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Favorite toy as a child essay

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Junkanoo In The Bahamas Essay Help 169185. Acest subiect con?ine 0 raspunsuri are 1 voce ?i a fost actualizat ultima data de downnowilysup acum 3 zile, 20 ore. Junkanoo In The Bahamas Essay Help. Junkanoo essays Junkanoo is a child a form of Bahamian cultural expression, Saved Essays. Save your essays The Bahamas Development Board commercialized Junkanoo during the nineteen Junkanoo Essay 662 Words Free Essay Examples and problems in the world essay Read this college essay and over Essay about favorite toy as a child essay Celebrating Junkanoo in the bahamas as a mark Have a great research document you think will help inspire Junkanoo Essays 1 13 Anti Essays Anti Essays offers essay examples to help students with Junkanoo Essays and Research Papers . In The! African culture is a celebration known in the Bahamas as Junkanoo . Junkanoo Free Essays Free Essay Examples and Research Papers Junkanoo Essays and Research Papers A “colors” Junkanoo band is Bahamas group with Have a great research document you think will help inspire Free Essays on The Bahamas Brainia.comCheck out our top Free Essays on toy as a child, The Bahamas to help you write your own Essay Junkanoo In The Bahamas Essay Writer – 848887 – Network Junkanoo In The Bahamas Essay Writer. Anti Essays offers essay examples to help students with their essay writing. of in the world essay Bahamas celebrate the ever-popular Junkanoo . Junkanoo essays Rad Essays .com Junkanoo can also be The Cultural Festival of the Bahamas The roots of Junkanoo can be Some topics in this essay : Bahamas Legend, Costumes Junkanoo , Junkanoo Government Citizens and Residents Bahamas Junkanoo , named after the West African John Canoe Festival, originated in toy as essay the Bahamas around the 17th century as a masquerade. Slaves with their faces hidden under a Junkanoo The cutural event in The Bahamas The Junkanoo music is rather primitive but the rhythm is very infectious. The basic music instruments are made in journaliste the Bahamas and consists of drums, cowbells, horns What is favorite toy as a child essay Junkanoo | The Islands of The Bahamas Where to experience Junkanoo . The liveliest and and internet research paper largest of the sensational Bahamas Junkanoo party parades is in Nassau, but you can also experience the intoxicating. The Economic Impact of favorite Junkanoo in The Bahamas Software. N. Research Paper! Bethel. The economic impact of Junkanoo in The Bahamas . Favorite A Child Essay! 14 The International Journal of Bahamian Studies Vol.

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Trump Pick Monica Crowley Plagiarized Parts of Her Ph.D. Dissertation. By ALEX CATON and GRACE WATKINS. January 09, 2017. Monica Crowley, President-Elect Donald J. Trump’s pick for a top National Security Council job, plagiarized numerous passages in her Ph.D. dissertation, Politico Magazine has found. An examination of the dissertation and the sources it cites identified more than a dozen sections of text that have been lifted, with little to toy as essay, no changes, from other scholarly works without proper attribution. In some instances, Crowley footnoted her source but did not identify with quotation marks the text she was copying directly. In other instances, she copied text or heavily paraphrased with no attribution at ecommerce research paper, all. Story Continued Below. This finding comes on the heels of CNN’s Saturday report that Crowley, the conservative author and commentator whom Trump tapped as senior director of strategic communications for the National Security Council, plagiarized more than 50 passages in her 2012 book What the (Bleep) Just Happened , copying directly from toy as a child essay conservative columns, news articles, Wikipedia and in one case a podiatrist’s website. Despite the news, the Trump team continues to support the essayiste journaliste appointment. “Any attempt to discredit Monica is nothing more than a politically motivated attack that seeks to favorite toy as a child, distract from the real issues facing this country,” a transition spokesperson told CNN.

The transition team did not reply to requests for comment for this story. Crowley submitted her dissertation, titled “Clearer Than Truth: Determining and Preserving Grand Strategy: The Evolution of paper of fashion American Policy Toward the favorite essay People’s Republic of China Under Truman and Nixon,” in 2000 in partial completion of environmental in the her Ph.D. in international relations at New York’s Columbia University. Toy As Essay! Today, the thesis is kept on biss scale, microfilm at the University of Michigan and accessible via ProQuest, an academic database. By checking passages in the document against the sources Crowley cites, focusing on a child essay, paragraphs that come before and after footnotes of key sources in her bibliography, we found numerous structural and eula the pain scale essay syntactic similarities. She lifted passages from her footnoted texts, occasionally making slight wording changes but rarely using quotation marks. Sometimes she didn’t footnote at all. Parts of Crowley's dissertation appear to violate Columbia's definition of Unintentional Plagiarism for failure to a child, 'quote' or block quote author's exact words, even if documented or failure to paraphrase in your own words, even if documented.

In other cases, her writing appears to violate types I and II of Columbia's definition of Intentional Plagiarism, which are, respectively, direct copy and paste and small modification by word switch, without quotation or reference to the source. The examples Politico Magazine found came primarily from six books and articles on U.S. foreign policy, particularly from scale essay Yale historian John Lewis Gaddis’ 1982 book Strategies of toy as a child essay Containment: A Critical Appraisal of American National Security Policy during the Cold War and Princeton World Politics professor Thomas Christensen’s 1996 book Useful Adversaries: Grand Strategy, Domestic Mobilization, and Sino-American Conflict, 1947-1958 . On Current Political Issues! Both Gaddis and Christensen declined to favorite a child essay, comment. Crowley, a former researcher for Richard Nixon while he was writing his last two books, conducted original interviews for the dissertation with the former president and diplomats Henry Kissinger and Winston Lord. The dedication reads, “For Harry Truman, Richard Nixon, Dean Acheson, and Henry Kissinger: Strategic Thinkers and Actors.” Her thesis adviser, Professor of War and Peace Studies Richard K. Betts, declined to comment, as did Columbia University, which has previously rescinded at and internet marketing research paper, least one Ph.D. for plagiarism.

Crowley was previously accused of plagiarism in 1999 when a reader in California noticed similarities between a Wall Street Journal column she wrote and a 1988 Paul Johnson piece in favorite toy as, Commentary . After the discovery, the of fashion Journal published an editor’s note in that week’s Friday edition that read, “Had we known of the parallels, we would not have published the toy as essay article.” Crowley's position does not require Senate confirmation. Below are several of the most notable examples of plagiarism we found. Public support is a fluid dynamic: given information and political analysis by leaders and elites, the public constantly weighs the benefits and prospects of success against the likely and actual costs and toy as a child then reaches a determination as to whether the likely outcome is worth the sacrifice. As new events occur or objective conditions change, they are interpreted by political leaders and experts, and the ends and means are reevaluated. Statement! Traditionally, U.S. military operations have been explained and justified both in favorite toy as a child essay, normative terms (stressing the importance of the principles and interests at research paper, stake) and pragmatic terms (stressing the good prospects and reasonable costs of the involvement.) [42] Further, a focus on the particular objectives of the favorite toy as a child operation and the perceptions of the principles and thesis statement for legalizing interests that are involved establishes a connection between the objectives of the operation and the larger purpose behind it. In short, support can be thought of as a constant rebalancing of the benefits and prospects for toy as essay, success against the likely and actual costs —and a determination of whether the outcome is judged worth the costs—all informed by leaders and experts. As new events occur or objective conditions change, they are interpreted by and internet marketing political leaders and experts, and the ends and means are reevaluated.

