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Brett Favre, Aaron Rodgers Stat Comparison: Who's The Better Green Bay Packers Quarterback? The numbers suggest its too close to call between Brett Favre, left, and read online Aaron Rodgers, right. Photo: Reuters. It’s been nearly eight years since Brett Favre stepped onto Lambeau Field as the Green Bay Packers starting quarterback, but the former three-time MVP will make his return next season when his jersey is music during world war two, retired in the team’s Hall of Fame, Favre announced on his official website Monday. Favre spent 16 seasons as the Packers signal caller, winning seven division titles and one Super Bowl to go along with his three first-team All-Pro honors and nine of read online his career 11 Pro Bowl appearances.

But in the days leading up to a good essay introduction Favre’s enshrinement, the read main topic of conversation will undoubtedly evolve into a comparison of essay Favre and Green Bay’s current starter, Aaron Rodgers. Rodgers spent three years behind Favre on the Packers sideline before taking on dissertation read, full-time duties in 2008, and neither he nor the Packers have looked back since. 2009? Over the last seven years, Rodgers has arguably become the best quarterback in the NFL, a distinction Favre also held during his years at Lambeau. Let’s take a look at both stars first seven years as starters and see who, at dissertation, least statistically, has the edge. Renowned for his ironman toughness, Favre totaled a 74-35 record as a starter in his first seven seasons, capturing three division titles and his lone Super Bowl in 1996. Favre also missed only one game in 1992, his first year in Green Bay, and didn’t miss another start until 2000. Rodgers missed nine games due to injury, most of which were in 2013 when he went down with a broken collar bone, but he’s amassed a 70-33 record over 103 stars and won three division titles. Help? However, in his first year as starter the Packers went 6-10, and Favre only endured one losing season throughout his 16 years with Green Bay.

For three straight years, 1995-97, Favre led the read online NFL in touchdown passes and he amassed a total of 213 his first seven years in Green Bay. Rodgers bested him by 12, with a grand total of the panda thumb 225, and he’s done so by playing in nine fewer games. But it was technically a much more physical league when Favre played compared to dissertation now, with NFL referees now hitting defenses with roughing the passer flags for even the slightest infraction. Also considering the era, Favre’s best stretch of essay 38, 39, and 35 touchdowns from 1995 to 1997, looks astounding. Dissertation Read? Again the era of the NFL has to be taken into account, but Rodgers has the how to better numbers with 28,249 yards compared to Favre with 26,803 yards over nine fewer games. Online? Over the seven year span, Favre broke the 4,000-yard barrier twice in 1995 and 1998. Rodgers has done it five times. Always the world definition of a gunslinger, Favre let it fly but was very accurate throughout his career, completing 62 percent of his passes. Dissertation? But Rodgers has been far more accurate early in his career.

In his first season in Green Bay, Favre completed 64.1 percent of his attempts, and his next best came in 1998 when he led the NFL with a completing percentage of 63 percent. He totaled 3,752 attempts in his first seven seasons. In contrast, Rodgers has 3,416 attempts as the starter and his percentage has never dipped below 63.6, his first season under center. And in essay the last four years, Rodgers hasn’t dipped below 65.6 percent. Favre always took chances, and many times throughout his career they paid off, but he had a major propensity to throw interceptions.

He totaled 116 picks from 1992 to 1998, leading the NFL with 24 in 1993 and throwing another 23 in online 1998. In the same span, Rodgers has only 56 interceptions and only twice has his season total eclipsed 10. Des Ducs 2009? In the dissertation read last four seasons he’s never thrown more than eight in during 16-game schedule. He’s also posted a quarterback rating no lower than 101.2 throughout his career as a starter. The only time Favre ever posted a triple-digit passer rating for a season came in 2009 with Minnesota. It might seem silly to compare the read online rushing stats of two of the most prolific quarterbacks to and cons of using transport essay ever play, but it usually is a good indicator of a quarterback’s ability to either gain a first down or extending a play to allow a receiver to get open. Favre gained 1,253 yards and scored 11 touchdowns from 1992 to 1998, compared to 1,784 yards and 20 touchdowns for Rodgers. The nod has to go to read online Rodgers, who’s rushed for more than 200 yards in in six seasons, and more than 300 twice.

It could be said that Favre saved his best play for how to introduction, the postseason. He amassed a 9-5 postseason record, racking up 25 touchdowns to read online 12 interceptions and in 1995 and 1996 totaled passer ratings of 106.9 and 107.5, respectively. Rodgers has a 6-5 record with 23 touchdowns to seven interceptions, but since winning the Super Bowl in 2010, his passer rating hasn’t exceed 97.8. Rodgers did claim the Super Bowl MVP when he won, with Desmond Howard winning it over Favre in 1996, but there’s little doubt who led that Green Bay squad to circuit 2009 victory. Dissertation Read Online? Comebacks and Game-Winning Drives. This became a Favre specialty throughout his career. World? He totaled 10 fourth-quarter comebacks and online 13 game-winning drives.

But Rodgers isn’t too far behind with eight fourth-quarter comebacks and 12 winning drives. A tie could be their clutch play in the postseason, but in seven years both massed one fourth-quarter comeback and one winning drive. Transport? Judgment: The numbers suggest this comparison is dissertation read, too close to call. Thumb? It’s fair to call it a tie now, but Rodgers, 31, can still claim more Super Bowls with plenty of dissertation years left on his career.

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literature writers LITERATURE - Page 2 : Writers - Theatre / Theater - Poetry. (Updated on 25/08/2010) BEECHER STOWE Harriet. Vampire Short Stories. LELE : litt©rature ©trang¨re en langue ©trang¨re. Cette page en construction et modifiable par tous est le compl©ment de Litt©rature Anglaise en Langue Anglaise en L. Elle est destin©e accueillir des ressources sur des oeuvres compl¨tes et des id©es de s©quence pour la LELE en anglais. Pour le moment cette page est fortement inspir©e du programme d'anglais de compl©ment en vigueur jusqu'en juin 2012.. - a comprehensive guide to free book notes, free book summaries, literature notes, and online study guides (like cliff notes) for over 1600 books, plays, and poems. enables you to the panda essay, search specifically for scholarly literature, including peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, preprints, abstracts and technical reports from all broad areas of research.

Use Google Scholar to dissertation read online, find articles from circuit, a wide variety of academic publishers, professional societies, preprint repositories and universities, as well as scholarly articles available across the web. a calendar of engaging stories about the great books, writers, and events in literary history. The . Online? map is the essay result of a painstaking and admittedly quixotic effort to catalog the country as it has been described. in the American road-tripping literature. It includes every place-name reference in 12 books about cross-country travel, from Mark Twain€™s Roughing It (1872) to Cheryl Strayed€™s Wild (2012), and maps the authors€™ routes on online top of one another. You can track an help my essay.com, individual writer€™s descriptions of the landscape as they traveled across it, or you can zoom in to dissertation read online, see how different authors have written about the same place at different times. Placing Literature is a project in which the locations. in your favorite novels are mapped onto the exact places.

There are 1,500 data points already mapped, and. book lovers are invited to add more. the Poetry Landmarks of Britain. Bob Dylan received the 2016 Nobel Prize in a good essay introduction, Literature for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition. American singer Bob Dylan will receive his Nobel Prize for dissertation Literature this weekend when he performs in Sweden. Halcyon Gallery hopes Dylan will pop in for a look at during essays The Beaten Path on read his way over to how to, Europe to dissertation read online, collect his Nobel prize. On the road again €¦ A woman looks at des ducs 2009 Bob Dylan€™s Endless Highway. ahead of The Beaten Path exhibition.

US singer-songwriter Bob Dylan says he accepts his Nobel Prize in literature, ending a silence since being awarded the prize earlier this month. Mr Wastberg called the dissertation read online snub unprecedented, but one person has previously rejected the Nobel Prize in Literature - French author and philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre in 1964. American singer and songwriter Bob Dylan won the Nobel Literature Prize on Thursday. Many people were surprised and pros public transport pleased he received the dissertation read honor. The singer and songwriter Bob Dylan, one of the war two world€™s most influential musicians, was awarded the dissertation read online Nobel Prize in Literature on war two essays Thursday. for €œhaving created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition€, in the words of the dissertation Swedish Academy. Twenty years after it was first published, the the panda essay novelist has revisited his much-loved novel about an read, alternate London beneath the real city, teaming up with Chris Riddell to the panda, produce an edition with drawings by the children€™s laureate Opening lines in literature : €œIt is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in online, want of thumb a wife.€. Jane Austen: Pride and dissertation online Prejudice (1813) Gillian James of Tessiegirl blog mapped the the panda thumb essay connections between characters in Stephen King universe. (Neatorama)

Following the dissertation new BBC adaptation of des ducs 2009 And Then There Were None, Tom detects the perilous endings that await modern-day murder mystery victims. Many authors have published some or all of their works under a pseudonym, or Nom de Plume (Pen Name). Pen name (Wikipedia) 1 In Persian and Urdu Poetry. 3 Famous pen names.

- article and work that helps to understand , translate/interpret colour words. as they are found in literary texts and ads. (the_english_dept) - LAMB TO THE SLAUGHTER, Roald Dahl. - SILENT NIGHT, Mary Higgins Clark. - SOLVE THE MYSTERY. - MORE LESSON PLANS FOR TEACHERS. 2 Forms of literature. 2.4 Prose fiction. 2.5 Other prose literature. 3 Somewhat related narrative forms. 4 Genres of literature.

5 Literary techniques. 6 Literary figures. 7 Literature by country, language, or cultural group. 8 Literary criticism. 9 Story elements. 10 Themes in literature. 13 External links.

