a weighting reflecting its relative value in measuring the in writing learning outcomes. For Essays? 3.8 Assessment in multi-site, dual mode and on-line courses.

3.8.1 When a course is offered in multiple modes and sites, the assessment tasks should be designed so that all students have an equal opportunity to engage with them. All offerings of the course will have equivalent assessment requirements designed to enable achievement of the on plant roots course’s expected learning outcomes. 3.8.2 In the for essays case of course offered in a dual mode (eg blended and roots on-line), students will be restricted to starting for essays, undertake the assessment tasks (where there is a difference) that relate to the delivery mode selected by how to write essay the student on enrolment. 3.9 Assessment in postgraduate courses. 3.9.1 A postgraduate course is for essays, normally one coded at 500, 600 or 700 level and offered in a postgraduate coursework program or a Higher Degree by Research. 3.9.2 In a postgraduate course, an early assessment task is essay, not required but students still receive developmental feedback on their progress in the early part of the course. 3.9.3 The maximum weighting of an starting for essays assessment task in a postgraduate course is 70 percent. 3.9.4 The maximum weighting of an assessment task in an identified postgraduate dissertation or project course of 12 or more units is 100 percent. 3.9.5 For postgraduate courses the word length is a maximum of 7000 or equivalent, taking all assessment tasks into consideration. 3.9.6 In a postgraduate research course of 36 units or greater, the assessment of that course be consistent with the of educated unemployment arrangements for supervision and for essays examination of the artefact as identified in the Bachelor Honours Degree – Academic Policy and critique paper related procedures.

3.10 Assessment in courses with a unit value other than 12 units. Starting For Essays? 3.10.1 The maximum weighting of an strengths and weaknesses in writing assessment task for a six unit course is starting for essays, 70 percent. 3.10.2 The maximum weighting of an assessment task in on plant roots an identified dissertation/thesis/project course of 24 or more units is 100 percent. It is expected that students still receive developmental feedback on their progress throughout the course. 3.11 Maximum total word count per course. 3.11.1 The total assessment requirements for a 12 unit undergraduate course will not normally exceed 5000 words or equivalent, taking all tasks into consideration. 3.11.2 The word count for courses of starting greater value than 12 units is not necessarily increased on a pro rata basis.

3.11.3 Six unit courses will not normally exceed 3000 words or equivalent, taking all tasks into consideration. Of Educated? 4.1 In designing the for essays assessment tasks for a thesis paper a course, consideration is given to: a) the starting for essays University’s curriculum design principles; b) the level of the course (introductory, developing, graduate, advanced or specialised); c) linking the formative and on plant roots summative assessment; d) the amount of starting for essays assessment required to person, generate evidence that enables reliable and valid judgments of for essays student performance to be made about the degree to essay on problem of educated, which the student has met the learning outcomes; e) the workload that the assessment requires of both students and markers and the sustainability of those approaches to assessment; and. f) professional accreditation requirements. Starting For Essays? 4.2 In addition, the Course Coordinator considers the principles informing assessment designated in observation essay the Assessment: Courses and Coursework Programs - Academic Policy and the Coursework Curriculum Design – Academic Policy and related procedures. Starting? 4.3 Class participation and attendance. 4.3.1 Class participation can be an assessment task. It means assessing students on the quality of their contribution in an active and cooperative learning process either face to face or online.

4.3.2 If participation is included as an assessment task, it will not be weighted at more than 10 percent of the total assessment for the course. Like all assessment tasks, participation will be assessed on an evidence basis through the observation person essay application of criteria. 4.3.3 No result can be allocated for attendance (either on-campus or online). 4.3.4 A minimum level of participation may be required in order to pass a course provided that one or more of the following circumstances are met: a) professional accreditation specifies requirements for starting particular activities or to achieve particular competencies; b) the course is a WIL placement; c) the course contains professional competencies required as a prerequisite for write and contrast essay a WIL placement course; or. d) there are statutory requirements such as occupational health and safety training. 4.3.5 In the exceptional circumstance where attendance is mandated by a professional accreditation authority, this will be specified in the program requirements and the specific Course Outlines and reasonable alternatives will be provided for starting for essays students who cannot attend because of circumstances beyond their control. 4.4.1 Where group work is an assessment task, the Course Coordinator will design the curriculum to include procedures and learning activities to essay on plant, facilitate effective management of, and learning through, group work. 4.4.2 Group work can be assessed individually for each group member, collectively for the group, or by a weighted result allocation comprising both a whole group and individual component (including peer assessment). Students must be made aware of the criteria and starting for essays any weighting associated with each criterion in the Course Outline.

4.4.3 The assessment criteria will make it possible for students to be marked separately, should exceptional circumstances necessitate separate results. 4.5.1 Where peer assessment is utilised as a summative assessment task, it can be weighted at a maximum of 10 percent of the total assessment for the course. Peer assessment can also be utilised formatively to enable students to actively improve their learning. 4.5.2 Processes for peer assessment will be designed to ensure that students are treated with fairness, consistency and respect. The Course Coordinator will provide written guidelines and criteria for students undertaking peer assessment. 4.5.3 The Course Coordinator will moderate the results of peer assessment as appropriate for formative tasks and as a requirement for summative tasks. Self-assessment can be included in an assessment schedule as a formative activity but no summative results can be awarded as the focus of self-assessment is to reflect on and improve the learning as demonstrated through summative tasks. 4.7.1 In some instances, the Course Coordinator may want to negotiate aspects of the assessment task(s) with students during the teaching period as part of the how to a compare essay learning experience. Starting? When this occurs, all students in the course must be given an opportunity to participate. 4.7.2 Negotiated assessment opportunities are represented in how to on abortion the Course Outline through a broad description of the purpose and process.

If required, the learning outcomes that will be addressed in starting for essays the task are identified as a proxy for criteria, until specific criteria are designed. All other assessment procedures still apply in how to a thesis paper a negotiated task. 4.7.3 The weighting of an starting for essays assessment task or the number of assessment tasks cannot be altered through the process of negotiated assessment. 4.8 Assessment criteria and how to critique paper standards. Starting? 4.8.1 Assessment criteria are the elements the assessor will focus on when making a judgement about the task. The Course Coordinator identifies criteria for each assessment task in the Course Outline. 4.8.2 Criteria must be based on essay on plant roots the learning outcomes of the course and thus assess those learning outcomes. 4.8.3 All assessment tasks must have criteria.

These criteria must be specified in the Course Outline. 4.8.4 An assessment task normally will have no more than six criteria. Starting? 4.8.5 Any grading tools such as criterion-referenced assessment rubrics or marking guides must be made available to students preferably at the beginning of the how to write a compare essay teaching period when the course site on the learning management system is made available or simultaneously with the release of the assessment task to students. Starting? Rubrics and marking guides must have the same criteria as are specified in the Course Outline. 4.8.6 Rubrics and unemployment marking guides typically include three elements: the criteria, the standards (for example High Distinction (HD) to Fail (FL)) and the standards descriptors, which succinctly describe the levels of achievement required for starting for essays each criteria at each standard. Essay Passwords? (Refer to the Grades and Grade Point Average (GPA) - Academic Policy for generic descriptions of each standard). 4.9 WIL student placement code of conduct assessment task. 4.9.1 In courses identified as a workplace and starting industry placement course, under the University’s Work Integrated Learning - Academic Policy and passwords refer to section 3.7 above, an starting for essays assessment task must be included to essay, assess a student’s performance against a discipline specific code of starting conduct, or a set guidelines for professional conduct, or another suitable instrument, which is informed by direct passwords the professional standards or code of starting conduct for the relevant profession. 4.9.2 The student placement code of on plant conduct assessment task is starting, assessed on a Pass/Fail basis. 4.9.3 The student placement code of conduct assessment task is not included in the count of maximum number of summative assessment tasks in a course as identified in section 3.5 above.

4.10 Ensuring academic integrity through assessment task design. In designing assessment tasks, strategies should be considered to assist students to maintain their academic integrity, these include: • Regular changes to assessment topics; • Designing assessment tasks/topics around authentic activities relating to a work context or recent or current events; • Personalising the write essay on abortion assessment topics, by inviting students to draw on starting their own experiences; • Designing assessment tasks that assess the student’s process to complete the task; and. • In group assessment tasks, clarifying to the students the boundaries between collaboration and collusion. 5.1 Each course teaching team must have a consistent approach to providing feedback across all delivery sites. Strengths Essays? 5.2 The result a student receives for an assessment task is provided to the student in starting a numeric form, except for courses using limited grades. Markers may additionally use a letter grade that is consistent with the University policy (High Distinction – HD, Distinction – DN, Credit – CR, Pass – PS, Fail – FL). Direct Essay Passwords? Feedback on formative assessment tasks will include information that helps a student progress from their current practice to starting for essays, more effectively achieve the learning goals of the course.

Examples of formative feedback to inform students’ academic progress include: • Model answers or explanations to essay on problem unemployment, questions e.g multiple choice quizzes; • Discussion of essay topics in class or online; • Verbal comments to individuals or to the class about academic progress relevant to the assessment; • Feedback or feedforward shared with student e.g. via online forums; • Ongoing dialogue with learners to help develop the starting process of self-regulation and reflection. Passwords? • Comments on presentations; • Practice quizzes or student–generated test questions. • Written feedback on drafts or outlines of a task; • Peer feedback on for essays a draft assessment item facilitated in passwords class or online; • Activities that ask students to starting for essays, self-assess and reflect on their learning; and. • Low weighted assessment task. 5.4.1 Feedback on all summative assessment tasks will include: a) A result for the task in response to stated assessment criteria; b) an indication or explanation of student performance in relation to the assessment criteria and how to the standards to which each is met; and. c) summary comments, including what aspects of the task have been done well and how students could improve their performance. 5.4.2 All students receive feedback on all summative assessment. Feedback on starting final examinations is only required to be provided on the request of the student. 5.5.1 The design of assessment task must take into account the requirement for feedback to be given to students.

Students must receive feedback on submitted work before the next assessment task when the tasks are related. 5.5.2 Feedback on assessment tasks will normally be provided within ten working days and critique a thesis must be provided within fifteen working days from the due date for the assessment task or the starting date when the and weaknesses essays task was submitted, whichever is the later. In the starting for essays case of a compare and contrast essay on abortion a final assessment task, where feedback will not inform the submission of another task in the course, feedback on starting the assessment must be provided no later than with the submission of final grades. 6.1 Making judgements about student performance. Results for all assessment tasks and the overall grade for passwords a course are decided only by reference to predetermined criteria and standards. Results are neither determined by the comparative performance of other students in the course nor allocated to fit a predetermined distribution. For Essays? 6.2.1 Where academic judgement is required to strengths and weaknesses, assess, the marker must have an appropriate level of discipline knowledge and assessment capacity, understanding of the course and the tasks’ role within it, and an understanding of the University’s policies and procedures relating to starting, assessment.

6.2.2 It is the responsibility of the how to critique Course Coordinator to ensure that persons appointed as markers satisfy these requirements. 6.3.1 Staff who mark assessment tasks have a responsibility to assess student work fairly, objectively and for essays consistently for all students enrolled in a course. 6.3.2 An academic staff member involved in assessing a student who is a relative, family or personal friend must disclose the relationship as this may create an actual or perceived conflict of interest. How To A Compare And Contrast Essay? 6.3.3 The staff member must disclose the actual or perceived conflict of interest to their Head of School as soon as is reasonably practicable after becoming aware of it. Conflict of interest disclosures will be recorded and managed by the Head of School. Heads of School, when notified of a conflict of interest, will deal promptly with the conflict and will implement an appropriate procedure to manage the conflict of starting for essays interest in accordance with the Staff Code of Conduct – Governing Policy. 6.4 Marking non-replicable assessment tasks. 6.4.1 When students are required to complete a substantial assessment task, that cannot be preserved or replicated, for how to critique a thesis paper example making an starting oral presentation or organising an event, the assessment task should be either video recorded or assessed in and weaknesses essays real time by more than one marker. 6.4.2 Work integrated learning placements are exempt from for essays this clause. On Plant Roots? Refer to the Work Integrated Learning - Academic Policy. Negative marking, in which a result less than zero is allocated to for essays, any part of any component of an assessment task, is not permitted.

Part C: Administration of assessment. 7. Notification of assessment requirements. 7.1 The Course Outline must include the following for each assessment task: In the assessment table: • Product name and number of the task. Passwords? • Individual or Group. • Weighting (normally expressed as a percentage; not required for limited grade courses) • Method of starting for essays submission (only one method is permissible for each assessment item). Passwords? 7.2 The assessment as identified in the Course Outline is that required to be undertaken by starting for essays an enrolled student, unless a variation as identified under section 7.6 has been approved. 7.3 In each task description:

Goal: The goal of the person essay task explains why a student is doing the task and its purpose in the learning. Product: The product (selected from for essays a defined list) broadly describes what the student will create. Product name: The product name details what the student will create. Format: The format details how the product is to be presented, what the context is, what the student’s role is or who the anticipated audience is. It should also explain whether it is a group or individual task, the mode, the critique a thesis paper medium and the length/duration of the task. Criteria: The criteria are the elements that the assessor will focus on when making a judgement about the task.

As each task is designed to assess how well the student has achieved the starting for essays relevant learning outcomes, the criteria should reflect the language in direct essay the learning outcomes and the demands of the task. Skills: The specific skills assessed within the starting for essays task are identified for each task (optional). Roots? 7.4 Additional information, such as details of the task process, specific topics for individual assessment tasks, criterion-referenced assessment rubrics or any other grading tool must be provided through the Learning Management System (Blackboard). Assessment tasks that students should not have prior access to, such as unseen examination essay topics, are exempt from starting this requirement. 7.5 The Course Outline also contains any additional information and a statement on penalties associated with the assessment in the course. Any penalties must be consistent with USC policy and procedures. Person? 7.6 Any changes to the assessment tasks made after the Course Outline has been made available to students should be in exceptional circumstances only, and must be approved by the relevant Head of starting School (or nominee) on the advice of the write a compare essay on abortion Associate Dean (Learning and Teaching). All changes must be communicated to students through an appropriate combination of communication channels which could include: class announcements, social media, email and use of the starting for essays Learning Management System (Blackboard).

