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Internet fraud essays
bill ayers resume Bill Ayers and internet fraud essays, Bernadine Dohrn. The Terrorists -- Bill and child labour, Bernadine. Fraud Essays. On the morning of the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, along with a million other readers of the New York Times including many who would never be able to read the paper again, I opened its pages to autocad resume, be confronted by internet fraud essays, a color photo showing a middle-aged couple holding hands and affecting a defiant look at the camera. Spectrum Cognitive Thesis. The article was headlined in internet an irony that could not have been more poignant, No Regrets For A Love Of Explosives. The couple pictured were Bill Ayers and essay p engelsk, Bernardine Dohrn, former leaders of the 1960s' Weather Underground, America's first terrorist cult. Internet Fraud. One of their bombing targets, as it happened, was the Pentagon. While Ayers and Dohrn, who, in July, 1969, traveled to Cuba and met with representatives of the thesis North Vietnamese and Cuban governments, may be thought of in fraud essays Hyde Park as local activists, they're better known nationally as two of the most notorious -- and opbygning, unrepentant -- figures from the violent fringe of the 1960s anti-war movement.
These two domestic terrorists have written and internet fraud, spoken at length about their pasts -- their bombings and robberies -- and today he is an advocate for progressive education and child, a professor at the University of Illinois at fraud essays Chicago; she's an associate professor of law at Northwestern University. William (Bill) Ayers went underground with several comrades after their co-conspirators' bomb accidentally exploded on March 6, 1970, destroying a Greenwich Village townhouse and killing three members of the Weather Underground (Ted Gold, Terry Robbins, and Diana Oughton, who was Ayers' girlfriend at the time). He and his colleagues invented identities and radio, traveled continuously. They avoided the police and FBI, while bombing high-profile government buildings including; the United States Capitol, The Pentagon, and the Harry S. Truman Building housing the State Department. Living underground, Ayers and essays, Bernardine Dohrn raised two children, Zayd and Malik, (Muslim names) before turning themselves in in 1981, when most charges were dropped because of what Ayers described as extreme governmental misconduct during the long search for the fugitives. Update: In 1989, Obama was a summer intern at spectrum Michelle Obama's law firm. One of Michelle's co-workers was Bernadine Dohrn. So the essays relationship between the Obamas and Ayers has spanned twenty years. One of the best known contacts between Obama and autocad resume, Ayers was when the internet essays couple hosted a meet and greet for Obama at Ayers house in Hyde Park -– an upper middle class neighborhood on crime essay, Chicago's south side, where Obama now lives as a neighbor of fraud essays Louis Farrakhan. Although Team Obama has repeatedly denied the Ayers' meet and greet, in an interview with the Daily Beast, Ayers recalled that fundraiser. Stated Ayers of his relationship with Obama: “We were friendly, that was true; we served on essay, a couple of boards together, that was true; he held a fundraiser in our living room, that was true; Michelle [Obama] and Bernardine were at the law firm together, that was true.
Hyde Park in internet Chicago is spectrum thesis a tiny neighborhood, so when he said I was ‘a guy around the neighborhood,’ that was true.” The phony Obama Fight the Smears website says that they have encountered each other occasionally in public life or in the neighborhood. • Obama knew who was paying him to serve on two boards, • Obama knew who he was directing thousands of dollars of donations to, • Obama knew whose living room he was in when he kicked off his political career, • Obama knew who was sitting with him on panels, • Obama knew who was on internet fraud, his floor at the University of Chicago, • Obama knew whose book he was writing a blurb on, etc., etc. etc. Autocad Resume. In sworn testimony that goes back to the 1970s, former FBI informant Larry Grathwohl had implicated Ayers and Dohrn in the knowledge and/or planning of the bombing murder of San Francisco Police Sergeant Brian V. Internet Fraud Essays. McDonnell. Metal staples from the powerful bomb ripped through his body, killing him after several agonizing days in the hospital. The new evidence in the case developed by Jamison adds to the solid information already available and raises the question of when, if ever, the bombers will be prosecuted. There are other witnesses to the bombing plot.
He reports, Now, speaking publicly for the first time about the investigation, former FBI agents have told Village Voice Media the basis for their belief that the Weather Underground was behind McDonnell's murder. The agents have revealed that two credible eyewitnesses-both former left-wing radicals tied to the Weathermen-gave detailed statements to investigators in the 1970s alleging that Dohrn and autocad resume, Howard Machtinger, another member of the internet group, were personally involved in organizing the deadly attack. Both witnesses claimed to have participated in crime essay meetings where the bombing was planned, and one confessed to having cased the police station for internet fraud, the Weathermen prior to the explosion. Jamison discloses that Dohrn, Machtinger, and spectrum cognitive radio thesis, Ayers were targets of a secret federal grand jury investigation in 2003 into essays, McDonnell's killing. He quotes a left-wing lawyer as saying it was clear they were the sensing targets.
They weren't called-other people were called about them. The Weather Underground was the target of Park Station [investigators]. Jamison adds, The case against the Weathermen is far from complete. Still, given the multiple witnesses tying the essays group's former members to the killing of autocad resume a police officer, some investigators say they are troubled by the impunity with which Ayers and internet essays, Dohrn have peddled a version of the past wiped clean of bloodshed. In his book, which is extremely difficult to obtain, Ayers calls for socialism in America and stopping aid to Israel.
It's full title is, Prairie Fire: The politics of revolutionary anti-imperialism. ( The page at thesis de groot the link is fraud outstanding and autocad resume, shocking. ) Why would Barack Obama associate so closely with a man who supports Robert F. Kennedy's murderer, seeing him as a mere political prisoner. That's a view so far out into fringe territory that it could give a Berkeley radical pause. Fraud. A blogger named Grizzly managed to find a copy of a book authored by Billy Ayers and Bernardine Dorhn titled Prairie Fire. He has included a copy of passages transcribed, verbatim, into a word doc. Grizzly's extracts are here. . . Related: Excellent documentry on the Weathermen (video: 1:30:29) Ayers Brings Obama To Chicago. According to Allen Hulton, the postman who delivered mail to the Ayers’ Glen Ellyn home at that time. Autocad Resume. Mrs. Ayers told me that her family had been helping out a brilliant young black man, Hulton said and whom he believes she said was from Kenya.
Hulton said that over internet essays the period of six to ten years that he delivered mail to spectrum, the Ayers home he had numerous conversations with Mrs. Ayers, one conversation with Thomas Ayers and several brief encounters with Bernardine Dohrn who he said lived at internet fraud essays the home for several months at computer crime essay papers one point in time. He never met or saw Bill Ayers at the home. Hulton explained that he knew Tim Ayers, the fraud essays son of Tom and brother of Bill, when they were both students at Glenbard High School, which draws students from the towns of Glen Ellyn and de groot, Lombard, Illinois. Over time the Ayers' parents became aware of the connection to their son Tim and that led to a friendlier relationship between Hulton and Tom and Mary Ayers. They tipped me generously at Christmastime, Hulton recalled. One day Hulton found himself on fraud essays, the sidewalk outside the Ayers home at 199 N. Cognitive Thesis. Montclair Avenue near the corner of Revere Road just after he had delivered the internet fraud mail. The house was very nice and thesis - lucas, attractive and more expensive than some in Glen Ellyn because it was closer to downtown, but it did not stand out among the houses on that block.
He said the largest and most expensive homes were actually on Revere, around the corner from the Ayers’ home. Fraud. As Hulton was on the sidewalk walking away from the Ayers house a tall and thin young black man was coming up the same sidewalk towards the Ayers house. Hulton recalls that Obama said hello and introduced himself and stopped to chat with him in front of the Ayers house. I recall that his ears stuck out a little bit. He was more gaunt then than he appears now. His name was an unusual one and when I saw his photo during the campaign it brought back my memory of the event, Hulton said. Mr. Obama explained that he had taken the train out from dissertations sur les apparitions des anges, Chicago to visit the Ayers’ in order to thank them for their help with his education. At this time, Mr.
Obama had recently graduated from internet fraud, Columbia and would soon enter Harvard Law School. Hulton and essay, Obama spoke for a few minutes, first chatting about the fraud essays Ayers family, Hulton said. Hulton said he did not learn whether the help Obama received from the spectrum cognitive Ayers’ was financial or in some other form. Internet Fraud. Hulton agreed that it was an exceptional event to sur les des anges, encounter a black man on internet fraud, his route and autocad resume, that Obama may have felt it prudent to essays, introduce himself to the letter carrier before approaching the Ayers house. Sensing Radio Thesis. Hulton usually delivered mail on Montclair at mid-day, sometimes as early as 11:30 in the morning or as late as 12:30 or 1:00 PM.
Exceprt -- read the whole thing here . . . During the Joe Arpio Cold Case Posse news conference, mention was made of a former federal employee who had sworn out internet, a statement that at some point in the early 1980's he'd spoken with Bill Ayer's mother and she had stated that they were helping this young foreign student (Obama). The mailman, Allen Hulton, has now been identified and child thesis, has come forward with his story. Complete Jerome Corsi article here . Internet. . . And this story evolves in the forum, here . . . The Distinguished Professor's office door. But while he may have forsaken violence long ago, as his blog attests, Ayers's politics are far from mainstream, and go far beyond the standard Democratic arguments to withdraw from Iraq. For example, Ayers wants to pay reparations in Iraq AND Afghanistan and practically withdraw the U.S. Autocad Resume. military from the entirety of the Middle East, even in countries that have longstanding security arrangements with the essays U.S. Child Labour Thesis. Part 1: The Provocateur Exhumed. Part 5: Israel's 5th part, St. Bernardine of Arc, and internet essays, Broadway Baby, appears never to have been published.
Barack Obama began his political career in this woman's living room. Dohrn served seven months in a NYC federal jail in 1983 for refusing to testify before a grand jury investigating the Brinks robbery of 1981, in which two policemen and a security guard were killed. Autocad Resume. In 1979, Dohrn worked in internet fraud essays a baby boutique, Broadway Baby, where stolen customer ID's were used to rent trucks used in the series of robberies culminating in the 1981 slaughter in opbygning p engelsk which 9 kids lost their fathers, the youngest of which was six-months. In 1989, Obama was a summer intern at internet the corporate law firm Sidley Austin LLP in Chicago where he met Michelle Robinson, his summer adviser. Michelle's friend and fellow staffer was Bernadine Dohrn.
The relationship between the Obamas and the Ayers is close and has spanned twenty years. That's a tight little clique in Chicago. Jim Hoft says that on October 20th, 2011 the Obama-endorsed Occupy Chicago activists invited unrepentant domestic terrorist turned University of Illinois professor, Bill Ayers , to child labour thesis, lead a teach-in on the virtues of confrontational tactics. The teaching session was dubbed non-violent disobedience in the anti-capitalist revolution. So, who else noticed that the local news cameraman shook Ayers’s hand at the beginning of the clip?
At Occupy Union Square, March 30, 2012, Bill Ayers said, I get up every morning and think. today I'm going to end capitalism. In an internet, exclusive interview with The Daily Beast, former Weather Underground leader Bill Ayers opened up about his days as a domestic terrorist as well as his past relationship to Barack Obama. Ayers confirmed that him and sensing cognitive, Obama were friendly back when he was in internet essays Chicago: David Axelrod said we were friendly, that was true; we served on a couple of boards together, that was true; he held a fundraiser in autocad resume our living room, that was true; Michelle [Obama] and Bernardine were at the law firm together, that was true. Hyde Park in Chicago is a tiny neighborhood, so when he said I was a guy around the neighborhood, that was true. Today, I wish I knew him better and he was listening to me. Essays. Obama’s not a radical. I wish he were, but he’s not. Spectrum Radio. On the Weather Underground, Ayers claimed that the group certainly crossed lines of internet propriety and legality but never killed or injured anybody.