Summarizing the text. Open Culture has this incredible resource of dissertation read free ebooks to download and read at your own pace. This collection contains 800 eBooks covering works of fiction, non-fiction and poetry. . You have different options to download and read them: you can read them on Kindle, iPad/iPhone, computer or online. Simply click on the option you want and help follow the instructions provided. For those of you interested in read, classics, this page from help my essay.com, Bartleby titled €˜The Harvard Classics The Shelf of read online Fiction€™ features tons of classical works of the 20th century. My Essay.com? It is one of €˜The most comprehensive and well-researched anthology of all time comprises both the 50-volume €œ5-foot shelf of books€ and the 20-volume Shelf of read Fiction€™. From Marilynne Robinson to William Faulkner, these great stories are told from the margins of US life, but they carry profound resonance. While the €˜Great American Novel€™ is war two essays a recognised concept, its UK equivalent lacks definition.

BBC Culture asks which elements it might have. BBC Culture polled book critics outside the UK, to dissertation read online, give an outsider€™s perspective on the best in British literature. The Queen has officially reopened the pros of using former home of author Sir Walter Scott in dissertation online, the Scottish Borders after its multi-million pound restoration. This site combines several sites first created in 1996 to of a, provide a starting point for students and read enthusiasts of English Literature. Medieval - Renaissance - Seventeenth Century - Eighteenth Century - Encyclopedia. We've seen 12 months of famous returns, fabulous new works, and once-in-a-lifetime exhibitions. Relive the best here.

Easy introduction to the panda thumb, Fiction, more precisely to Horror or Gothic narrative. You can find some definitions (plot, setting, . ) and activities, too (page 3). Very brief summaries of Dracula, Frankenstein, Dr Jeckyll and Mr Hyde. Hope you like it! If you want to download you have to send your own contributions. 1.The Castle of Otranto (text A) 3.€œThe Pit and dissertation read the Pendulum€ (text B)

4.Practise €¦ expressing supposition! 5.Reaching autonomy (text C) A novel in thumb essay, which supernatural horrors and an atmosphere of unknown terror pervades the action. The setting is often a dark, mysterious castle, where ghosts and sinister humans roam menacingly. Horace Walpole invented the genre with his Castle of Otranto . Gothic elements include these.

John Updike's novels, magisterial dissections of the soul of post-World War II middle America, placed him at dissertation read the very pinnacle of his profession. Works such as Couples and the Rabbit series chronicled. the obsessions, passions and anxieties of three generations. Whether writing novels, short stories, essays or poems, John Updike's work always seemed to descriptive, find the pulse of modern America. Updike's themes, though American, were universal.

WATCH AND LISTEN TO TRIBUTES. (March 18, 1932 January 27, 2009) literary critic. Updike's most famous work is his Rabbit series. Eunoia is the shortest word in English containing all five vowels - and it means beautiful thinking. It is also the title of Canadian poet Christian Bok's book of fiction in which each chapter uses only one vowel. Mr Bok believes his book proves that each vowel has its own personality, and dissertation read online demonstrates the flexibility of the a good introduction English language. + extracts from each chapter. Virginia Woolf, George Bernard Shaw and Roald Dahl did it in sheds at the bottom of the garden.

Shaw's desk was famously on dissertation read online castors, so he could turn it throughout the day to get maximum light. Dahl even had one of his own hip bones sitting on the desk. Pros Of Using Public Transport? Every writer will have their own ritual. Kerry McKittrick examines the modus operandi of some of Ireland's favourite writers and asks: What are your Writuals? Reading and Listening / Audio Books : In 1950, the United States Congress tried to end the career of Dalton Trumbo, the online highest-paid screenwriter in Hollywood. Now, that story is being told in the new movie, €œTrumbo.€ Actor Bryan Cranston stars as Trumbo. Helen Mirren plays society writer Hedda Hopper.

(learningenglish.voanews.com) CC Prose is dedicated to making classic literature accessible to people around the world. We make more than just audiobooks. By combining high quality audio, large print text, synchronized closed captions, and machine translations in multiple languages; we provide something for help my essay.com everyone. Learn English, learn to dissertation read, read, with free videobooks from CC Prose. All chapters contain synchronized text, an interactive transcript, and music closed captions . Dans le cadre de ses formations académiques, la Clé des langues vous propose cette page de ressources destinée aux enseignants qui souhaitent aborder les nouvelles de Woolf et Mansfield en classe. Rare recordings of some of the read 20th century's greatest writers are to be released for the first time.

+ Private recordings and US radio broadcasts. LoudLit.org - Literature for help my essay.com your eyes and dissertation online ears. A series of talks on a number of historical figures remembered by my essay.com, Blue Plaques in London. Each page has an extras section. In that section you can find : - a comprehension quiz based on the talk.

- a link to vocabulary definitions (of bold words and phrases from the read text) - a download of the transcript of the talk. ex : Oscar Wilde - George Bernard Shaw - George Orwell - Florence Nightingale - Jimi Hendrix. Turning the write essay Pages! uses the Shockwave plug-in . to simulate the action of turning the pages of a real book. You can magnify the details. ex. Dissertation Online? : THE ORIGINAL ALICE, Written and illustrated by essay of a, Lewis Carroll.

Listen to the voices of dissertation read many of the greatest writers of the twentieth century. Listen to readings and circuit des ducs essay 2009 lectures of noted writers. Read and Listen to SparkNotes on dissertation read your iPod. - VOCABULARY AROUND THE GENRE. - SILENT NIGHT, Mary Higgins Clark. - SOLVE THE MYSTERY. - MORE LESSON PLANS FOR TEACHERS. Poetry - Drama - Prose - Fiction - Prose - Non-Fiction - Children's Stories - Nursery Rhymes - Memorable Quotes - Stories From Around The World.

Browse : Authors - Titles - Recorded Texts - Readers. Difficulty Level : Beginning - Intermediate - Advanced. You can select a writer, a work or a place. - with a portrait gallery and circuit des ducs 2009 video lessons USA writers - brief biographies with photos and links (spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk) 1000+ Free Books for dissertation Children (enregistrés en mp3) A Christmas Carol - Aesop's Fables - Alice's Adventures in Wonderland - Aladdin and the Magic Lamp - David Copperfield - The Adventures of Tom Sawyer - The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn - etc. Blake's poems - Hard Times (Ch.

Dickens) - Dracula's Guest (Id©e d'exploitation) - The Fifth Child (Doris Lessing) - Macbeth - The Tell-Tale Heart (Poe) Here are five pages about pros and cons of using public transport essay, P.D. James and her books. Do the activities, read, listen , watch , learn and online play. Look at the pictures. Which books and how to introduction characters can you identify?

There are 11 writers you should think of. Did you find the 11 writers? Just look at the next pic to online, see if you found them all. Now do you know what they look like? Do the activity, I am sure you will be surprised! Activity created by: Renée Maufroid.

1. Essay 2009? A Piece of Wood by Ray Bradbury. 2. Dissertation? The Landlady by Roald Dahl. 3. In Affection and essay Esteem by online, Mary Webb. From the peddlers on the street described in Faulkner's 'New Orleans Sketches' to des ducs essay, the mysterious Creole traditions that inspired Anne Rice's vampires, New Orleans has constantly stimulated the artistic mind. Learn more and test your knowledge on the writers who have captured the dissertation read online essence of music world war two essays New Orleans in their work. Like most of dissertation online Jenning's tales it centres on pros public transport a hapless school student who, in this case, tries to find an dissertation read online, ingenious way to shake off the bully who has been tormenting him. and, at the same time, keep his girlfriend. His friendship with an eccentric inventor leads him into an unexpected adventure.

- with pre-reading activities, reading activities and after reading activities. To practise recognition of similes, metaphors, alliteration and onomatopoeia. Click on Starters, 'ways in' and plenaries. Which is the first Harry Potter book? a) HP and the Goblet of Fire b) HP and the Philospher's Stone c) HP and the Chamber of Secrets Children's Literature Activities for the Classroom - Niveaux et Genres très variés (marcias-lesson-links.com) American writers with lessons and descriptive essay of a activities (americanwriters.org) Timeless Authors - Match each famous author with their book! - interactive crossword (surfnetkids.com) - VOCABULARY AROUND THE GENRE.

- LAMB TO THE SLAUGHTER, Roald Dahl. - SILENT NIGHT, Mary Higgins Clark. Dans le cadre d'une liaison 3¨me / 2nde, une ©quipe p©dagogique de l'acad©mie de Limoges propose une s©quence de lecture cursive , dans une d©marche de p©dagogie diff©renci©e, partir d'une nouvelle de Peter Flynn intitul©e ' Einstein's Chauffeur'. Cette s©quence est disponible ici : Merci Cyril Dussuchaud (Ac. Limoges)

Il s'agit d'un travail de lecture cursive du livre WHAT'S BRIAN? Mise en sc¨ne par les ©l¨ves de 3e R anglais L2 d'une petite pi¨ce de th©¢tre pour le MULTI(L)DINGUES FESTIVAL 2015. An author always has a good reason for using the read online first person. Whether he wishes to share his memories with us, to help my essay.com, embody the narration or simply to dissertation read online, give more credit to a work of fiction, the €˜I€™ always stands as a fascinating object of literary analysis€¦ Classics, contemporary fiction, young adult and thumb graphic novels, sequels and adaptations: Here are 10 ideas that will help any teacher use the online vast resources of NYTimes.com to essay of a, show students the connections between any type of literature and life. - Séquence pour 4ème section Européenne par Jean-Sébastien Dot. Cette séquence comprend 16 séances, et autant de documents prêts à l’emploi. Tâche finale : écrire une fiction de style gothique pour aboutir à un recueil de fictions en version papier et version numérique.

Les tâches intermédiaires comprennent la lecture d’une oeuvre complète (le Dracula en version simplifiée de Penguin Readers), une introduction au style gothique, un travail sur les discours direct et indirect, des repères méthodologiques pour devenir des lecteurs plus efficaces, des repères historiques et géographiques pour ne pas confondre le Dracula historique et la création de Bram Stoker, une comparaison du début du livre de Stoker et du début du film de Coppola. - 'The Murders in the Rue Morgue' by Edgar Allan Poe. - 'The Red-Headed League' by online, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. - 'And Then There Were None' by circuit essay 2009, Agatha Christie. - VOCABULARY AROUND THE GENRE. - LAMB TO THE SLAUGHTER, Roald Dahl. - SILENT NIGHT, Mary Higgins Clark. - SOLVE THE MYSTERY. - MORE LESSON PLANS FOR TEACHERS. Your middle and secondary students will enjoy exploring these classic tales of horror from W.W.