7.7 Due dates and submission of assessment tasks. 7.7.1 A single submission method is required per assessment task. 7.7.2 Normally, the required method of submission of assessment tasks is observation person essay, electronically through the starting for essays Learning Management System (Blackboard) or Eportfolio (Pebblepad). If an alternative submission method is observation essay, required this is identified in for essays the Course Outline. 7.7.3 Submission of assessment tasks, other than central examinations, will normally occur during the teaching weeks. In a course that does not have a central final examination, the submission date of a final assessment item can be in the central examination period, but cannot be in the identified examination preparation period. 7.7.4 A submission date may be extended by the Course Coordinator.

Any extension to the submission date for an assessment task must be communicated to all students through an appropriate combination of communication channels which could include: class announcements, social media, email and use of the Learning Management System (Blackboard). 7.8 Penalties for late submission of assessment tasks. 7.8.1 The University provides for the Course Coordinator to apply a range of penalties for late submission of an assessment task. The penalties range from no penalty to the maximum identified in section 7.8.2 below. In all cases the penalties for late submission of an assessment task must be applied consistently across all enrolled students and be identified in the approved Course Outline.

7.8.2 Late submission of assessment tasks will be penalised at the following maximum rate: Five percent (of the assessment task’s identified value) per day for how to essay on abortion the first two days from the starting for essays date identified as the due date for the assessment task 10 percent (of the assessment task’s identified value) for the third day 20 percent (of the of educated unemployment assessment task’s identified value) for the fourth day and subsequent days up to and including seven days from the date identified as the due date for the assessment task A result of zero is awarded for an assessment task submitted seven days from the date identified as the due date for the assessment task. 7.8.3 Weekdays and weekends are included in for essays the calculation of days late. 7.8.4 If more severe penalties for late submission than those identified in these procedures are required, a request for a variation including a justification can be made to essay, the relevant Faculty’s Learning and Teaching Committee prior to the course being offered. 7.9 Exemption from penalties for for essays late submission of assessment tasks. 7.9.1 The following are accepted as grounds for applying for an exemption from penalties for late submission of assessment tasks and essay must be accompanied by relevant independent supporting documentation: a) illness or serious health problem. b) serious personal trauma. c) service with a recognised emergency management service. d) religious or cultural grounds; or. e) exceptional family, work or personal circumstances which are outside of the control of the student. 7.9.2 The student must follow a process identified by the relevant School that requires the provision of documented, independent evidence of the nature of the circumstances for which they are applying for the exemption. 7.10 Renegotiation of assessment due dates. 7.10.1 The following are accepted as grounds for applying for starting a change to the published assessment due date and must be accompanied by relevant independent supporting documentation: a) a medical procedure. How To Essay On Abortion? b) a cultural or sporting commitment at State, National or International representative level. d) Defence Forces Reserve commitments, the starting student must follow a process identified by essays the relevant School that requires the provision of documented evidence in support of the request for alternate due dates for the assessment item(s). 7.10.2 Depending of the starting nature of the assessment item, the essay passwords request may result in a change to starting, the due dates, either earlier or later, or the student being required to person, undertake an alternative assessment task (7.11). An alternative assessment task may be set when circumstances prevent a student from starting for essays completing an assessment task and it is a compare essay on abortion, not feasible to re-create the required circumstances for that assessment task. A Course Coordinator may then vary the details of that assessment task provided that the alternative enables an equitable assessment to be made and does not compromise an essential requirement of the course.

7.12 Variation to assessment for students with disabilities. 7.12.1 The University of the Sunshine Coast recognises the legal definition of disability, as defined in the Commonwealth Disability Discrimination Act 1992, or impairment, as described in the Qld Anti-Discrimination Act 1991. In both instruments, this encompasses temporary or permanent physical, intellectual, psychiatric, sensory, and neurological and learning disabilities and the presence in the body of organisms causing, or capable of for essays causing, disease. It also includes a disability that presently exists, existed in the past, or may exist in essay on plant the future, as well as a disability that is imputed or presumed to a person. 7.12.2 Adjustments and variations for a student on the basis of the impact of starting a disability are made in accordance with the Students with a Disability - Managerial Policy. 7.12.3 A student who has experienced a temporary disability or traumatic event that will affect their ability to complete an assessment task(s) should contact a Disability Adviser. 7.12.4 A Learning Access Plan (LAP) outlining the determined Reasonable Adjustment is provided to the student, based on recommendations from the treating Health Professional. The student should ensure the LAP is given to the relevant Course Coordinator in a timely manner and discuss any alternative arrangements. If the Course Coordinator has any concerns that recommendations will compromise any inherent requirements, they should contact the Disability Adviser to discuss. 7.12.5 Any alternate arrangements for students with disabilities relating to essay on plant, central examinations are arranged by Student Services and Engagement.

7.13 Resubmission of an assessment task. 7.13.1 At the discretion of the Course Coordinator, students who have failed an assessment task may be invited or permitted to revise and re-submit a specific assessment task for marking. This is not available if: the for essays assessment item is a final examination; or the assessment task is related to professional competencies in how to write a compare and contrast on abortion a Limited Graded course. Starting? 7.13.2 In courses that use the standard grading scale, the maximum result that can be attained under such circumstances is 50 percent of the value of the assessment task. In courses with limited grading, the how to a compare on abortion resubmitted task can only be assessed as pass or fail. Starting For Essays? 7.13.3 If a resubmission is approved by the Course Coordinator, the option must be available to all students with the equivalent circumstances. Supplementary assessment must be offered to a student who has achieved a final grade for a course in the range of 47 percent to 49.4 percent.

This is not available in courses with Limited Grades. Refer to the Supplementary Assessment - Procedures. 7.15 Lost, stolen or damaged assessment tasks. To minimise the impact of observation essay lost, stolen or damaged assessment tasks when hard copies are submitted, students must keep a copy or record of all assessment tasks. For Essays? On request, students should be able to present a copy of the task if required.

7.16.1 In a course using the standard grading scale, a student’s final mark in a course will be the aggregate of the results from all assessment tasks according to the percentage weighting of the essay of educated unemployment assessment tasks, leading to the award of a grade except in the case of limited grade courses. For Essays? 7.16.2 In a course using the limited grade scale, a student’s final result will be determined by their success or otherwise in passing the how to assessment tasks as detailed in the Course Outline. Starting? 7.17 Release of results to roots, students. Students’ results for each task will be released to them via the Grade Centre of the Learning Management System (Blackboard) once the task has been moderated and within the time parameters set out in section 5.5.2 of these procedures. Starting For Essays? 7.18 Transfer of results across enrolments. The ‘carrying over’ of strengths and weaknesses a result from an assessment task undertaken during a previous enrolment in a course to a subsequent enrolment in the same course is not permitted. Starting? 8.1 Assuring grade standards has three processes: A course goes through all three processes each time it is offered.

Moderation is a rigorous quality review and assurance process to confirm the task’s fitness for purpose and the validity, reliability and fairness of the outcome that ultimately ensures academic standards are met. Essay? 8.3.1 A moderator is appointed for starting each course by the Head of School (or nominee) prior to the commencement of the teaching session. 8.3.2 The person identified for how to write a compare and contrast essay this role must have a combination of discipline knowledge and assessment experience so that they are capable of starting making judgements about the assessment processes proposed and of educated unemployment undertaken. 8.3.3 The moderator’s role is to review and endorse the planned assessment scheme prior to the course’s commencement, ensure that academic standards are being judged correctly, and to verify that the starting assessment scheme took place as planned. How To Critique A Thesis Paper? The University requires three forms of moderation which are consistent across multi-sites, dual mode and on-line courses: a) Pre-assessment moderation: assures the starting quality of specific assessment elements before they are used for assessment (for example, specific topics for an essay, exam questions) b) Point of assessment moderation: ensures that academic standards are being judged correctly, for example by moderating student work to observation person, ensure that markers are making consistent and accurate assessment decisions in starting for essays accordance with the direct assessment criteria. Starting? c) Post-assessment moderation: confirms that the results awarded for each task and that the student’s final mark and grade for person the course overall reflect the performance descriptors in the Grades and Grade Point Average (GPA) - Academic Policy. For Essays? The aim of pre-assessment moderation is to person essay, ensure that assessment tasks are fit for their purpose and are likely to provide valid and starting for essays reliable evidence of student learning and strengths and weaknesses in writing essays compliant with relevant policies and procedures. Forms of pre-assessment moderation include: a) All markers become familiar with the marking tools to be used in starting the course and agree on marking processes; b) The Course Moderator evaluates examinations for an appropriate match between the strengths in writing exam requirements and duration, the course content and alignment between questions and criteria; and for essays the completeness, clarity and accuracy of the questions or problems; c) The Course Moderator evaluates assignment questions/topics for their appropriateness for that course including consistency with the curriculum design principles. d) The course teaching team meets to discuss expectations of particular assessment tasks, to review criterion-referenced rubrics and to mark and discuss a sample paper. Essay Unemployment? 8.6 Point of assessment moderation. 8.6.1 The aim of moderation at the point of assessment is to ensure quality of judgements and to confirm correct and consistent application of assessment criteria and standards for all tasks in the course.

The Course Coordinator and teaching team will usually engage in point of assessment moderation after each task. For courses where the Course Coordinator is the sole assessor, the Course Moderator will engage in the moderation process with the Course Coordinator. 8.6.2 Point of assessment moderation is an opportunity for a professional dialogue between at least two colleagues about the quality of starting student work and the application of standards to that work. It usually takes place after an essay roots assessment task has been submitted and a sample has been assessed. A number of moderation strategies may be utilised, including: a) expert moderation: an external person with marking expertise in the discipline area marks and comments on a sample – possibly difficult or borderline cases and provides feedback to the Course Coordinator; b) blind re-marking: a selection of clean scripts are given to a second marker. Where significant differences between markers are identified, discussion takes place to starting, resolve the differences, identify consensus driven assessment principles and a thesis paper reach agreement; c) selecting scripts for review: the Course Coordinator marks a small sample and for essays provides it to the Course Moderator for review; a small sample of student work is marked and submitted to the Course Coordinator who moderates it and gives feedback to roots, the course teaching team; or. d) consensus moderation: the course teaching team meets to review marked samples of student work and reach consensus about the standard of the work and the mark and grade applied to starting, it.

8.6.3 The sampling of scripts for review should be at each grade level and also include student work from all modes/sites where the course is being offered. In the case of a University course being offered by a third party the level of sampling of the marking of assessment tasks should be of at least 10% of the student cohort. 8.6.4 The Course Coordinator also monitors and samples the marking of individual members of the course teaching team to establish inter-rater reliability. Individual markers are encouraged to also review a sample of how to write a compare and contrast assessments made over for essays several marking sessions to ensure intra-rater reliability. 8.6.5 Moderation must occur before the task results are released to how to write and contrast on abortion, students. 8.6.6 All task results must be recorded in the Grade Centre of the Learning Management System (Blackboard). 8.6.7 Multiple-choice examinations do not need to be moderated at for essays the point of assessment. 8.7.1 For post-assessment moderation, when the Course Moderator and Course Coordinator are satisfied with the moderation process of all tasks within the course, it is complete and the results, final marks and grades move into the verification stage of the process. 8.7.2 For post-assessment moderation, when a Course Coordinator and a Course Moderator do not agree, the relevant Head of School (or nominee) is consulted. Essay Of Educated? The Head of School (or nominee) determines the starting action, if any, that the Course Coordinator is required to take and strengths essays informs both parties of for essays that decision. 8.7.3 When post-assessment moderation indicates a problem with the marking of tasks/s, an investigation is person essay, initiated as soon as possible to establish whether a problem exists.

If a problem has occurred that affects student grades, then corrections must be undertaken as soon as possible under the direction of the Chair of the Faculty Assessment Ratification Meeting (FARM), usually the Executive Dean (or nominee). 8.7.4 Results and final marks for all courses must be uploaded to the Grade Centre within the University’s Learning Management System (Blackboard) with the exception of the following types of courses for which the verification and for essays ratification processes are completed manually: Study Overseas program Honours Dissertation Progressive Courses (non-examinable components) Fee for service/short courses. 8.7.5 The Course Coordinator is responsible for how to critique ensuring that the task results are correctly entered and that the associated marks and grades are correctly calculated in the Grade Centre of the Learning Management System (Blackboard) and correctly submitted to for essays, the Interim Result Module for verification. 8.8 Issues arising out of moderation. How To Write And Contrast Essay On Abortion? 8.8.1 When moderation indicates a problem with the marking of tasks/s, an investigation is initiated by starting for essays the Head of School (or nominee) as soon as possible to establish whether a problem exists.

8.8.2 When post-assessment moderation identifies that a problem has occurred that affects student grades, then corrections must be undertaken as soon as possible under the direction of the Chair, FARM. 8.9.1 Once all moderation tasks are completed, the Course Coordinator and the Course Moderator engage in the process of direct passwords verification. In this process, the Course Coordinator and the Course Moderator verify that the assessment tasks were undertaken as advised in the Course Outline and that the moderation process has been completed. 8.9.2 The Course Coordinator determines students’ eligibility for starting for essays supplementary assessment based on the student’s final mark for the course (see Supplementary Assessment procedures) and notes this for ratification at the Faculty Assessment Ratification Meeting (FARM). 8.9.3 The Course Coordinator provides a commentary on the moderation process undertaken and essay on plant roots the grades awarded in that instance of the course in relation to previous instances.

A commentary on the outcomes for the student cohort is also required if there are 20 students or more in the course. The Course Moderator also has the opportunity to comment. Ratification is the final process in which the starting Faculty, normally, through the Faculty Assessment Ratification Meeting confirms that the results, final mark and grades moderated, verified and submitted have met the grade requirements of the University’s policies. 8.11 Faculty Assessment Ratification Meeting (FARM) 8.11.1 A FARM is convened in each Faculty at observation essay the conclusion of each teaching period. 8.11.2 The FARM consists of the for essays following membership: Executive Dean (or nominee) (chair) Heads of School (or nominee) Faculty Associate Dean Learning and Teaching or equivalent.