Such a model, engendering both normative and pragmatic considerations, clearly has a great deal of intuitive appeal, but why should we believe that this is what is at favorite toy as essay, work? First, as a practical matter, U.S. Essayiste! military operations are typically explained and justified both in normative terms—stressing the importance of the principles and interests that are at stake—and pragmatic terms—stressing the good prospects and reasonable costs of the intervention. Favorite Toy As Essay! Such a framework captures both the“operational code” of political leaders and the enduring concerns of the eula biss the pain scale public. Second, a focus on the particular objectives of the operation and the perceptions of the principles and interests that are engaged establishes a connection between the objectives of a given operation and the larger purposes it is promoting. Following the Cuban missile crisis, the Soviet Union embarked on a long-term program of increasing its strength in strategic weapons . As Gaddis points out, the Johnson administration decided not to respond with a corresponding military buildup for three main reasons: first, because it underestimated the extent to which the Soviets were building; second, because Secretary of favorite a child Defense Robert McNamara was convinced that the American strategic programs had reached the point of diminishing returns ; and third, because the escalating costs of the Vietnam war made the administration reluctant to go to biss the pain, Congress with requests for expensive new systems to favorite essay, counter Soviet increases . [155] Following its humiliation in the Cuban missile crisis, the Soviet Union embarked on a steady, longterm program of statement for legalizing bolstering its strength in strategic weapons. The Johnson administration decided not to favorite toy as a child, respond with a corresponding American buildup , partly because it underestimated the thesis statement for legalizing extent of what the Russians were doing, partly because McNamara had become convinced that the point of essay diminishing returns in American strategic programs had been reached, but partly also because the mushrooming costs of the Vietnsam War made the of fashion administration reluctant to go to favorite a child essay, Congress with requests for eula scale essay, expensive new systems to counter Soviet increases. Moreover, in order to test the approach against competing explanations , one needs to understand what individual leaders were thinking when they were developing or modifying the grand strategy and manipulating conflict, either by prolonging it or by resolving it.

An area specialist would be at essay, an advantage over the generalist in applying the model to particular cases , though both benefit from the parsimony inherent in the model. Finally, to test the approach against competing explanations it is important to understand what leaders were actually thinking when they were creating new grand strategies , launching mobilization drives, and manipulating or prolonging conflict with foreign powers. To complete this task, one needs to do archival research, sometimes in a foreign language. All of environmental problems in the world these demands privilege the area expert over the generalist in toy as, applying the mobilization model to particular cases . Perceiving fundamental changes in the international balance of power, Truman in 1947 and Mao in 1958 decided to mobilize their nations around newly-designed long-term strategies to respond to those shifts and to preempt any resulting negative consequence. In both of Christensen’s cases, the security strategies were launched during peacetime, requiring creative and vigorous approaches to selling the strategies in good statement for legalizing gay marriage, order to persuade the public to support them.

The apparently undesirable move of manipulating or prolonging a short-term conflict with another nation then became useful in toy as essay, rallying and maintaining public support for the basic grand strategy . Viewing basic changes in environmental problems in the world, the international balance of power, Truman in 1947 and Mao in 1958 decided to mobilize their nations around long-term strategies , designed to respond to a child essay, those shifts . Ecommerce And Internet Research! In both cases the strategies adopted required significant public sacrifice in peacetime, so the leaders faced difficulties in selling those strategies to their respective publics. The manipulation or extension of short-term conflict with the favorite a child other nation , while not desirable on straightforward international or domestic grounds, became useful in gaining and maintaining public support for the core grand strategy. The generally accepted definition of cooperation is “when actors adjust their behavior to the actual or anticipated preferences of others, through a process of policy coordination.” This dissertation shall argue that perceived preferences are just as important as actual or anticipated ones, and essayiste that cooperation occurs when each side simultaneously affects the other’s calculations and expectations until they reach some level of common interest. The policy coordination that is generated from reaching this level implies that the policies of each state have been adjusted to reduce , if not necessarily minimize, their negative consequences for the other states . This compound definition of cooperation involves several important principles. First, it assumes that each actor’s behavior is directed toward some goal or goals , which need not be the same for all of the actors involved, but that the behavior is rational and grounded in some degree of self-interest. Second , it implies that cooperation provides the actors with gains that they concluded could not be achieved through individualistic action.

The distribution of gains need not be the same across the board, but the toy as a child gains are mutual . A notable feature of the recent literature on international cooperation is the acceptance of a common definition of the phenomenon. Following Robert Keohane, a number of scholars have defined cooperation as occurring “when actors adjust their behavior to the actual or anticipated preferences of others, through a process of policy coordination.” Policy coordination , in turn, implies that the policies of each state have been adjusted to reduce their negative consequences for other states . This conception of cooperation consists of two important elements. First, it assumes that each actor’s behavior is directed toward some goal(s) . It need not be the same goal for all the actors involved, but it does assume rational behavior on their part. Second , the definition implies that cooperation provides the and internet research actors with gains or rewards. The gains need not be in the same magnitude or kind for each state, but they are mutual . The numbers issue in international relations consists of the debate over toy as essay the relative stability of essays on current political issues bipolar and multipolar systems (which is really a debate about the impact of the number of significant players on favorite toy as essay, international conflict and cooperation) and of the debate over the impact of marketing paper hegemonic stability and international regimes on cooperation. [15] Numbers affect the a child essay potential for and success of cooperation in several ways.

First, cooperation requires the research recognition of opportunities for the promotion of mutual interests, as well as policy coordination once they have been identified . In international relations, the numbers problem has been central to two debates. Favorite A Child! The longstanding controversy over the stability of environmental problems essay bipolar versus multipolar systems reduces to a debate over the impact of the number of toy as essay significant actors on international conflict . A more recent controversy, between proponents of the theory of hegemonic stability and advocates of essayiste journaliste international regimes , reduces to a debate over the effects of large numbers on the robustness of cooperation. How do numbers affect the likelihood of cooperation? There are at least three important channels of influence. First, cooperation requires recognition of opportunities for toy as a child, the advancement of mutual interests, as well as policy coordination once these opportunities have been identified . This strategy was mapped out by Kissinger and his team in four foreign policy reports between 1970 and 1973 that set forth explicitly most of the fundamental elements of the Nixon strategy—the use of negotiations to integrate the Soviet Union into the existing order; the essayiste idea of linkage; the possibility of a new relationship with China ; and the Nixon Doctrine —“often before events had taken place that made possible their realization.” [15] There followed a detailed discussion, often at a philosophical level, that set forward with surprising explicitness most of the fundamental elements of the Nixon strategy— the use of toy as essay negotiations to integrate the Soviet Union into the existing international order, the idea of linkage, the possibility of a new relationship with China, the Nixon Doctrine —often before events had taken place that made possible their implementation. First, Nixon and Kissinger sought to address the changing nature of power. States’ influence could no longer be measured by a single gauge such as military capabilities. With the Soviet Union rapidly approaching parity with the United States, the good practical utility of nuclear weapons had further decreased. Kissinger had remarked repeatedly that the strategic balance had not affected the outcome of any crisis since 1962 . The constraints of public opinion and the problems of gradual escalation in Vietnam demonstrated the limits of conventional force . And economic, territorial, and ideological resources were o f rapidly diminishing importance in terms of real geopolitical influence.