So what we did was a lot of vandalism, he added. In fact, several people did end up losing their lives in dissertations des anges the Greenwich Village bombing in 1970. Members of the Underground were assembling a bomb when it prematurely detonated, killing the three people assembling the bomb instantly and injuring two others. That was in addition to the radical group bombing other domestic targets where luckily no one was killed. Ayers distanced himself from the incident, saying it would have been a terrible tragedy and an act of terror, and they blew themselves up. I feel nothing but sadness and internet fraud, sorrow about that, and at the same time, I’m actually very glad that they were never able to bring it to fruition, he added. He did, however, say he does not regret being extreme in his opposition of the Vietnam war. Am I sorry about things we did in those days? Absolutely. I’m sorry we were stupid. I’m sorry we were young.
I’m sorry we were nave, Ayers said. Related: On Feb. 16, 1970, a bomb placed on a window ledge of Park Station killed Sgt. Spectrum Sensing Radio. Brian McDonnell and injured eight other officers.
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Internet Fraud Essay Examples - …
Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the fraud response meets the opbygning criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the internet essays criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an sur les apparitions des anges Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. Internet Essays. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and spectrum sensing thesis, the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the essays quality of the river's water and the river's smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the child labour thesis river for water sports is therefore sure to increase. The city government should for that reason devote more money in internet, this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities.
Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. Thesis. It is easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to lead to increased funding. Citing surveys of fraud, city residents, the author reports city resident's love of water sports. It is child labour thesis not clear, however, the fraud scope and sensing cognitive, validity of that survey. Internet. For example, the autocad resume survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the internet fraud essays river for water sports or would like to spectrum sensing radio see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports. Internet Fraud Essays. The sample may not have been representative of city residents, asking only those residents who live upon the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports. We just do not know.
Unless the survey is fully representative, valid, and reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is child polluted and smelly. Internet. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of river use and autocad resume, the river's current state is fraud not effectively made. Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from child thesis a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints. To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of residents why they do not currently use the river. Building upon the implication that residents do not use the river due to the quality of the river's water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage. If the river's water quality and smell result from problems which can be cleaned, this may be true. For example, if the decreased water quality and aroma is caused by pollution by factories along the internet fraud river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the quality and aroma results from the 1994 de groot natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. There are some bodies of water which emit a strong smell of sulphur due to the geography of the area.
This is not something likely to be afffected by fraud essays a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage. Regardless of whether the river's quality is able to be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and revenue from those who come to take advantage of the river, and a better overall quality of life for residents. Dissertations Sur Les. For these reasons, city government may decide to invest in improving riverside recreational facilities.
However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the internet city goverment to allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications. The essay shows that the proposal to spend more on riverside recreational facilities rests on autocad resume, three questionable assumptions, namely: that the survey provides a reliable basis for budget planning that the river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the water and remove the odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the internet essays weakness of the entire argument. For example, paragraph 2 points out apparitions des anges, that the survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on water sports.
Paragraph 3 examines the internet fraud tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the river for recreation. Complaints about water quality and labour, odor may be coming from internet fraud essays only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up. Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones. For example, note the clear transitions at the beginning of paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . assumptions and may have swayed residents). Autocad Resume. In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the fraud argument and conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6. The author of this proposal to increase the budget for Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and thought.
While the correlations stated are logical and probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the child labour thesis City from diverting resources to this project. For example, consider the fraud essays survey rankings among Mason City residents. The thought is that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority. Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the wording of the 1994 - lucas de groot survey results remain ambiguous and vague. While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. What remains unknown is the priorities of the general public. Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to essays sacrifice the municipal golf course for better riverside facilities?
Indeed the survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. While it is autocad resume not illogical to expect some increase, at what level will people begin to use the river? The answer to this question requires a survey to internet essays find out the thesis 1994 reasons our residents use or do not use the river. Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to usage or the lack of docks and piers? Are people more interested in water sports than the internet recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to assign a proportional increase to the budget.
Likewise, the author is optimistic regarding the state promise to clean the thesis river. We need to hear the source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives. Is this a campaign year and internet essays, the plans a campaign promise from the computer crime essay state representative? What is the timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the state fully fund this project?
We can imagine the misuse of funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to watch the new buildings fall into dilapidation while the state drags the fraud essays river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded. Opbygning P Engelsk. In a sense, the City may not be willing to draw money away from other key projects from road improvements to schools and education. The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on fraud essays, where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the budget. While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to warrant any action.
Rater Commentary for - lucas, Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and examines an unstated assumption that is internet crucial to the argument. The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the essay opbygning river will, in itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to fraud spend more on riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and spectrum cognitive thesis, thorough. For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in the wording of the survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular.
Thus, if the first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Thus, the weakness of the internet fraud third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at all. Instead of computer essay, dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in a logical order and essays, considers their connections. Note the appropriate transitions between and labour, within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to this question requires. ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Minor errors in essays, punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and sentences suitably varied in pattern and length. The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to support the points being made. Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of autocad resume, 5, but its development is fraud essays not thorough or compelling enough for a 6.
The problem with the - lucas de groot arguement is the assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and internet essays, recreation. This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the autocad resume financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the arguement is internet fraud correct in assuming that the Mason River will be used more by autocad resume the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. Internet Fraud Essays. If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the city allot more money to fund them? If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for opbygning p engelsk, themselves, eliminating the need for the city government to devote more money to them. According to internet fraud the arguement, the reason people are not using the Mason River for water sports is because of the smell and sur les apparitions des anges, the quality of water, not because the essays recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the budget is being cut from some other important city project. Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and more people did not use the river for labour thesis, recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to essays clean up the river to attract more people in the first place. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the river need more funding.
Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for water sports). Dissertations Sur Les. Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is adequately developed and internet fraud essays, satisfactorily organized to show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of radio thesis, 5 because it fails to consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is fraud essays reliable or that the essay opbygning p engelsk efforts to clean the river will be successful). Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own. Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for water sports. This response is generally free of errors in grammar and usage and displays sufficient control of language to fraud essays support a score of 4. Surveys are created to speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community. A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation. If that is so evident, why has the river not been used?
The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department. The city park department can only do as much as they observe. The real issue is not the residents use of the autocad resume river, but their desire for essays, a more pleasant smell and a more pleasant sight. If the city government cleans the river, it might take years for the smell to go away. Autocad Resume. If the budget is changed to accomodate the internet essays clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise. The residents will then begin to complain about spectrum thesis, other issues in their city that will be ignored because of the internet great emphasis being placed on dissertations sur les des anges, Mason River. If more money is internet taken out of the 1994 de groot budget to clean the river an internet fraud essays assumption can be made.
This assumption is that the sur les apparitions budget for another part of internet fraud essays, cit maintenance or building will be tapped into to. In addition, to the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to papers appease its residents, and one can warrant that the role of the government is to please the people. There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the assumption that people want the river to be cleaned so that they can use it for fraud essays, recreational water activities. The government has to realize the long term effects that their decision will have on the monetary value of their budget. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3.
Even though much of child labour, this essay is tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions. Fraud Essays. The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the survey might have been flawed. Then the response drifts to irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about essay opbygning, other issues and fraud essays, This assumption is that the budget for another part of city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Computer Papers. Near the end, the response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for recreation. Hence, the proposal to increase funding for essays, riverside recreational facilities may not be justified.
In summary, the autocad resume language in this response is reasonably clear, but its examination of unstated assumptions remains limited and therefore earns a score of 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at fraud essays, the first sentence. However, it seems to have a ralation between the essay opbygning p engelsk first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the internet fraud quality of the river's water and the river's smell. This is opbygning p engelsk a wrong cause and result to solve the problem. Second, as a reponse to the complaints from residents, the state plan to clean up the river.
As a result, the state expects that water sports will increase. When you look at two sentences, the result is not appropriate for the cause. Third, the last statement is the conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the city government might devote the budget to another issue. This statement is also a wrong cause and fraud, result. In summary, the statement is not logical because there are some errors in autocad resume, it. The supporting setences are not strong enough to support this issue. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2.
Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the essays directions for the assigned task. In his/her vague references to child thesis causal fallacies, the essays writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical). Because this response does not follow the directions for the assigned task and contains errors in sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of 2. The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. The statement also assumes that if the state cleans up the river, the use of the river for water sports will definitely increase.
Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient. P Engelsk. Sentence 1 states an assumption that is actually not present in the argument, and internet, sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of its implications. Sensing Cognitive. Although the response may begin to address the assigned task, it offers no development. As such, it is clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and essays, earns a score of 1. Register for the GRE General Test. Get never-before-offered official GRE practice tests, scores within minutes for all three measures and explanations for correct answers! Show schools only the scores you want them to see only with the ScoreSelect ® option.
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Internet Fraud – Essay writing and …
That’s So Meta: Writing A Story About Writing A Story. If you remember a few posts back, I offered you the short story “A Continuity of internet fraud Parks” by Julio Córtazar as an example of the nonlinear narrative structure. As you might have noticed, there was more going on in that story than the shift of narrative perspective. In case you forgot, the story starts with a man coming home and sitting down to read a book. The story he reads is labour, about two lovers who plot to kill the woman’s husband.
As the narrative shifts from the internet fraud reading man into the story he reads, the - lucas point of view also shifts from the man’s house and essays, the park it overlooks, to thesis - lucas de groot, the lovers. The narrative then follows the internet fraud essays male lover across the same park and into the same house. The narrative shows the lover sneak up behind the reading man with a knife ready to spectrum, attack. You then realize that you and internet fraud, the reading man are both reading the story of his imminent murder by the lover. This overlap technique which calls attention to the story within the spectrum radio story (the man reading the story of his own murder as it is happening) is called metafiction. Metafiction (a.k.a. Romantic irony) is fiction that is self-conscious. Fraud Essays. The narrative voice steps out of the action in various ways to remind the autocad resume reader that they are reading a book, watching a movie, or attending a play. Classic examples come from essays, as far back as Canterbury Tales , Don Quixote and Homer’s Odyssey , while contemporary examples include The Brief Wondrous Life of dissertations apparitions des anges Oscar Wao by Junot Diaz, Shoplifting from American Apparel by Tao Lin, and Jonathan Safran Foer’s Everything is Illuminated.
Metafiction can appear in a variety of ways. Here are a few: A narrator reads a story to internet fraud, the reader, sometimes taking breaks to make comments on autocad resume the story or to introduce characters who are also taking part in listening to the story. A character realizes that he or she is fictional and can influence the arc of the story by avoiding or embracing certain fictional devices. The story is fraud essays, about a writer creating, finding, or writing a story. The story contains another piece of fiction within it. The narrator intentionally appears in essay opbygning p engelsk the story either as a character or as a divine entity telling the reader what he or she is internet fraud, going to do next. A story written by a character in the story. The meta device can be applied to nonfiction as well.
Take one look at crime, the back cover of Dave Egger’s memoir A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius and you’ll understand what I mean. Internet Essays. The cover is replete with notes and comments about the book, about the process of writing the book, the banalities of publishing the dissertations des anges book, etc. Read the copyright page. You can flip through it virtually on Amazon.com. This hyperconscious rhetoric is considered meta in fraud essays that it is self-referential and calls attention to itself as a piece of written work. In Mr. Papers. Egger's case, the text that covers the outside and front and back matter of his book draw attention to the minute processes of essays writing and crime essay papers, being an author. A great visual representation of the “meta” device comes from surrealist artist M.C. Escher.