Jacobs and Edgar Allan Poe : Activity 1 : Mystery fiction. Activity 2 : 'And Then There Were None' (Agatha Christie) Activity 3 :Two Famous Detective Story Writers : Sir Arthur Conan Doyle - Agatha Christie. Activity 4 : Mystery Writers. Activity 5 : Alfred Hitchcock. Activity 6 : 'Your House' (Alanis Morissette)

Activity 7 : A Phone Call. Activity 8 : 'North By Northwest' Alfred Hitchcock. Don't you wanna stay? You are a fairy-tale. I hope that you don't run away. - 'Tales of dissertation read online Mystery and Imagination' is an Alan Parsons Project LP which retells several Edgar Allan Poe stories. Looking to write, write the dissertation next big alien thriller but need a few ideas to help my essay.com, get you going? Then you won't want to miss this plot generator Wired created using two James Gunn films and dissertation read two Ridley Scott creations. Of course, you could always use it like a Mad Libs game and insert your own ideas for plucky adventurers and terrifying boss aliens. - VOCABULARY AROUND THE GENRE. - LAMB TO THE SLAUGHTER, Roald Dahl.

- SILENT NIGHT, Mary Higgins Clark. - SOLVE THE MYSTERY. - MORE LESSON PLANS FOR TEACHERS. Peter Ripken is a founding member and recent past board chair of ICORN, International Cities Of Refuge Network. ICORN gives refuge to persecuted writers and authors. An author himself, Peter Ripken believes in supporting and the panda thumb helping writers and artists at risk around the world. Science fiction writers and dissertation read online filmmakers give us a glimpse into thumb other worlds: mysterious dimensions and far-away places. In this talk, though, Marrec shows us the many ways in which these works of dissertation online fiction can give us clues and insights into pros and cons of using essay reality. 10. Robert Frost, The Road Not Taken.

9. William Shakespeare, Romeo Juliet. 8. Lewis Carrol, Alice in dissertation online, Wonderland. 7. Help My Essay.com? William Shakespeare, Hamlet. 6. John Keats, Ode to a Grecian Urn. 5. William Shakespeare, Romeo Juliet. 4. Rudyard Kipling, The Ballad of East and West. 3. Robert Frost, Mending Wall. 2. Read Online? Friedrich Nietzsche, Thus Spoke Zarathustra. 1. William Shakespeare, Sonnet 18. This trailer offers a unique glimpse of some of the world war two BBC's biggest upcoming dramas, including The Casual Vacancy, an adaptation of JK Rowling€™s novel, Roald Dahl's Esio Trot, The Missing, One Child and The Interceptor.

Quick and easy Frankenstein synopsis, analysis, and discussion of major characters and read themes in and cons of using public essay, the novel. For more Frankenstein resources, go to www.sparknotes.com/lit/frankenstein. What trials unite not only Harry Potter or Frodo Baggins but many of dissertation read literature's most interesting heroes? And what do ordinary people have in descriptive essay of a, common with these literary heroes? Matthew Winkler takes us step-by-step through the dissertation read online crucial events that make or break a hero. From the London suburbs, through the rolling Cotswolds, and out to help, the rugged coastline of read online western Scotland - the UK's landscape has influenced authors for circuit des ducs essay 2009 centuries. In turn, their literary works have helped define how we think of Britain both culturally and geographically. As an extension to the yellow and black study guides, CliffsNotes Films reinvents the fastest way to learn with a new hip, irreverent, animated video series featuring Cliff. Come study the classics and leave with basic knowledge of the online plots, themes, characters, and the confidence to pass the test. Clayton Hammond (Dennis Quaid) attends a public reading of his new book, The Words . Clayton begins reading from his book which focuses on essay of a a fictional character named Rory Jansen (Bradley Cooper), an aspiring writer who lives in New York City with his girlfriend, Dora (Zoe Saldana).

The second part of the dissertation reading details Rory€™s encounter with The Old Man (Jeremy Irons) in New York City's Central Park, who reveals himself as the true author of the manuscript and essay that it was based on dissertation online his life in Paris. A writer at the peak of his literary success discovers the steep price he must pay for stealing another man's work. Croyden is an upscale college preparatory school in Maine that hires teachers for their advanced courses who are accomplished professionals. Jack Marcus is a writer and poet who teaches the advanced writing class. Dina Delsanto is an artist who has just been hired to thumb, teach the advanced art class, which has the same students as Jack's writing class. . Clive Owen and Juliette Binoche Star in €˜Words and Pictures€™

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THE CELTIC, GLASGOW IRISH #038; THE GREAT WAR. THE CELTIC, Glasgow Irish and the Great War series by historian Ian McCallum covers the social and political history of the Glasgow Irish community from their arrival in Scotland over the course of the nineteenth century on up to the end of the read online, Great War in 1919. The Great War experiences of the Glasgow Irish and Scots Roman Catholic community between 1914 and 1919 are highlighted and examined in detail. The major British and Irish political, social, military and footballing events over the course of the war are covered. All the subjects are examined through the prism of the Celtic Football and Athletic Club and the team’s sporting performances over help my essay.com, the five football seasons of the Great War. McCallum’s first book in the series, The Gathering Storms, sets the scene. He paints a picture of the origins and life experiences of the Glasgow Irish community in read their adopted homeland over a period of 100 years. Labelled “Glasgow Irish”, the title was at the time a colloquialism for an Irish Roman Catholic or their descendants.

It was a term of derision, hatred and contempt given them by the wider Glasgow community, from whom they had been effectively ostracised, set apart socially because of their race, religion and their perceived social neediness. Central to the social history of the Glasgow Irish from the last decade of the nineteenth century is the community’s relationship with the Celtic Football and Athletic Club. Founded, built and supported by the Glasgow Irish, by the eve of the during, Great War, the Celtic Football Club, a Scottish team based in Glasgow, playing football in Scotland and comprising mostly Scottish players, was still regarded by most people, certainly in west central Scotland, as an Irish team. The reason for this was simply because over the course of twenty-five years the Celtic Club itself had emerged as a definition of Roman Catholic Irishness and was the single greatest ethno-cultural focus for its Irish and Glasgow Irish supporters. By 1914, the Glasgow Irish community had coalesced into a cohesive, in many ways autonomous, society of around 200,000 souls, which mirrored in almost every aspect the wider Glasgow community. The marginalisation of the Glasgow Irish, allied to the constant topping up of the community with new immigrant “Irish” blood ensured that the community retained enormously strong cultural, political and emotional bonds to the auld country. The political, financial and emotional support given by the Glasgow Irish to dissertation online John Redmond and the Irish Parliamentary Party as they attempted to introduce Home Rule and music during world, land reform in Ireland is portrayed. The book sets into dissertation read online context the social conditions in which generations of the Glasgow Irish lived their lives, which in turn largely shaped their political opinions and their attitudes and interaction with the wider Glasgow community as the clouds of war – both in Ireland and Europe – gathered overhead. The Glasgow Irish on the eve of war was a community in pros of using transport transition toiling with overlapping identities – ethnic, religious and political. Just how Scottish or British did third- or sometimes even fourth-generation Glasgow Irish feel and how much loyalty did the Scots-born Glasgow Irish feel they owed to dissertation online their new homeland?

How were they supposed to during world war two essays respond to the British nation’s call to arms having suffered decades of bigotry, derision, racism and marginalisation? On a very personal level, the dilemma for the Glasgow Irish was just how much loyalty they felt they owed to their local community, to their neighbours and workmates. Exactly how marginalised and under siege did they as a community feel? Was it enough to stand on dissertation read, the sidelines of the circuit essay 2009, war? For the first eighteen months of the dissertation read online, Great War, enlistment was entirely voluntary and a matter for an individual’s personal choice. Just how much moral pressure did the Glasgow Irish feel as they watched their neighbours march off to music during essays defend the community, including their wives and children? With cultural ties to Ireland still immensely strong, what of the old maxim: “England’s difficulty is Ireland’s opportunity!” Over the course of the Great War, the Irish and by association the Glasgow Irish came under close scrutiny regarding their loyalty and commitment to Great Britain and to the British war effort.

Conditioned for over forty years by Church and dissertation online, political leaders to strive for respectability, advancement and inclusion into the wider society, the during essays, Great War would provide an opportunity for dissertation the Glasgow Irish to demonstrate their commitment to their host society by contributing their share of the blood sacrifice. The question was would they take it? Just Exactly Who are “The People”? Here McCallum describes the history of the circuit essay 2009, Glasgow Irish Roman Catholic community from its arrival in west central Scotland over the course of the nineteenth century. The arrival of the starving Irish during the Great Famine and Glasgow’s reaction to the flood of desperate humanity are highlighted. Socially marginalised because of their religion, race and social neediness, the read, Glasgow Irish community, led by the Roman Catholic Church, embarked on a forty-year campaign of social respectability in how to essay an attempt to find acceptance by the wider Glasgow community. In the nineteenth and online, early twentieth centuries race hierarchy and social class were an integral and absolutely fundamental part of British social and political thinking.

The chapter looks at the importance of 2009 race and social class in defining the wider Glasgow community’s attitude to the Glasgow Irish. The chapter also examines the largely ignored Protestant Glasgow Irish and their relationship with the online, wider Glasgow community. The Early Celtic Club and the panda essay, Politics. McCallum explains the organisation, development and very sociable aspects of Scottish football over the early years of online its existence. It looks at help, the formation of the Celtic and read online, the political, social and religious ethos established at the club by world essays, the founding fathers. Within a year of the formation of Celtic, the club membership was split over the manner in which the club was developing. The rift caused some disgruntled members to break away and form Glasgow Hibernian FC.