Underlying all of these trends, notes Gaddis, “the perception of power had become as important as power itself.” [4] As Kissinger believed, it was no longer possible for the United States to think of the balance of power as a “zero-sum game,” in which gains for one side meant losses for the other .[5] Since policy had changed to recognize military, political, and economic strength as separate components of power, nations were freer to offset disproportionate strength in one category by emphasizing their strength in another. It was possible under this definition, then, to have a multipolar equilibrium. A loss for the United States, as in Vietnam or in the Soviet gain of strategic parity, could be compensated for by gains in our own areas, as in the opening to China and a strategic arms control agreement. The individual areas of competition were deemed far less important than the favorite overall measure of power-—or the perception of it. Vietnam had skewed the American policy perspective; the objective of a reemphasis on and internet marketing research paper, global relationships was to restore it.

The first requirement for such a deepening was to recognize the multidimensional nature of power in the world: there was no single index by a child essay which the influence of states could be measured. Eula The Pain Scale! Nuclear weapons , given the constraints on their use in an approaching era of parity , were of a child essay decreasing practical utility . Kissinger liked to essays political issues, point out that in no crisis since 1962 had the strategic balance determined the outcome. Favorite A Child! Vietnam had amply demonstrated the essayiste limits of conventional military force applied under constraints imposed by public opinion and the dangers of escalation. Ideology was proving to be a feeble force when arrayed against the compulsions of nationalism; territory bore little relationship to political influence; economic strength seemed at times to a child essay, have little to do with any of environmental essay these. A Child! And, underlying all of these complexities, there was the increasing importance of psychology: the perception of power had become as important as power itself. It was too simplistic, therefore, to ecommerce and internet research paper, continue thinking of the balance of power as a zero sum game, in favorite toy as, which gains for one side invariably meant losses for the other . 6 What might appear as a loss in statement for legalizing, one area—the stalemate in Vietnam , for example, or the favorite Soviet attainment of environmental in the world strategic parity—could be compensated for by gains in others—an opening to China , or a negotiated settlement on arms control . It was the favorite toy as a child essay overall calculus of power that was important, not the defeats or victories that might take place in isolated theaters of competition. Environmental In The World! The Kennedy and Johnson administrations had erred by essay making Vietnam a symbol of American power and commitment throughout the on current issues world. Favorite A Child Essay! The Nixon administration, taking advantage of its more ecumenical definition of power, would seek to reduce Vietnam to essayiste definition, its proper perspective—a small peninsula on a major continent, as Kissinger put it 7 —and to concentrate on global relationships. For example , even the few Chinese threats to enter the Korean war may have been more effective had Washington not been consumed with launching the new grand strategy.

Similarly, the need to preserve whatever remained of that mobilization made Nixon more likely to curtail American involvement in toy as a child essay, Vietnam than he otherwise would have been. This may help to illuminate for problems in the essay, leaders why other leaders take the actions they do given a mobilization situation. If foreign leaders recognize that initial mobilization is often accompanied by toy as a short- term but intense anti-foreign campaign, then they may avoid drawing incorrect and possibly dangerous assumptions from those actions. Further, if foreign leaders understand that a long-term mobilization is losing its momentum at on current political issues, home, they may be able to foresee a realignment of that nation’s foreign policy that may include more cooperative policies. In either case, it may not be necessary for foreign leaders to assume that such posturing will lead to long-term hostile or conciliatory policies. If Mao had understood American politics during the initial cold war mobilization, he might not have felt as threatened by American actions in Korea and Taiwan and may have resisted sending Chinese troops into Korea . For example, Chinese threats to favorite, enter the of fashion Korean War might have proven more effective . Not only did the needs of mobilization make Truman less likely to compromise in Korea, but they precluded sturdy lines of communication and thereby muted Chinese deterrent warnings. On a more practical level, if foreign leaders understand that early-stage mobilization is often accompanied by short- lived but fiery antiforeign posturing, then they might avoid drawing inappropriate and essay dangerous conclusions from the behavior of of fashion mobilizing states. There may be no reason for the challenged nation to infer irredentism or the inevitability of long-term aggression from a mobilizer’s hostile postures. If Mao had understood the favorite essay politics of Cold War mobilization in the United States, he might not have concluded from American actions in Korea and Taiwan that the United States was planning to invade Manchuria.

He might not have felt as threatened by those American actions and therefore might not have felt compelled to send Chinese forces into Korea . A traditional realist, Kissinger believed that a more precise and effective conceptualization of interests required “no illusions” and the recognition that conflict and competition were immutable facts of on current issues international life . The United States would always have to toy as a child essay, function within the international system, contrary to the idealists’ hope that someday the U.S. could extricate itself from the system’s base and corrupting operations. For Kissinger, these unrealistic dreams distorted reality and problems world policy, generating the wild extremes of isolationism and overextension . Accept the unpleasantries of the world, thought Kissinger, and then design policy to manage them. [7] Despite the acceptance of diversity as an favorite toy as essay, inevitable condition in world affairs, despite the recognition that it was not inconsistent with American security requirements, there lingered in the United States, Kissinger believed, a reluctance to accept the and internet marketing research fact that conflict and disharmony were and would continue to be inescapable characteristics of international life . There was still the belief that somehow the United States might transcend the international order, instead of simply having to operate within it. These unrealistic hopes, and the corrosive effects of reality upon them, had produced oscillations between isolationism and overextension in the American approach to the world. In addition to Vietnamization, another practical manifestation of the counterweight strategy was the war between India and Pakistan in 1971. Favorite Toy As Essay! The crisis stemmed from thesis statement for legalizing gay marriage West Pakistan’s refusal to grant autonomy to the people of favorite toy as essay East Pakistan, separated by a vast expanse of Indian territory . Essayiste Journaliste! As the favorite toy as a child essay crisis escalated, the administration, using Pakistan as its secret channel to the Chinese, cautiously refrained from criticizing the Pakistani government and delayed cutting off arms shipments to it , despite reports of “selective genocide.” [147] A similar myopia seemed to shape official attitudes toward Pakistan during that country's bloody civil conflict and the pain essay subsequent war with India in favorite, 1971. And Internet Paper! The crisis had arisen over West Pakistan's refusal to a child, grant autonomy to the citizens of East Pakistan, separated by some 1,000 miles of Indian territory . Officially sanctioned repression of the ensuing revolt there had grown to the stage, by environmental problems in the essay March of that year, that State Department reports were speaking of selective genocide; later estimates would suggest that well over a million Bengalis had been killed. But the Nixon administration , intent on using Pakistan as an intermediary in its opening to Beijing, carefully refrained from criticizing the government in essay, Islamabad and delayed cutting off arms shipments to it as long as possible. When Beijing stated its intention to ecommerce research paper, downgrade relations with the United States unless the arms sales were stopped, the administration proposed reducing the sales gradually with no upgrading of the quality of arms involved. The Chinese continued to demand the complete cessation of favorite toy as a child essay sales and good thesis reverted to an earlier practice of favorite toy as a child essay equating the United States and Soviet Union as equally threatening “hegemonic” powers . Biss Scale Essay! [260] …negotiation dragged along, with the US proposing a gradual reduction of arms sales with no upgrading of the quality of arms involved and the PRC insisting that all sales be stopped.

To underline their point, the Chinese had reverted to toy as, their earlier and essayiste definition objectionable practice of favorite a child essay equating the United States and Soviet Union as equally reprehensible “hegemonic” powers . Alex Caton is a 2015 Notre Dame graduate and a former James H. Dunn Fellow in the office of Governor Bruce Rauner. Grace Watkins is a senior at Notre Dame and a 2016 Rhodes and Truman Scholar.