Maybe you’ve seen it? I referenced it briefly in the nonlinear narrative article. The drawing is of two hands, each of internet fraud essays which appears to be coming out of the essay p engelsk page to draw the fraud other hand. The viewer sees the two hands while being simultaneously reminded of the act of drawing the hands. The artist is actually absent (long gone, in fact), but the viewer can experience the continuous creation of the hands being drawn. Personally, I love this particular device. As a writer and the daughter of an artist, the act of creating the 1994 art is, to me, as fascinating as the finished product. Internet Fraud Essays. Plus, the more you study a particular art, the more trained you become at identifying certain tropes or techniques used by the artist to arrive at a particular message or image. Art that respects and reveals its own processes and literature that both presents an amazing story while being aware that it is, in fact, literature, is in my opinion, the best of the best. The following is from Don Quixote de la Mancha , Part I, Chap. 28.
You can find it a variety of places, but here’s where I found this particular translation: Happy and fortunate were the thesis 1994 - lucas de groot times when that most daring knight Don Quixote of La Mancha was sent into the world; for by reason of his having formed a resolution so honourable as that of seeking to revive and restore to the world the internet long-lost and almost defunct order of knight-errantry, we now enjoy in this age of ours, so poor in light entertainment, not only the charm of his veracious history, but also of the tales and episodes contained in it which are, in a measure, no less pleasing, ingenious, and truthful, than the history itself; which, resuming its thread, carded, spun, and wound, relates that just as the curate was going to autocad resume, offer consolation to Cardenio, he was interrupted by a voice that fell upon his ear saying in plaintive tones: Don Quixote is so layered with meta devices, it’d be almost impossible to list them all, but what’s notable about this passage is internet essays, that it reminds the reader of thesis something revealed earlier in the novel. The narrator claims that the internet fraud original story of Don Quixote was written by autocad resume, a Cide Hamete Benegeli who supposedly first recorded the internet fraud essays deeds of Quixote and his sidekick Sancho Panza in computer crime papers Arabic. It was then translated into Spanish by an anonymous Moor and finally edited by Cervantes. Fraud Essays. Of course, there’s no evidence at all that any writer except Miguel de Cervantes wrote the novel in it's entirety, but the layering of dissertations sur les authors allows for some freedom, perhaps, on the part of Cervantes to step away from the story and make comments while posing as just an editor.
In my opinion, it’s likely Cervantes also did this to deflect culpability. If any of the material was objectionable (which it certainly was), it could be excused that he only edited the internet essays text and did not write it. If you’d like to read more about the narrative voice in the book, you can go HERE. In the passage quoted above, the crime papers narrator compliments the story (and by extension, the author) by fraud, claiming that the story stands out as pleasing, ingenious, and truthful in child an era of shoddy story-telling, a time that is poor in light entertainment. He calls attention not only to himself as the provider of this story in cahoots with the reader (“we now enjoy”), but he also mentions the various internal stories (one of internet fraud essays which is about to be presented in Chapter 28) that the book also contains. The main action, he calls “the history itself” while the internal stories are “tales and episodes.” This ever-so-subtle phrasing tells the reader that while the narrator compliments the “history” of “that most daring knight Don Quixote of La Mancha” and the stories implanted within, he does not take credit. Of course, knowing that Cervantes is likely the only and real author, he's really complimenting himself. Then, almost imperceptibly, the narrator eases the thesis reader back into the action of the story by fraud, adding that the “history itself” is now resuming its thread. Then he moves the narrative point of view from himself as editor and fellow reader of the novel to spectrum sensing, the next scene in the novel itself, that of the curate who is, at essays, the moment, on the verge of doing something when he hears the voice saying Oh God. Autocad Resume. and he is internet, moved to the next scene of the novel.
Note, also, the p engelsk deft metaphor of the “thread” of the story which is internet, being manipulated--carded, spun, and spectrum thesis, wound--while you, the essays reader, look on, as if you were watching a weaver create yarn from wool. It's a smooth transition and thesis 1994 - lucas, great example of the meta device used to create complexity in a story. Now that you are starting to get the fraud essays idea, let’s do a little research. Think of a movie, story, song, play, or poem that you have read that uses the metafictional device and answer the following questions: What is the title, author/director, and date of publication/release of the work? How specifically is the autocad resume device usedis it a story within a story? A self-aware narrator? A character that searches for his or her own story? Offer some examples from the text or explain a scene and explain how the meta device is internet fraud essays, used in the examples. If you want to try it yourself, I’d suggest taking a well-known story (fairy tale or similar), or your own, and rewrite a section in a way that reveals the process of creation itself. P Engelsk. To go back to my Little Red Riding Hood example, you could write the internet essays story from the point of view of the wolf who knows, somehow, that he is affecting his own fate with each action that he takes.
If you are stuck, think back to some typical parodieseven something like Scary Movie could serve as an example of metafiction in which the characters make fun of the scary movie genre while simultaneously taking part in an actual scary movie which is a parody of computer another actual scary movie that address the genre also-- Scream . Internet. Parody is a great way to ease into metafiction. Have fun with this, and discussion is most certainly encouraged. I have a whole LIST of metafictions, but I’m waiting to see what you all come up with first. Post below or send me an email: [email protected] . A Heartbreaking Work of spectrum sensing cognitive radio thesis Staggering Genius. Taylor Houston is a genuine Word Nerd living in Portland, OR where she works as a technical writer and volunteers on the marketing committee for fraud essays Wordstock, a local organization dedicated to writing education. She has a BA in Creative Writing and Spanish from sur les, Hamilton College and attended Penn State's MFA program in Creative Nonfiction. She has taught writing at all levels from middle school to college to adult, and she is the creator of Writer’s Cramp, a class for adults who just want to write! To leave a comment Login with Facebook or create a free account. Makes me think of House Of Leaves
thanks Taylor - metafiction is some of my favourites - John Gardner refers to it as a commentary on writing as opposed to pure fiction. Some of my favourites include: Albert Angelo by fraud, BS Johnson (1964) there are a number of devices used in this particular story - the most noteworthy examples being two physical holes cut into the pages to create a type of autocad resume physical foreshadowing. The section entitled Disintergration in which the author (as opposed to the narrator) breaks down the fiction, reveals the substitions he's made between his life and the character he has based on himself. Breakfast of fraud essays Champions by essay p engelsk, Kurt Vonnegut (1973) 1) the legal disclaimer regarding the title is internet fraud essays, used on the disclaimer page, and within the text of the novel.
2) it's a story about a writer, Kilgore Trout, who writes Sci-Fi short stories which are used as filler in cheap pornography. 3) the author appears in the text, behind a pair of sunglasses. At Swim-Two-Birds by Flan O'Brien (1939) A story with three beginnings about a student turned writer whose characters drug him to release themselves from his tyrrany. Essay Opbygning P Engelsk. It's three different narrative levels that wind together. It never quite finds itself out of the third chapter. Tim O'Brien's short story How to Tell a True War Story from essays, The Things They Carried is my favorite example. It's not only sur les, a great story, it's also a great writing lesson.
Extremely Loud and fraud essays, Incredibly Close by child labour, Jonathan Safran Foer is another great examle of metafiction. Great examples everyone! Makes me want to fraud, go read immediately. Matt, Foer's book is autocad resume, amazing--in so many ways--I totally agree it's a great, modern example of internet fraud metafiction. This is one of those topics that I could have written 1000 words on, and I'm glad you all seem to autocad resume, like it too. Thanks for sharing!
This gives me lots of fraud essays ideas! Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead (1966) by Tom Stoppard. 2 characters from Hamlet try slowly figure out that there's more to their existence than meets the eye, as they wander in and out thesis de groot of the Hamlet play itself. the Real Inspector Hound (1968) by Tom Stoppard. the audience (i.e. us) watch a play on stage, which is essays, a presentation of a play, on the other side of which is an audience, watching. Stranger than Fiction (2006)
An accountant hears a voice narrating his actions, and seeks a literature professor to help him figure it out. The Last Action Hero (1993) Movie characters enter our world, and we enter theirs - Arnold Schwarteneggar was the absolute best choice for this, since the man is more fiction than person anyway.. Charlie Kaufman (the film's writer, played by Nicholas Cage) is trying to computer crime papers, write an adaptation of a non-fiction book about orchids, and is having difficulty. His twin brother decides he also wants to write a film, and internet fraud essays, decides on packing every cliche possible into it. The discussions between the two brothers about film and its nature end up bleeding through into crime essay, their lives. Yes, postpomo, I was thinking of those exactly!
Adapation is a GREAT example, especially since the author of the real nonfiction book, Susan Orlean, appears as character in the fictionalized movie about the process of turning the book to a film. There are some many layers here. Internet Essays. I loved this movie. Another AWESOME example of metafiction in sur les apparitions des anges film in Synechdoche, NY (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0383028/). Fraud Essays. The title alone is apparitions des anges, metafictional is that synechodoche means a part of something which can refer to fraud essays, the the whole and vice versa. The title is also a play on Schenectady, NY, a small city in upstate New York. As for computer crime the plot of the internet essays movie, I won't even attempt to encapsulate it here, but it fits the meta genre perfectly.
I love Synecdoche, NY. (I always misspell that one, had to go check it) That also really ties into spectrum cognitive radio, what you said Taylor, about Art and perception. Two characters heading in symbolically different directions like lovers frequently do. Caden Cotard's art grows to overwhelming dimensions while Adele Lack's (name-play) shrinks so special magnifying spectacles glasses are required to be able to view them. Great article. The best of both worlds indeed. Such amazing films and plays. Stranger Than Fiction is easily one of my favorite films. Such an brilliant article. I truly love metafiction and want to try even though I imagine it must extemely hard to write.
I hate myself for internet fraud reading all these articles. I always read about a story think, Oh, that sounds interesting, and the next thing I know I'm adding it to my Amazon Wishlist so I can remember it. It's bad enough it's like 200 books long already. Blah! I'm surprised that no one has mentioned Paul Auster, the autocad resume most meta of all meta-writers. Almost every single one of his novels involves test within text, and stories within stories. Haha, Jason, sounds like you are becoming The Man Who Loved Books Too Much. :) TWJones--good call. I've never read any of Paul Auster, but I have heard of him. Any recommendations on which of his works I should read first?
Thanks for internet fraud essays reminding me Taylor. I really needed to change that. I finished reading that. :) But it's crazy - I have a ton of books I haven't read yet, but I'll still buy new ones. I figure by the time I die I'll have a library within a library of books that never got read. @TW Jones - I haven't read Paul Auster, but will definitely check him out.
Until I do, I contend that BS Johnson is the metafictional master. House Mother Normal and The Unnamable are good examples (although the latter isn't all that great a read). It's a box that contains chapters in no discernible order. Spectrum. Read them however you like. I don't know if this qualifies or not, but Julio Cortazar's Hopscotch has 2 reading sequences. The first takes us from chapter 1 to chapter 56. The second begins with chapter 1 but starts bouncing around the entire 155 chapters out of numerical order (hence the title). It's hard not to remember you're reading a book when you are constantly flipping back and forth from chapter to chapter. I recall when we studied Doris Lessing's Briefing for a Descent into Hell , that she fashioned it in part after a Sufi teaching tale.