The story of the new Glasgow Irish football club, which threatened the very existence of Celtic FC, is told. The Celtic club came into being at a time when it was common for organisations outwith the world of politics to hold and express political views. The influence of John Ferguson and his Home Government branch of the Irish National League on the leadership at the Celtic is dissertation read, highlighted. Also examined is the club’s relationship with and support for Michael Davitt and his Irish Land League. While the causes of Irish Nationalism, Home Rule and land reform lay at the heart of the club, the founding fathers also flirted with Scottish nationalism and socialism. Two of the most politically minded of Celtic’s founding fathers and three Glasgow Irish socialists associated with the and cons of using transport, club are presented. This is the story of the creation of the Celtic Football and Athletic Club from dissertation, a slightly different angle than the norm. In addition to the best-known half dozen individuals associated with the founding of the club, another dozen less well-known individuals are introduced.

All have detailed biographies describing their backgrounds and essay of a ghost, political and religious affiliations, the part they played in the foundation and early history of the club and their positions and attitudes in the social club versus limited liability dispute. The largely ignored or unrecognised contribution and influences of Scots Roman Catholic founding fathers are highlighted. At a time when football was morphing from an amateur game into a very lucrative arm of the entertainment industry, Celtic club members formed into two opposing factions: the traditionalists, determined that the dissertation, club remain a community-based asset, and the modernisers, who wished to see the club converted into a limited liability company. The two factions fought for over six years to gain control of the how to write a good essay introduction, club. The long-running struggle for dissertation the soul of the Celtic club is examined in detail, as are the consequences for charity, the club’s original raison d’etre . The social, industrial and military situation in Europe, Ireland and on mainland Britain is outlined. In Europe, Germany had emerged as the most powerful industrial and military nation on the Continent. Its belligerent Kaiser was determined that Germany should have an empire and help, would attempt to online use war to achieve his aim. Fear of my essay.com German power saw the other nations tied into mutual protection treaties and alliances. Far from preventing war, the treaties would eventually drag them all over the precipice, like prisoners manacled at the ankles. In Ireland the read, Home Rule debate had taken the island to the brink of civil war as both Unionists and Nationalists armed their followers. The Home Rule Bill had passed through the British parliament, but the Unionists refused to take part in any devolved Irish government.

Amazingly, in the spring of 1914, five armies existed in Ireland; only a spark was needed to des ducs essay cause the dissertation online, explosion. In Glasgow, both Ulster Volunteer Force and Irish Volunteer battalions were formed. They attended military training and of using public, practised shooting and in the summer of dissertation 1914 they were parading in the streets. Far from being the Edwardian utopia that most Great War historians tend to depict, Britain and Ireland were going through massive social unrest. As the capitalist and landowning elites fought to preserve their privileged positions, the seething masses of the thumb, working class boiled with indignation at the massive differentials in wealth and lifestyles. Read. Between 1910 and 1914, the working class in Britain and Ireland launched successive waves of mass strikes of unprecedented breadth and ferocity against all the key sectors of pros and cons of using public transport essay capital, strikes that blew apart all the carefully promoted myths about the passivity of the British working class and of the stability of comfortable middle-class England. Online. Even school children went on strike. In Glasgow they marched through the streets demanding the end to corporal punishment and the cessation of homework. Music World War Two. By the dissertation read online, summer of 1914, millions of workdays had already been lost to industrial action and the government was preparing for another autumn of discontent. McCallum covers the social attitudes and political allegiances of the Glasgow Irish and the Celtic founding fathers, and later the music during war two, club’s directors, in relation to the Home Rule for Ireland and Irish Land Reform.

Central to read their political support was their long-term commitment to constitutional Irish nationalism, which from the beginning of the twentieth century meant Mr John Redmond and the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP). He looks at the depth of pros and cons of using essay their unconditional support for the IPP and includes a biography of dissertation read John Redmond and an overview of the other contemporary Irish political organisations like Sinn Fein, the Irish Republican Brotherhood and James Connolly’s socialist party. The political situation in Ireland on the eve of the Great War, from the how to, Nationalist and Unionist perspectives, and the formation of the Nationalist and Unionist militias in Ireland and in Glasgow are explained. He concludes by describing the gunrunning episodes in dissertation online which the Unionists landed weapons at Larne and the Nationalists at Howth. The chapter concludes with the Bachelor’s Walk incident when three civilians were shot dead by the British Army. Ian McCallum sets out the political, diplomatic and des ducs essay 2009, strategic positions of the main European nations leading up to the declaration of war. Insights into the social, industrial and military characteristics for dissertation online each of the major nations are provided. The complex series of treaties and agreements designed to prevent war in Europe is explained, as are the reasons why they failed. The military systems and strengths of the various armed forces are listed, and their strengths and weaknesses highlighted.

A detailed breakdown of the organisation of the British Army of circuit des ducs 2009 1914 is dissertation read online, provided. In some detail, the complex and often paradoxical subject of Irishmen serving in the British Army is des ducs essay 2009, examined. There is an outline of the history of Irishmen serving in the British Army. Dissertation. The chapter examines the push and pull factors that saw tens of thousands of young Irish and my essay.com, Glasgow Irish working-class men voluntarily enlist. Their reasons and options for enlistment are contrasted with those of the middle- and upper-class officers who led them. The social structure, attitudes and power of the men who made up the read online, British officer class are examined.

The chapter also explains the complexities of the British Army’s unique regimental system. It was a system that instilled an institutionalised loyalty, which bound soldiers to their units and to each other and which crossed nationalities, politics and religious affiliation. Regimental and caste loyalty proved the biggest threat to any Irish soldier’s Nationalist sentiment. The subjects of religion and sectarianism in essay the British Army are also looked at. Celtic FC on dissertation online, the Eve of War. By the time of its 25th birthday celebrations in season 1913/14, the Celtic Football and Athletic Club had succeeded beyond the wildest dreams of help its founding fathers and faithful supporters. The Celtic was arguably the most powerful and read online, wealthiest football club, certainly in Scotland, if not the whole of Great Britain. The chapter provides some insight into the personality and character of Celtic’s legendary manager Willie Maley. The son of a professional British soldier, his character and personality are examined from a different perspective than is normally given, instead looking at the influence that his military upbringing had in the development of his domineering character and towering personality. It also underlines his and the entire Maley family’s ongoing affection for the British Army and its regiments.

Allied to Willie Maley’s close association with the military, some light is music world essays, shed on what is often hinted at in Celtic histories, but never examined, the very close relationship that once existed between the Celtic club and the British Army. Finally, there is a detailed insight into read the Celtic club on the eve of war, including, a summary of their very successful 1913/14 season, a report of their 1914 European tour, followed by des ducs essay 2009, pen pictures of the directors and the Celtic squad including reserves. Here McCallum describes the diplomatic situation in Britain, Ireland and Europe in online the late summer of 1914 as the belligerent nations toppled into the abyss. Write A Good. The reactions of the people of read Britain, Ireland and Glasgow, including the Glasgow Irish are highlighted. Detailed extracts from Glasgow’s newspapers, including reports and pros and cons transport, editorials from the Glasgow Catholic Observer, are provided.

The effects on the players and directors and the Celtic club itself are shown. A number of individuals that figure prominently in the following books are introduced. Although it may come as an uncomfortable fact to some of the contemporary Glasgow Irish, almost every modern Celtic supporter who can claim a historic connection to the Glasgow Irish community will almost certainly have had an ancestor or close family relation who, like millions of other young men, was sucked into the maelstrom that was the Great War. For political, religious and financial reasons, this period in the history of read Celtic FC and ghost, the Glasgow Irish community has long been ignored or at best skimmed over by Celtic historians. Read Online. Ian McCallum’s books are an help my essay.com attempt to explain and emphasise the massive and completely voluntary contribution made by Celtic FC and the Glasgow Irish community to the British war effort. The Celtic, Glasgow Irish and online, the Great War is highly recommended, is available to order direct from the author on my essay.com, Amazon HERE and is available at Celtic stores and at Waterstones in and around Glasgow. CQN’s Father’s Day offer is still available and dissertation read online, selling like hot cakes! Order Charlie Gallagher’s new book and get the The Winds of Change for FREE! Click HERE or on the image below to order. All orders are dispatched asap.

Delaneys Dunky on Taking a pop at Celtic, vulnerable Heynckes big packy on Taking a pop at Celtic, vulnerable Heynckes Thirds63 on Taking a pop at des ducs essay 2009, Celtic, vulnerable Heynckes Delaneys Dunky on Taking a pop at Celtic, vulnerable Heynckes angelgabriel on Taking a pop at Celtic, vulnerable Heynckes Recent Popular ARCHIVE. Welcome to the new look Celtic Quick News where you will find the latest Celtic news and dissertation, features, posted 365 days a year! You can join the conversation too! Simply register and have your say below the blog posts at the top of the site. For more information please email [emailprotected] If you would like to how to a good essay contribute to the site by writing a feature or have a question about online CQN Books please email [emailprotected]

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essay horror fiction Supernatural Horror in online Literature. By H. P. Lovecraft. The oldest and strongest emotion of mankind is fear, and the oldest and strongest kind of fear is fear of the unknown. These facts few psychologists will dispute, and their admitted truth must establish for all time the genuineness and dignity of the weirdly horrible tale as a literary form. Transport? Against it are discharged all the shafts of a materialistic sophistication which clings to frequently felt emotions and external events, and dissertation read, of a naively insipid idealism which deprecates the aesthetic motive and calls for a didactic literature to uplift the reader toward a suitable degree of smirking optimism. But in spite of all this opposition the weird tale has survived, developed, and attained remarkable heights of perfection; founded as it is on a profound and elementary principle whose appeal, if not always universal, must necessarily be poignant and permanent to minds of the requisite sensitiveness. The appeal of the spectrally macabre is generally narrow because it demands from the reader a certain degree of imagination and a capacity for music during world war two, detachment from every-day life. Relatively few are free enough from the spell of the daily routine to respond to rappings from online outside, and tales of ordinary feelings and music during war two, events, or of common sentimental distortions of such feelings and events, will always take first place in the taste of the majority; rightly, perhaps, since of dissertation online, course these ordinary matters make up the greater part of human experience.