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essay on the arawaks Below is an overview of the Arawak#047;Taino Native Americans, the original natives of the land today called Haiti (and Dominican Republic). Favorite Toy As A Child Essay. This is not so much an thesis for legalizing gay marriage, original treatment, but I pulled a lot of toy as a child essay, material together from essayiste, about a dozen sources, so it's more like an extended report. The topics I treat are#058; Lifestyle of the Arawak#047;Taino Housing and Dress Food and Agriculture Transportation Defense Religion and Myth The genocidal end of the Arawak#047;Taino Specific Indian leaders at the time of Columbus (The five caciques of the favorite a child, time) I cordially invite comments. If you find that you do not agree with this report in some point, or you wish to add something that I chose not to environmental problems world essay include, or you wish to ask me and favorite a child essay, others for further information, please don't hesitate to write and ask. THE ARAWAK#047;TAINO NATIVES OF THE ISLAND OF HISPANIOLA (HAITI) On December 6th, 1492 Christopher Columbus landed at Mole St. Nicholas in Haiti's north.

Thus began a totally new phase of good for legalizing, life on the island of Hispaniola. Most people are aware that Christopher Columbus landed at San Salvador on October 12th, 1492, thus discovering the New World for Spain. Less known is that his second land fall was at Mole St. Nicholas, Haiti on December 1492, or that the favorite, first settlement in the New World was La Navidad, on Haiti's north coast. This settlement, which housed sailors from the Santa Maria which sank off Haiti's coast, was founded on ecommerce and internet marketing December 24th, 1492.

Columbus did not discover a lost or unknown land. There was a flourishing civilization of native Americas. The primary group was the Arawak#047;Taino Indians. Arawak is the general group to which they belong, and describes especially the common language that this group of toy as essay, native Americans shared. On Current. They ranged from Venezuela through the Caribbean and Central America all the way to Florida. However, the particular group of toy as a child essay, Arawak-speaking people who lived on the island of Hispaniola was the problems world essay, Taino Indians. To keep both names before us, I'll use the favorite a child, term Arawak#047;Taino to refer to them. The Arawak#047;Taino society was basically a very gentle culture. It was characterized by happiness, friendliness and a highly organized hierarchical, paternal society, and for legalizing, a lack of guile. Each society was a small kingdom and the leader was called a cacique. At the time of toy as a child, Columbus there were five different kingdoms on the island of Hispaniola.

The Indians practiced polygamy. Most men had 2 or 3 wives, but the definition, caciques had as many as 30. It was a great honor for favorite toy as a child essay, a woman to be married to a cacique. Not only on current did she enjoy a materially superior lifestyle, but her children were held in high esteem. The Arawak#047;Taino used two primary architectural styles for favorite toy as a child, their homes. The general population lived in circular buildings with poles providing the primary support and these were covered with woven straw and palm leaves. They were somewhat like North American teepees except rather than being covered with skins they needed to reflect the warmth of the gay marriage, climate and essay, simply used straw and essayiste journaliste definition, palm leaves. The caciques were singled out for unique housing.

Their houses were rectangular and favorite a child essay, even featured a small porch. Despite the essayiste, difference in shape, and the considerably larger buildings, the same materials were used. When the Africans came beginning in 1507 they introduced mud and wattle as primary building materials. Favorite Toy As. However, there is no record of the Arawak#047;Tainos having used these materials. The house of the cacique contained only his own family. Paper Of Fashion. However, given the toy as essay, number of wives he might have, this constituted a huge family.

The round houses of the common people were also large. Each one had about 10-15 men and and internet research paper, their whole families. Thus any Arawak#047;Taino home might house a hundred people. The houses did not contain much furniture. People slept in cotton hammocks or simply on mats of banana leaves. Toy As A Child Essay. They also made wooden chairs with woven seats, couches and biss, built cradles for favorite a child, their children. In addition to houses the typical Arawak#047;Taino village contained a flat court in the center of the village which was used for ball games and various festivals, both religious and secular. Houses were around this court. And Internet Marketing Research Paper. This was a hierarchical society, and while there was only one cacique who was paid a tribute (tax) to oversee the village, there were other levels of sub-caciques, who were not paid, but did hold positions of honor. They were liable for various services to the village and cacique. Stone making was especially developed among the Arawak#047;Tainos, but they seem not to have used it at all in building houses.

It was primarily used for tools and especially religious artifacts. The men were generally naked, but the women sometimes wore short skirts. Men and favorite toy as a child, women alike adorned their bodies with paint and shells and other decorations. The Arawak#047;Taino diet, like ours, centered around meat or fish as the ecommerce research paper, primary source of protein. There never were many wild animals to hunt on Hispaniola, but there were some small mammals that were hunted and enjoyed. Essay. They also ate snakes, various rodents, bats, worms, birds, in general any living things they could find with the exception of humans. They were able to hunt ducks and turtles in the lakes and sea.

The coastal natives relied heavily on fishing, and tended to eat their fish either raw or only partially cooked. Since they did grow cotton on the island, the natives had fishing nets made of cotton. Issues. The natives of the interior relied more on agriculture and toy as a child, de-emphasized meat or fish in their diet. The Arawak#047;Taino had a developed system of agriculture which was virtually maintenance free. They raised their crops in a conuco, a large mound which was devised especially for farming. Issues. They packed the conuco with leaves to protect from soil erosion and fixed a large variety of crops to essay assure that something would grow, no matter what weather conditions prevailed. (As an aside I would like to comment that many people in the pre-Columbian Americas had virtually work free agriculture. This system meant that people living in these materially simple social systems had enormous amounts of free time and often developed elaborate religious rites which took a lot of their time, but also had highly developed systems of on current political issues, games and recreation. There are some nice advantages to very simple living and diet!) One of the Arawak#047;Taino's primary crops was cassava.

This is favorite toy as a root crop from which a poisonous juice must be squeezed. Then it is baked into a bread like slab. The current method of doing this in Haiti produces a flat bread, sort of like a stale burrito or pizza shell. Eula Biss The Pain Scale. The Arawak#047;Taino grew corn (maize), squash, beans, peppers, sweet potatoes, yams and peanuts. They not only had cotton, but they raised tobacco and favorite, enjoyed smoking very much. It was not only a part of their social life, but was used in religious ceremonies too. The Arawak#047;Taino had no large animals like horses, oxen or mules to ride or use for work. But they did have river and ecommerce and internet marketing paper, sea transportation. Essay. They used dugout canoes which were cut from a single tree trunk and used with paddles.

They could take 70-80 people in a single canoe and even used them for long travels on the sea. These dugouts allowed fishing the few lakes of Hispaniola as well as fishing out a bit off the coast. The Arawak#047;Taino themselves were quite peaceful people, but they did have to statement defend themselves from the Caribs who were cannibals. The Caribs of this area were centered at what is today Puerto Rico, but some did live in northeast Hispaniola, an area that today is the Dominican Republic. The Caribs were war-like cannibals. They often raided the more peaceful Arawak#047;Tainos, killing off the men, stealing and a child, holding the women for breeding, and fattening the children to paper eat. Please note -- Febrauary 2009: A Caribbean scholar has written in a strong note claiming this passage is in error. Her claims sound quite plausible to me, however, it was years ago I wrote this passage and I have no idea of my source, nor the energy to seach the a child essay, passage out at this time.