The idea is to disrupt the internet essays surface narrative, so that the child reader cannot immerse themselves in it, and as such, they must seek out the deeper meanings of the text. I'm not sure if that qualifies as metafiction, but it certainly was jarring to move from a man recovering his memory in hospital to a castaway story to a sci-fi story and like so. Reminded me of Orson Scott Card's, Enders Game. Pretty old book, one of the internet essays few books I really enjoyed in my youth. Not sure if the book was in first person perspective. But the book has a very big meta ending.
I'm not sure if I should spoil the story here. So spoiler alert: The character discovers he has not beening training for war, but the actually training was the big war. The story is autocad resume, very self aware in nature, but unfortunately the character misses this meta frame above himself. Not exactly sure why this was put in place, but I suppose it has something to do with fatalism, not being able to internet, control everything (training), becoming an adult. So symbolic in nature. Don't have the book on hand at the moment. I think that The Book of Illusions is a great place to start. You get the stories within stories, the twists and turns of a good mystery, and all of the strangeness of being alive. Leviathan and essay papers, Moon Palace are also to fraud essays, incredible books by Auster.
His wife, Siri Hustvedt is a novelist as well, just as meta, just as intellectual. Her novel What I Loved is an amazing work of fiction. Thanks TWJones, I will have to check those out! Favorite metafictional-prone author is Mr. Thomas Ligotti, and best (favorite) example from Mr. Essay Papers. Ligotti is his Notes on the Writing of Horror: A Story . I believe The Illuminatus! Trilogy by Robert Anton Wilson had some meta elements.
The characters were at times self-aware of a story being written about them. And by the 3rd act in the submarine it's pretty much turned upside down on it's head when their decisions factor in the purpose of a fitting end to the story. Also interesting to note RAW and the co-author concocted this story out of all the insane 'letters to the editor while they worked at Playboy magazine, on the premise of 'what if they were right.' Oh and fraud essays, that Marvel character Deadpool is known for constantly breaking the fourth wall. Considering there are so many characters and thesis, storylines in the Marvel universe, it's absurd that only fraud essays, one of them is aware of an audience, and that the rest are confused at his interactions with it. Funny Games (1997 and 2008 [remake]) The antagonist of the dissertations des anges film constantly breaks the fourth wall. His accomplice gets shot and, understanding he can control the world he's in because it's not real, he rewinds the events with a remote control (. ) to a time right before his friend gets shot, preventing the killing from happening. The movie was kind of internet fraud mediocre but playing around with meta and breaking the fourth wall was cool!
I am writing a metaficitional story now and this article, as well as all the cognitive examples, were extremely helpful. It is essays, tough for essay me though to internet essays, tell the difference from metafictional technique and cliche. I want to include a twist in my story, but how can I do it without seeming like I pulled a cheap shot to my reader? Thanks again for the great article, ‘Chiliad’ by Simon Otius, at unhappened dot com, is metafiction, but an immensely difficult yet rewarding read, requiring great patience.
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Internet fraud essays
Will I Get Away with Lying on a Job Application or Resume? In the words of Norodom Sihanouk, once the King of fraud essays, Cambodia, “Time will inevitably uncover dishonesty and lies.” Such is true when it comes to the fibs and embellishments so many prospective job seekers may use on their job applications or resumes. These forms of dishonesty are almost always discovered, sooner or later, by hiring managers or employers. And yet many job searchers feel justified in thesis 1994 - lucas lying on applications and resumes or wonder, as the title of internet essays, this article implies, if they could get away with being a little too casual with the des anges truth. Often, this kind of lying is born out of fraud, frustration or desperation: people get tired of being passed over for jobs, so they embellish their experience to make themselves look like more impressive applicants. Or they tell a lie in attempt to cover up a potential job-breaking criminal history. In both cases, the dishonesty can be uncovered through background checks and computer crime essay employment screening processes. Read on to learn how employers can cut through your web of lies, and what those lies can do to your job chances. Reference Checks Or Verification Checks. Fraud. Perhaps the radio thesis most common type of fibbing that goes on with resumes and internet essays job applications is an embellishment of work history. It’s common practice among job seekers to opbygning try to make job titles sound more impressive than they actually were.
Other job hunters will list employment responsibilities they didn’t actually have, to try to match up to a job description, or extend employment dates, to fill in resume gaps that might not look too flattering to a hiring manager. Frequently, applicants also lie about their past salary in an attempt to internet essays give themselves higher ground for paycheck negotiation. And in extreme cases, some job hunters will even invent college degrees or professional certifications that don’t exist—all in an attempt to radio make their application or resume stand out from the internet fraud essays rest of the child labour pile. Frankly, all of these ideas are ill advised. That’s because most employers will do reference and verification checks of some kind. That might involve a call to the HR manager at your previous job, which will reveal your true job title, salary, and employment dates.
It might also involve a check to make sure that you graduated from the college listed on internet fraud your resume, or that you earned the certifications you say you did. And when these lies are unearthed, they will effectively end your employment consideration, simply because you’ve left the hiring manager wondering what things about essay p engelsk you they can trust. Can I Embellish My Job Application? With that said, there are ways to clarify your resume without embellishing it with lies. It’s a good idea, for internet fraud essays instance, to read the job description and then tailor your resume so that the computer crime essay experience listed relates directly to individual items that the internet fraud essays employer in question is looking for. Child. It might also be wise to clarify or flesh out a job title if your actual title was very vague and broad, or if the internet essays title isn’t used anywhere in the world outside of your old company.
If you do embellish your resume in child any way, though, make sure that you are doing it to clarify the fraud experience that you have and to make it easier for your prospective employers to pull out relevant information. In others words, make sure that there’s always truth to autocad resume what you’re saying: otherwise, your hiring managers will see right through what you are trying to do, and your dishonesty will not do you any favors. These days, virtually every employer in fraud every industry runs criminal history checks on computer its incoming employees. Because of this fact, being dishonest about your criminal background is arguably the single worst decision you can make while applying for a new job. In short, if you have criminal history and a job application asks you if you have ever been convicted of essays, a crime, then you need to answer, “Yes.” Still, job seekers with criminal convictions in their pasts will repeatedly choose the dishonest route when it comes to disclosing background information. It isn’t difficult to dissertations apparitions understand why these applicants feel a need to lie: there is very much a stigma against criminal offenders and ex-offenders in today’s employment circles. Quite simply, some people feel that they cannot be honest about their criminal histories and still remain competitive candidates for jobs. That’s because there are employers out there who will toss out candidates at the slightest sign of criminal activity. Too often, it doesn’t matter what the crime was, whether or not it relates to the job at hand, how long ago it occurred, and internet essays whether or not there have been repeat offenses since.
Of course, this means that there are employers out there who are blatantly discriminating against sur les des anges, offenders. Those employers can be reported to the EEOC, but lying to essays them will not help you get a job if you do have criminal history. If you tell the truth about a criminal offense on your job application, a hiring manager may write you have. However, you also stand the chance of p engelsk, findind a compassionate employer who is willing to give you a job and help you rebuild your life. If you lie, both employers will very likely still learn about your criminal history, thanks to internet fraud a background check. Essay. The former employer will reject your application, just as they would have done if you had told the truth. The latter employer, though—the one who would have given you a chance if you had been honest—will also reject your application, simply because you were dishonest to them. Internet Fraud. The bottom line? Be honest with your prospective employers. Tell them about your criminal history and hope they will be understanding; them about your true work and labour thesis educational history, even if it isn’t as impressive as you want it to be. It’s sometimes tough to know exactly what employers are looking for, even if you have a detailed job description to go off.
You can know for internet certain, though, that the company you are interviewing with is looking for opbygning an honest, upstanding individual. So use that knowledge to give yourself the advantage, instead of internet fraud essays, trying to dissertations des anges find the internet fraud advantage through lies and deceit.
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essay on virtues The Power of Independent Thinking. Civilizing Society: Virtues, Freedom, and essays, Development. Junior Faculty Winner. Third Prize ($1,500) This paper attempts to answer two important questions in economics. First, what virtues are important for promoting economic progress? Second, what is the source of these virtues? To answer these questions, I rely on recent studies suggesting that the virtues of trust, tolerance and respect, individual determination, and obedience are important for understanding how civil society supports prosperity. Specifically, trust, respect, and individual motivation, encourage and support economic freedom, whereas obedience can hinder economic advancement.
I also explore competing explanations for crime essay papers, the determinants of virtues including religion, the role of government, and the act of economic exchange for fraud essays, civilizing society. My analysis finds support for the latter source. Keywords: virtues, institutions, development, trust, social capital, culture. The link between economic institutions, such as well-defined and labour, secure property rights and the rule of law, and economic development is well documented in the literature (Montesquieu 1748; Smith 1776; Demsetz 1967; Hayek 1960; Bauer 2000, North 1990, 2005; Keefer and Knack 1997; Rodrik, Subramanian, and Trebbi 2004; Acemoglu and Johnson 2005). North (1990, 2005) argues that institutions provide the rules of the game that structure political, economic, and social interaction. These constraints provide the incentives and information to facilitate production and internet essays, exchange, investment, technological innovation, and entrepreneurship that is necessary for economic development.
The empirical research supports this positive causal relationship between the institutions supporting economic freedom and prosperity (Gwartney, Lawson, and Holcombe 1999; Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson 2001, 2002; Cole 2003). Rodrik, Subramanian, and autocad resume, Trebbi (2004) summarize this robust finding as #145;Institutions Rule.#146; More recently, economists are pinpointing specific institutions that are important for economic development. Essays! An outgrowth of this research is to separate institutions into their formal (government provided and enforced) and their informal (privately provided and - lucas de groot, enforced) components. An emerging result supports the importance of informal constraints in promoting economic development through its effectiveness in defining and enforcing rules that promote secure property rights, exchange, and the observance of contracts (Anderson and Hill 1979; Benson 1989a, 1989b; Greif 1993; Greif, Milgrom, and Weingast 1994; Nenova and Hartford 2004; Acemoglu and Johnson 2005; Leeson 2007a, 2007b; Tabellini 2007; Williamson 2009). These constraints stem from social norms, culture, customs, and traditions. Thus, a society#146;s virtues are at the core of any institutional arrangement and the subsequent incentive and information structure that is formed to guide social and economic behavior.
This paper attempts to understand more specifically the influence that virtues exhibit on internet fraud essays, economic development. My conjecture is essay papers, that virtues promote social cooperation by reducing transaction costs and the costs of monitoring, generating commonalities and focal points, and creating broad rules to guide behavior leading to more economic exchange and internet fraud, production, higher investment, and more entrepreneurship. Spectrum Sensing Radio! These interactions form the internet fraud core or #145;institutional glue#146; necessary for the economic institutions supporting a free and prosperous society to be effective. My approach is twofold. I focus on addressing two important questions. First, which virtues promote economic freedom and development? Secondly, can we identify determinants of these specific virtues? To answer these questions, I rely on analysis provided in the economics literature including theoretical, conceptual, and empirical studies.
My analysis is opbygning p engelsk, a natural extension of the internet fraud essays institutional literature and centers on opbygning, understanding how virtues help to form the necessary constraints that promote economic freedom and development. Instead of focusing on internet fraud essays, more traditional virtues such as justice, prudence, and love (see McCloskey 2006) my analysis centers on essay opbygning, virtues that are identified in the literature as more relevant for supporting economic exchange and production, entrepreneurial activities, and the provision of public goods. Internet Fraud Essays! The first three; trust, respect, and individual motivation, are expected to encourage and support market activity and thesis 1994 - lucas de groot, exchange favoring economic development. The fourth virtue, obedience, can create an environment where individuals are less likely to fraud engage in innovative, entrepreneurial activities hindering economic advancement. Section 2 provides an overview of each virtue in detail explaining how these virtues affect and thesis 1994 - lucas de groot, promote economic exchange and production and thus providing the foundation for freedom.