But the sensitive are always with us, and sometimes a curious streak of how to a good essay introduction, fancy invades an obscure corner of the very hardest head; so that no amount of rationalisation, reform, or Freudian analysis can quite annul the dissertation read, thrill of the chimney-corner whisper or the lonely wood. There is here involved a psychological pattern or tradition as real and the panda, as deeply grounded in mental experience as any other pattern or tradition of read online, mankind; coeval with the religious feeling and closely related to many aspects of it, and and cons public transport essay, too much a part of our inmost biological heritage to lose keen potency over dissertation a very important, though not numerically great, minority of our species. Man’s first instincts and emotions formed his response to the environment in which he found himself. Definite feelings based on pleasure and pain grew up around the phenomena whose causes and effects he understood, whilst around those which he did not understandand the universe teemed with them in essay ghost the early dayswere naturally woven such personifications, marvellous interpretations, and sensations of awe and fear as would be hit upon by a race having few and simple ideas and limited experience. The unknown, being likewise the unpredictable, became for our primitive forefathers a terrible and omnipotent source of boons and calamities visited upon read, mankind for cryptic and wholly extra-terrestrial reasons, and thus clearly belonging to spheres of a good, existence whereof we know nothing and wherein we have no part. The phenomenon of dreaming likewise helped to build up the notion of an unreal or spiritual world; and in general, all the conditions of savage dawn-life so strongly conduced toward a feeling of the supernatural, that we need not wonder at the thoroughness with which man’s very hereditary essence has become saturated with religion and superstition. That saturation must, as a matter of read, plain scientific fact, be regarded as virtually permanent so far as the subconscious mind and inner instincts are concerned; for though the descriptive of a, area of the unknown has been steadily contracting for thousands of years, an infinite reservoir of mystery still engulfs most of the outer cosmos, whilst a vast residuum of read, powerful inherited associations clings around all the objects and processes that were once mysterious, however well they may now be explained.

And more than this, there is an actual physiological fixation of the old instincts in our nervous tissue, which would make them obscurely operative even were the conscious mind to be purged of all sources of wonder. Because we remember pain and the menace of death more vividly than pleasure, and because our feelings toward the essay of a, beneficent aspects of the unknown have from the first been captured and formalised by conventional religious rituals, it has fallen to the lot of the darker and more maleficent side of dissertation read online, cosmic mystery to figure chiefly in our popular supernatural folklore. This tendency, too, is naturally enhanced by the fact that uncertainty and danger are always closely allied; thus making any kind of an unknown world a world of music world essays, peril and read online, evil possibilities. When to this sense of fear and evil the descriptive essay, inevitable fascination of wonder and curiosity is superadded, there is born a composite body of keen emotion and imaginative provocation whose vitality must of necessity endure as long as the dissertation read, human race itself. Children will always be afraid of the dark, and men with minds sensitive to hereditary impulse will always tremble at the thought of the hidden and music during war two essays, fathomless worlds of strange life which may pulsate in the gulfs beyond the stars, or press hideously upon our own globe in dissertation unholy dimensions which only the dead and the moonstruck can glimpse. With this foundation, no one need wonder at the existence of a literature of cosmic fear. It has always existed, and always will exist; and no better evidence of of a, its tenacious vigour can be cited than the impulse which now and then drives writers of dissertation read, totally opposite leanings to pros public essay try their hands at it in isolated tales, as if to discharge from dissertation read their minds certain phantasmal shapes which would otherwise haunt them. Thus Dickens wrote several eerie narratives; Browning, the hideous poem “Childe Roland”; Henry James, The Turn of the Screw; Dr. Holmes, the subtle novel Elsie Venner; F. Marion Crawford, “The Upper Berth” and a number of other examples; Mrs.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman, social worker, “The Yellow Wall Paper”; whilst the humourist W. W. Jacobs produced that able melodramatic bit called “The Monkey’s Paw”. This type of public, fear-literature must not be confounded with a type externally similar but psychologically widely different; the literature of mere physical fear and the mundanely gruesome. Such writing, to be sure, has its place, as has the conventional or even whimsical or humorous ghost story where formalism or the author’s knowing wink removes the dissertation, true sense of the morbidly unnatural; but these things are not the literature of cosmic fear in its purest sense. The true weird tale has something more than secret murder, bloody bones, or a sheeted form clanking chains according to rule. A certain atmosphere of breathless and unexplainable dread of outer, unknown forces must be present; and there must be a hint, expressed with a seriousness and portentousness becoming its subject, of essays, that most terrible conception of the human braina malign and particular suspension or defeat of those fixed laws of Nature which are our only safeguard against the assaults of chaos and read online, the daemons of unplumbed space. Naturally we cannot expect all weird tales to conform absolutely to any theoretical model. Creative minds are uneven, and the best of write essay introduction, fabrics have their dull spots. Moreover, much of the choicest weird work is unconscious; appearing in memorable fragments scattered through material whose massed effect may be of a very different cast. Atmosphere is the all-important thing, for the final criterion of authenticity is not the dovetailing of a plot but the creation of a given sensation. We may say, as a general thing, that a weird story whose intent is to teach or produce a social effect, or one in which the horrors are finally explained away by natural means, is not a genuine tale of cosmic fear; but it remains a fact that such narratives often possess, in isolated sections, atmospheric touches which fulfil every condition of true supernatural horror-literature. Therefore we must judge a weird tale not by dissertation online the author’s intent, or by the mere mechanics of the plot; but by the emotional level which it attains at its least mundane point.

If the the panda thumb essay, proper sensations are excited, such a “high spot” must be admitted on its own merits as weird literature, no matter how prosaically it is later dragged down. The one test of the really weird is simply thiswhether or not there be excited in the reader a profound sense of dread, and of contact with unknown spheres and powers; a subtle attitude of awed listening, as if for the beating of black wings or the scratching of outside shapes and entities on the known universe’s utmost rim. And of course, the more completely and unifiedly a story conveys this atmosphere, the better it is as a work of art in dissertation read online the given medium. As may naturally be expected of a form so closely connected with primal emotion, the horror-tale is as old as human thought and speech themselves. Cosmic terror appears as an ingredient of the earliest folklore of all races, and is crystallised in the most archaic ballads, chronicles, and sacred writings. It was, indeed, a prominent feature of the elaborate ceremonial magic, with its rituals for the evocation of daemons and introduction, spectres, which flourished from prehistoric times, and read online, which reached its highest development in Egypt and the Semitic nations. How To A Good Essay? Fragments like the Book of Enoch and the Claviculae of dissertation online, Solomon well illustrate the power of the weird over the ancient Eastern mind, and upon such things were based enduring systems and traditions whose echoes extend obscurely even to the present time. Touches of this transcendental fear are seen in classic literature, and there is evidence of its still greater emphasis in a ballad literature which paralleled the classic stream but vanished for lack of a written medium. The Middle Ages, steeped in fanciful darkness, gave it an write a good introduction enormous impulse toward expression; and East and West alike were busy preserving and amplifying the dark heritage, both of random folklore and of academically formulated magic and cabbalism, which had descended to them. Read Online? Witch, werewolf, vampire, and ghoul brooded ominously on the lips of bard and grandam, and needed but little encouragement to take the final step across the boundary that divides the chanted tale or song from the formal literary composition. In the Orient, the war two, weird tale tended to assume a gorgeous colouring and sprightliness which almost transmuted it into sheer phantasy.

In the West, where the mystical Teuton had come down from his black Boreal forests and the Celt remembered strange sacrifices in Druidic groves, it assumed a terrible intensity and read, convincing seriousness of atmosphere which doubled the force of and cons public essay, its half-told, half-hinted horrors. Much of the power of Western horror-lore was undoubtedly due to the hidden but often suspected presence of a hideous cult of nocturnal worshippers whose strange customsdescended from pre-Aryan and pre-agricultural times when a squat race of Mongoloids roved over Europe with their flocks and herdswere rooted in the most revolting fertility-rites of immemorial antiquity. This secret religion, stealthily handed down amongst peasants for thousands of read online, years despite the outward reign of the Druidic, Graeco-Roman, and Christian faiths in the regions involved, was marked by wild “Witches’ Sabbaths” in lonely woods and atop distant hills on Walpurgis-Night and Hallowe’en, the traditional breeding-seasons of the goats and essay ghost, sheep and read online, cattle; and became the source of help my essay.com, vast riches of sorcery-legend, besides provoking extensive witchcraft- prosecutions of which the Salem affair forms the chief American example. Akin to it in essence, and perhaps connected with it in fact, was the frightful secret system of inverted theology or Satan-worship which produced such horrors as the famous “Black Mass”; whilst operating toward the same end we may note the activities of those whose aims were somewhat more scientific or philosophicalthe astrologers, cabbalists, and dissertation read, alchemists of the Albertus Magnus or Raymond Lully type, with whom such rude ages invariably abound. The prevalence and depth of the mediaeval horror-spirit in Europe, intensified by the dark despair which waves of pestilence brought, may be fairly gauged by the grotesque carvings slyly introduced into much of the finest later Gothic ecclesiastical work of the time; the daemoniac gargoyles of Notre Dame and Mont St. Michel being among the most famous specimens. And throughout the period, it must be remembered, there existed amongst educated and uneducated alike a most unquestioning faith in every form of the my essay.com, supernatural; from the read, gentlest of essay, Christian doctrines to the most monstrous morbidities of witchcraft and black magic. It was from no empty background that the dissertation online, Renaissance magicians and alchemistsNostradamus, Trithemius, Dr. John Dee, Robert Fludd, and the likewere born. In this fertile soil were nourished types and characters of sombre myth and legend which persist in descriptive weird literature to this day, more or less disguised or altered by modern technique.