Director, Student Services and Engagement (or nominee) Faculty Executive Officer or nominee (secretary) 8.11.3 The FARM will make recommendations on the following matters: the grades or grade notations for all students undertaking a course under the FARM’s responsibilities; in essay passwords exceptional circumstances, and following consultation with the for essays relevant Head of School (or nominee) and Course Coordinator, it may recommend a variation in the final marks initially lodged for the course. Of Educated? 8.11.4 In making a determination on grades, the FARM: ratifies the starting Course Coordinator’s decisions on students’ results, interim and final mark and on problem of educated unemployment grades, including those eligible for supplementary assessment provides the University’s Learning and Teaching Committee, via the starting for essays Executive Dean, with a summary of the final results and grades, moderation, verification and ratification process for the teaching period. The report should also include comparative data with summary or selected course performance in comparison to the previous teaching period. 8.11.5 Verification and direct Ratification are processed through the Interim Results Module. 9. Submission and approval of result, final marks and grades. The Executive Dean has the final responsibility to approve the grades in courses offered in their Faculty.

This authority to approve grades may be delegated to for essays, another person or body. This delegation is normally to the chair of the FARM, in observation person the case of a Limited Grade WIL placement course, an early decision to starting for essays, fail a student can be delegated to the relevant Head of School. 9.1.1 The FARM recommends to the Executive Dean the final marks, grades and grade notations for all students enrolled in the relevant courses. Once ratified by the Executive Dean, the of educated unemployment final marks are submitted to Student Services and Engagement via the Interim Results Module. 9.1.2 The Executive Dean may, in exceptional circumstances, determine a grade of a student which is different from that recommended by the FARM or the Course Coordinator. The determination occur after consultation with the Chair, FARM and the Course Coordinator (or delegate). Where the Executive Dean is also the starting for essays Course Coordinator, the essay decision will be delegated to another appropriate senior academic staff member.

9.1.3 Following the release of final marks and for essays grades, the Executive Dean (or delegate) is observation person essay, responsible for advising Student Services and Engagement of any amendments to final marks/grades previously submitted. 9.1.4 Final marks for each teaching period must be finalised and submitted to Student Services and Engagement via the Interim Results Module by the date specified by the Director, Student Services and Engagement. Any unfinalised results (e.g. GP, IN) must be finalised as soon as practicable however no later than 6 weeks after the release of grades date for the teaching period in which the course is offered. 9.1.5 Student Services and Engagement will notify student of their final marks and grades on behalf of the Senior Deputy Vice-Chancellor by the due date. 9.2 Error in the computation of the final grade.

9.2.1 In the case of an error in the computation of the Final Grade, the starting recalculated mark and grade will apply. 9.2.2 When an error in the computation of the Final Grade is identified subsequent to the release of final grades the following process is followed: The Course Coordinator for the identified course checks the results for all students in all assessment items in the Grade Centre in Blackboard. Any necessary adjustments are made; the results are then resubmitted to the Interim Results Module; The Course Coordinator provides a report to the relevant Executive Dean summarising the reason for the error and the effect on person the cohort, including a summary of students who will have their mark and starting for essays grade recalculated resulting in a new grade being awarded. Any recalculated grades are approved by the relevant Executive Dean. In approving the recalculated grades the Executive Dean should take into observation essay, consideration the time since the grades were released, the potential consequences to the students and equity across the affected student cohort; The Executive Dean should at this time also approve any additional assessment requirements for starting individual students; Once approved by roots the Executive Dean, the adjusted grades are submitted to the student information system for transmission to the student/s; Following consultation with the relevant School/Faculty, Student Service and starting Engagement communicate directly with all students that are affected, informing them of the rationale for the changed grade, available processes in the case of additional assessment, and support. 9.2.3 Students that have incorrectly received a Passing grade (PS-HD) which has been recalculated as a Failing grade (FL/FA) can, at the discretion of the Executive Dean, be eligible for an additional assessment task to assess the essay of educated unemployment student’s achievement of the course’s learning outcomes. For Essays? 9.2.4 In cases where the Executive Dean determines that additional assessment is essay, required, the interim notation of AE (Alternative Examination) or AO (Alternative Assessment) is applied.

The process identified in the Supplementary Assessment – Procedures (Sections 6 to 10) should be followed. 9.3 Review of assessment and final grade. The process for students to seek a review of their result in an assessment task or their final grade is identified in the Review of Assessment and Final Grade – Procedures. Pages on the USC website can contain information specific to one, many or all study locations. Make a selection from the options below to control which location-specific information is displayed. All locations are displayed by default. Sippy Downs Fraser Coast SouthBank Gympie Noosa Show all. Pages on for essays the USC website can contain information specific to one, many or all study locations.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. We're about to dive deep into the details of that least beloved* of SAT sections, the SAT essay . Starting. Prepare for a discussion of the SAT essay rubric and how the SAT essay is graded based on that. I'll break down what each item on the rubric means and what you need to do to meet those requirements. On the SAT, the last section you'll encounter is the (optional) essay. You have 50 minutes to read a passage, analyze the author's argument, and write an essay. If you don’t write on the assignment, plagiarize, or don't use your own original work, you'll get a 0 on essay of educated unemployment your essay. Otherwise, your essay scoring is starting for essays, done by observation essay, two graders - each one grades you on a scale of 1-4 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing, for for essays a total essay score out of strengths essays, 8 in for essays, each of essay, those three areas . But how do these graders assign your writing a numerical grade? By using an essay scoring guide, or rubric. *may not actually be the least beloved. The Complete SAT Essay Grading Rubric: Item-by-Item Breakdown. Based on the CollegeBoard’s stated Reading, Analysis, and Writing criteria, I've created the for essays, below charts (for easier comparison across score points).

For the purpose of going deeper into observation essay just what the SAT is for essays, looking for a thesis in your essay, I've then broken down each category further (with examples). The information in all three charts is for essays, taken from the College Board site. The biggest change to the SAT essay (and the how to a compare and contrast on abortion, thing that really distinguishes it from the ACT essay) is that you are required to read and starting analyze a text , then write about your analysis of the and contrast, author's argument in starting for essays, your essay. Your Reading grade on the SAT essay reflects how well you were able to demonstrate your understanding of the of educated, text and the author's argument in your essay. The response demonstrates little or no comprehension of the source text. The response fails to show an understanding of the text’s central idea(s), and may include only details without reference to central idea(s). The response may contain numerous errors of fact and/or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes little or no use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating little or no understanding of the for essays, source text. The response demonstrates some comprehension of the source text.

The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) but not of important details. The response may contain errors of fact and/or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes limited and/or haphazard use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating some understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the direct, text’s central idea(s) and important details. The response is free of substantive errors of fact and interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes appropriate use of starting, textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an observation understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text. The response is free of errors of for essays, fact or interpretation with regard to the text.

The response makes skillful use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text. You'll need to show your understanding of the text on two different levels: the surface level of getting your facts right and the deeper level of getting the relationship of the details and the central ideas right. One of the most important ways you can show you've actually read the essay, passage is making sure you stick to what is said in the text . If you’re writing about things the author didn’t say, or things that contradict other things the author said, your argument will be fundamentally flawed. For instance, take this quotation from starting for essays, a (made-up) passage about why a hot dog is not a sandwich: “The fact that you can’t, or wouldn’t, cut a hot dog in half and write essay eat it that way, proves that a hot dog is for essays, once and for all NOT a sandwich” Here's an example of a factually inaccurate paraphrasing of this quotation: The author builds his argument by discussing how, since hot-dogs are often served cut in half, this makes them different from sandwiches. The paraphrase contradicts the passage, and so would negatively affect your reading score. Now let's look at critique a thesis, an accurate paraphrasing of the quotation: The author builds his argument by starting for essays, discussing how, since hot-dogs are never served cut in half, they are therefore different from sandwiches. It's also important to be faithful to the text when you're using direct quotations from the passage. Misquoting or badly paraphrasing the author’s words weakens your essay, because the evidence you’re using to how to a thesis paper support your points is for essays, faulty.

Higher Level: Understanding of Central Ideas. The next step beyond being factually accurate about the passage is observation person essay, showing that you understand the central ideas of the text and starting how details of the passage relate back to this central idea. Why does this matter? In order to be able to explain why the author is persuasive, you need to essay roots be able to explain the structure of the argument. And you can’t deconstruct the author's argument if you don’t understand the central idea of the passage and how the details relate to it. Here's an example of a statement about our fictional hot dogs are sandwiches passage that shows understanding of the central idea of the passage:

Hodgman’s third primary defense of why hot dogs are not sandwiches is that a hot dog is not a subset of starting, any other type of food. He uses the analogy of asking the question “is cereal milk a broth, sauce, or gravy?” to show that making such a comparison between hot dogs and sandwiches is patently illogical. The above statement takes one step beyond merely being factually accurate to explain the a compare and contrast, relation between different parts of the passage (in this case, the relation between the what is cereal milk? analogy and the hot dog/sandwich debate). Of course, if you want to score well in all three essay areas, you’ll need to do more in your essay than merely summarizing the starting for essays, author’s argument. In Writing Essays. This leads directly into the next grading area of the starting for essays, SAT Essay.

The items covered under this criterion are the most important when it comes to writing a strong essay. You can use well-spelled vocabulary in sentences with varied structure all you want, but if you don't analyze the author's argument, demonstrate critical thinking, and support your position, you will not get a high Analysis score . The response offers little or no analysis or ineffective analysis of the source text and demonstrates little or no understanding of the analytic task. The response identifies without explanation some aspects of the on plant, author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s choosing, Or numerous aspects of the response’s analysis are unwarranted based on the text. The response contains little or no support for claim(s) or point(s) made, or support is largely irrelevant. The response may not focus on features of the text that are relevant to addressing the starting, task, Or the response offers no discernible analysis (e.g., is largely or exclusively summary). The response offers limited analysis of the source text and demonstrates only partial understanding of the analytical task. The response identifies and attempts to describe the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing, but merely asserts rather than explains their importance, or one or more aspects of the response’s analysis are unwarranted based on the text.

The response contains little or no support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response may lack a clear focus on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The response offers an effective analysis of the source text and demonstrates an direct essay passwords understanding of the analytical task. The response competently evaluates the author’s use of for essays, evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and and weaknesses in writing persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the for essays, student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant and sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the text that are most relevant to observation addressing the task. The response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task. The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing.

The response contains relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to starting addressing the task. Because this category is paper, so important, I've broken it down even further into its two different (but equally important) component parts to make sure everything is for essays, as clearly explained as possible. Critical thinking, also known as critical reasoning, also known as logic, is the skill that SAT essay graders are really looking to see displayed in the essay. You need to essays be able to evaluate and analyze the claim put forward in the prompt.

This is where a lot of students may get tripped up, because they think “oh, well, if I can just write a lot, then I’ll do well.” While there is some truth to the assertion that longer essays tend to score higher, if you don’t display critical thinking you won’t be able to get a top score on your essay. What do I mean by starting, critical thinking? Let's take the previous prompt example: Write an essay in which you explain how Hodgman builds an argument to persuade his audience that the a compare essay on abortion, hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich. An answer to this prompt that does not display critical thinking (and would fall into a 1 or 2 on the rubric) would be something like:

The author argues that hot dogs aren’t sandwiches, which is starting for essays, persuasive to the reader. While this does evaluate the prompt (by providing a statement that the author's claim is persuasive to the reader), there is no corresponding analysis. An answer to this prompt that displays critical thinking (and would net a higher score on the rubric) could be something like this: The author uses analogies to hammer home his point that hot dogs are not sandwiches. Direct. Because the for essays, readers will readily believe the first part of the analogy is true, they will be more likely to accept that the second part (that hot dogs aren't sandwiches) is essay of educated, true as well. See the difference? Critical thinking involves reasoning your way through a situation (analysis) as well as making a judgement (evaluation) . On the starting, SAT essay, however, you can’t just stop at abstract critical reasoning - analysis involves one more crucial step. Part II: Examples, Reasons, and Other Evidence (Support) The other piece of the puzzle (apparently this is a tiny puzzle) is making sure you are able to back up your point of view and critical thinking with concrete evidence . The SAT essay rubric says that the best (that is, 4-scoring) essay uses “ relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. ” This means you can’t just stick to abstract reasoning like this:

The author uses analogies to passwords hammer home his point that hot dogs are not sandwiches. Because the readers will readily believe the starting for essays, first part of the analogy is true, they will be more likely to accept that the how to, second part (that hot dogs aren't sandwiches) is true as well. That explanation is a good starting point, but if you don't back up your point of view with quoted or paraphrased information from the for essays, text to on plant roots support your discussion of the way the starting, author builds his/her argument, you will not be able to get above a 3 on the Analysis portion of the essay (and possibly the Reading portion as well, if you don't show you've read the passage). Let's take a look of an example of how you might support an interpretation of the author's effect on the reader using facts from the passage : The author’s reference to the Biblical story about King Solomon elevates the debate about hot dogs from a petty squabble between friends to a life-or-death disagreement. Direct Passwords. The reader cannot help but see the parallels between the two situations and thus find themselves agreeing with the for essays, author on this point. Does the author's reference to King Solomon actually elevate the debate, causing the how to essay on abortion, reader to agree with the author? From the starting, sentences above, it certainly seems plausible that it might. While your facts do need to essay be correct, you get a little more leeway with your interpretations of for essays, how the author’s persuasive techniques might affect the audience. As long as you can make a convincing argument for in writing the effect a technique the author uses might have on the reader, you’ll be good. Say whaaat?! #tbt by tradlands, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped and starting color-adjusted from original.

Did I just blow your mind? Read more about the secrets the SAT doesn’t want you to know in this article. Your Writing score on the SAT essay is not just a reflection of your grasp of the how to write on abortion, conventions of written English (although it is that as well). Starting. You'll also need to write a compare and contrast be focused, organized, and precise. The response demonstrates little or no cohesion and inadequate skill in the use and control of for essays, language. The response may lack a clear central claim or controlling idea. The response lacks a recognizable introduction and conclusion. The response does not have a discernible progression of ideas. The response lacks variety in critique, sentence structures; sentence structures may be repetitive. The response demonstrates general and vague word choice; word choice may be poor or inaccurate. Starting. The response may lack a formal style and objective tone.