Thus at the bottom of this essay I include her corrective note to me and thesis, appreciate her kindness in toy as a child essay taking the time to raise this issue. See below at end. Thus the Arawak#047;Taino had some weapons which they used in defense. On Current Political. They used the bow and arrow, and had developed some poisons for their arrow tips. They had cotton ropes for favorite essay, defensive purposes and some spears with fish hooks on the end. Since there were hardwoods on the island, they did have a war club made of macana. This was about 1 thick and reminds one very much of the cocomaque stick used in later Haitian days. They did not develop any armor or specifically defensive weapons (shields, etc.) The Arawak#047;Taino were polytheists and research, their gods were called ZEMI . The zemi controlled various functions of the universe, very much like Greek gods did, or like later Haitian Voodoo lwa. However, they do not seem to have had particular personalities like the Greek and Haitian gods#047;spirits do.

There were three primary religious practices#058; Religious worship and obeisance to the zemi themselves. Favorite Toy As. Dancing in the village court during special festivals of thanksgiving or petition. Medicine men, or priests, consulting the zemi for advice and healing. This was done in of fashion public ceremonies with song and favorite toy as a child, dance. There are many stone carvings of zemi which have survived. Hugh Cave in his HAITI#058; HIGH ROAD TO ADVENTURE reports that some of the stalagmites of the caves of Dondon were carved into journaliste, zemi. Some of my students on a study trip visited the caves of Dondon but were unable to find and photograph these carvings.

One often sees stone zemi for sale in favorite Haiti, but I have no way of knowing if they are genuine Arawak#047;Taino archaeological finds, or if they have been remade for eula biss scale essay, tourists! (As a footnote to this section I might add that Rev. Favorite Toy As A Child Essay. Dr. William Hodges in Limbe, Haiti, is perhaps the most important of the pain essay, those who have done archaeological work in toy as Haiti, and he bills himself as a amateur who does it on the side for pleasure. However, his small museum in Limbe is essays political issues simply fantastic, and worth the trip, which is only about 45 minutes from Cap Haitien by favorite a child taptap. He also has a wealth of materials which he has printed over on current political the years. Dr. Hodges, a U.S. citizen, operates a missionary hospital in Limbe and toy as, has been in Haiti for more than 40 years.) One account of the political, religious agricultural feasts which were offered both in thanksgiving and petition, describes the following features#058; People had special dress for the ceremonies that included paint and feathers.

From their knees on down they would be covered in a child essay shells. The shaman (medicine man or priests) presented the marketing paper, carved figures of the zemi. The cacique sat on wooden stool, a place of honor. (There are many surviving stone carvings of the cacique on his stool.) There was a ceremonial beating of drums. People induced vomiting with a swallowing stick. This was to purge the body of toy as, impurities, both a literal physical purging and a symbolic spiritual purging. This ceremonial purging and other rites were a symbolic changing before zemi. Women served bread (a communion rite), first to essayiste journaliste definition zemi, then to the cacique followed by the other people. The sacred bread was a powerful protector. (The interesting similarities between this ritual and the Christian practice of eucharist is obvious!) Finally came an oral history lesson -- the singing of the village epic in honor of the cacique and his ancestors. As the poet recited he was accompanied by a maraca, a piece of hardwood which was beaten with pebbles.

There was an toy as a child essay, afterlife where the good would be rewarded. They would meet up with dead relatives and friends. Since most of the people they would meet in this paradise were women, it is curious to speculate if it was mainly women who were considered good, or if some other reason accounted for this division of the sexes in the afterlife. There are many stone religious artifacts which have been found in Haiti. Statement. The zemi take on strange forms like toads, turtles, snakes, alligators and various distorted and hideous human faces. The zemi, as well as dead caciques, have certain powers over the natural world and must be dealt with. Thus these various services are ways of acknowledging their power (worship and toy as a child essay, thanksgiving) and at the same time seeking their aid. Because of these powers there are many Arawak#047;Taino stories which account for the origins of some experienced phenomena in myth and good thesis statement gay marriage, or magic. Toy As A Child Essay. Several myths had to do with caves. The sun and moon, for example, came out of world essay, caves. Another story tells that the people lived in caves and only came out at night.

One guard was supposed to watch carefully over people to be sure that they were well divided in the land. However, one day he was late in returning and the sun caught him and turned him into a stone pillar. (Shades of Lot's wife!) Another Indian became angry at the sun for its various tricks and decided to leave. Favorite A Child. He convinced all the women to abandon their men and come with him along with their children. But, the children were deserted, and in their hunger they turned into frogs. The women simply disappeared.

This left the men without women. But, they did find some sexless creatures roaming around and eventually captured them. (Actually they used people with a disease like mange since they had rough hands and could hold on to these elusive creatures.) However, they tied these creatures up and put woodpeckers on them. The birds, thinking these were trees started pecking on in the essay them and carved out the toy as a child, sex organs of women, thus re-establishing the possibility of survival. A different myth simply tells that once there were no women. Good Statement. Man brought woman from an island where there were only women. The origin of the oceans was in a huge flood which occurred when a father murdered his son (who was about to murder the father), and toy as, then put his bones in a calabash. The bones turned to fish and then the gourd broke and all the political, water of the world flowed from the broken gourd. THE GENOCIDAL END OF THE ARAWAK#047;TAINO NATIVES ON THE ISLAND OF HISPANIOLA.

This section of the toy as essay, genocidal end of the Hispaniolan Taino/Arawaks was revised in August 1999 (including the title of the section). There is a great debate as to just how many Arawak#047;Taino inhabited Hispaniola when Columbus landed in 1492. Some of the early Spanish historian#047;observers claimed there were as many as 3,000,000 to eula biss scale essay 4,000,000. These numbers seem to be based on favorite toy as a child essay very little reliable evidence and are thought to be gross exaggerations. However, since nothing like a census was done, the research, methods for estimating the numbers are extremely shaky, whether by these early historians or later critics. One long technical article on the population comes in the with the toy as essay, low estimate of biss the pain scale essay, 100,000. Toy As. Several other modern scholars seem to lean more forcefully in the area of 300,000 to 400,000. Whatever the number, what happened to them is extremely tragic. They were not immune to environmental in the European diseases, especially smallpox, and favorite toy as essay, the Spanish worked them unmercifully in the mines and political issues, fields.

By 1507 the Spanish were settled and able to do a more reliable job of counting the Arawak#047;Tainos. It is generally agreed that by 1507 their numbers had shrunk to 60,000. By 1531 the a child essay, number was down to 600. Today there are no easily discerned traces of the Arawak#047;Taino at all except for some of the archaeological remains that have been found. Not only on Hispaniola, but also across the Windward Passage in Cuba, complete genocide was practiced on these natives. The next three paragraphs were added in essays on current issues August 1999. It is important to pause and think about what is claimed here. The claim is not that the entire population of CARIBBEAN (and possibly even Floridian) Taino/Arawaks were wiped out, but that population which was on the island of Hispaniola when Columbus arrived. Further, this is not to say that no drop of Taino/Arawak blood survived, or than not a single word of the language drifted in later Haitian Creole, perhaps even a zemi god influenced Voodoo here or there. Rather, the claim is that the Taino/Arawak as a discernible people with a discernible culture simply disappeared ON THE ISLAND OF HISPANIOLA.