Many of them were taken from the earliest oral sources, and form part of mankind’s permanent heritage. Dissertation? The shade which appears and demands the burial of its bones, the daemon lover who comes to bear away his still living bride, the essays, death-fiend or psychopomp riding the night-wind, the man-wolf, the read online, sealed chamber, the deathless sorcererall these may be found in that curious body of mediaeval lore which the late Mr. Baring-Gould so effectively assembled in book form. Wherever the the panda, mystic Northern blood was strongest, the atmosphere of the popular tales became most intense; for in the Latin races there is a touch of basic rationality which denies to even their strangest superstitions many of the overtones of glamour so characteristic of our own forest-born and ice-fostered whisperings. Just as all fiction first found extensive embodiment in poetry, so is it in poetry that we first encounter the permanent entry of the weird into standard literature. Most of the ancient instances, curiously enough, are in prose; as the werewolf incident in Petronius, the gruesome passages in Apuleius, the brief but celebrated letter of Pliny the Younger to Sura, and the odd compilation On Wonderful Events by the Emperor Hadrian’s Greek freedman, Phlegon. It is in Phlegon that we first find that hideous tale of the corpse-bride, “Philinnion and Machates”, later related by Proclus and in dissertation read modern times forming the inspiration of how to write, Goethe’s “Bride of Corinth” and Washington Irving’s “German Student”. But by the time the dissertation online, old Northern myths take literary form, and in that later time when the weird appears as a steady element in the literature of the day, we find it mostly in metrical dress; as indeed we find the greater part of the strictly imaginative writing of the Middle Ages and Renaissance. The Scandinavian Eddas and Sagas thunder with cosmic horror, and shake with the stark fear of my essay.com, Ymir and his shapeless spawn; whilst our own Anglo-Saxon Beowulf and the later Continental Nibelung tales are full of eldritch weirdness. Dante is a pioneer in the classic capture of macabre atmosphere, and in Spenser’s stately stanzas will be seen more than a few touches of fantastic terror in dissertation read online landscape, incident, and help, character. Prose literature gives us Malory’s Morte d’Arthur, in which are presented many ghastly situations taken from early ballad sourcesthe theft of the sword and silk from the dissertation read online, corpse in Chapel Perilous by Sir Launcelot, the ghost of music world essays, Sir Gawaine, and the tomb-fiend seen by Sir Galahadwhilst other and cruder specimens were doubtless set forth in the cheap and sensational “chapbooks” vulgarly hawked about and devoured by the ignorant.

In Elizabethan drama, with its Dr. Faustus, the witches in Macbeth, the ghost in dissertation read Hamlet, and the horrible gruesomeness of Webster, we may easily discern the strong hold of the war two essays, daemoniac on the public mind; a hold intensified by the very real fear of living witchcraft, whose terrors, first wildest on the Continent, begin to echo loudly in English ears as the witch-hunting crusades of James the First gain headway. To the lurking mystical prose of the ages is added a long line of treatises on witchcraft and daemonology which aid in dissertation exciting the imagination of the and cons public essay, reading world. Through the seventeenth and into the eighteenth century we behold a growing mass of fugitive legendry and balladry of darksome cast; still, however, held down beneath the surface of polite and accepted literature. Chapbooks of horror and weirdness multiplied, and we glimpse the eager interest of the people through fragments like Defoe’s “Apparition of Mrs. Veal”, a homely tale of a dead woman’s spectral visit to a distant friend, written to advertise covertly a badly selling theological disquisition on death. The upper orders of dissertation read online, society were now losing faith in the supernatural, and indulging in a period of classic rationalism.

Then, beginning with the translations of Eastern tales in Queen Anne’s reign and descriptive, taking definite form toward the middle of the read online, century, comes the how to a good essay, revival of romantic feelingthe era of new joy in Nature, and in the radiance of past times, strange scenes, bold deeds, and incredible marvels. We feel it first in the poets, whose utterances take on new qualities of wonder, strangeness, and dissertation read, shuddering. And finally, after the timid appearance of a few weird scenes in the novels of the daysuch as Smollett’s Adventures of Ferdinand, Count Fathom the released instinct precipitates itself in the birth of a new school of writing; the “Gothic” school of circuit, horrible and online, fantastic prose fiction, long and short, whose literary posterity is pros and cons of using public transport, destined to become so numerous, and in many cases so resplendent in online artistic merit. It is, when one reflects upon it, genuinely remarkable that weird narration as a fixed and academically recognised literary form should have been so late of final birth. The impulse and atmosphere are as old as man, but the typical weird tale of standard literature is a child of the eighteenth century. The shadow-haunted landscapes of essay 2009, “Ossian”, the chaotic visions of William Blake, the read online, grotesque witch-dances in Burns’s “Tam O’Shanter”, the descriptive, sinister daemonism of Coleridge’s Christabel and Ancient Mariner, the ghostly charm of James Hogg’s “Kilmeny” , and the more restrained approaches to online cosmic horror in Lamia and many of Keats’s other poems, are typical British illustrations of the advent of the how to a good, weird to formal literature. Dissertation Read Online? Our Teutonic cousins of the Continent were equally receptive to the rising flood, and Bürger’s “Wild Huntsman” and the even more famous daemon-bridegroom ballad of “Lenore”both imitated in English by Scott, whose respect for the supernatural was always greatare only a taste of the eerie wealth which German song had commenced to ghost provide. Thomas Moore adapted from such sources the dissertation read online, legend of the ghoulish statue-bride (later used by Prosper Mérimée in “The Venus of Ille”, and traceable back to great antiquity) which echoes so shiveringly in his ballad of “The Ring”; whilst Goethe’s deathless masterpiece Faust, crossing from mere balladry into the classic, cosmic tragedy of the ages, may be held as the ultimate height to which this German poetic impulse arose. But it remained for a very sprightly and worldly Englishmannone other than Horace Walpole himselfto give the growing impulse definite shape and become the actual founder of the literary horror-story as a permanent form. Fond of mediaeval romance and music during war two essays, mystery as a dilettante’s diversion, and read online, with a quaintly imitated Gothic castle as his abode at Strawberry Hill, Walpole in 1764 published The Castle of Otranto; a tale of the supernatural which, though thoroughly unconvincing and mediocre in itself, was destined to exert an almost unparalleled influence on the literature of the weird. First venturing it only as a translation by one “William Marshal, Gent.” from the Italian of a mythical “Onuphrio Muralto”, the author later acknowledged his connexion with the book and took pleasure in its wide and instantaneous popularitya popularity which extended to many editions, early dramatisation, and wholesale imitation both in England and in Germany.

The storytedious, artificial, and melodramaticis further impaired by a brisk and circuit des ducs essay 2009, prosaic style whose urbane sprightliness nowhere permits the dissertation read, creation of a truly weird atmosphere. It tells of Manfred, an unscrupulous and usurping prince determined to found a line, who after the mysterious sudden death of his only help, son Conrad on the latter’s bridal morn, attempts to dissertation read put away his wife Hippolita and wed the lady destined for the unfortunate youththe lad, by the way, having been crushed by the preternatural fall of descriptive essay, a gigantic helmet in the castle courtyard. Isabella, the widowed bride, flees from this design; and encounters in subterranean crypts beneath the castle a noble young preserver, Theodore, who seems to be a peasant yet strangely resembles the old lord Alfonso who ruled the domain before Manfred’s time. Shortly thereafter supernatural phenomena assail the castle in divers ways; fragments of gigantic armour being discovered here and there, a portrait walking out of its frame, a thunderclap destroying the dissertation read, edifice, and a colossal armoured spectre of Alfonso rising out music world of the ruins to ascend through parting clouds to the bosom of St. Nicholas. Theodore, having wooed Manfred’s daughter Matilda and read online, lost her through deathfor she is slain by her father by mistakeis discovered to be the son of Alfonso and rightful heir to the estate. He concludes the tale by wedding Isabella and preparing to live happily ever after, whilst Manfredwhose usurpation was the cause of ghost, his son’s supernatural death and read online, his own supernatural harassingsretires to a monastery for penitence; his saddened wife seeking asylum in a neighbouring convent.

Such is the tale; flat, stilted, and altogether devoid of the true cosmic horror which makes weird literature. Yet such was the thirst of the essay, age for dissertation read, those touches of strangeness and spectral antiquity which it reflects, that it was seriously received by the soundest readers and des ducs essay 2009, raised in spite of its intrinsic ineptness to a pedestal of lofty importance in literary history. What it did above all else was to create a novel type of scene, puppet-characters, and incidents; which, handled to dissertation read better advantage by writers more naturally adapted to weird creation, stimulated the growth of an imitative Gothic school which in turn inspired the real weavers of cosmic terrorthe line of thumb essay, actual artists beginning with Poe. This novel dramatic paraphernalia consisted first of all of the Gothic castle, with its awesome antiquity, vast distances and ramblings, deserted or ruined wings, damp corridors, unwholesome hidden catacombs, and galaxy of dissertation, ghosts and appalling legends, as a nucleus of suspense and daemoniac fright. During World Essays? In addition, it included the tyrannical and malevolent nobleman as villain; the online, saintly, longpersecuted, and generally insipid heroine who undergoes the major terrors and serves as a point of pros public transport, view and focus for the reader’s sympathies; the valorous and immaculate hero, always of high birth but often in humble disguise; the convention of high-sounding foreign names, mostly Italian, for the characters; and the infinite array of stage properties which includes strange lights, damp trap-doors, extinguished lamps, mouldy hidden manuscripts, creaking hinges, shaking arras, and read, the like. All this paraphernalia reappears with amusing sameness, yet sometimes with tremendous effect, throughout the history of the the panda thumb, Gothic novel; and is by no means extinct even today, though subtler technique now forces it to assume a less naive and dissertation read online, obvious form. An harmonious milieu for a new school had been found, and the writing world was not slow to grasp the opportunity. German romance at how to write a good essay once responded to the Walpole influence, and soon became a byword for the weird and ghastly. In England one of the first imitators was the celebrated Mrs. Barbauld, then Miss Aikin, who in dissertation online 1773 published an unfinished fragment called “Sir Bertrand”, in which the strings of genuine terror were truly touched with no clumsy hand.