Section 3 explores the second question and attempts to explain possible sources of values, beliefs, and culture. Internet Fraud Essays! This section addresses several possible explanations in the current literature with particular emphasis on two main sources. Formal institutions and government behavior could determine and affect a society#146;s virtues. One argument is that in the absence of a virtuous society government may be necessary to fill in the void. A second explanation is that government may be the source of the absence.
I explore each in detail, finding support for the second argument. In addition, I investigate an alternative hypothesis where engaging in market activity, i.e. trade, may enhance and dissertations apparitions, nurture our virtues. Section 4 concludes with the implications of the analysis. 2. The Four Virtues. Economists since Adam Smith (1759) have studied how attitudes, beliefs, culture, norms, and morality affect economic prosperity. We have a general understanding that virtues are important for supporting social cooperation but pinpointing which ones matter and how they matter has been more elusive. My conjecture is that virtues are important because they promote economic freedom and the supporting institutions that in turn promote economic development. Essays! This section attempts to specify which virtues are identified as serving this role. Currently, the most general attempt to provide an analysis on which virtues are important is found by the recent work on culture and development (Barro and essay opbygning, McCleary 2003; Licht, Goldschmidt and Schwartz 2004; Pejovich 2004; Francois, Patrick and Jan Zabojnik 2005; Jones 2006; Tabellini 2007, 2008; Shirley 2008). This work focuses on how different cultural characteristics determine the fraud performance of a society by framing the perceptions of individuals regarding opportunities and alternatives (North 2005).
Guiso et al. (2006: 23) defines culture as #147; . . Essay Opbygning! . those customary beliefs and internet, values that ethnic, religious, and social groups transmit fairly unchanged from generation to generation.#148; Starting from this general definition, the literature has focused on dissertations sur les apparitions des anges, several specific indicators, including values, beliefs, trust and respect for others, which are relevant to social and economic interaction. Drawing from several bodies of literature, I identify four main virtues as being the most important for forming the core of any society#146;s institutional structure that guide economic activities. These virtues include trust, respect, individual self-determination, and obedience. Trust, respect, and individual self-determination encourage social and economic exchange as well as production and entrepreneurship. Obedience negatively impacts economic development by fraud, hindering risk taking entrepreneurial activities. Building from this work, trust, respect, individual self-determination, and computer essay, obedience are four important virtues to be assessed. I provide supporting theoretical and empirical evidence below. The virtue of trust and internet essays, its function in a market economy is spectrum radio, highlighted by Smith (1759). Smith argues that trust is one of the most important virtues needed to internet sustain a vibrant exchange economy.
Trust and reciprocity are a significant foundation for the roots of any market exchange. Through the process of opbygning p engelsk joint exchange, trade relationships emerge. The process of trade can continue because of the trust relationship established. This relationship promotes increased interaction leading to a further extent of the market. Thus, the fraud essays Smithian gains from trade are born. Smith also argues that as an des anges, economy continues to develop it markets, trustworthiness will become even more important to sustain and promote economic exchange. Klein (2000) defines trust as a confidence that an individual who makes an agreement will follow through with the terms of the promise. Therefore, all economic activities that require some future involvement will need an essays, element of trust. Cognitive! In fact, it can be argued that every commercial transaction involves some level of fraud trust. Individuals with higher trust societies spend less time diverting resources to autocad resume protect themselves to avoid being exploited and more time engaging in internet fraud essays productive activities. In other words, trust reduces the transactions costs of engaging in market exchange leading to increased market production and more efficient outcomes (Dixit 2004).
A lack of autocad resume trust between individuals creates additional barriers to internet fraud essays economic interaction resulting in computer crime essay papers individuals trading among small networks rather than expanding into anonymous market participation. This discourages innovation, entrepreneurship, and investments in both human and physical capital. The literature on social capital also highlights the internet fraud important role that trust can play in encouraging social cooperation. Specifically, the level of trust raises or lowers the labour productivity of a society#146;s institutions (Coleman 1988; Putnam 1993; and Fukuyama 1996). According to Coleman (1988), social capital is a key productive ingredient for internet, the achievement of certain goals that otherwise would not be attainable.
Jacobs (1961) argues that informal networks present in thriving cities depend on a level of essay opbygning p engelsk trust and reciprocity between traders, shop owners, and the consumers. It is these networks that ultimately create and sustain a successful city. Trust is also needed in situations where interactions are infrequent. This includes settings like local governments#146; provision of public goods, university administration, government bureaucracies, or any large scale organization (La Porta, Lopez-de-Silanes, Shleifer, Vishny 1997). In higher trust societies, individuals do not need to rely as much on formal institutions to enforce contracts and agreements. This becomes especially important in countries without access to formal legal enforcement mechanisms. Internet! By reducing the cost of monitoring and radio, lowering transactions costs, trust can encourage secure property rights (Williamson and Kerekes 2009). Interpersonal trust can partially substitute for government enforcement when governments are simple unable or unwilling to provide it (Knack and Keefer 1997). In addition to possibly substituting for government, social capital may also improve the performance of government by internet fraud, providing additional checks on government self-interest (Putnam 1993).
The role of trust in the empirical literature has become increasingly more important in explaining difference in cross country performance (Knack and Keefer 1997; Woolcock 1998; Francois and Zabojnik 2005; Chan 2007). The existence and evolution of social networks and trust is largely a determinant in sur les apparitions des anges a country#146;s growth rate and their standard of living. Also, trust is shown to internet essays promote secure property rights, increase investment, and entrepreneurship. Child Labour Thesis! A lack of trust between individuals creates additional barriers to economic interaction resulting small networks rather than anonymous market participation. When individuals do not expand market activity, we do not realize Smith#146;s gains from specialization under the division of labor. In summary, the fraud essays literature suggests that trust promotes social cooperation and encourages more exchange relationships which translates into higher levels of economic development and growth. 2.3. Individual Self-Determination. Our second virtue captures how individuals make choices regarding their efforts toward succeeding in life. If a person is highly self-motivated then fewer rules are required to persuade that person to better their economic welfare. However, the more #145;lazy#146; a person becomes, it may be necessary to require a different set of essay p engelsk rules to motivate that person.
This implies that self-determination cannot be assessed without understanding the internet context behind the choices (section 3 discusses this in more detail below). According to Smith, every individual possess #147;the propensity to truck, barter, and exchange.#148; This natural propensity will determine the extent of economic production and autocad resume, exchange. However, how hard individuals choose to best apply their efforts depends on the return from engaging in certain activities. Essays! If it is more profitable to seek opportunities in the marketplace, then individuals will do so promoting economic advancement. Conversely, if individuals view success as a result of external events, they are more likely to computer essay have a passive, resigned and lazy attitude towards economic activity. Internet Essays! Therefore, individual self determination is influenced by whether individuals reap the benefits or consequences of their actions. This in sensing radio thesis large part will depend on the institutional environment in which the individual exists. Individual determination depends on internet essays, the perception of how actual effort translates into actual success. Individual drive depends on the level of self control individuals believe they have over their life choices. Sensing Cognitive Thesis! An extension of this argument is that individual choice depends on how much control you feel you have over your life. Internet! When individuals think that they have control over their life, they will be more likely to find ways that improve their welfare.
The more likely an individual views economic success as being determined one#146;s own will, the more likely these individuals will engage in productive, future oriented activities. These activities include things like hard work, investment in spectrum sensing radio human capital, and undertaking entrepreneurial actions. However, if individuals view the likelihood of succeeding as a product of luck or political connections, they will tend to not engage in productive economic and social activities. Instead, they may choose to channel their activities toward unproductive activities such as rent seeking. This attitude towards economic activity will surely impact economic development in a country (Banfield 1958). A direct application of this argument can be found in fraud Baumol (1990). He hypothesizes that individuals channel their effort in different directions depending on the type of existing legal, economic, and political institutions. Child Thesis! This institutional environment determines the relative payoff to investing in either market, wealth-creating activities or investing entrepreneurial energies into wealth redistribution through unproductive political and legal activities. The incentives provided by the prevailing institutions will determine how individuals pursue entrepreneurship and whether these activities will support high rates of economic growth. The third virtue, defined as tolerance and respect, distinguishes between generalized versus limited morality.
According to Platteau (2000), in hierarchical societies, honesty and norms promoting good conduct are often confined to small networks such as family members or tribal members. It is morally acceptable to engage in highly opportunistic and dishonest behavior outside of the group. Banfield (1958) discovered that in internet essays a rural Italian village the - lucas principle of good versus evil applied to members within the family only. Principles regarding moral behavior do not apply to outside members. Other societies may develop abstract rules to guide social interactions in internet fraud a generalized sense in labour order to promote morality among anonymous members of society.
These two distinct types of morality have economic consequences or benefits including the provision of internet fraud public goods in dissertations sur les apparitions des anges a local community and the monitoring of political representatives (Banfied 1958; Putnam 1993). The notion of respect is connected to the concept of trust discussed above. In societies with relatively high levels of social capital, individuals will be more trusting of others who are outside their direct kin and friendship networks. Abstract rules facilitating cooperation among friends and strangers may emerge, increasing the extent of social networks and the market. In contrast, in internet societies with lower levels of social capital, and hence lower levels of respect, the extent of the market will be limited to close kin and friendship networks. Rules which facilitate the apparitions extent of internet essays social networks and markets will fail to emerge. A relevant implication of autocad resume generalized versus limited morality is that more respectful societies will find it easier to enforce contracts and secure property rights without relying on formal legal enforcement. Internet Fraud! Thus, individuals will find it more profitable to engage in widespread market exchange and production even when government legal institutions are lacking.
Also, more respect can lead to individuals being less likely to free ride off other members within their community. This can help to provide many key public goods such as participation in political activities (Putnam 2000), the provision of roads (Klein 2000), and the monitoring political representatives (Banfield 1958). If individuals lack respect for other members of their community, highly opportunistic behavior will be likely, property rights will be insecure, and child, public good provision will be inadequate leading to lower levels of economic development. The fourth and final virtue captures the importance of obedience in a society. This attitude distinguishes between primarily promoting the fraud essays individual or whether promoting the collective is more significant. Tabellini (2007) argues that some societies teach that individualism can be destructive. This translates into either the thesis 1994 de groot state or the parental unit suppressing individual instincts in children.
The economic psychology literature indicates that parents play a key role in internet influencing their children#146;s locus of control and perception of computer papers autonomy which directly influences their likelihood of being entrepreneurial as they grow older (see Harper 2003: 54#150;55). Societies where parents discourage individualism also discourage feelings of personal control and determination in their children. Internet! The result is reduced risk taking when it comes to social relationships, innovation and entrepreneurship. This has adverse effects on social and economic development. A similar argument can be found in Hofstede (2001), where he defines one of five dimensions of culture as individualism versus collectivism. Autocad Resume! This aspect of internet culture defines the relationship between the individual and the collectivity that exists within a society. In some societies, individualism is promoted and seen as beneficial whereas in other groups focusing on the individual is seen as selfish and alienating.
More traditional societies with a strong hierarchal religious following are more likely to autocad resume promote the collective over essays the individual. This relationship not only matters for thesis 1994 - lucas, the way that groups live together, but also affects people#146;s attitudes, the functioning of institutions, and the structure of fraud social and economic interactions. A more individualistic society will encourage anonymous market transactions, entrepreneurship, and more risk-taking activities, supporting a market economy. However, societies that promote the whole over the individual may suppress social and economic interactions that would be beneficial to the advancement of the group. Empirically, Hofstede verifies that countries with a higher individualism score outperform countries with a higher collectivism score.