It is clear that the Taino/Arawak survived in others areas of the Caribbean, even in near-by Puerto Rico. The claim I am making is limited to those Taino/Arawaks who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when Columbus arrived in 1492. Disease was a major cause of their demise. However, on Columbus' 2nd voyage he began to a child require a tribute from the Arawak#047;Tainos. They were expected to ecommerce yield a certain quantity of favorite essay, gold per capita. Failing that each adult of 14 was required to submit 25lbs. of eula biss scale, cotton. For those who could not produce the favorite toy as essay, cotton either, there was a service requirement for them to work for the Spanish.

This set the stage for a system of assigning the Arawak#047;Taino to in the essay Spanish settlers as effective slave labor. This system contributed significantly to their genocide. In Sidney Lintz's interesting introduction to favorite a child James Leyburn's THE HAITIANS , he argues that not only essays issues did the natives die out, but nearly all cultural traces did too. He says this is a very unusual phenomenon. Favorite Toy As. Haiti's culture is almost entirely African and European. There are some anthropologists who believe that some Voodoo rites, and especially the Petwo Voodoo rites, might have their origins in Arawak#047;Taino religion, but this is speculative. Regardless, it does seem that the Arawak#047;Tainos disappeared without a trace. Michel Laguerre does caution that despite the early date of the demise of the Arawak#047;Taino, numbers of them did last long enough to have worked alongside the African slaves who were being brought to Haiti in increasing numbers. Laguerre suggests that there would probably have been some inter-mating and thus it is highly unlikely that Indian blood completely died out in Haiti, even though their cultural heritage did disappear without a trace. [Special note#058; Given my focus on the history of Haiti as shaping the current situation in Haiti and essayiste journaliste, using history to understand Haiti today, what is contained in the few paragraphs before this note is very important.

It says, in effect, that the pre-Columbian period has virtually no role at all in shaping contemporary Haiti. This should be noted, since if my analysis is accurate, that important conclusion follows.] SPECIFIC NATIVE LEADERS AT THE TIME OF COLUMBUS. There were five major caciques when Columbus landed and they had various relations with Columbus. These caciques, their provinces and favorite, relations with the Spanish were#058;

The province of Marien (Bainoa) This province was on the north east coast + interior, in the area of the bay of Samana in the Dominican Republic. He wanted Columbus to protect him from the marauding Caribs who often came into this area, and he became a friendly advisor to Columbus and a lifelong friend of the Spanish invaders. His own village was about 2 miles SE of ecommerce and internet research, Cap Haitien. The province of Ciguayos (Cayabo or Maguana) After the Spanish settlers at La Navidad perpetrated many horrors on local natives, Caonabo led a band which crossed into favorite toy as essay, the province of Maden and killed all the sailors. Caonabo then became the rallying point for resistance to the Spanish. Under a pretext of making peace, Columbus lured Caonabo into a trap. The Spaniard Ojeda gave Caonabo a gift of environmental world, polished iron chains and handcuffs. Essay. Mistaking them for ornaments, Caonabo allowed himself to be chained and taken away. Columbus then sent him off to Spain.

Caonabo's brother, Manicatoex, then led an uprising. The Spanish, with their superior firepower crushed the essays on current political, natives and a child, the defeated Arawak#047;Taino were forced to problems world essay agree to pay tribute to the Spanish. There seems to be some unclarity among scholars about these natives. Some claim that these Indians were not from the Arawak#047;Taino group, but some other tribe. lt does seem that an earlier group, the a child, Ciboney, did live in this area. But, it's not clear if at the time of thesis, Caonabo these were Arawak#047; Taino or not.

The province of Magua (Huhabo) This was a densely populated area. This was good inland agricultural land. In 1494 Guarionex was made to submit, then was imprisoned. The Spanish raped his wife in front of him, then executed him. Favorite Toy As A Child Essay. They suspected him of being involved in the attack which Caonabo led on La Navidad.

(A brief digression on La Navidad. Columbus landed at Mole St. Nicholas on Dec. 6, 1492, his second land fall in the New World. On Dec. 24, 1492 he was sailing away and on Christmas Eve the Santa Maria ran aground and sank off the and internet, north coast of Haiti, just near Cap Haitien. Favorite Toy As. The Pinta was lost and political issues, the Nina could not accommodate all the sailors. Thus Columbus, with the help of Arawak#047;Taino, salvaged a good deal of the Santa Maria and built a small fort called La Navidad (The Nativity) and left a group of sailors there.)

On his return on the second voyage all the favorite essay, sailors were discovered to have been killed. It seems that they began to violate native women and and internet research paper, property and the natives rose up against them.) The province of Xaragua. This was in the southwest peninsula. They grew lots of cotton here and also in the cul de sac, north of where Port-au-Prince lies today. Behechio's sister was Anacaona, widow of toy as, Caonabo. After the thesis, Spanish killed Caonabo and Behechio, she succeeded her husband in Xaragua and was much loved by her people. However, the Spanish were threatened by this popularity and the power that went with it. Ovando, a successor to Columbus, went to her village under the pretext of collecting the Spanish tribute. Despite Anacaona's instructions to the people to be fully cooperative and hospitable, and despite her own friendly welcome, the essay, Spanish began a slaughter, burned the village and took Anacaona prisoner.

She was hanged at Santo Domingo. Cacique Cotubanama or Cayacoa. The province of Higuey (Caizcimu) There were rumors of there being gold in Higuey. De Las Casas reported that infinite was the on current political, number of people l saw burned alive in favorite a child essay order that the people tell where the nonexistent gold was. (I'll do a separate piece on De Las Casas, a most interesting fellow.) After the research, death of Anacaona, Cotubanama too was considered dangerous. The Spanish attacked his province, captured him and hung him in Santo Domingo. [Another interruption#058; A word about originality. I am not an historian by profession or training.

I gather virtually no data from original archival sources. Rather, I read a great deal of what historians have written about Haiti, and I pull information together. However, I do then build interpretations of favorite toy as a child essay, that data that is sometimes not the same use of the journaliste, data that the original historian made of it. Thus, while I want to caution you that I am not original in the sense of data gathering, I do accept the responsibility for many of my interpretations of that data, or for other's interpretations which I've come to accept. I'll try, as best I can, to defend controversial interpretations which that controversy is favorite toy as a child essay brought to journaliste my attention.] The word genocide is an interesting term. Etymologically it means the killing of an toy as, entire gens, a whole people.

The word is used a good deal in politically charged language these days with people often charging that some group or other is attempting genocide. On Current Political Issues. Certainly Adolf Hitler and the Third Reich of Germany attempted it on the Jews of Europe, and failed. As far as I know, the only case in history of where complete and total genocide was carried out was here on favorite a child essay the island of Hispaniola. The entire GENS , the whole people of the native Americans of the thesis statement gay marriage, Arawak#047;Taino people were wiped out. It is a horrible and astonishing story. [My claim of genocide is a controversial interpretation, and is vehemently denied by a group of living Tainos. Now, one may ask, if there was genocide on the Hispaniola Arawak#047;Tainos, then how can their be living Tainos? That's the rub, and that's why I stand behind my claim.] The Tainos were throughout the toy as, Caribbean, Bahamas and some areas of the mainland, especially near northern coastal South America. Good Thesis Statement For Legalizing. But, from what I have read, the Arawak#047;Tainos of the island of Hispaniola did not survive at all. However, if this topic interests you, then I urge you to get in touch with the active Taino group which has a WWW site and can offer you a contrary view.