A nobleman on a dark and help, lonely moor, attracted by a tolling bell and read, distant light, enters a strange and ancient turreted castle whose doors open and close and the panda, whose bluish will-o’-the-wisps lead up mysterious staircases toward dead hands and animated black statues. Online? A coffin with a dead lady, whom Sir Bertrand kisses, is finally reached; and upon the kiss the scene dissolves to give place to a splendid apartment where the lady, restored to life, holds a banquet in honour of her rescuer. Walpole admired this tale, though he accorded less respect to an even more prominent offspring of his Otranto The Old English Baron, by Clara Reeve, published in 1777. Truly enough, this tale lacks the real vibration to the note of outer darkness and mystery which distinguishes Mrs. Barbauld’s fragment; and though less crude than Walpole’s novel, and more artistically economical of horror in its possession of only one spectral figure, it is help my essay.com, nevertheless too definitely insipid for greatness. Here again we have the virtuous heir to the castle disguised as a peasant and read online, restored to his heritage through the ghost of his father; and here again we have a case of wide popularity leading to many editions, dramatisation, and ultimate translation into French.

Miss Reeve wrote another weird novel, unfortunately unpublished and lost. The Gothic novel was now settled as a literary form, and instances multiply bewilderingly as the eighteenth century draws toward its close. Des Ducs? The Recess, written in 1785 by read online Mrs. Sophia Lee, has the historic element, revolving round the twin daughters of Mary, Queen of Scots; and though devoid of the circuit, supernatural, employs the Walpole scenery and mechanism with great dexterity. Five years later, and all existing lamps are paled by the rising of a fresh luminary of wholly superior orderMrs. Ann Radcliffe (17641823), whose famous novels made terror and suspense a fashion, and who set new and higher standards in the domain of online, macabre and fear-inspiring atmosphere despite a provoking custom of destroying her own phantoms at the last through laboured mechanical explanations.

To the familiar Gothic trappings of her predecessors Mrs. Pros Of Using Public Essay? Radcliffe added a genuine sense of the unearthly in scene and read, incident which closely approached genius; every touch of setting and action contributing artistically to the impression of illimitable frightfulness which she wished to convey. A few sinister details like a track of blood on castle stairs, a groan from a distant vault, or a weird song in a nocturnal forest can with her conjure up the circuit des ducs essay 2009, most powerful images of imminent horror; surpassing by far the extravagant and dissertation online, toilsome elaborations of others. Nor are these images in pros themselves any the less potent because they are explained away before the end of the novel. Mrs. Radcliffe’s visual imagination was very strong, and appears as much in her delightful landscape touchesalways in broad, glamorously pictorial outline, and never in close detailas in her weird phantasies.

Her prime weaknesses, aside from the habit of prosaic disillusionment, are a tendency toward erroneous geography and history and a fatal predilection for bestrewing her novels with insipid little poems, attributed to one or another of the characters. Mrs. Dissertation Online? Radcliffe wrote six novels; The Castles of Athlin and Dunbayne (1789), A Sicilian Romance (1790), The Romance of the Forest (1791), The Mysteries of Udolpho (1794), The Italian (1797), and help my essay.com, Gaston de Blondeville, composed in 1802 but first published posthumously in 1826. Of these Udolpho is by far the most famous, and may be taken as a type of the early Gothic tale at its best. Dissertation Read Online? It is the chronicle of Emily, a young Frenchwoman transplanted to an ancient and portentous castle in during war two the Apennines through the death of her parents and the marriage of her aunt to the lord of the castlethe scheming nobleman Montoni. Mysterious sounds, opened doors, frightful legends, and a nameless horror in dissertation online a niche behind a black veil all operate in pros and cons of using essay quick succession to unnerve the heroine and her faithful attendant Annette; but finally, after the death of dissertation online, her aunt, she escapes with the aid of a fellow-prisoner whom she has discovered. On the way home she stops at a chateau filled with fresh horrorsthe abandoned wing where the during, departed chatelaine dwelt, and the bed of death with the dissertation, black pallbut is des ducs essay 2009, finally restored to security and happiness with her lover Valancourt, after the clearing-up of a secret which seemed for a time to involve her birth in mystery. Online? Clearly, this is only the write introduction, familiar material re-worked; but it is so well re-worked that Udolpho will always be a classic. Mrs.

Radcliffe’s characters are puppets, but they are less markedly so than those of her forerunners. And in atmospheric creation she stands preëminent among those of her time. Of Mrs. Dissertation Read? Radcliffe’s countless imitators, the American novelist Charles Brockden Brown stands the closest in spirit and method. Like her, he injured his creations by natural explanations; but also like her, he had an uncanny atmospheric power which gives his horrors a frightful vitality as long as they remain unexplained. Write? He differed from her in contemptuously discarding the external Gothic paraphernalia and properties and choosing modern American scenes for his mysteries; but this repudiation did not extend to the Gothic spirit and dissertation read online, type of incident.

Brown’s novels involve some memorably frightful scenes, and excel even Mrs. Circuit 2009? Radcliffe’s in describing the operations of the perturbed mind. Edgar Huntly starts with a sleep-walker digging a grave, but is dissertation, later impaired by touches of Godwinian didacticism. Ormond involves a member of a sinister secret brotherhood. That and Arthur Mervyn both describe the plague of yellow fever, which the author had witnessed in Philadelphia and New York.

But Brown’s most famous book is Wieland; or, The Transformation (1798), in which a Pennsylvania German, engulfed by the panda essay a wave of religious fanaticism, hears voices and slays his wife and children as a sacrifice. His sister Clara, who tells the story, narrowly escapes. The scene, laid at the woodland estate of online, Mittingen on the Schuylkill’s remote reaches, is drawn with extreme vividness; and the terrors of circuit 2009, Clara, beset by spectral tones, gathering fears, and the sound of online, strange footsteps in the lonely house, are all shaped with truly artistic force. In the end a lame ventriloquial explanation is offered, but the ghost, atmosphere is genuine while it lasts. Carwin, the malign ventriloquist, is a typical villain of the Manfred or Montoni type.

Horror in literature attains a new malignity in online the work of Matthew Gregory Lewis (17751818), whose novel The Monk (1796) achieved marvellous popularity and earned him the nickname of pros and cons public essay, “Monk” Lewis. This young author, educated in Germany and saturated with a body of wild Teuton lore unknown to read online Mrs. Radcliffe, turned to terror in essay forms more violent than his gentle predecessor had ever dared to think of; and produced as a result a masterpiece of active nightmare whose general Gothic cast is spiced with added stores of ghoulishness. The story is one of a Spanish monk, Ambrosio, who from a state of overproud virtue is tempted to the very nadir of evil by a fiend in the guise of the read online, maiden Matilda; and who is finally, when awaiting death at the Inquisition’s hands, induced to purchase escape at the price of his soul from the Devil, because he deems both body and music essays, soul already lost. Dissertation? Forthwith the mocking Fiend snatches him to a lonely place, tells him he has sold his soul in vain since both pardon and a chance for salvation were approaching at thumb essay the moment of his hideous bargain, and completes the sardonic betrayal by rebuking him for his unnatural crimes, and casting his body down a precipice whilst his soul is borne off for ever to perdition. The novel contains some appalling descriptions such as the incantation in read online the vaults beneath the convent cemetery, the burning of the convent, and the final end of the wretched abbot. How To Write Introduction? In the sub-plot where the Marquis de las Cisternas meets the spectre of his erring ancestress, The Bleeding Nun, there are many enormously potent strokes; notably the visit of the animated corpse to the Marquis’s bedside, and the cabbalistic ritual whereby the Wandering Jew helps him to fathom and dissertation read, banish his dead tormentor. Nevertheless The Monk drags sadly when read as a whole.

It is too long and too diffuse, and much of its potency is marred by flippancy and by an awkwardly excessive reaction against those canons of decorum which Lewis at essays first despised as prudish. One great thing may be said of the author; that he never ruined his ghostly visions with a natural explanation. He succeeded in breaking up the Radcliffian tradition and expanding the field of the Gothic novel. Lewis wrote much more than The Monk. His drama, The Castle Spectre, was produced in 1798, and online, he later found time to help pen other fictions in ballad form Tales of dissertation read, Terror (1799), Tales of Wonder (1801), and help, a succession of translations from the German.

Gothic romances, both English and German, now appeared in multitudinous and mediocre profusion. Most of them were merely ridiculous in the light of online, mature taste, and Miss Austen’s famous satire Northanger Abbey was by during war two no means an unmerited rebuke to a school which had sunk far toward absurdity. This particular school was petering out, but before its final subordination there arose its last and greatest figure in the person of Charles Robert Maturin (17821824), an obscure and online, eccentric Irish clergyman. Out of an ample body of miscellaneous writing which includes one confused Radcliffian imitation called Fatal Revenge; or, The Family of Montorio (1807), Maturin at length evolved the vivid horror-masterpiece of Melmoth the of using public essay, Wanderer (1820), in which the Gothic tale climbed to altitudes of sheer spiritual fright which it had never known before. Melmoth is the tale of an dissertation Irish gentleman who, in the seventeenth century, obtained a preternaturally extended life from the Devil at help my essay.com the price of his soul. If he can persuade another to take the bargain off his hands, and assume his existing state, he can be saved; but this he can never manage to dissertation online effect, no matter how assiduously he haunts those whom despair has made reckless and frantic. The framework of the story is very clumsy; involving tedious length, digressive episodes, narratives within narratives, and laboured dovetailing and coincidences; but at various points in the endless rambling there is felt a pulse of power undiscoverable in any previous work of this kinda kinship to the essential truth of human nature, an understanding of the profoundest sources of actual cosmic fear, and a white heat of of a ghost, sympathetic passion on the writer’s part which makes the book a true document of read, aesthetic self-expression rather than a mere clever compound of artifice. No unbiassed reader can doubt that with Melmoth an enormous stride in the evolution of the horror-tale is represented.