These four virtues have real consequences for the development of economically free institutions that support prosperity. The first three virtues; trust, individual determination, and respect all promote and dissertations sur les apparitions des anges, encourage activities such as widespread trade, investment in human and physical capital, and innovation, which support economic development. Our fourth virtue, obedience, or collectivism, hinders the individual from expanding beyond the group and prevents beneficial transactions. These relationships are verified by internet fraud essays, Tabellini (2007). Utilizing data from the World Values Surveys to identify a corresponding question for each component discussed above, he combines all four traits into one index for each country. Tabellini finds that this index displays a strong positive and significant relationship on apparitions, economic development.
In cross country comparison, a higher index (high levels trust, respect, and determination and low levels of obedience) leads to higher levels of income. His analysis concludes that formally arranged institutions may not be the most important factor for growth because of the role played by these attributes. This supports the argument that the virtues of trust, respect, and individual self determination (and a lack of obedience) are important in providing the foundation for a market economy. 3. Promoting a Virtuous Society. The above section presented four core virtues that are important for creating economic institutions. The next logical step is to ask what promotes and determines these virtues.
Recent attempts are made to try and understand what influences culture, values, trust, and social capital. This section summarizes these studies, focusing on two particular themes in the literature. First, what role does the government serve in directing our virtues? Secondly, I focus on how markets affect our virtues with particular emphasis on the role of internet fraud essays trade. Our virtues may not be truly exogenous.
Putnam (1993) argues that trust is formed from an extended period of building relationships from commercial and civic activities. These associations are influenced by the type of structures imposed on society. For example, he states that the Catholic Church imposes a hierarchical structure that discourages trust formation. This can be generally applied to all four of our virtues where a hierarchical religion may discourage trust, respect, and child labour, individual determination, while promoting obedience. La Porta, Lopez-de-Silanes, Shleifer, and internet, Vishny (1997) empirically find that trust is lower in countries with dominant hierarchical religions. This argument is similar to Weber#146;s (1905) thesis. According to spectrum sensing radio thesis Weber, Calvinism (Protestantism) induced individuals to engage in internet fraud hard work, market exchange, and essay opbygning, wealth creation providing the foundation to capitalism. Essays! Empirically, his thesis is supported by Grier (1997) who confirms the positive effect of Protestantism on economic performance. Knack and Keefer (1997) also undertake an empirical investigation into determinates of trust and civic cooperation. They test the effects of group memberships, polarization and inequality, formal institutions, income levels, and education rates. Their results find a positive and spectrum thesis, significant effect on fraud, trust from both income levels and educational attainment.
Putnam#146;s group membership does not display a significant effect on the level of trust, whereas income inequality does contribute to lower levels of trust and norms. As ethnic homogeneity increases, so does the level of papers trust within a country. The formal measure of institutions, Polity IV#146;s Constraints on the Executive is positively and significantly impacting trust. This result suggests that formal institutional rules preventing arbitrary acts from the government is an important influence on a society#146;s morals, norms, and virtues. This last finding highlights an important area that needs further exploration: how does the internet fraud government influence our virtues? 3.1. The Role of p engelsk Government. The relationship between formal institutions and virtues is fraud essays, complex, with each influencing one another, suggesting that virtues may not be completely exogenous. This sub-section attempts to understand this relationship in more detail. In the absence of a virtuous society, it may be necessary for government to take a more active role in creating and sustaining rules and regulations to support economic growth. The operation of a market economy depends on papers, the ability for individuals to develop relationships built on trust.
In order for people to enter into contracts and engage in exchange, some element of trust must be present. However, when these virtues are not present, government may find it beneficial to establish more rules to govern our lives. While this argument may seem plausible on the surface, a deeper analysis suggests that governments are often a source of extortion and interference rather than a productive unit providing necessary rules to promote increased market interactions. Governments do not always make decisions based on public interest, but often choose polices more in line with politician#146;s interests and internet essays, that of special interest groups. When governments behave in such predatory behavior, individuals living under those rules may begin to thesis alter their views, culture, and values.
As such, the informal rules guiding social and economic interactions may begin to break down. For example, governments may have written formal political constraints, such as a constitutional rule preventing public expropriation of private property. However, if officials fail to actually abide by these institutional rules, different informal beliefs and customs, such as lower levels of trust among individuals, may start being adopted. As a consequence, societies may become more corrupt due to government actions and regulations. For example, Garrett and Sobel (2003) illustrate how political favoritism and pressures play a significant role in government natural disaster relief efforts and financial support.
In a follow-up study, Leeson and Sobel (2008) contribute part of U.S. corruption to the new opportunities created for theft from FEMA-provide natural disaster relief. This argument is fraud, a similar result emerging from the child thesis literature examining the effects of foreign aid on the government quality. Svensson (2000), Knack (2001), and Djankov, Montalvo, and Reynal-Querol (2006) provide powerful evidence that aid destroys democratic institutions in recipient countries. According to internet this argument, foreign aid shifts the incentives away from productive behavior to unproductive activities such as rent-seeking, political corruption, bribery, and political fighting. The result is a deterioration of crime essay papers democratic and economic institutions including a society#146;s norms, values, and culture that guide everyday interactions. Leeson (2005) provides another example of how government institutions can create a distrusting, more fractionalized society. He explains how the imposition of formal institutions not in internet line with informal norms and values in pre-colonial Africa resulted in dissertations sur les apparitions des anges a fractionalized continent.
Colonial institutions created noise in pre-established signaling devices, inhibiting widespread cooperation and eliminating any economic and cultural benefits from widespread exchange. By stifling trade between diverse groups, formal, colonial institutions caused groups to fraud essays have a lower tolerance for other tribes, lowering the amount of apparitions trust and fraud essays, respect between groups, and contributing to Africa#146;s poor economic growth. Meadowcroft and Pennington (2007) provide an explanation as to dissertations apparitions how governments may do more harm than good when trying to #145;supply#146; virtues. The development of internet #145;bridging#146; social capital requires a level of generalized trust between parties. This code of conduct will be built from thesis, a common set of morals, generating a higher level tolerance and respect for other individuals who may be very different from oneself. This emerges as a result of internet fraud many social and economic interactions where individuals find it in their self-interest to figure out ways to sur les cooperate with each other. If government attempts to step in and provide and enforce a common set of goals, this more than likely will lead to conflict and social disintegration as government typically does not have the right incentives or the necessary information to supply generalized rules. Internet Fraud Essays! Instead of thesis 1994 - lucas de groot providing and enforcing abstract rules that apply to everyone, governments typically fall prey to political interests where rules targeted at specific groups and specific ends are more likely to materialize.
For example, McChesney (1990) highlights what can happen when government uses its powers to regulate specific groups. From 1887 to 1934 the U.S. government chose to allocate Indian rights to reservation land based on a large complex system that defined land inefficiently in order to maximize bureaucrats#146; budgets. The beneficiary from both the process of privatization and the end of privatization was not the Indians; it was government politicians. The result of internet fraud essays taking informal land rights and creating a formal land structure did not enhance social welfare but political welfare. The implications of such policies will more than likely have lasting effects on Indian attitudes and belief systems complicating future transactions. In summary, the government#146;s attempt to provide social capital, morality, and virtues will more than likely lead to dissertations apparitions des anges the destruction of a virtuous society instead of the creation of one. Fraud Essays! Even if a society#146;s virtues are not at its #145;optimal#146; level, the state having the correct incentives and 1994 - lucas de groot, adequate information to fill in this gap is highly unlikely. The government#146;s ability to culturally plan will fail on the same grounds as economic planning.
A government#146;s productive role in enhancing society is based on providing fundamental institutions and limiting regulations and interventions in a market economy allowing civil society to evolve on fraud essays, its own. 3.2. The Role of Free Trade. #147;The crossroads of trade are the meeting place of ideas, the attrition ground of rival customs and beliefs; diversities beget conflict, comparison, thought; superstitions cancel one another, and labour, reason begins.#148; Will Durant, The Life of internet fraud Greece. Instead of emphasizing how governments can #145;culturally plan#146; and build our social capital, in this section, I argue that we should focus on another avenue for positively enhancing our virtues. This avenue is essay p engelsk, one of participation in production, exchange, and trade relationships. While some critics argue that it is actually the market that erodes our morals (for example see Plant 1999), this section focuses on how engaging in fraud market transactions increases our tolerance for others, builds trust and respect, and enhances other virtuous attributes. In addition to the gains associated with economic exchange, the exchange of ideas has the impact of shaping values, perceptions, and beliefs of those participating in these interactions. These changes in child values subsequently impact the internet essays evolution of social and economic interactions.
In other words, a market economy not only provides economic benefits but it actually creates a more civilized society. Hayek argues that one of the most important components to civil society is participation in markets. The exchange order, or the catallaxy, means to bring a stranger into friendship. Through the process of dissertations apparitions des anges exchanging, individuals learn how to communicate, cooperate, and trust one another. As the economy moves from small group interaction to internet essays one built on de groot, anonymous market participation, a society also transitions from uncivilized to internet essays a civilized society. Bauer explicitly makes this argument where the process from a subsistence economy into an exchange economy creates not only wealth enhancing opportunities but also a transformation of traditions, norms, and dissertations sur les des anges, values. Whereas Putnam views the market as undermining civil society, Hume and Smith state that commerce will be a civilizing force contributing to essays social cooperation. Market interactions are based on general rules that reward productive, cooperating individuals and punish those who engage in child labour predatory behavior.
Our interactions in the marketplace teach us habits and values, such as hard work and honesty. Trade not only provides economic benefits through specialization and the division of labor, but it also provides us with cultural benefits. Trade leads to new opportunities for interaction and increases the market for ideas, beliefs and values. Internet Essays! Through market participation, individuals gain exposure to knowledge, innovation, and alternative ways of life. - Lucas! This allows for fraud essays, cultural and institutional competition, experimentation, and evolution. McCloskey (2006) contends that markets and crime essay, exchange nourish and cultivate individual character, virtues, and ethics for the better. Most critiques of capitalism attack it on a moral basis arguing that markets alienate us from internet essays, one another and destroys the communal spirit. McCloskey argues the exact opposite. Specifically, the values created from an exchange economy not only serve as a vehicle for material progress but also as a medium for computer crime essay, human flourishing. She explicitly argues that #147;participation in capitalist bourgeois virtues has civilized the world#148; (26).
She notes that markets are frequently an fraud, #147;occasion for virtue, an expression of solidarity across gender, social class and essay opbygning p engelsk, ethnicity#148; (4). In short, capitalism is good for the soul. In terms of the internet essays social capital literature (Meadowcroft and Pennington 2007), global expansion of markets has allowed communities that have little in computer essay common to become connected by trade, thus leading to internet fraud essays the development of dissertations sur les des anges a more inclusive #145;bridging#146; social capital. In addition, a market based economy can support both #145;bonding#146; and #145;bridging#146; capital further reducing transactions costs. People involved in such trading relationships must obey a set of moral rules even though they may have little in else in common. Economic exchange contributes towards a more civilized society through enhancing our four main virtues discussed above. For example, trade provides individuals with new alternatives and opportunities.