In 1997 I explained my case and invited them to respond specifically to the question of the island of Hispaniola, but to date they have not done that. Their home page can be found at#058; From#058; Cacique Ciba Guanikeyu. great grandson of essay, Cacique Orocobix. The Taino Inter-Tribal Council. THE NJ COUNCIL OFFICE Tel#058; 609-825-7776 FAX #038; TAINO BBS#058; 609-825-7922. We Are Still Here! Taino Indigenous Nation of the Caribbean #038; Florida. The head of this organization is Peter Torres Torresp#064;algorithms.com. Note added February 2009. I am an good thesis, indigenous Caribbean scholar (Lokono Arawak) who is doing my doctoral work on the history and culture of the indigenous people of the toy as, Caribbean at eula biss the pain essay York University in Toronto.

As a part of my research I came across your page entitled, PRE-COLUMBIAN HISPANIOLA -- ARAWAK/TAINO NATIVE AMERICANS. While the majority of your work regarding the Taino is accurate there are some inaccuracies in favorite essay your paper I felt sufficiently offended by to write to you about. Your information about the Carib (who are actually called the research paper of fashion, Kalinago) is incorrect. The information I am referring to is: . Favorite Toy As Essay. they did have to defend themselves from the Caribs who were cannibals. The Caribs of this area were centered at what is today Puerto Rico, but some did live in northeast Hispaniola, an area that today is the Dominican Republic.

The Caribs were war-like cannibals. They often raided the essays political issues, more peaceful Arawak/Tainos, killing off the men, stealing and holding the toy as a child, women for breeding, and fattening the children to eat. There is eula the pain scale essay no archaeological, anthropological or traditional cultural evidence to support this view that the Kalinago were Cannibals which makes your writings about a child them inadvertently a part of the essays, perpetuation of an favorite toy as a child, outdated and biss the pain, unsupported scholarly view.

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krista homework hw3 Many rendering systems approximate the light arriving on the film plane by assuming a pin-hole camera, which produces images where everything that is visible is sharp. In contrast, real cameras contain multi-lens assemblies with different imaging characteristics such as limited depth of field, field distortion, vignetting and spatially varying exposure. In this assignment, you'll extend pbrt with support for a more realistic camera model that accurately simulates these effects. Specifically, we will provide you with data about real wide-angle, normal and favorite a child telephoto lenses, each composed of multiple lens elements. You will build a camera plugin for problems in the, pbrt that simulates the traversal of light through these lens assemblies. With this camera simulator, you'll explore the favorite, effects of focus, aperture and exposure. You will empirically characterize the critical points of the marketing paper, telephoto and normal lenses. Favorite Toy As? Using these data you can optimize the performance of essays political issues your simulator considerably. You must have pbrt installed correctly, as in favorite toy as, homework 1.

In addition, you should add . (the local directory) to your PBRT_SEARCHPATH. Step 2: Compound Lens Simulator Copy /usr/class/cs348b/files/hw3 to a directory at the same level as your local pbrtsrc directory. Alternatively, you can use anonymous ftp to get the files (ftp.stanford.edu/class/cs348b). This directory consists of: A Makefile for Linux, and a Visual Studio 2003 project for Windows. A stub C++ file, realistic.cpp, for the code you will write. Seven scene files, which end in .pbrt (the same as the .lrt files that have been used in previous assignments). Essayiste? Four lens files, which end in .dat. Binaries for a reference implementation of realistic.cpp (Linux RedHat 9.0 realistic.so; Windows realistic.dll; OSX implementation coming soon). Various textures used by the scene files. Modify the stub file, realistic.cpp, to favorite toy as a child essay, trace rays from the film plane through the lens system supplied in the .dat files. The following is a suggested course of eula scale action, but feel free to favorite toy as a child, proceed in the way that seems most logical to you: Build an environmental problems appropriate datastructure to a child essay, store the lens parameters supplied in good thesis, the tab-delimited input .dat files.

The format of the tables in these file is given in toy as a child, Figure 1of the Kolb paper. Develop code to trace rays through this stack of lenses. Updated (4/22) : Please use a full lens simulation rather than the thick lens approximation in the paper. It's easier (you don't have to calculate the thick lens parameters) and world essay sufficiently efficient for this assignment. Favorite Essay? Write the RealisticCamera::GenerateRay function to trace randomly sampled rays through the lens system. For this part of the political issues, assignment, it will be easiest to just fire rays at the back element of the lens.

Some of these rays will hit the toy as essay, aperture stop and terminate before they exit the front of the lens. Render images using commands such as 'pbrt dof-dragon.dgauss.pbrt'. Decrease the noise (and increase the rendering time) by changing the integer pixelsamples parameter in the scene files. Updated (4/25) : You may compare your output against the reference implementation, (realistic.so on Linux RedHat 9.0 and realistic.dll on Windows; Mac implementation will be available shortly). From left to right: telephoto, normal, wide angle and fisheye. Note that these were produced with 512 pixel samples rather than the default 32. Notice that the wide angle image is especially noisy -- why is that? Hint: look at paper of fashion the ray traces at the top of this web page.

Some conventions: Assume that the origin of the favorite toy as, camera system is at the left-most element of the stack (the point closest to the world). Assume that the 'filmdistance' parameter passed to the RealisticCamera constructor is problems in the world, measured from the right-most element of the stack (the point closest to the film). There is exactly one aperture stop per lens data file. Favorite Toy As Essay? This is the entry with a radius of 0. Note that the diameter of this entry is the maximum aperture of the lens. The actual aperture diameter to use is passed in the scene file, and appears as a parameter to the RealisticCamera constructor. In this assignment, everything is measured in millimeters. ConcentricSampleDisk() is for legalizing gay marriage, a useful function for converting two 1D uniform random samples into a uniform random sample on a disk.

See p. 270 of the PBRT book. It may be helpful to decompose the lens stack into individual lens interfaces and the aperture stop. A Child Essay? For the lens interfaces, you'll need to decide how to test whether rays intersect them, and how they refract according to research paper of fashion, the change of index of refraction on either side (review Snell's law). For rays that terminate at the aperture stop, return a dead ray (one where mint maxt, for instance) from the GenerateRay function. Be careful to weight the rays appropriately (this is represented by the value returned from GenerateRay). You should derive the weight from the integral equation governing irradiance incident on the film plane (hint: in toy as, the simplest form, this equation contains a cosine term raised to good, the fourth power).

The exact weight will depend on the sampling scheme that you use to estimate this integral. Make sure that your estimator is unbiased if you use importance sampling! The paper also contains details on this radiometric calculation. Toy As? As is often the case in rendering, your code won't produce correct images until everything is working just right. Try to think of ways that you can modularize your work and environmental in the test as much of essay it as possible incrementally as you go. Use assertions liberally to try to verify that your code is environmental in the essay, doing what you think it should at each step. Another suggestion would be to produce a visualization of the rays refracting through your lens system as a debugging aid (compare to those at the top of this web page). Step 3: Exploring the way a camera works with your simulator. In this section you'll explore how various choices affect focus, depth of field and exposure in favorite toy as, your camera.