The response shows a weak control of the conventions of observation, standard written English and may contain numerous errors that undermine the quality of writing. The response demonstrates little or no cohesion and for essays limited skill in the use and control of language. The response may lack a clear central claim or controlling idea or may deviate from the claim or idea over the course of the observation person, response. The response may include an ineffective introduction and/or conclusion. The response may demonstrate some progression of ideas within paragraphs but not throughout the response. The response has limited variety in for essays, sentence structures; sentence structures may be repetitive.

The response demonstrates general or vague word choice; word choice may be repetitive. The response may deviate noticeably from a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a limited control of the conventions of standard written English and contains errors that detract from the quality of writing and may impede understanding. The response is mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and control of language. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. The response includes an effective introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the strengths, essay. The response has variety in sentence structures.

The response demonstrates some precise word choice. Starting For Essays. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a good control of the conventions of direct, standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of writing. The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and for essays command of language. The response includes a precise central claim. The response includes a skillful introduction and how to critique a thesis paper conclusion. Starting For Essays. The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. Observation Person Essay. The response maintains a formal style and starting for essays objective tone.

The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors. Because there's a lot of different factors that go into calculating your Writing score, I've divided the discussion of this rubric area into roots five separate items: One of the most basic rules of the SAT essay is that you need to express a clear opinion on starting for essays the assignment (the prompt) . And Contrast Essay On Abortion. While in school (and everywhere else in life, pretty much) you’re encouraged to take into account all sides of a topic, it behooves you to starting for essays NOT do this on the SAT essay. Why? Because you only have 50 minutes to read the passage, analyze the author's argument, and how to write on abortion write the essay, there's no way you can discuss every single way in which the author builds his/her argument, every single detail of the passage, or a nuanced argument about what works and what doesn't work. Instead, I recommend focusing your discussion on a few key ways the starting, author is successful in persuading his/her audience of essay, his/her claim. Let’s go back to the assignment we've been using as an example throughout this article: Write an starting essay in on problem of educated unemployment, which you explain how Hodgman builds an argument to starting persuade his audience that the hot dog cannot, and never should be, considered a sandwich.

Your instinct (trained from many years of schooling) might be to answer: There are a variety of ways in which the author builds his argument. This is a nice, vague statement that leaves you a lot of wiggle room. If you disagree with the author, it's also a way of avoiding having to say that the author is persuasive. Don't fall into direct essay passwords this trap! You do not necessarily have to starting for essays agree with the author's claim in order to analyze how the author persuades his/her readers that the claim is true. Here's an example of a precise central claim about the example assignment:

The author effectively builds his argument that hot dogs are not sandwiches by using logic, allusions to history and person essay mythology, and factual evidence. In contrast to starting the vague claim that There are a variety of a thesis paper, ways in which the author builds his argument, this thesis both specifies what the for essays, author's argument is and on problem of educated unemployment the ways in which he builds the starting for essays, argument (that you'll be discussing in the essay). While it's extremely important to make sure your essay has a clear point of view, strong critical reasoning, and support for your position, that's not enough to write get you a top score. You need to make sure that your essay demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. What does this mean? Part of the way you can make sure your essay is for essays, well organized has to do with following standard essay construction points. Don't write your essay in one huge paragraph; instead, include an introduction (with your thesis stating your point of view), body paragraphs (one for each example, usually), and a conclusion. Direct Essay Passwords. This structure might seem boring, but it really works to keep your essay organized, and for essays the more clearly organized your essay is, the easier it will be for the essay grader to understand your critical reasoning. The second part of this criteria has to do with keeping your essay focused, making sure it contains a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas. You can't just say well, I have an introduction, body paragraphs, and on plant a conclusion, so I guess my essay is organized and expect to for essays get a 4/4 on your essay.

You need to make sure that each paragraph is also organized . Recall the sample prompt: “Write an observation person essay in which you explain how Hodgman builds an argument to persuade his audience that the hot dog cannot, and starting for essays never should be, considered a sandwich.” And our hypothetical thesis: The author effectively builds his argument that hot dogs are not sandwiches by using logic, allusions to history and mythology, and factual evidence. Let's say that you're writing the paragraph about the author's use of logic to persuade his reader that hot dogs aren't sandwiches. You should NOT just list ways that the author is logical in on problem, support of for essays, his claim, then explain why logic in general is an effective persuasive device.

While your points might all be valid, your essay would be better served by a thesis, connecting each instance of logic in the passage with an explanation of how that example of logic persuades the reader to starting agree with the essay on plant, author. Above all, it is imperative that you make your thesis (your central claim) clear in the opening paragraph of your essay - this helps the grader keep track of your argument. There's no reason you’d want to starting for essays make following your reasoning more difficult for observation person the person grading your essay (unless you’re cranky and don’t want to starting do well on the essay. Listen, I don’t want to tell you how to live your life). In your essay, you should use a wide array of vocabulary (and use it correctly). Essay On Plant. An essay that scores a 4 in Writing on the grading rubric “demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice.” You’re allowed a few errors, even on a 4-scoring essay, so you can sometimes get away with misusing a word or two. In general, though, it’s best to stick to using words you are certain you not only know the meaning of, but also know how to use.

If you’ve been studying up on vocab, make sure you practice using the words you’ve learned in starting for essays, sentences, and have those sentences checked by strengths and weaknesses in writing, someone who is for essays, good at writing (in English), before you use those words in unemployment, an SAT essay. Creating elegant, non-awkward sentences is the thing I struggle most with under time pressure. For instance, here’s my first try at starting for essays, the previous sentence: “Making sure a sentence structure makes sense is the thing that I have the most problems with when I’m writing in a short amount of time” (hahaha NOPE - way too convoluted and wordy, self). Essay On Plant. As another example, take a look at these two excerpts from the hypothetical essay discussing how the for essays, author persuaded his readers that a hot dog is not a sandwich: Score of 2: The author makes his point by critiquing the of educated, argument against him. For Essays. The author pointed out the logical fallacy of saying a hot dog was a sandwich because it was meat sandwiched between two breads. Direct. The author thus persuades the reader his point makes sense to starting be agreed with and roots convinces them. The above sentences lack variety in structure (they all begin with the words the author), and the last sentence has serious flaws in its structure (it makes no sense). Score of 4: The author's rigorous examination of his opponent's position invites the starting for essays, reader, too, to consider this issue seriously. By laying out his reasoning, step by step, Hodgman makes it easy for the reader to and contrast on abortion follow along with his train of thought and arrive at the same destination that he has. This destination is Hodgman's claim that a hot dog is not a sandwich.

The above sentences demonstrate variety in sentence structure (they don't all begin with the same word and starting don't have the same underlying structure) that presumably forward the on plant, point of the essay. In general, if you're doing well in all the other Writing areas, your sentence structures will also naturally vary. If you're really worried that your sentences are not varied enough, however, my advice for working on demonstrating meaningful variety in sentence structure (without ending up with terribly worded sentences) is twofold: Read over what you’ve written before you hand it in and change any wordings that seem awkward, clunky, or just plain incorrect. For Essays. As you’re doing practice essays, have a friend, family member, or teacher who is essay on problem of educated unemployment, good at (English) writing look over your essays and point out starting for essays any issues that arise. This part of the Writing grade is how to a compare and contrast on abortion, all about the nitty gritty details of writing: grammar, punctuation, and spelling . For Essays. It's rare that an essay with serious flaws in this area can score a 4/4 in Reading, Analysis, or Writing, because such persistent errors often interfere with meaning (that is, persistent errors make it difficult for the grader to on plant roots understand what you're trying to starting for essays get across). On the other hand, if they occur in small quantities, grammar/punctuation/spelling errors are also the things that are most likely to be overlooked. If two essays are otherwise of equal quality, but one writer misspells definitely as definately and the other writer fails to explain how one of essay, her examples supports her thesis, the first writer will receive a higher essay score. It's only when poor grammar, use of punctuation, and spelling start to make it difficult to starting for essays understand your essay that the graders start penalizing you. My advice for working on this rubric area is the same advice as for sentence structure: look over what you’ve written to double check for mistakes, and ask someone who’s good at writing to direct essay look over your practice essays and point out your errors.

If you're really struggling with spelling, simply typing up your (handwritten) essay into a program like Microsoft Word and running spellcheck can alert you to problems. We've also got a great set of articles up on our blog about for essays SAT Writing questions that may help you better understand any grammatical errors you are making. How Do I Use The SAT Essay Grading Rubric? Now that you understand the SAT essay rubric, how can you use it in your SAT prep? There are a couple of different ways. Use The SAT Essay Rubric To. Shape Your Essays.

Since you know what the of educated unemployment, SAT is looking for in an for essays essay, you can now use that knowledge to guide what you write about in direct, your essays! A tale from my youth: when I was preparing to take the SAT for the first time, I did not really know what the essay was looking for, and assumed that since I was a good writer, I’d be fine. Not true! The most important part of the SAT essay is using specific examples from the starting, passage and explaining how they convince the reader of the author's point. By reading this article and critique a thesis paper realizing there's more to the essay than being a strong writer, you’re already doing better than high school me. Change the object in that girl’s left hand from a mirror to a textbook and starting for essays you have a pretty good sketch of direct essay passwords, what my junior year of high school looked like.

Use The SAT Essay Rubric To. Grade Your Practice Essays. The SAT can’t exactly give you an answer key to the essay. Even when an example of an essay that scored a particular score is provided, that essay will probably use different examples than you did, make different arguments, maybe even argue different interpretations of the text. making it difficult to compare the two. The SAT essay rubric is the next best thing to an answer key for starting for essays the essay - use it as a lens through which to view and assess your essay. Of course, you don’t have the time to direct essay become an expert SAT essay grader - that’s not your job.

You just have to for essays apply the rubric as best as you can to on problem of educated unemployment your essays and work on fixing your weak areas . For the sentence structure, grammar, usage, and mechanics stuff I highly recommend asking a friend, teacher, or family member who is really good at (English) writing to take a look over starting for essays, your practice essays and point out the mistakes. If you really want custom feedback on essay on problem of educated unemployment your practice essays from experienced essay graders, may I also suggest the PrepScholar test prep platform? I manage the essay grading and so happen to know quite a bit about the essay part of this platform, which gives you both an essay grade and starting for essays custom feedback for each essay you complete. Learn more about observation person how it all works here. Are you so excited by this article that you want to read even more articles on the SAT essay? Of course you are. Starting. Don't worry, I’ve got you covered. Learn how to write an SAT essay step-by-step and person essay read about the starting for essays, 6 types of SAT essay prompts. Still not satisfied? Maybe a five-day free trial of our very own PrepScholar test prep platform (which includes essay practice and feedback) is just what you need.

Trying to essay figure out whether the old or new SAT essay is better for you? Take a look at our article on the new SAT essay assignment to find out! Want to for essays improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by a thesis paper, 160 points or more.

Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and starting for essays weaknesses. Essay On Plant. If you liked this Essay lesson, you'll love our program. Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands of practice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from starting for essays, Wellesley College with a BA in essay of educated unemployment, Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of starting, Music of Bard College. Essay On Problem Of Educated Unemployment. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media.

You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of starting for essays, our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section:

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The Scoop on Resume Length: How Many Pages Should Your Resume Be? by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Once upon a time, someone came up with a “rule” that resumes should not exceed one page. No one really knows who came up with the rule, but a great many job-seekers still seem to live in fear of this supposed edict. The fact is that very few “rules” exist today in the world of resume writing. Unbreakable rules include: You can’t lie, you can’t have typos/misspellings, and you can’t include negative information. Just about every other rule you’ve ever heard about resumes, however, is breakable, including rules about starting, how many pages your resume should comprise.

Rules are one thing, but trends are another. Observation Person Essay! After a period that could almost be described as “anything goes” in terms of resume length, the pendulum in this Twitter-inspired, short-attention-span age has swung back toward shorter resumes. “The norm for most resumes/CVs is one to two pages, even for very experienced professionals,” says the starting for essays Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the New the Next in Careers , published by the Career Thought Leaders Consortium. The publication went on to note that a survey of HR/recruiters on LinkedIn indicated an in writing essays, overwhelming preference for a second page. Even against within this climate of shorter resumes, each individual situation dictates resume length. After surveying career experts, we developed some guidelines to help you determine the right length for your resume.

It should be noted that length is primarily an issue that pertains to the traditional, formatted, “print” version of for essays your resume. For resumes in electronic formats that are intended to be placed directly in keyword-searchable databases, page-length is immaterial. “The length of how to and contrast essay your resume doesn’t matter to an applicant tracking system,” affirms Jon Ciampi, CEO of Preptel, a company that aims to help job-seekers penetrate these systems (as quoted in an article on CIO.com by Meridith Levinson). “It will scan your resume regardless of whether it’s two pages or four. Submitting a longer (say three or four page) resume that allows you to pack in more relevant experience and keywords and phrases could increase your chances of ranking higher in for essays, the system,” Ciampi says in Levinson’s article. Essay On Plant Roots! Thus, this article’s guidelines apply either in situations where your formatted resume is for essays, screened by a compare essay on abortion human eyes without having been placed into a keyword-searchable database or after a keyword search has narrowed the field of starting applicants. Resumes for new grads and entry-level job-seekers are often, but not always, one page. Most college career-placement centers tell students to direct passwords, limit their resumes to one page, notes resume writer Sharon Pierce-Williams, 75 percent of starting for essays whose business is writing for the college population. Pierce-Williams observes that many career offices even require that students stick to passwords, a one-page resume.”

Indeed, if there is one group that should strive for a one-page resume, it is college students and new graduates. In many cases, these entry-level job-seekers don’t have enough relevant experience to justify more than a page. Starting For Essays! Some new grads do, however, have lots of how to critique a thesis relevant internship, summer-job, extracurricular, leadership, and sports experience that justifies a two-page resume. Pierce-Williams takes an unusual approach to new-grad resumes. “I have compelling proof that two-page resumes land job interviews for for essays college students,” Pierce-Williams says. “Length depends on extra-curricular involvement and how to critique, leadership. It takes a certain ‘go-getter’-type student for starting for essays a two-page resume.” Pierce-Williams designs college-student resumes in which page one “often looks like a ‘regular’ resume, but page two is entitled ‘Key Leadership and Project Management’ or simply ‘Key Leadership.'” Pierce-Williams says she uses this page-two section to essay on problem, list three to four projects in which the student made a difference in for essays, an association or sorority/fraternity. If you fall into the college-student/entry-level/new-grad group and are tempted to how to a compare and contrast essay on abortion, go to two pages, just be sure that you have the relevant material to justify a second page. “Once someone has been in business for 10 years, particularly if they have switched jobs, I find it difficult to keep it on for essays, one page,” says coach, speaker, and trainer Darlene Nason. “I think a two-page resume is a good average.” In his Resume Critique Writer software, Grant Cooper of how to write a compare Strategic Resumes offers this view of the two-page resume: “The resume has now taken the starting place of the initial interview, and on problem unemployment, only those with significant qualifications and strong resumes are even invited to interview.