Therefore it is a way of increasing self-autonomy and #147;locus of control,#148; decreasing the level of obedience while increasing individual self-determination. The market increases the fraud choice set facing individuals, giving them increased control over their lives and empowering individuals. A related benefit of economic exchange interactions is child labour thesis, that integration reduces transaction and information costs. As individuals build economic relationships this creates commonalities reducing the costs associated with interaction and exchange. These reduced transaction costs lead to increased interaction, fostering trust and respect, contributing to the growth of social networks and internet fraud essays, the extent of the market. Autocad Resume! In addition, as trade networks evolve, abstract rules and expectations governing interaction and cooperation emerge. These general rules may begin to internet displace the insider-outsider mentality fostering a more generalized morality and increasing the level of respect.
Cowen (2002) captures the essence of this view when he notes that individuals engaged in exchange #147; . . - Lucas De Groot! . Internet Essays! expect those transactions to thesis make them better off, to fraud essays enrich their cultural lives, and to increase their menu of autocad resume choices#148; (12). His claim is not that values are never eroded due to economic exchange, but rather that the process of #147;creative destruction#148; serves to have the fraud essays overall effect of enhancing our attitudes, cultures, and virtues. Stated differently, economic exchange and development have real effects on a country#146;s culture, and on net those effects are beneficial. According to opbygning p engelsk Cowen, economic exchange has both negative and essays, positive spillovers on the non-economic aspects of essay opbygning p engelsk a society, including values due to the exposure to new ideas, values, and beliefs. However, overall, he still views trade as a mechanism contributing to cultural enrichment. In summary, in addition to essays increases in material wealth, access to markets and papers, economic exchange provides individuals with the potential to foster and influence other aspects of society. As individual participate in internet fraud essays anonymous market transactions and engage in exchange, they build relationships which in autocad resume turn expose individuals to new knowledge, ideas, values, cultures, and virtues. These include trust, respect, hard work, and honesty. As a result, transactions costs are reduced, commonalities are created, and social cooperation is encouraged and sustained.
4. Concluding Remarks. The #145;Institutions Rule#146; literature provides a framework for fraud, understanding how the sur les apparitions des anges rules of the game matter significantly for promoting economic development. In this paper, I present an argument where virtues play an important role in structuring and forming any institutional arrangement. A society#146;s ideas, beliefs, morals, and culture structure everyday social and essays, economic interactions. These interactions cultivate general rules promoting social cooperation by reducing transactions costs, generating commonalities and focal points leading to more economic exchange and production, higher investment, and more entrepreneurship.
Therefore, virtues provide the foundation for economic freedom and development. This essay explores two important questions surrounding the interaction of civil society, freedom, and development. In particular, I attempt to specify particular virtues which are important for economic exchange and thesis 1994 de groot, prosperity as well as explore potential sources of these virtues. Instead of focusing on internet fraud essays, more traditional virtues such as justice and essay, love, my analysis centers on virtues that are more relevant for fraud, supporting economic exchange and child thesis, production. Trust, respect, and individual motivation encourage and support market activity and exchange favoring economic development, whereas obedience or collectivism leads to individuals not engaging in innovative, entrepreneurial activities. These virtues do not emerge in a black box. A society#146;s morals are context dependent indicating that individuals#146; attitudes and beliefs will respond to the institutional environment that they operate in. Particularly, individuals respond to formal rules and government behavior. My analysis indicates that government#146;s attempt to provide social capital, morality, and virtues will more than likely lead to essays the destruction of a virtuous society instead of the creation of one.
A government#146;s productive role in enhancing society is based on providing fundamental institutions and thesis, limiting regulations and interventions in a market economy allowing civil society to evolve on its own. Virtuous behavior will spontaneously arise because individuals will find it is fraud, their self-interest to discover ways of cooperating with one another. In a commercial society where individuals are engaging in economic exchange, the spectrum sensing exchange of ideas, knowledge and values will also result. During this process, relationships based on abstract rules, higher trust and respect, and internet fraud, a greater sense of self will emerge. In other words, a market economy not only provides economic benefits but it actually creates a more civilized society. The invisible hand of thesis 1994 de groot competitive markets not only guides economic exchange leading to internet fraud the improvement of goods and services; it also provides the incentives for cultural exchange and improvement promoting a more virtuous and free society.
 See Boettke, Coyne, and Leeson (2008).  Banfield (1958) contrasts a rural village in Southern Italy with rural communities in the U.S. He found that the Italian peasants had developed a sense of helplessness, while the rural Americans seemed individually motivated.  This virtue highlights the feedback process between individual attitude and beliefs and government provided institutions. This relationship will be further discussed in section 3.  Baumol#146;s theory is computer, empirically supported by Sobel (2008).
 This is achieved by summing trust, control, and respect, and essays, subtracting the obedience score This comprehensive measure is converted to a relative scale ranging from thesis, 0 to 10, with 10 representing the country with the strongest culture conducive to economic development and 0 representing the country with the weakest culture that encourage economic progress. Internet Essays! Countries with the highest culture scores include Sweden, The Netherlands, and Denmark, while those ranking in the bottom are Uganda, Tanzania, and Algeria.  Williamson and Kerekes (2009) find that Tabellini#146;s culture measure is one of the most significant factors in explaining the security of private property across countries.  Similar work on civil institutions supports the positive and significant relationship between economic freedom and development (see Knack and Keefer 1995, for example).  Hierarchical religions included Catholicism, Eastern Orthodox, and Muslim.  Ricketts (2000) attributes the decline of autocad resume reputational mechanisms and ethos in the financial sector to an increase in government regulation.
As government has taken over regulation of lending practices, lending institutions do not have the incentive to essays compete on essay opbygning, character and reputation leading to a decline in corporate responsibility.  Openness to internet trade has impacted culture for centuries. Dissertations Apparitions! In his detailed history of trade, Bernstein (2008) traces the fraud essays non-economic influences of trade to ancient Mesopotamia.  To illuminate this point, consider the markets that developed in essay papers Antwerp and internet essays, Amsterdam in the late 17 th and early 18 th centuries. While there were thriving markets in economic goods such as herring, salts, spices and wool, there was also a flourishing exchange of published materials containing ideas regarding free and critical thought, as well alternative religious views (Bernstein 2008).  Empirically, this relationship is explored by Coyne and Williamson (2009). This study supports the conclusion that trade openness is a determinant of culture beneficial for economic development. Acemoglu, Daron, and Simon Johnson. (2005). #147;Unbundling Institutions,#148; Journal of Political Economy 113(5): 949#150;995. Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson. (2001). #147;The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation,#148; The American Economic Review 91(5): 1369#150;1401. Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson. (2002). #147;Reversal of Fortune: Geography and essay opbygning, Institutions in the Making of the fraud Modern World Income Distribution,#148; The Quarterly Journal of labour thesis Economics 117(4): 1231#150;1294. Anderson, Terry and Peter J. Hill. (1979). Internet Essays! #147;An American Experiment in Anarcho-Capitalism: The Not so Wild, Wild West,#148; Journal of essay opbygning p engelsk Libertarian Studies 3(1): 9#150;29.
Banfield, E.C. Essays! (1958). The Moral Basis of sensing cognitive radio thesis a Backward Society, New York: The Free Press. Baumol, William J. (1990). #147;Entrepreneurship: Productive, Unproductive and essays, Destructive,#148; Journal of Political Economy 98(5): 893#150;921. Barro Robert J. and Rachel M. McCleary. (2003). #147;Religion and Economic Growth across Countries,#148; American Sociological Review 68(5): 760#150;781. Bauer, Peter T. (2000). Dissertations! From Subsistence to Exchange and Other Essays, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Benson, Bruce L. (1989a). #147;Enforcement of Private Property Rights in essays Primitive Societies: Law Without Government,#148; The Journal of Libertarian Studies 9(1): 1#150;26. #151;#151;#151;. (1989b). #147;The Spontaneous Evolution of Commercial Law,#148; Southern Economic Journal 55(3): 644#150;661.
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The Impact of Trade Openness on dissertations sur les, Culture,#148; Mimeo, West Virginia University and Appalachian State University. Chan, Kenneth S. 2007. #147;Trade, Social Values, and the Generalized Trust,#148; Southern Economic Journal 73(3): 733#150;753. Coleman, J. (1988). Essays! #147;Social Capital in dissertations the Creation of internet Human Capital,#148; American Journal of Sociology 94:95#150;120. Cowen, Tyler. 2002. Creative Destruction: How Globalization is Changing the World#146;s Culture. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Demsetz, Harold. (1967). #147;Toward a Theory of Property Rights,#148; The American Economic Review 57(2): 347#150;359. Durant, Will. (1939). The Life of Greece: The Story of Civilization, NY: Simon Schuster.
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Trust: The Social Virtues and internet, the Creation of Prosperity. Essay P Engelsk! New York: Simon and Schuster. Garrett, Thomas A. and Russell S. Sobel. (2003). #147;The Political Economy of internet FEMA Disaster Payments,#148; Economic Inquiry 41(3): 496#150;509. Gwartney, J.D., Lawson, R.A., Holcombe, R.G., 1999. #147;Economic Freedom and thesis - lucas, the Environment for Economic Growth.#148; Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 155(4): 1#150;21. Greif, Avner. (1993). Internet Fraud! #147;Contract Enforceability and Economic Institutions in Early Trade: The Maghribi Traders#146; Coalition,#148; The American Economic Review, 83(3): 525#150;548. Greif, Avner, Paul Milgrom, and Barry R. Weingast. (1994). #147;Coordination, Commitment, and Enforcement: The Case of the Merchant Guild,#148; The Journal of Political Economy 102(4): 745#150;776. Grier, Robin, (1997). #147;The Effect of Religion on Economic Development: A Cross National Study of Sixty-three Former Colonies,#148; Kyklos, 50(1): 47#150;62.
Guiso, Luigi, Paola Sapienza and Luigi Zingales. 2006 #147;Does Culture Affect Economic Outcomes?#148; Journal of Economic Perspectives 20(2): 23#150;48. Harper, David A. 2003. Foundations of computer papers Entrepreneurship and Economic Development. New York: Routledge. Hayek, F. Fraud Essays! A. Thesis 1994 - Lucas! (1960).
The Constitution of Liberty, Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press. Hofstede, Geert. (2001). Culture#146;s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations across Nations, 2 nd edition, California: Sage Publicaitons. Jacobs, Jane (1961). The Death and Life of Great American Cities, New York: The Modern Library. Jones, Eric L. (2006). Cultures Merging: A Historical and Economic Critique of Culture, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Klein, Daniel B. Essays! (2000). Spectrum Sensing Radio Thesis! Assurance and Trust in a Great Society, Irvington-on-Hudson, NY: The Foundation for Economic Education. Knack, Stephen. (2001). #147;Aid Dependence and the Quality of internet Governance: Cross-Country Empirical Tests,#148; Southern Economic Journal 68(2): 310#150;29. Knack, Stephen and Philip Keefer. (1995). #147;Institutions and Economic Performance: Cross Country tests Using Alternative Institutional Measures,#148; Economics and de groot, Politics 7(3): 207#150;228. Knack, Stephen and Philip Keefer. (1997). #147;Does Social Capital Have an internet fraud essays, Economic Payoff?#148; The Quarterly Journal of Economics 112(4): 1251#150;1288. La Porta, Rafael, Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes, Andrei Shleifer, and Robert W. Vishny. (1997). Essay! #147;Trust in Large Organizations.#148; The American Economic Review, Vol. Fraud Essays! 87, No.
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Essay contest: What parents don’t understand. Essay contest winners wrote about internet fraud parents who aren’t home, want them to be religious, and don’t get their music. By Brian Kan , San Gabriel HS. Illustration by Keanu Lueong, 13, Toll MS (Glendale) My sweaty hand slipped off of the 1994 ice-cold doorknob as I plopped my backpack on the floor and removed my sneakers. Fraud! With a sigh, I began my walk up the thesis - lucas staircase of the two-story house so devoid of life.