The double gauss and telephoto lenses can be well approximated as a thick lens. On Current Political Issues? Your first task is to toy as a child, determine the critical points of these lenses to characterize its thick lens approximation. Rather than tracing single rays, as described in in the world essay, the paper, however, you will take certain special pictures to do so. This will let you develop a better intuition for the way focus works in favorite a child essay, a camera. It's also the way you would characterize a camera lens in the real world! The procedure is as follows: Take a picture that tells you the film-side focal point. The basic idea is to world essay, take a picture of an toy as a child object at infinity and find the film plane distance that makes it sharp. Of Fashion? The film plane's depth is equal to the focal point. (Why is this?) We have provided you with a scene file, infinity-test.pbrt, that will get you started. This file renders an image of the focus target below at a distance of 10m. You just have to toy as, choose and modify the film plane that creates a sharp picture. Remember that the filmdistance parameter specifies the depth of the film from the back (not the front!) of the paper, lens (see the conventions described in favorite a child essay, Step 2).

Take a second picture with a film depth that gives roughly unit magnification, and that shows you what the essayiste journaliste definition, depth of the favorite essay, conjugate world focus plane is. A very tedious way of doing this would be to modify infinity-test.pbrt to put the target closer to the lens, and definition find the film plane that makes it sharp; then modify the depth of the target and film planes iteratively until you find unit magnification. A better way is to use a depth of field target, as you would in the real world. The idea here is to fix a film plane, and take a picture of a ruler on a 45 degree angle. If the ruler intersects the plane of toy as focus, then the sharpest point on the image of the ruler lets you deduce the depth of the conjugate plane. On Current Political Issues? We have created a file, dof_target.pbrt , and a test scene, dof-test.pbrt, that includes this object. The scene is set up so that when you take a picture of the ruler the point of sharpest focus lets you read off the distance of the focal point from the front of the lens. For example, the following image shows that the focal point is between 70 and favorite toy as 80 mm of the front of the ruler. Issues? The texture for the ruler is toy as a child essay, shown on the right. D_X is the depth coordinate (measured) for the focal plane in essayiste journaliste, the depth of field test. D_F is the coordinate of the world-space focal point.

D_P and D_P' are the coordinates of the principal planes. Note that depending on the lens, D_P' may actually be to the left of toy as a child D_P, contrary to what's shown in this diagram. D_F' is the location of the environmental problems world essay, image-space focal point and D_X' is the depth coordinate of the film. By convention these coordinates are all relative to the front element of the lens, which is favorite, not shown. Of Fashion? Note that the focal depth, F, is the same on both sides. Hint: W and W' are simple functions of the focal depth, F, and the magnification M. You measure M from the image you generate from the depth of field test. This fact will be needed when you solve for the values of the unknown variables.

Compute the favorite a child essay, thick lens parameters for the normal and telephoto lenses. Thesis Statement Gay Marriage? How do they differ? Step 4: Web page submission. You will report your findings in a web page again. To hopefully make the write-up a bit easier, and to make the favorite a child, formatting more consistent, we have created a web page template where you can just fill in the blanks. Good Thesis For Legalizing? Copy the /usr/class/cs348b/files/hw3/submission directory to your web-visible directory, and edit index.html. The items that you have to replace are marked in green. Toy As A Child? Note: please do not include your source code on world essay, the web page this time, or link to it. You will email it to us (see below). Though it is not a requirement, feel free to append a discussion of anything extra or novel that you did at the end of your web page.

Please send an email to toy as essay, [email protected] Make the subject 'HW3 submission'. (Please don't send this email till your web page is completely done, and please don't submit any other emails with that subject title if you can help it. Research Paper Of Fashion? This helps us keep everything in order.) In the body of your email, please include the URL for your web page as the favorite toy as essay, first line. Please attach to your email your source code, realistic.cpp, and your final scene files for Step 3. Please check this FAQ before sending questions to the staff email list. Political? We will update this list as common issues arise. Q: PBRT complains that it can't find realistic.dll or realistic.so.

What should I do? A: Make sure that '.' (the local directory) is in your PBRT_SEARCHPATH environment variable. In this assignment, you will compile a camera plugin (realistic.so/dll) in favorite a child essay, your working directory. Note that the path is ':' delimited on Linux and ';' delimited on Windows. Q: Should we be implementing the thick lens approximation described in the paper or a full lens simulation? A: Please implement the full lens simulation, which is less work for you and only slightly less efficient computationally. And Internet Marketing Research? Implementing the thick lens approximation is a superset of the work, since you need the full lens simulation in order to toy as essay, calculate the thick lens parameters.

Q: Why are my images so noisy? A: Integrating over ecommerce marketing paper the surface of the lens, especially for large apertures, requires multiple samples for accuracy. Too few samples increases the variance of the favorite toy as a child essay, integral estimate, resulting in noisy images. The problem is paper, exacerbated in Step 2 by the fact that you will fire many rays at favorite toy as the lens system that will not make it into the world because they will hit the aperture stop. To drive down the noise, you can increase the number of essay samples (integer pixelsamples parameter in the scene file). In Step 4 of the system you will also explore optimizing the sampling of the lens system by trying to fire only rays that will actually make it through the lens. Toy As? This will reduce the noise of your estimation and help your approximation converge more quickly. If you formulate this as a form of importance sampling, it will only reduce noise in your estimate without introducing bias. Good Thesis Statement For Legalizing? Q: It takes a long time to render just one picture. It's going to take forever to find the focal point using infinity-test.pbrt ! A: First, a hint: the focal point is between 60 and a child essay 70 mm for the double gauss lens, and between 200 and 220 mm for the telephoto lens.

The next consideration is to speed up your individual renders as much as possible. Try rendering just the center portion of the film (the bullseye target) and reducing the number of pixel samples. Biss The Pain Scale Essay? Finally, try batch-rendering a series of images at different film depths within the suggested range and iterating about the closest pair. These skills in creating useful quick renders and batch jobs will hold you in good stead on the final project. Finally, if you want a more satisfying solution, you could create a modified version of favorite toy as your camera plugin. This is by no means required for the assignment. The idea would be to simulate a tilted film plane. By rendering a single image with such a camera, you can read off the on current, focal depth by correlating the position of essay sharpest image focus with the corresponding film depth. Such a tilted plane is available in large-format view cameras, such as the one used by Ansel Adams. It is practically useful in that you can create pictures where arbitrary planes are in sharp focus -- not just planes that are perpendicular to the axis of the lens as in traditional 35 mm cameras.

For instance, you can take a picture facing the environmental, horizon where everything on the ground plane is in focus. Q: How can the value that you read off the favorite toy as essay, depth of research field target ruler be equal to the depth? It's on a 45 degree angle! A: Take a look at dof_target.pbrt . The ruler is scaled by sqrt(2), to allow you to read off the depth in this convenient way. Q: What does it mean to take a picture with a film depth that gives roughly unit magnification? A: Magnification varies with the favorite, film depth, as shown in the diagram above. A magnification of M means that lines 1 mm apart on problems in the essay, the world-space focal plane appear as M mm on the film plane.

You should measure the favorite a child essay, magnification on the images that you render. To do so, you need to know the mm size of the film (defined as the filmdiag parameter in environmental problems, the scene file), and it is useful to know that the width of the ruler is 31.617 mm (see dof_target.pbrt). You can replace the cones in the rendered scenes with the toy as a child, dragons shown in Figures 6.6-6.9 in the PBRT book. Just download the research of fashion, dragon.pbrt scene from favorite toy as a child, /usr/class/cs348b/files/geometry, and then comment out the appropriate lines in the hw3 directory scenes. Be warned that this requires a fair amount of memory to render. ** The assignment passes all or almost all our tests. * Substantial work was put in, but the assignment didn't pass all our tests. 0 Little or no work was done on paper, the assignment.

*** Extra credit may be given on a case-by-case basis for well done extensions (for any part of the project) that produce superior results.