True, it does take an additional minute or less for an HR professional to review the second page of starting for essays a resume, but that extra minute is seen as far more helpful than scheduling a questionable candidate for a personal interview.” Supplemental sheets and addenda provide a way to present additional information without adding to the length of the essay of educated unemployment resume itself. Executives in particular were advised till recently that three- and four-page resumes were acceptable and even expected. For Essays! Now, though, the trend is toward two-page or even one-page resumes for executives that are supplemented by various addenda that can optionally be submitted with the resume. Essays! “A suite of addenda,” says Deborah Wile Dib, president of Executive Power Brand, can be “a strategic way to for essays, mention presentations, awards, published works, technical skills, extensive education, and expanded success studies.” Dib, who particularly uses addenda with executives, notes that “such addenda allow for even greater depth without cluttering the resume.” Creating various supplements and addenda enables the job-seeker to choose which pieces to observation, send along with the resume. He or she might instead choose not to send any addenda but to bring them to the interview. Even among employers, there’s no consensus on preferred resume length. While there is no consensus among employers and recruiters about resume length, some feel one page is too short.

Maureen Crawford Hentz, manager of starting talent acquisition, development and compliance at Osram Sylvania, Boston MA, particularly disdains “abbreviated or ‘teaser’ resumes” that urge the recruiter, “for more information, call me.” Many recruiters believe that two pages is about the right length; for some, three pages is the outside limit that they will read. “If the essays resume is longer than two pages, it needs to be well worth it,” noted Hentz’s colleague at Osram Sylvania, Harlynn Goolsby. Others question executives’ ability to prioritize if their resumes are longer than two pages. Since recruiters pass candidate resumes on to client employers, they must also consider employer preferences. “Most of my clients profess that they are too busy to read anything lengthier — thus, I deliver what they require,” said Chris Dutton, director at Intelligent Recruitment Services and Owner, Intelligent IT Recruitment, Manchester, UK. Recruiter opinions about resume length have been colored in starting, recent years by the growing practice of reading resumes on essay on problem of educated, a computer screen rather than printing them. Starting For Essays! Resumes that might seem too long in print are acceptable on screen.

For many decision-makers, page length is less important than providing sufficient details. “I … encounter quite a few resumes that have been stripped of on plant roots any detail in order to confine them to starting for essays, one or two pages,” said Pam Sisson, a recruiter for Professional Personnel in Alabama. Essay On Problem Of Educated! “My immediate response is to starting for essays, ask for a more detailed resume. A resume that’s three or four pages but actually shows the qualifications and experience necessary for observation a position is much preferred, in starting, my opinion, to one that has cut out all the substance to meet some passe idea of unemployment a one-page resume.” John Kennedy, senior IT recruiter at Belcan agreed: “Resume length is of very little importance so long as the information is accurate, verifiable, and pertinent to the position. Starting! If a candidate has 20 years of on problem of educated unemployment experience directly relating to the position being applied for and that experience is verifiable, it should be listed even if the resume goes four-plus pages.” Given that employers screen resumes for as few as 6 seconds, a resume must quickly capture the reader’s interest. “As long as the for essays resume grabs the attention of the hiring manager, it is the right length,” says McCown-Guard. “Whatever the length of the resume, the how to a thesis paper critical factor is to for essays, make absolutely certain that your reader’s interest is piqued within the first half of the of educated first page,” cautions Laurie J. Smith, president of Creative Keystrokes Executive Resume Service. “Of equal or greater importance [to length] is concise writing, short paragraphs, brief lists of bullet points, and good organizational strategies that ensure the resume can be quickly skimmed,” notes the Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the New the Next in Careers . “In addition, it is starting, essential to use strong merchandising and positioning strategies to bring the most relevant information to the forefront. Creating a strong impact “above the fold” — on the top half of the first page of the resume — has become increasingly critical for job seekers in one of the most competitive employment markets we’ve ever experienced.” Whatever page your resume ends on, text should fill at strengths in writing essays least a third to a half of the starting page. If the last page of your resume amounts to just a few lines of text, it’s best to paper, condense so that the preceding page becomes the last page of your resume.

Conversely, don’t add superfluous text just to fill up the last page of your resume. “I never fluff up content for the sake of for essays filling space,” says Teena Rose of Resume to Referral. “Irrelevancies can dilute the overall effectiveness of the resume.” The end of your resume, Rose notes, “should offer additional value and not be perceived as leftovers.” Don’t sacrifice your resume’s readability to make it conform to arbitrary “rules” about resume length. It’s always pitiful when we have to whip out the magnifying class to essay on plant, read the for essays tiny 8- or 9-point type on the resume of a job-seeker who has gone to absurd lengths to limit his or her resume to a certain number of pages. Don’t forego readable type (we suggest no smaller than 10.5 point; 11 to 11.5 is better), comfortable margins (some resume writers say 1 inch all around; we’ve gone as small as .7?), space between lines, white space, and direct essay, a pleasing, eye-attracting layout just to cram your resume onto X number of pages. “It’s less taxing and time-consuming to read one and for essays, a half or two well-formatted pages than one page where everything’s squished together,” observes one expert. “Those resumes that do contain detailed information, but are literally ‘crammed’ into one page, are now frowned upon,” says Cooper in his Resume Critique Writer software. “It is simply too difficult for a hiring director to read the tiny print and jam-packed information squeezed into a one-page stuffed resume. Companies that once insisted on one-page resumes are perfectly happy with a clearly-written, concise, and how to critique, well-formatted two-page resume that is for essays, easy to read, yet has the detailed information they now need.” Page numbers, headers, and footers can aid continuity in a resume that is two or more pages.

All resume pages beyond page one need to be numbered. Observation Person Essay! Some job-seekers choose a “page 2 of 3” model. “If you decide to go with two or more pages, be sure to include your name and appropriate page number at the top,” suggests Ann Baehr of Best Resumes. “And organize all of the information with distinct categories to make it easier for the reader to find what they are looking for at a glance.” Including your name close to the page number is highly desirable in case resume pages get separated from each other. However, repeating your entire “letterhead” from the for essays first page of your resume on subsequent pages can be confusing and critique a thesis paper, take up too much space. Career-management coach Don Orlando takes a novel approach to a footer designed to starting, entice the employer to keep reading the resume: “At the bottom of my multi-page resumes, there is a [customized] footer that reads something like this: ‘More indicators of on plant performance General Motors can use now…'” It’s OK for a resume section, such as your experience, to for essays, straddle two pages of your resume, but avoid splitting the description of a given job over two pages. Finish describing a job on one page, and begin detailing the next-oldest job on the following page. Final Thoughts on Job-Seeker Resume Length. One more guideline to consider is that one-page resumes are typically expected for networking and at job fairs. If you’re still torn about how long to make your resume, consider contacting a qualified resume writer for strengths essays an expert consultation.

Questions about some of the terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by going to our Job-Seeker’s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and for essays, blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an electronic newsletter for in writing essays jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career . Katharine, who ea ned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dyn mic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in t e Door: N tworking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by starting Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to write essay on abortion, a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and starting, The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). And Weaknesses In Writing Essays! Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy(at)quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Have you taken advantage of starting all the many free resume tools, articles, samples, and more that we have in the Resume Resources section of critique Quintessential Careers? QUINTESSENTIAL RESUME-WRITING PARTNER. LiveCareer’s Resume Builder is the fastest, most efficient way to for essays, build an effective resume. Featuring hundreds of templates and professional designs for all jobs and industries, Resume Builder also includes sample phrases written by strengths our experts, plus helpful tips and advice to make your resume stand out.

We’ll guide you step by step through the process, so you can build an starting for essays, impressive resume that will make employers want to know more. And Contrast Essay! Ready to jump-start your job search and for essays, move closer to reaching your goals? Try Resume Builder today, and strengths and weaknesses in writing, learn how easy it is to create your own resume. We’re so confident that you’ll love Resume Builder that you can try it for FREE! Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives.

Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of for essays career coaches, certified resume writers, and essay roots, savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the starting job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the critique paper oldest and starting, most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com.

He is how to a compare on abortion, publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by starting email at [email protected] Check out and weaknesses in writing essays, Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for for essays Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about passwords, storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career.

Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from starting Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of observation person Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into starting the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by roots e-mail at starting for essays [email protected] Check out Dr. Observation! Hansen on starting, GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related.

You’ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. How To A Thesis! Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and starting, Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and strengths and weaknesses, scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of starting our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and how to critique a thesis paper, Careerists. Starting! Interview Advice Job [] The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer’s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and observation person essay, employment centers on for essays, their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to strengths, go straight to the career and employment section of the [] Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of starting a specific employer’s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the []

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to starting for essays, start. Strengths! What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and starting for essays tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Essay On Plant! Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. Starting! For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and essay on problem of educated skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of starting for essays your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs.

Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out roots, depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on starting for essays, a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and essay pasting relevant information together. Starting For Essays! Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the observation person essay, Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on the front half of starting for essays a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of and weaknesses in writing a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of for essays your resume. On Plant Roots! This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to starting, Zhang , the only occasion when an strengths in writing essays objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar.

There are lots of different ways to organize the information on starting, your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in strengths essays, less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to for essays, see how you can organize your resume to fit more in and weaknesses in writing, less space. Starting! Can’t figure out in writing, how to starting for essays, tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of a thesis paper your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the for essays, ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to direct essay, stand out in a minute.

But the starting, most basic principle of essay on plant good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on starting, hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for strengths essays, your name, your resume headers, and the companies for for essays, which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on essay on problem of educated, readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively.

If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to starting, add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to person, include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to starting, include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. Critique Paper! (Implicit in for essays, this is direct that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right!

13. Starting! Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the in writing essays, most recent 10-15 years of for essays your career history and only include the how to write and contrast essay on abortion, experience relevant to the positions to starting for essays, which you are applying. Write And Contrast! And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the starting, latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job.

No matter how long you’ve been in essay, a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . For Essays! You may be tempted to throw in tons of strengths and weaknesses essays industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an starting assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to person essay, be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of for essays work or responsibility you needed to strengths and weaknesses essays, achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and starting for essays add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only observation essay what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you.

If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. For Essays! Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in direct essay, your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. For Essays! There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in unemployment, your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in starting, your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and essay make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points.

Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in starting for essays, applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the observation person essay, job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. For Essays! 24.

Experience First, Education Second. Essay Of Educated Unemployment! Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. Starting! 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by strengths listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to starting for essays, grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it.

If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to write and contrast, include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in starting, them can actually show your determination and how to motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. For Essays! Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. And Weaknesses In Writing! If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own.

Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. For Essays! Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to write and contrast on abortion, include an “Interests” section on for essays, your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at direct essay passwords a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial.

Maybe you help raise money for your church on starting, the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by essay on problem someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of for essays whether to direct essay passwords, include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards.

Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about for essays, personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and direct essay Other Sticky Resume Situations. Starting! If you stayed at on plant roots a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from for essays, your resume. According to how to paper, The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in starting, an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for how to, each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the for essays, gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and of educated make it less of an for essays issue. Of Educated! Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to starting for essays, include part-time or volunteer work.

See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to direct essay passwords, creatively fill in gaps on your resume. Starting For Essays! For example, if you took time out of the workforce to essay, raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on for essays, your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is essay of educated unemployment as demanding and starting for essays intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of and weaknesses your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is starting for essays interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to observation person, address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is starting for essays free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and direct essay passwords grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to starting, perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to on problem of educated unemployment, always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off?

Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to starting for essays, pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in strengths and weaknesses essays, tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web.

Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for starting, help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for observation person, this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out starting for essays, all the essay, amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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cisco resume command The Cisco IOS command-line interface (CLI) is the primary user interface used for configuring, monitoring, and maintaining Cisco devices. This user interface allows you to for essays, directly and simply execute Cisco IOS commands, whether using a router console or terminal, or using remote access methods. This chapter describes the basic features of the how to critique a thesis paper, Cisco IOS CLI and how to use them. Topics covered include an introduction to Cisco IOS command modes, navigation and editing features, help features, and command history features. Additional user interfaces include Setup mode (used for first-time startup), the Cisco Web Browser, and user menus configured by a system administrator.

For information about Setup mode, see the Using AutoInstall and for essays, Setup chapter of this book. For information on issuing commands using the Cisco Web Browser, see the Using the Cisco Web Browser User Interface chapter of this book. For information on user menus, see the Managing Connections, Menus, and System Banners chapter of this book. For a complete description of the user interface commands in this chapter, refer to the Basic Command-Line Interface Commands chapter of the Release 12.2 Cisco IOS Configuration Fundamentals Command Reference . To locate documentation of other commands that appear in essay, this chapter, use the Cisco IOS Command Reference Master Index or search online. This chapter contains the following sections: Cisco IOS CLI Command Modes Overview. To aid in the configuration of starting for essays, Cisco devices, the Cisco IOS command-line interface is divided into different command modes. Each command mode has its own set of a thesis, commands available for starting the configuration, maintenance, and monitoring of strengths and weaknesses essays, router and starting for essays, network operations. The commands available to you at any given time depend on the mode you are in. Entering a question mark ( ? ) at essay, the system prompt (router prompt) allows you to obtain a list of commands available for each command mode.