After seating myself in internet fraud essays my room and turning on my computer, I came across a Post-it note stuck to essay opbygning my monitor. In bold, blue, inky letters, it read: “Don’t turn on your PC. Internet! You stayed up until 12 o’clock doing your homework last night. Maybe you would have the time if you stopped coming home so late. Mom.” I tore the note up and threw it into sur les apparitions, the wastebasket. “Why do they care?” I thought. “They’re never here anyways.” Right after high school started, contact between me and fraud essays, my parents nearly came to a standstill.
With all their business trips, they employed the neighbors to watch over me and monitor my activity. Of course, the neighbors didn’t do such a great job, as they had kids of their own to child thesis worry about. They usually kept track of when I came home just by essays looking out of their windows. The only means of communication between me and my parents was through Post-it notes. Apparitions Des Anges! The notes would be stuck around the internet house all the time, for crime all occasions, and under any circumstances, from “Take out the garbage when it’s full” even when I didn’t fill it, to “Stop spending so much time after school,” even when they were not there.
Somewhere between spending about fraud essays eight hours away from home and coming home to find the house completely empty, something didn’t fit. Sur Les Apparitions! I would come home from fraud, school to opbygning be welcomed by no one, to talk to no one and be supervised by essays my neighbors. That’s when I started joining more clubs and staying after school more often, so I didn’t have to feel so lonely. At school, my great friends, the staff members and coaches are there for me. Essay! They were all there to give me a hand or talk with me when I wanted to talk. I felt great when I was at school. Internet Fraud Essays! Yet, despite my attempts to escape the dark and gloomy house, something was still missingmy parents. I realize that nobody could replace my parents. I wish that they would be there, at home, waiting for me to radio thesis come back from school.
There are too many things my parents don’t understand about me. I want them to understand everything about fraud essays me. I want them to thesis understand that they’re my parents and I’m their kid and I need them. Ultimately, I wish that my parents actually had a chance to understand me. By B.A. , Central L.A. Internet Fraud Essays! HS for computer crime essay the Visual and Performing Arts. I come from a very strict and internet, religious Christian family. You know, the kind of family that always says grace before a meal, attends church every Sunday, has daily Bible readings, hangs a copy of the thesis 1994 Ten Commandments on the living room wall, and so on. Coming from that sort of background I’m usually expected to be very religious.
Well, I’m not. During my pre-teen years I would go to church regularly with my family. Sadly, all those years of church didn’t do much for internet essays me. I never felt that “sensation” that the church would always speak about. Child Thesis! I just sat there blank and lifeless. I knew I didn’t belong. I tried and tried to force myself to just believe.
Oh, how I tried. Essays! It didn’t work. I quit going to church and haven’t gone since. My mother was appalled when I announced my decision. It made her absolutely furious. My mother began to act strange toward me. Opbygning! She knows that I am not a Christian, yet she struggles to accept this fact. “You’re just going through a phase,” she says every now and internet fraud essays, then.
She’s wrong. It’s not just a phase. It’s my choice and lifestyle. Sometimes she goes on thesis de groot, about how Christ is going to essays make me pay for what I did. I’m treated as a criminal when I have not done anything wrong at all! About a month ago, I had a fever and was so ill that I could barely walk. She called it “God’s wrath.” When I heard those words come out of her mouth, time stopped and a black cloud sat above me; I was completely shocked.
I could not believe my own mother would say such a thing. I am constantly demonized by my mother as well. According to thesis 1994 de groot her, I am an “anti-Christ.” I listen to hard rock, like piercings, wear bead and string bracelets, enjoy horror movies, and watch MTV. Fraud Essays! That’s a Satan worshiper in her eyes. To her, I am an embarrassment. Crime! To her, I’m a child gone wrong. Fraud! To her, I have fallen into Satan’s hands.
To her, I’m a failure. How I wish my mother could just open her eyes and crime essay papers, accept who I am. I accept her views and beliefs so why can’t she do the internet fraud same for her own son. Her religion is getting in the way of our relationship. Why can’t she just put her beliefs aside a bit and try to - lucas de groot have a relationship with her own son? By Sophia Popovskaia , New Roads HS (Santa Monica) I have always loved music. Internet! More accurately, hip-hop has been the love of my life since I learned that music is child thesis, not found solely on the radio. I cannot say where this love came from. Maybe from my older sister’s mild interest in it, or the hours we spent watching music videos on BET as we grew up; two little white girls struggling to fraud keep up with the 1994 de groot new language. Fraud! All I know is, by the time I was 10, I went out and bought my first Outkast CD with the words EXPLICT and PARENTAL ADVISORY printed on the cover.
I also know that by that time, I had learned not to ask my dad to help me download a song by Snoop Dogg for my new MP3 player. I was only able to hide the CD until I was 11, at autocad resume which point my dad found it cleverly hidden in my boom box. “What the internet fraud heck is this?” he said as if he had just found an crime essay papers AK-47 sitting next to internet my collection of stuffed animals. “You’ll get it back when you know what good music is.” My dad has never really understood my taste in music. I wasn’t discouraged by that incident and as I got older my interest in hip-hop continued to grow while my dad’s distaste did too. He believes that I, like some sort of thesis, empty-headed parakeet, will start using the internet fraud words I hear in the songs, and child labour thesis, that the essays people I consider artists are just uneducated losers whose only goal is to degrade women. He recently gave me back my Outkast CD, but I can never imagine openly listening to sur les des anges my music when he is in hearing range.
No matter how old I get, he will always think of internet fraud, me as his little girl and never understand how I can listen to grown men rapping about the streets, throwing cuss words at the authorities and, yes I admit it, sometimes degrading women. Autocad Resume! I wish I could explain to him that sometimes to really give feeling to a song, strong words have to be used. No, not all music I listen to fraud has a meaningful message. Autocad Resume! While there are songs I listen to for the lyrics, I also listen to certain songs simply because they make me want to fraud dance my rear off. I admit, hip-hop is spectrum sensing cognitive radio, a broad genre, and with all the different rappers, singers and DJs, it can be hard to differentiate “true” hip-hop from rappers like Lil’ Wayne who are famous because they found 28 different ways to name the internet essays male groin.
But sometimes I’m moved to tears by artists like Immortal Technique who rap about “A generation of babies born without health care/ Families homeless, thrown the f*** off of the welfare.” I felt like I was let into an exclusive world filled with deep interpretations of child labour thesis, reality and stark truths. Essays! Even when the subject of a song is not so intense, the poetic lyrics combined with exquisite beats can become works of art. My heart melts each time I hear Andre 3000, one of the members of Outkast, rap, “I hope that you’re the one/ If not you are the sensing radio thesis prototype,” in his smooth airy voice while whimsical beats play in internet the background. Most of my music is at least a couple years old because, as the spectrum sensing radio thesis rapper Nas said in one of his songs, “Hip-hop is dead.” Maybe if my dad ever turned on MTV he wouldn’t question my collection of mostly old-school rappers. I’m not saying all of today’s music is bad, but how can pop stars with voices as fake as their awards performances and whiney, wannabe rappers even be considered music? I respect my dad greatly, and fraud essays, value his opinion very much, but I wish he could understand my taste in music because as I listen to it day after day, it becomes more and thesis 1994 - lucas, more integrated into my thoughts, my actions and internet, my view of the world. In fact, I am turning on autocad resume, my recently returned CD as I type these last words: Long live Outkast. Author’s name withheld. It feels like every time my mother and I start to have a casual conversation, it turns into a full-blown argument.
We could be talking about something as simple as dinner plans and suddenly, my mother will make a snide remark pushing the harmless conversation into World War III. She’ll talk about my lack of essays, a bright future because I don’t plan to opbygning p engelsk be a doctor, nurse or any profession involving the healthcare field. And much to her disappointment, I don’t want to be an engineer, architect or any job involving the internet essays science field either. In fact, when I was pushed to reveal that I planned to major in English and communications, she nearly had a heart attack. “Why can’t you be like my co-worker’s son?” She’ll bemoan all the labour thesis time. Her co-worker’s son received a four-year scholarship to internet USC and is now earning 70 grand a year as an environmental engineer. I don’t know what to answer except that I simply can’t be like Mr. Perfect as I’ve dubbed the unnamed co-worker’s son. “I can’t be like him,” I’ve told her countless times.
“Then be more like him because the person you are now isn’t good enough,” is her answer. Dissertations Sur Les Des Anges! It hurts that she can’t accept the internet fraud person I am. I’ll never be the type of apparitions, person who is valedictorian, student council president or even a National Merit Scholar. Internet! I’m the type of person who loves to dissertations sur les apparitions help out in the community, write until the internet essays sun goes down, and most of all, wants to pursue a career because I love it, not because of prestige or salary. I understand why my mother is freaking out so much about my future majors.
I’ve seen my mother struggle to raise me on her miniscule salary and long hours. She leaves the house around 6:30 a.m. and usually comes home around 5 or sometimes even 6 p.m. However, I want her to know that by becoming a doctor, it doesn’t necessarily ensure I’ll be successful. It doesn’t mean that I’ll have a fairytale life without suffering all the hardships that life throws at us. My mother can call me foolish, but the essay opbygning p engelsk fact is, I’d rather follow my dreams and internet fraud, create my own future. I know there are difficulties involved, but with every goal there are challenges. It’s hard for her to understand but she has taken risks too. One of the biggest risks she took was immigrating to America with me. She didn’t know what could happen or even if she could succeed, but she did succeed and that is the most important part. Now I hope my mother will take another risk by accepting that I won’t be a science or healthcare professional in the future. Autocad Resume! I’ll simply be me.
By Claudia Kelly , Birmingham HS. If I hear the internet essays words “You have to leave him” one more time, I’m going to scream. My parents and I don’t get along. Computer Crime Papers! My parents don’t understand me at all. They don’t understand why I like to go to parties and sleep in on weekends. They don’t understand why I like to listen to music really loud.
However, what I really want my parents to understand is why I am still in internet essays a relationship with my boyfriend. I know I’m young and I’m sure I don’t know what love is, but I do know I like my boyfriend. Autocad Resume! We started dating a year ago on my 15th birthday. Since that day my parents have been telling me to dump him. They keep telling me he’s not “the one” or “you’re not ready to be in a relationship right now.” My parents are just looking at the outside of him. They just don’t understand. My boyfriend, Marcus, is a good guy. He doesn’t smoke or drink or do anything harmful or put me in harm. In fact he encourages me to do well in school.
My parents don’t understand that. What they see is a 6-foot-3 white male who has tattoos. They see a young man who’s going to internet essays school because “he has to.” However, he has a job, he’s in school and he’s graduating with his class. My parents say I changed ever since we started dating. They say I used to be a sweet, smart, playful, outgoing teen and then changed to a moody, loud, angry, shy young adult. (lol) Not. I’m still me; I’m still sweet and nice. It’s true my boyfriend has influenced my tastes in music but come on, be serious. After dating someone for a year do you really think I’m going to change? OK.
Marcus is not the perfect boyfriend. Dissertations Sur Les Des Anges! We argue and we don’t always get along. Internet Essays! What I’m trying to say is spectrum sensing cognitive, my mom wasn’t the best catch and my dad wasn’t Mr. Perfect. So don’t trip Mom and internet essays, Dad.
Your little girl isn’t saying she’s in love. What I’m saying is Marcus isn’t Mr. Right but he’s Mr. Right Now. Please Mom and Dad, try to understand he’s not a bad guy. He’s nice and essay opbygning p engelsk, he’s my boyfriend.
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