The use of specific commands allows you to navigate from one command mode to for essays, another. The standard order that a user would access the modes is as follows: user EXEC mode; privileged EXEC mode; global configuration mode; specific configuration modes; configuration submodes; and configuration subsubmodes. When you start a session on a router, you generally begin in user EXEC mode , which is and weaknesses essays one of two access levels of the EXEC mode. For security purposes, only starting a limited subset of direct passwords, EXEC commands are available in user EXEC mode. This level of access is reserved for tasks that do not change the configuration of the starting, router, such as determining the router status. In order to have access to all commands, you must enter privileged EXEC mode , which is the second level of access for the EXEC mode. Normally, you must enter a password to strengths and weaknesses essays, enter privileged EXEC mode. In privileged EXEC mode, you can enter any EXEC command, as the for essays, privileged EXEC mode is a superset of the user EXEC mode commands. Most EXEC mode commands are one-time commands, such as show or more commands, which show the current configuration status, and direct passwords, clear commands, which clear counters or interfaces. EXEC mode commands are not saved across reboots of the router.

From privileged EXEC mode, you can enter global configuration mode . In this mode, you can enter commands that configure general system characteristics. You also can use global configuration mode to starting for essays, enter specific configuration modes. Configuration modes, including global configuration mode, allow you to make changes to the running configuration. On Plant! If you later save the configuration, these commands are stored across router reboots. From global configuration mode you can enter a variety of protocol-specific or feature-specific configuration modes. The CLI hierarchy requires that you enter these specific configuration modes only starting for essays through global configuration mode.

As an example, this chapter describes interface configuration mode , a commonly used configuration mode. From configuration modes, you can enter configuration submodes. Configuration submodes are used for passwords the configuration of specific features within the scope of a given configuration mode. As an example, this chapter describes the starting, subinterface configuration mode , a submode of the interface configuration mode. ROM monitor mode is a separate mode used when the essay on plant roots, router cannot boot properly. If your system (router, switch, or access server) does not find a valid system image to load when it is booting, the system will enter ROM monitor mode. ROM monitor (ROMMON) mode can also be accessed by interrupting the starting, boot sequence during startup. The following sections contain detailed information on essay of educated unemployment these command modes: Table 3 follows these sections and summarizes the main Cisco IOS command modes. Logging in to the router places you in user EXEC command mode (unless the starting, system is configured to take you immediately to privileged EXEC mode). Typically, log-in will require a user name and a password.

You may try three times to enter a password before the connection attempt is on plant refused. Note For information on setting the password, see the Configuring Passwords and Privileges chapter in for essays, the Release 12.2 Cisco IOS Security Configuration Guide and the Using AutoInstall and Setup chapter in essay passwords, this document . The EXEC commands available at the user level are a subset of those available at the privileged level. In general, the user EXEC commands allow you to connect to remote devices, change terminal line settings on a temporary basis, perform basic tests, and list system information. To list the available user EXEC commands, use the following command: Lists the user EXEC commands. The user EXEC mode prompt consists of the host name of the device followed by an angle bracket (), as shown in the following example: The default host name is for essays generally Router, unless it has been changed during initial configuration using the setup EXEC command. You also change the host name using the hostname global configuration command. Note Examples in Cisco IOS documentation assume the use of the default name of Router.

Different devices (for example, access servers) may use a different default name. If the routing device (router, access server, or switch) has been named with the hostname command, that name will appear as the prompt instead of the and weaknesses in writing essays, default name. To list the commands available in user EXEC mode, enter a question mark ( ? ) as shown in the following example: The list of for essays, commands will vary depending on the software feature set and direct, router platform you are using. Note You can enter commands in uppercase, lowercase, or mixed case. Only passwords are case sensitive. However, Cisco IOS documentation convention is to always present commands in starting, lowercase. Because many privileged EXEC mode commands set operating parameters, privileged-level access should be password protected to prevent unauthorized use.

The privileged EXEC command set includes those commands contained in essay on problem of educated unemployment, user EXEC mode. Privilege EXEC mode also provides access to configuration modes through the starting, configure command, and includes advanced testing commands, such as debug . The privileged EXEC mode prompt consists of the strengths and weaknesses in writing, host name of the starting for essays, device followed by essay unemployment, a pound sign (#), as shown in the following example: To access privileged EXEC mode, use the starting, following command: Enables privileged EXEC mode. After issuing the enable command, the system will prompt you for a password. Note that privileged EXEC mode is sometimes referred to as enable mode, because the enable command is used to enter the mode. If a password has been configured on observation essay the system, you will be prompted to enter it before being allowed access to privileged EXEC mode. The password is not displayed on for essays the screen and is case sensitive. If an enable password has not been set, privileged EXEC mode can be accessed only from the router console (terminal connected to the console port).

The system administrator uses the enable secret or enable password global configuration commands to person essay, set the password that restricts access to privileged mode. For Essays! For information on setting the passwords, see the Configuring Passwords and Privileges chapter in direct passwords, the Release 12.2 Cisco IOS Security Configuration Guide. To return to user EXEC mode, use the following command: Exits from privileged EXEC mode to starting for essays, user EXEC mode. The following example shows the process of accessing privileged EXEC mode: Note that the password will not be displayed as you type, but is shown here for illustrational purposes.To list the commands available in privileged EXEC mode, issue the ? command at the prompt. From privileged EXEC mode you can access global configuration mode, which is described in and weaknesses essays, the following section. Note Because the privileged EXEC command set contains all of the commands available in user EXEC mode, some commands can be entered in either mode. In Cisco IOS documentation, commands that can be entered in starting for essays, either user EXEC mode or privileged EXEC mode are referred to as EXEC mode commands. If user or privileged is not specified in the documentation, assume that you can enter the referenced commands in either mode.

The term global is used to observation person essay, indicate characteristics or features that affect the system as a whole. Global configuration mode is used to configure your system globally, or to enter specific configuration modes to configure specific elements such as interfaces or protocols. Use the configure terminal privileged EXEC command to enter global configuration mode. To access global configuration mode, use the following command in privileged EXEC mode: Router# configure terminal. From privileged EXEC mode, enters global configuration mode. The following example shows the process of entering global configuration mode from starting for essays privileged EXEC mode: Note that the system prompt changes to indicate that you are now in global configuration mode. The prompt for global configuration mode consists of the host-name of the device followed by critique a thesis paper, (config) and the pound sign ( # ). To list the commands available in privileged EXEC mode, issue the ? command at the prompt. Commands entered in global configuration mode update the running configuration file as soon as they are entered. In other words, changes to the configuration take effect each time you press the Enter or Return key at the end of a valid command.

However, these changes are not saved into starting for essays the startup configuration file until you issue the copy running-config startup-config EXEC mode command. This behavior is explained in more detail later in this document. As shown in the example above, the system dialogue prompts you to end your configuration session (exit configuration mode) by direct passwords, pressing the starting for essays, Control (Ctrl) and z keys simultaneously; when you press these keys, ^Z is printed to on plant, the screen. You can actually end your configuration session by entering the Ctrl-Z key combination, using the end command, using the for essays, Ctrl-C key combination. The end command is the recommended way to indicate to the system that you are done with the current configuration session. Warning If you use Ctrl-Z at the end of a command line in which a valid command has been typed, that command will be added to the running configuration file.

In other words, using Ctrl-Z is equivalent to hitting the Enter (Carriage Return) key before exiting. For this reason, it is essay on problem of educated unemployment safer to starting for essays, end your configuration session using the end command. Alternatively, you can use the Ctrl-C key combination to observation person essay, end your configuration session without sending a Carriage Return signal. You can also use the exit command to return from for essays global configuration mode to EXEC mode, but this only works in global configuration mode. Pressing Ctrl-Z or entering the end command will always take you back to EXEC mode regardless of which configuration mode or configuration submode you are in.

To exit global configuration command mode and return to privileged EXEC mode, use one of the on problem of educated unemployment, following commands: Ends the for essays, current configuration session and returns to privileged EXEC mode. Exits the current command mode and returns to the preceding mode. For example, exits from global configuration mode to privileged EXEC mode. From global configuration mode, you can enter a number of protocol-specific, platform-specific, and feature-specific configuration modes.

For a complete list of configuration modes, see the Cisco IOS Command Modes appendix in this book. This appendix provides references to on plant roots, the appropriate documentation module for information about specific configuration modes. Interface configuration mode, described in starting, the following section, is an example of a configuration mode you can enter from global configuration mode. One example of roots, a specific configuration mode you enter from global configuration mode is starting interface configuration mode. Many features are enabled on a per-interface basis. Interface configuration commands modify the operation of an interface such as an Ethernet, FDDI, or serial port. Interface configuration commands always follow an interface global configuration command, which defines the interface type.

For details on interface configuration commands that affect general interface parameters, such as bandwidth or clock rate, refer to the Release 12.2 Cisco IOS Interface Configuration Guide . How To Write And Contrast On Abortion! For protocol-specific commands, refer to the appropriate Cisco IOS software command reference. To access and list the interface configuration commands, use the starting, following command: Router(config)# interface type number. Specifies the interface to be configured, and direct essay passwords, enters interface configuration mode. In the following example, the user enter interface configuration mode for for essays serial interface 0. Essays! The new prompt, hostname (config-if)#, indicates interface configuration mode. To exit interface configuration mode and return to global configuration mode, enter the exit command. Configuration submodes are configuration modes entered from other configuration modes (besides global configuration mode). Starting For Essays! Configuration submodes are for the configuration of specific elements within the observation person essay, configuration mode. For a complete list of configuration submodes, see the Cisco IOS Command Modes appendix in this book. One example of starting, a configuration submode is subinterface configuration mode, described in the following section.

From interface configuration mode, you can enter subinterface configuration mode. Subinterface configuration mode is a submode of and weaknesses in writing, interface configuration mode. In subinterface configuration mode you can configure multiple virtual interfaces (called subinterfaces) on a single physical interface. For Essays! Subinterfaces appear to observation person essay, be distinct physical interfaces to starting for essays, the various protocols. For example, Frame Relay networks provide multiple point-to-point links called permanent virtual circuits (PVCs). PVCs can be grouped under separate subinterfaces that in turn are configured on a single physical interface. From a bridging spanning-tree viewpoint, each subinterface is a separate bridge port, and a frame arriving on one subinterface can be sent out on another subinterface. Subinterfaces also allow multiple encapsulations for a protocol on a single interface. Direct Passwords! For example, a router or access server can receive an ARPA-framed IPX packet and starting for essays, forward the packet back out the same physical interface as a SNAP-framed IPX packet. For detailed information on how to configure subinterfaces, refer to the appropriate documentation module for a specific protocol in the Cisco IOS software documentation set. To access subinterface configuration mode, use the following command in interface configuration mode:

Specifies the virtual interface to be configured and enters subinterface configuration mode. In the following example, a subinterface is configured for serial line 2, which is configured for Frame Relay encapsulation. The subinterface is identified as 2.1 to indicate that it is subinterface 1 of serial interface 2. Unemployment! The new prompt hostname (config-subif)# indicates subinterface configuration mode. The subinterface can be configured to starting, support one or more Frame Relay PVCs. To exit subinterface configuration mode and return to interface configuration mode, use the exit command. To end your configuration session and return to privileged EXEC mode, press Ctrl-Z or enter the end command. ROM monitor mode (ROMMON) runs from a specialized software image, and is used to essay roots, manually locate a valid system software image from which to boot the system (ROM monitor mode is also sometimes called boot mode). If your system (router, switch, or access server) does not find a valid system image to load, the system will enter ROM monitor mode. ROM monitor mode can also be accessed by interrupting the boot sequence during startup.

From ROM monitor mode, you can boot the device or perform diagnostic tests. On most systems you can enter ROM monitor mode by starting, entering the reload EXEC command and in writing essays, then issuing the starting for essays, Break command during the first 60 seconds of startup. The Break command is issued by pressing the Break key on your keyboard or by using the Break key-combination (the default Break key-combination is Ctrl-C). Note You must have a console connection to the router to perform this procedure, as Telnet connections will be lost when the system reboots. To access ROM monitor mode from EXEC mode, perform the following steps: Step 1 Enter the reload command in EXEC mode. Person! After issuing this command and responding to the system prompts as necessary, the system will begin reloading the system software image. Step 2 Issue the Break command during the first 60 seconds of system startup. The break command is issued using the for essays, Break key or Break key-combination. (The default Break key combination is Ctrl-C, but this may be configured differently on your system.) Issuing the break command interrups the boot sequence and brings you into ROM monitor mode. Another method for entering ROM monitor mode is to set the configuration register so that the router automatically enters ROM monitor mode when it boots.

For information about setting the configuration register value, see the Rebooting chapter in this book. ROM monitor mode uses an angle bracket () as the command line prompt. How To Write And Contrast! On some Cisco devices the starting for essays, default ROM monitor prompt is strengths in writing rommon . A list of for essays, ROM monitor commands is displayed when you enter the ? command or help command. Essay! The following example shows how this list of commands may appear: The list of available commands will vary depending on the software image and platform you are using. Some versions of ROMMON will display a list of commands in a pre-aliased format such as the following: To exit ROM monitor mode, use the continue command or C command alias; this will restart the booting process. For more information on ROM monitor mode characteristics (including using aliases for commands) and using ROM monitor mode, see the Rebooting chapter in this document.

Summary of Main Cisco IOS Command Modes. Table 3 summarizes the main command modes used in the Cisco IOS CLI. For a complete list of configuration modes, see the starting for essays, Cisco IOS Command Modes appendix in this book. Table 3 Summary of the Main Cisco IOS Command Modes. Use the logout command. From user EXEC mode, use the enable EXEC command. To exit to of educated, user EXEC mode, use the disable command. To enter global configuration mode, use the configure terminal privileged EXEC command. From privileged EXEC mode, use the starting, configure terminal privileged EXEC command. To exit to privileged EXEC mode, use the end command or press Ctrl-Z . To enter interface configuration mode, use the interface configuration command. From global configuration mode, enter by specifying an interface with an interface command.

To exit to global configuration mode, use the exit command. To exit to privileged EXEC mode, use the end command or press Ctrl-Z . To enter subinterface configuration mode, specify a subinterface with the on plant roots, interface command. From interface configuration mode, specify a subinterface with an interface command. Starting! (The availability of on problem unemployment, this mode is for essays dependent on your platform.) To exit to global configuration mode, use the exit command. To exit to privileged EXEC mode, use the end command or press Ctrl-Z . From privileged EXEC mode, use the reload EXEC command. Press the Break key during the first 60 seconds while the system is booting. If you entered ROM monitor mode by interrupting the strengths and weaknesses essays, loading process, you can exit ROM monitor and resume loading by starting, using the continue command or the C command alias. To familiarize yourself with the features of the Cisco IOS CLI, perform any of the tasks described in the following sections: Entering a question mark ( ? ) at essay of educated, the system prompt displays a list of commands available for each command mode.

You also can get a list of the starting, arguments and how to critique a thesis paper, keywords available for any command with the for essays, context-sensitive help feature. To get help specific to a command mode, a command name, a keyword, or an write essay argument, use any of the following commands: Displays a brief description of the starting for essays, help system. Lists commands in the current mode that begin with a particular character string. Completes a partial command name. Lists all commands available in person, the command mode. Lists the available syntax options (arguments and keywords) for the command. Lists the next available syntax option for the command. Note that the system prompt will vary depending on which configuration mode you are in.

When using context-sensitive help, the space (or lack of for essays, a space) before the question mark ( ? ) is direct essay passwords significant. To obtain a list of commands that begin with a particular character sequence, type in starting for essays, those characters followed immediately by the question mark ( ? ). Do not include a space. This form of help is called word help, because it completes a word for you. Person! For more information, see the Completing a Partial Command Name section later in this chapter. To list keywords or arguments, enter a question mark ( ? ) in starting, place of essay on problem of educated, a keyword or argument. Starting! Include a space before the ? . This form of help is called command syntax help, because it shows you which keywords or arguments are available based on the command, keywords, and arguments you already have entered. You can abbreviate commands and keywords to the number of how to write and contrast essay on abortion, characters that allow a unique abbreviation. For example, you can abbreviate the configure terminal command to config t . Because the for essays, abbreviated form of the observation person essay, command is unique, the router will accept the starting, abbreviated form and execute the command.

Entering the help command (available in any command mode) will provide the following description of the help system: As described in the help command output, you can use the question mark ( ? ) to complete a partial command name (partial help), or to obtain a list of essay on plant roots, arguments or keywords that will complete the current command. The following example illustrates how the context-sensitive help feature enables you to create an access list from starting for essays configuration mode. Enter the letters co at the system prompt followed by a question mark ( ? ). Do not leave a space between the how to essay, last letter and the question mark. The system provides the starting, commands that begin with co . Enter the configure command followed by a space and a question mark to list the how to critique paper, keywords for the command and a brief explanation: The cr symbol (cr stands for starting carriage return) appears in the list to indicate that one of your options is to press the roots, Return or Enter key to starting, execute the a thesis paper, command, without adding any additional keywords. In this example, the for essays, output indicates that your options for the configure command are configure memory (configure from NVRAM), configure network (configure from a file on the network), configure overwrite-network (configure from write a compare and contrast on abortion a file on the network and replace the file in NVRAM), or configure terminal (configure manually from the terminal connection). For most commands, the for essays, cr symbol is used to indicate that you can execute the command with the syntax you have already entered. However, the configure command is a special case, as the CLI will prompt you for in writing essays the missing syntax: The default response for the ? prompt is indicated in the CLI output by for essays, a bracketed option at the end of the line.

In the preceding example, pressing the Enter (or Return) key is equivalent to typing in the word terminal. To skip the prompting, enter the of educated unemployment, configure terminal command to for essays, enter global configuration mode: The CLI provides error isolation in strengths and weaknesses essays, the form of an error indicator, a caret symbol (^). The ^ symbol appears at the point in the command string where the user has entered incorrect or unrecognized command syntax. For example, the caret symbol in the following output shows the letter that was mistyped in the command: Note that an error message (indicated by starting for essays, the % symbol) is printed to the screen to essay on plant roots, alert you to the error marker.

Enter the access-list command followed by a space and starting, a question mark to list the available options for essay passwords the command: The two numbers within the starting for essays, angle brackets represent an inclusive range. Enter the access list number 99 and then enter another question mark to see the arguments that apply to the keyword and brief explanations: Enter the deny argument followed by on problem of educated unemployment, a question mark ( ? ) to list additional options: Generally, uppercase letters represent variables (arguments). For Essays! Enter the in writing, IP address followed by a question mark ( ? ) to list additional options: In this output, A.B.C.D indicates that use of a wildcard mask is allowed. For Essays! The wildcard mask is a method for paper matching IP addresses or ranges of starting, IP addresses. For example, a wildcard mask of 0.0.0.255 matches any number in the range from 0 to 255 that appears in the fourth octet of an IP address.

Enter the wildcard mask followed by a question mark ( ? ) to list further options. The cr symbol by itself indicates there are no more keywords or arguments. Press Enter (or Return) to execute the command. The system adds an entry to access list 99 that denies access to strengths and weaknesses in writing, all hosts on subnet 172.31.134.0, while ignoring bits for IP addresses that end in 0 to 255. Displaying All User EXEC Commands. To configure the current session to display the full set of user EXEC commands, use the following command in EXEC mode (user EXEC or privileged EXEC):

Router# terminal full-help. Configures this session to provide help for starting the full set of user-level commands. The system administrator can also configure the system to how to write and contrast, always display full help for starting connections made to passwords, a particular line using the full-help line configuration command. The full-help and terminal full-help commands enable the displaying of all help messages available in user EXEC mode when the starting for essays, show ? command is executed. The following example is output for the show ? command with terminal full-help disabled and then enabled: Using the no and default Forms of Commands. Almost every configuration command has a no form. In general, use the no form to disable a feature or function. Direct Essay! Use the command without the no keyword to reenable a disabled feature or to enable a feature that is disabled by default. For example, IP routing is for essays enabled by how to write and contrast essay on abortion, default. To disable IP routing, use the for essays, no ip routing form of the ip routing command.

To reenable it, use the plain ip routing form. The Cisco IOS software command reference publications describe the function of the no form of the a compare and contrast, command whenever a no form is available. Many CLI commands also have a default form. By issuing the command default command-name , you can configure the command to its default setting. The Cisco IOS software command reference publications describe the function of the default form of the command when the starting for essays, default form performs a different function than the essay, plain and no forms of the starting, command. To see what default commands are available on your system, enter default ? in the appropriate command mode. The Cisco IOS CLI provides a history or record of commands that you have entered. Essay Roots! This feature is particularly useful for recalling long or complex commands or entries, including access lists. Starting! To use the paper, command history feature, perform any of the tasks described in the following sections: Setting the Command History Buffer Size.

By default, the system records ten command lines in its history buffer. To set the number of command lines that the system will record during the current terminal session, use the starting, following command in EXEC mode: Router# terminal history [ size number-of-lines ] Enables the command history feature for the current terminal session. The terminal no history size command resets the number of how to critique, lines saved in for essays, the history buffer to the default of ten lines. To configure the number of command lines the system will record for all sessions on a particular line, use the following command in line configuration mode: Router(config-line)# history [ size number-of-lines ] Enables the command history feature. To recall commands from the history buffer, use one of the following commands or key combinations: Recalls commands in the history buffer, beginning with the how to and contrast, most recent command. Repeat the key sequence to recall successively older commands. Returns to more recent commands in the history buffer after recalling commands with Ctrl-P or the Up Arrow key. Repeat the key sequence to recall successively more recent commands.

Router show history. While in for essays, EXEC mode, lists the last several commands entered. 1 The arrow keys function only on on plant roots ANSI-compatible terminals . Disabling the starting, Command History Feature. The command history feature is and weaknesses in writing automatically enabled. To disable it during the current terminal session, use the following command in EXEC mode: Router terminal no history.

Disables command history for for essays the current session. To configure a specific line so that the command history feature is disabled, use the following command in line configuration mode: Router(config-line)# no history. Disables command history for the line. Using CLI Editing Features and Shortcuts. A variety of shortcuts and essay on plant, editing features are enabled for the Cisco IOS CLI. The following subsections describe these features: Moving the starting, Cursor on the Command Line. Table 4 shows the essay on problem of educated unemployment, key combinations or sequences you can use to move the cursor around on the command line to make corrections or changes.

Ctrl indicates the Control key, which must be pressed simultaneously with its associated letter key. Esc indicates the Escape key, which must be pressed first, followed by its associated letter key. Starting! Keys are not case sensitive. Many letters used for CLI navigation and and weaknesses, editing were chosen to provide an easy way of remembering their functions. In Table 4 characters are bolded in for essays, the Function Summary column to indicate the observation person, relation between the letter used and the function. Table 4 Key Combinations Used to Move the for essays, Cursor. Moves the cursor one character to the left.

When you enter a command that extends beyond a single line, you can press the Left Arrow or Ctrl-B keys repeatedly to unemployment, scroll back toward the system prompt and verify the beginning of the command entry, or you can press the Ctrl-A key combination. Moves the cursor one character to the right. Moves the cursor back one word. Moves the cursor forward one word. Beginning of line. Moves the cursor to the beginning of the line. Moves the starting, cursor to the end of the command line.

Completing a Partial Command Name. If you cannot remember a complete command name, or if you want to reduce the critique, amount of typing you have to perform, enter the first few letters of the command, then press the Tab key. Starting! The command line parser will complete the command if the string entered is unique to the command mode. If your keyboard does not have a Tab key, press Ctrl - I instead. The CLI will recognize a command once you have entered enough characters to make the command unique. For example, if you enter conf in privileged EXEC mode, the CLI will be able to associate your entry with the how to critique paper, configure command, because only the configure command begins with conf . In the for essays, following example the CLI recognizes the unique string for privileged EXEC mode of conf when the Tab key is pressed: When you use the command completion feature the CLI displays the full command name. The command is not executed until you use the on abortion, Return or Enter key.

This way you can modify the command if the full command was not what you intended by the abbreviation. If you enter a set of starting for essays, characters that could indicate more than one command, the system beeps to indicate that the text string is observation not unique. If the CLI can not complete the command, enter a question mark ( ? ) to starting for essays, obtain a list of passwords, commands that begin with that set of characters. Do not leave a space between the last letter you enter and the question mark ( ? ). For example, entering co? will list all commands available in the current command mode: Note that the characters you enter before the question mark are reprinted to the screen to allow you to complete the command entry. Use any of the following keys or key combinations to delete command entries if you make a mistake or change your mind: Deletes the character to the left of the cursor. Deletes the character at the cursor. Deletes all characters from the cursor to the end of the command line. Deletes all characters from the cursor to the beginning of the command line.

Deletes the word to the left of the starting, cursor. Deletes from the cursor to the end of the word. The CLI stores commands or keywords that you delete in a history buffer. Essay On Problem Unemployment! Only character strings that begin or end with a space are stored in the buffer; individual characters that you delete (using Backspace or Ctrl-D) are not stored. The buffer stores the last ten items that have been deleted using Ctrl-K, Ctrl-U, or Ctrl-X. To recall these items and paste them in the command line, use the following key combinations: Recalls the most recent entry in the buffer. (press keys simultaneously). Recalls the previous entry in the history buffer. (press keys sequentially). Note that the Esc, Y key sequence will not function unless you press the Ctrl-Y key combination first.

If you press Esc, Y more than ten times, you will cycle back to the most recent entry in the buffer. The CLI provides a wrap-around feature for starting commands that extend beyond a single line on the screen. When the cursor reaches the right margin, the command line shifts ten spaces to on problem of educated, the left. You cannot see the for essays, first ten characters of the line, but you can scroll back and how to critique, check the syntax at the beginning of the command. To scroll back, press Ctrl-B or the left arrow key repeatedly until you scroll back to the beginning of the command entry, or press Ctrl-A to return directly to the beginning of the line. In the following example, the starting, access-list command entry extends beyond one line. When the essays, cursor first reaches the end of the line, the line is shifted ten spaces to the left and redisplayed. The dollar sign ($) indicates that the line has been scrolled to the left. Each time the cursor reaches the starting for essays, end of the line, the line is again shifted ten spaces to the left.

When you have completed the entry, press Ctrl-A to check the complete syntax before pressing the observation person essay, Return key to execute the command. The dollar sign ($) appears at for essays, the end of the line to indicate that the line has been scrolled to how to write a compare essay, the right: The Cisco IOS software assumes you have a terminal screen that is 80 columns wide. If you have a different screen-width, use the for essays, terminal width EXEC command to set the strengths in writing, width of your terminal. Use line wrapping in conjunction with the starting, command history feature to recall and modify previous complex command entries. Essay Of Educated! See the Recalling Commands section in this chapter for information about starting recalling previous command entries. Continuing Output at the --More-- Prompt.

When working with the on plant, Cisco IOS CLI, output often extends beyond the visible screen length. For cases where output continues beyond the bottom of the screen, such as with the output of many ? , show , or more commands, the output is paused and a --More-- prompt is displayed at the bottom of the screen. To resume output, press the Return key to scroll down one line, or press the starting for essays, Spacebar to display the next full screen of output. Tips If output is how to write a compare essay pausing on starting for essays your screen, but you do not see the --More-- prompt, try entering a smaller value for essay roots the screen length using the starting for essays, length line configuration command or the terminal length EXEC command. Command output will not be paused if the length value is in writing essays set to zero. For information about filtering output from the --More-- prompt, see the for essays, Searching and Filtering CLI Output section in this chapter. Redisplaying the Current Command Line.

If you are entering a command and how to and contrast essay, the system suddenly sends a message to your screen, you can easily recall your current command line entry. Starting For Essays! To redisplay the current command line (refresh the screen), use either of the essay of educated, following key combinations: Redisplays the current command line. If you have mistyped a command entry, you can transpose the mistyped characters. To transpose characters, use the following key combination: Transposes the character to the left of the starting, cursor with the character located at the cursor.

You can capitalize or lowercase words or capitalize a set of letters with simple key sequences. Note, however, that Cisco IOS commands are generally case-insensitive, and are typically all in how to a compare on abortion, lowercase. To change the capitalization of starting, commands, use any of the following key sequences: Capitalizes the letter at the cursor. Changes the word at essay roots, the cursor to lowercase. Capitalizes letters from the for essays, cursor to the end of the word. Designating a Keystroke as a Command Entry. You can configure the observation essay, system to starting, recognize particular keystroke (key combination or sequence) as command aliases. In other words, you can set a keystroke as a shortcut for executing a command.

To enable the system to on problem unemployment, interpret a keystroke as a command, use the either of the starting, following key combinations before entering the command sequence: Configures the system to essay, accept the following keystroke as a user-configured command entry (rather than as an editing command). Disabling and starting for essays, Reenabling Editing Features. The editing features described in on problem of educated unemployment, the previous sections were introduced in Cisco IOS Release 9.21, and are automatically enabled on your system. For Essays! However, there may be some unique situations that could warrant disabling these editing features. For example, you may have scripts that conflict with editing functionality. To globally disable editing features, use the following command in observation, line configuration mode: Disables CLI editing features for a particular line.

To disable the editing features for the current terminal session, use the following command in EXEC mode: Router# terminal no editing. Disables CLI editing features for the local line. To reenable the editing features for the current terminal session, use the following command in EXEC mode: Router# terminal editing. Enables the CLI editing features for the current terminal session. To reenable the editing features for for essays a specific line, use the following command in line configuration mode: Enables the CLI editing features. Searching and Filtering CLI Output. The Cisco IOS CLI provides ways of searching through large amounts of essay roots, command output and filtering output to exclude information you do not need. These features are enabled for starting show and more commands, which generally display large amounts of data.

Note Show and more commands are always entered in EXEC mode. When output continues beyond what is displayed on your screen, the and contrast, Cisco IOS CLI displays a --More-- prompt. Pressing Return displays the next line; pressing the starting for essays, Spacebar displays the next screen of output. The CLI String Search feature allows you to search or filter output from --More-- prompts. Understanding Regular Expressions. A regular expression is a pattern (a phrase, number, or more complex pattern) the and weaknesses, CLI String Search feature matches against show or more command output. Regular expressions are case sensitive and allow for complex matching requirements. Simple regular expressions include entries like Serial , misses , or 138 . Complex regular expressions include entries like 00210. , ( is for essays ) , or [Oo]utput . A regular expression can be a single-character pattern or a multiple-character pattern. That is, a regular expression can be a single character that matches the same single character in the command output or multiple characters that match the strengths and weaknesses essays, same multiple characters in the command output. The pattern in the command output is referred to as a string. Starting For Essays! This section describes creating both single-character patterns and multiple-character patterns.

It also discusses creating more complex regular expressions using multipliers, alternation, anchoring, and parentheses. The simplest regular expression is a single character that matches the same single character in write and contrast essay, the command output. You can use any letter (A-Z, a-z) or digit (0-9) as a single-character pattern. You can also use other keyboard characters (such as ! or. ) as single-character patterns, but certain keyboard characters have special meaning when used in regular expressions. For Essays! Table 5 lists the keyboard characters that have special meaning. Table 5 Characters with Special Meaning. Matches any single character, including white space. Matchers 0 or more sequences of the pattern. Matches 1 or more sequences of the pattern.

Matches 0 or 1 occurrences of the pattern. Matches the beginning of the essay on problem unemployment, string. Matches the end of the string. Matches a comma (,), left brace ( ), left parenthesis ( ( ), right parenthesis ( ) ), the beginning of the string, the end of the string, or a space. To use these special characters as single-character patterns, remove the special meaning by preceding each character with a backslash ().

The following examples are single-character patterns matching a dollar sign, an underscore, and a plus sign, respectively. You can specify a range of single-character patterns to match against starting, command output. Direct Essay Passwords! For example, you can create a regular expression that matches a string containing one of the following letters: a, e, i, o, or u. Only one of these characters must exist in the string for pattern matching to starting for essays, succeed. To specify a range of single-character patterns, enclose the single-character patterns in a compare and contrast, square brackets ( [ ] ). For example, [aeiou] matches any one of the five vowels of the lowercase alphabet, while [abcdABCD] matches any one of the starting for essays, first four letters of the lower- or uppercase alphabet. You can simplify ranges by entering only the on problem unemployment, endpoints of the range separated by starting for essays, a dash (-).

Simplify the observation person, previous range as follows: To add a dash as a single-character pattern in your range, include another dash and precede it with a backslash: You can also include a right square bracket (]) as a single-character pattern in your range, as shown here: The previous example matches any one of the starting for essays, first four letters of the lower- or uppercase alphabet, a dash, or a right square bracket. You can reverse the matching of the range by including a caret (^) at strengths, the start of the range.

The following example matches any letter except the ones listed. The following example matches anything except a right square bracket (]) or the letter d: When creating regular expressions, you can also specify a pattern containing multiple characters. You create multiple-character regular expressions by joining letters, digits, or keyboard characters that do not have special meaning. For example, a4% is a multiple-character regular expression. Put a backslash before the starting, keyboard characters that have special meaning when you want to how to a compare on abortion, indicate that the character should be interpreted literally. With multiple-character patterns, order is for essays important. The regular expression a4% matches the character a followed by a 4 followed by a % sign. If the on plant roots, string does not have a4%, in that order, pattern matching fails. The multiple-character regular expression a. uses the special meaning of the period character to match the letter a followed by any single character. Starting! With this example, the strings ab, a!, or a2 are all valid matches for the regular expression.

You can remove the essay, special meaning of the period character by putting a backslash in front of it. For example, when the starting for essays, expression a. is used in the command syntax, only the string a. Passwords! will be matched. You can create a multiple-character regular expression containing all letters, all digits, all keyboard characters, or a combination of letters, digits, and other keyboard characters. For example, telebit 3107 v32bis is a valid regular expression. You can create more complex regular expressions that instruct Cisco IOS software to match multiple occurrences of a specified regular expression. Starting For Essays! To do so, you use some special characters with your single-character and multiple-character patterns. Table 6 lists the special characters that specify multiples of a regular expression. Table 6 Special Characters Used as Multipliers. Matches 0 or more single-character or multiple-character patterns. Matches 1 or more single-character or multiple-character patterns. Matches 0 or 1 occurrences of a single-character or multiple-character pattern.

The following example matches any number of occurrences of the letter a, including none: The following pattern requires that at direct passwords, least one letter a be in the string to be matched: The following pattern matches the for essays, string bb or bab: The following string matches any number of asterisks (*): To use multipliers with multiple-character patterns, you enclose the pattern in parentheses. In the following example, the pattern matches any number of the multiple-character string ab:

As a more complex example, the following pattern matches one or more instances of alphanumeric pairs, but not none (that is, an empty string is not a match): The order for matches using multipliers (*, +, or ?) is to put the longest construct first. Nested constructs are matched from outside to inside. Essay On Problem! Concatenated constructs are matched beginning at the left side of the construct. Thus, the regular expression matches A9b3, but not 9Ab3 because the letters are specified before the numbers. Alternation allows you to starting for essays, specify alternative patterns to match against a string. On Problem! You separate the alternative patterns with a vertical bar ( | ). Exactly one of the alternatives can match the string. For example, the regular expression codex | telebit matches the string codex or the string telebit, but not both codex and for essays, telebit.

You can instruct Cisco IOS software to match a regular expression pattern against the beginning or the end of the string. That is, you can specify that the beginning or end of a string contain a specific pattern. Of Educated! You anchor these regular expressions to a portion of the string using the special characters shown in starting, Table 7. Table 7 Special Characters Used for Anchoring. Matches the beginning of the string. Matches the end of the string. For example, the regular expression ^con matches any string that starts with con, and $sole matches any string that ends with sole. In addition to indicating the beginning of a string, the ^ symbol can be used to indicate the unemployment, logical function not when used in a bracketed range. Starting! For example, the expression [^abcd] indicates a range that matches any single letter, as long as it is not the how to a thesis, letters a, b, c, or d. Contrast these anchoring characters with the special character underscore (_). Underscore matches the beginning of a string (^), the end of a string ($), parentheses (( )) , space ( ), braces (), comma (,), or underscore (_).

With the underscore character, you can specify that a pattern exist anywhere in the string. For example, _1300_ matches any string that has 1300 somewhere in the string. Starting For Essays! The string 1300 can be preceded by or end with a space, brace, comma, or underscore. So, while matches the regular expression _1300_ , 21300 and 13000 do not. Using the underscore character, you can replace long regular expression lists. For example, instead of specifying ^1300( ) ( )1300$ ,1300, (1300 you can specify simply _1300_ . As shown in paper, the Multipliers section, you use parentheses with multiple-character regular expressions to multiply the occurrence of a pattern. You can also use parentheses around a single- or multiple-character pattern to instruct the starting for essays, Cisco IOS software to remember a pattern for use elsewhere in how to a thesis paper, the regular expression. To create a regular expression that recalls a previous pattern, you use parentheses to indicate memory of a specific pattern and a backslash () followed by a digit to reuse the remembered pattern. The digit specifies the occurrence of a parentheses in the regular expression pattern. If you have more than one remembered pattern in your regular expression, then 1 indicates the first remembered pattern, and 2 indicates the for essays, second remembered pattern, and so on. The following regular expression uses parentheses for recall:

This regular expression matches an a followed by any character (call it character no. Essay On Plant! 1), followed by bc followed by starting, any character (character no. 2), followed by roots, character no. 1 again, followed by starting for essays, character no. 2 again. So, the essay of educated unemployment, regular expression can match aZbcTZT. The software remembers that character no. For Essays! 1 is Z and character no. 2 is T and then uses Z and T again later in the regular expression.

Searching and how to paper, Filtering show Commands. To search show command output, use the following command in starting, EXEC mode: Router# show any-command | begin regular-expression. Begins unfiltered output of the show command with the first line that contains the roots, regular expression . Note Cisco IOS documentation generally uses the vertical bar to for essays, indicate a choice of and contrast essay, syntax. However, to search the starting, output of show and more commands, you will need to enter the pipe character (the vertical bar). In this section the pipe appears in bold ( | ) to person, indicate that you should enter this character. To filter show command output, use one of the for essays, following commands in EXEC mode: Router# show any-command | exclude regular-expression.

Displays output lines that do not contain the regular expression. Router# show any-command | include regular-expression. Displays output lines that contain the regular expression. On most systems you can enter the Ctrl-Z key combination at any time to interrupt the output and return to EXEC mode. In Writing! For example, you can enter the show running-config | begin hostname command to start the for essays, display of the running configuration file at the line containing the hostname setting, then use Ctrl-z when you get to the end of the information you are interested in. Searching and Filtering more Commands. You can search more commands the same way you search show commands ( more commands perform the same function as show commands). To search more command output, use the observation person, following command in for essays, EXEC mode: Router# more any-command | begin regular-expression.

Begins unfiltered output of a more command with the first line that contains the person, regular expression. You can filter more commands the same way you filter show commands. To filter more command output, use one of the following commands in EXEC mode: Router# more any-command | exclude regular-expression. Displays output lines that do not contain the regular expression.

Router# more any-command | include regular-expression. Displays output lines that contain the regular expression. Searching and Filtering from the --More-- Prompt. You can search output from --More-- prompts. To search show or more command output from a --More-- prompt, use the following command in EXEC mode: Begins unfiltered output with the first line that contains the regular expression. You can filter output from --More-- prompts. For Essays! However, you can only specify one filter for essay on plant each command. The filter remains until the starting for essays, show or more command output finishes or until you interrupt the output (using Ctrl-Z or Ctrl-6).

Therefore, you cannot add a second filter at a --More-- prompt if you already specified a filter at the original command or at a previous --More--prompt. Note Searching and filtering are different functions. You can search command output using the begin keyword and specify a filter at the --More-- prompt for direct the same command. To filter show or more command output at a --More-- prompt, use one of the following commands in EXEC mode: Displays output lines that do not contain the regular expression. Displays output lines that contain the regular expression. The following sections provide examples of using the CLI: Determining Command Syntax and Using Command History Example. The CLI provides error isolation in starting for essays, the form of an error indicator, a caret symbol (^). Of Educated Unemployment! The ^ symbol appears at the point in the command string where you have entered an incorrect command, keyword, or argument.

In the starting for essays, following example, suppose you want to direct essay, set the clock. Use context-sensitive help to determine the correct command syntax for setting the clock. The help output shows that the set keyword is required. Determine the syntax for entering the time: Enter the current time: The system indicates that you need to provide additional arguments to complete the command. Press Ctrl-P or the for essays, Up Arrow to automatically repeat the previous command entry. Then add a space and essay, question mark ( ? ) to reveal the starting for essays, additional arguments:

Now you can complete the command entry: The caret symbol (^) and help response indicate an error at essay on problem of educated, 01. Starting! To list the correct syntax, enter the essay on plant, command up to the point where the error occurred and then enter a question mark ( ? ): Enter the year using the correct syntax and press Enter or Return to execute the command: Router# clock set 13:32:00 23 February 2001. Searching and Filtering CLI Output Examples. The following is partial sample output of the more nvram:startup-config | begin EXEC command that begins unfiltered output with the for essays, first line that contain the regular expression ip . At the --More-- prompt, the user specifies a filter to exclude output lines that contain the direct, regular expression ip . The following is partial sample output of the more nvram:startup-config | include command.

It only displays lines that contain the regular expression ip . The following is partial sample output of the starting for essays, more nvram:startup-config | exclude command. It excludes lines that contain the regular expression service . At the --More-- prompt, the user specifies a filter with the regular expression Dialer1 . Specifying this filter resumes the output with the first line that contains Dialer1 . The following is partial sample output of the show interface EXEC command with an output search specified. The use of the keywords begin Ethernet after the and weaknesses in writing, pipe begins unfiltered output with the first line that contains the regular expression Ethernet . At the --More-- prompt, the user specifies a filter that displays only the lines that contain the starting, regular expression Serial . The following is partial sample output of the show buffers | exclude command. It excludes lines that contain the regular expression 0 misses . At the --More-- prompt, the user specifies a search that continues the filtered output beginning with the first line that contains Serial0 . The following is partial sample output of the show interface | include command. The use of the include ( is ) keywords after the critique a thesis, pipe (|) causes the command to display only lines that contain the regular expression ( is ) . The parenthesis force the for essays, inclusion of the spaces before and after is . Direct Essay! Use of the parenthesis ensures that only lines containing is with a space both before and for essays, after it will be included in the output (excluding from the observation person, search, for starting for essays example, words like disconnect ) . At the --More-- prompt, the user specifies a search that continues the filtered output beginning with the first line that contains Serial0:13 :