Fear is taken out of the realm of the circuit des ducs essay 2009, conventional and exalted into a hideous cloud over dissertation read online mankind’s very destiny. Maturin’s shudders, the work of one capable of shuddering himself, are of the sort that convince. Mrs. Circuit Des Ducs? Radcliffe and Lewis are fair game for the parodist, but it would be difficult to find a false note in the feverishly intensified action and online, high atmospheric tension of the essay introduction, Irishman whose less sophisticated emotions and strain of Celtic mysticism gave him the finest possible natural equipment for his task. Without a doubt Maturin is a man of authentic genius, and he was so recognised by Balzac, who grouped Melmoth with Molière’s Don Juan, Goethe’s Faust, and Byron’s Manfred as the supreme allegorical figures of modern European literature, and wrote a whimsical piece called “Melmoth Reconciled”, in which the Wanderer succeeds in passing his infernal bargain on to a Parisian bank defaulter, who in turn hands it along a chain of victims until a revelling gambler dies with it in his possession, and by his damnation ends the curse.

Scott, Rossetti, Thackeray, and Baudelaire are the other titans who gave Maturin their unqualified admiration, and there is much significance in the fact that Oscar Wilde, after his disgrace and exile, chose for his last days in Paris the assumed name of “Sebastian Melmoth”. Melmoth contains scenes which even now have not lost their power to evoke dread. Dissertation Read? It begins with a deathbedan old miser is dying of sheer fright because of how to, something he has seen, coupled with a manuscript he has read and dissertation online, a family portrait which hangs in an obscure closet of his centuried home in County Wicklow. Help My Essay.com? He sends to Trinity College, Dublin, for read online, his nephew John; and the latter upon arriving notes many uncanny things. The eyes of the essay, portrait in the closet glow horribly, and twice a figure strangely resembling the portrait appears momentarily at read online the door.

Dread hangs over that house of the Melmoths, one of whose ancestors, “J. Melmoth, 1646”, the portrait represents. The dying miser declares that this manat a date slightly before 1800is alive. Finally the miser dies, and the panda thumb, the nephew is read online, told in the will to destroy both the portrait and a manuscript to be found in a certain drawer. Reading the manuscript, which was written late in the seventeenth century by an Englishman named Stanton, young John learns of how to write introduction, a terrible incident in Spain in 1677, when the online, writer met a horrible fellow- countryman and was told of how he had stared to death a priest who tried to denounce him as one filled with fearsome evil. Later, after meeting the man again in London, Stanton is cast into pros of using transport, a madhouse and visited by the stranger, whose approach is dissertation read online, heralded by spectral music and whose eyes have a more than mortal glare. Melmoth the Wandererfor such is the malign visitoroffers the captive freedom if he will take over his bargain with the Devil; but like all others whom Melmoth has approached, Stanton is proof against temptation.

Melmoth’s description of the horrors of a life in help a madhouse, used to tempt Stanton, is one of the most potent passages of the book. Stanton is at length liberated, and spends the rest of his life tracking down Melmoth, whose family and ancestral abode he discovers. With the dissertation read, family he leaves the manuscript, which by the panda essay young John’s time is sadly ruinous and fragmentary. Read Online? John destroys both portrait and manuscript, but in sleep is visited by his horrible ancestor, who leaves a black and blue mark on his wrist. Young John soon afterward receives as a visitor a shipwrecked Spaniard, Alonzo de Monçada, who has escaped from compulsory monasticism and from the pros and cons essay, perils of the Inquisition. He has suffered horriblyand the descriptions of his experiences under torment and in the vaults through which he once essays escape are classicbut had the strength to resist Melmoth the Wanderer when approached at his darkest hour in prison. At the house of a Jew who sheltered him after his escape he discovers a wealth of manuscript relating other exploits of Melmoth including his wooing of an Indian island maiden, Immalee, who later comes to her birthright in Spain and is known as Donna Isidora; and dissertation read online, of his horrible marriage to her by the corpse of a dead anchorite at midnight in the ruined chapel of a shunned and essay, abhorred monastery.

Monçada’s narrative to read online young John takes up the bulk of Maturin’s four-volume book; this disproportion being considered one of the chief technical faults of the composition. At last the colloquies of John and Monçada are interrupted by the entrance of Melmoth the pros of using transport, Wanderer himself, his piercing eyes now fading, and decrepitude swiftly overtaking him. The term of his bargain has approached its end, and he has come home after a century and a half to meet his fate. Warning all others from the room, no matter what sounds they may hear in the night, he awaits the end alone. Young John and Monçada hear frightful ululations, but do not intrude till silence comes toward morning. They then find the room empty.

Clayey footprints lead out a rear door to a cliff overlooking the sea, and near the online, edge of the precipice is a track indicating the forcible dragging of some heavy body. The Wanderer’s scarf is found on a crag some distance below the brink, but nothing further is ever seen or heard of him. Such is the des ducs essay, story, and none can fail to notice the read online, difference between this modulated, suggestive, and artistically moulded horror andto use the words of Professor George Saintsbury“the artful but rather jejune rationalism of Mrs. Radcliffe, and the too often puerile extravagance, the bad taste, and the sometimes slipshod style of Lewis.” Maturin’s style in itself deserves particular praise, for its forcible directness and vitality lift it altogether above the ghost, pompous artificialities of which his predecessors are guilty. Professor Edith Birkhead, in her history of the Gothic novel, justly observes that with all his faults Maturin was the greatest as well as the last of the Goths. Melmoth was widely read and eventually dramatised, but its late date in the evolution of the Gothic tale deprived it of the dissertation read online, tumultuous popularity of Udolpho and The Monk. Meanwhile other hands had not been idle, so that above the dreary plethora of trash like Marquis von Grosse’s Horrid Mysteries (1796), Mrs. Roche’s Children of the Abbey (1796), Miss Dacre’s Zofloya; or, The Moor (1806), and the poet Shelley’s schoolboy effusions Zastrozzi (1810) and St.

Irvyne (1811) (both imitations of Zofloya ) there arose many memorable weird works both in help English and read, German. Classic in merit, and markedly different from its fellows because of its foundation in the Oriental tale rather than the Walpolesque Gothic novel, is the celebrated History of the essay 2009, Caliph Vathek by the wealthy dilettante William Beckford, first written in the French language but published in an English translation before the appearance of the original. Eastern tales, introduced to European literature early in read the eighteenth century through Galland’s French translation of the the panda thumb essay, inexhaustibly opulent Arabian Nights, had become a reigning fashion; being used both for online, allegory and for amusement. War Two Essays? The sly humour which only the Eastern mind knows how to mix with weirdness had captivated a sophisticated generation, till Bagdad and Damascus names became as freely strown through popular literature as dashing Italian and Spanish ones were soon to be. Beckford, well read in Eastern romance, caught the atmosphere with unusual receptivity; and in read his fantastic volume reflected very potently the haughty luxury, sly disillusion, bland cruelty, urbane treachery, and shadowy spectral horror of the music, Saracen spirit. His seasoning of the dissertation read online, ridiculous seldom mars the force of his sinister theme, and the tale marches onward with a phantasmagoric pomp in which the laughter is that of skeletons feasting under Arabesque domes.

Vathek is a tale of the grandson of the Caliph Haroun, who, tormented by that ambition for super-terrestrial power, pleasure, and learning which animates the average Gothic villain or Byronic hero (essentially cognate types), is lured by an evil genius to seek the subterranean throne of the mighty and fabulous pre-Adamite sultans in the fiery halls of Eblis, the Mahometan Devil. The descriptions of Vathek’s palaces and diversions, of his scheming sorceress-mother Carathis and her witch-tower with the fifty one-eyed negresses, of his pilgrimage to the haunted ruins of Istakhar (Persepolis) and of the impish bride Nouronihar whom he treacherously acquired on a good, the way, of Istakhar’s primordial towers and terraces in the burning moonlight of the waste, and of the terrible Cyclopean halls of Eblis, where, lured by glittering promises, each victim is compelled to wander in anguish for ever, his right hand upon his blazingly ignited and eternally burning heart, are triumphs of read online, weird colouring which raise the book to a permanent place in English letters. No less notable are the three Episodes of Vathek, intended for insertion in the tale as narratives of Vathek’s fellow-victims in Eblis’ infernal halls, which remained unpublished throughout the author’s lifetime and were discovered as recently as 1909 by the scholar Lewis Melville whilst collecting material for his Life and Letters of William Beckford. Beckford, however, lacks the essential mysticism which marks the acutest form of the weird; so that his tales have a certain knowing Latin hardness and clearness preclusive of sheer panic fright. But Beckford remained alone in his devotion to the Orient. Other writers, closer to the Gothic tradition and to European life in general, were content to follow more faithfully in the lead of my essay.com, Walpole. Dissertation Read Online? Among the countless producers of terror-literature in these times may be mentioned the Utopian economic theorist William Godwin, who followed his famous but non-supernatural Caleb Williams (1794) with the intendedly weird St. Leon (1799), in which the help my essay.com, theme of the elixir of life, as developed by the imaginary secret order of “Rosicrucians”, is handled with ingeniousness if not with atmospheric convincingness. This element of Rosicrucianism, fostered by a wave of popular magical interest exemplified in the vogue of the charlatan Cagliostro and the publication of Francis Barrett’s The Magus (1801), a curious and compendious treatise on occult principles and ceremonies, of which a reprint was made as lately as 1896, figures in Bulwer-Lytton and in many late Gothic novels, especially that remote and enfeebled posterity which straggled far down into the nineteenth century and was represented by dissertation online George W. M. Reynolds’ Faust and the Demon and Wagner, the Wehr-wolf.

Caleb Williams, though non-supernatural, has many authentic touches of terror. It is the tale of a servant persecuted by circuit des ducs a master whom he has found guilty of murder, and displays an invention and skill which have kept it alive in a fashion to this day. It was dramatised as The Iron Chest, and in that form was almost equally celebrated. Godwin, however, was too much the conscious teacher and prosaic man of thought to dissertation create a genuine weird masterpiece. His daughter, the wife of Shelley, was much more successful; and her inimitable Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus (1818) is how to a good essay introduction, one of the horror-classics of all time. Composed in competition with her husband, Lord Byron, and Dr. John William Polidori in an effort to prove supremacy in horror-making, Mrs. Shelley’s Frankenstein was the only one of the rival narratives to be brought to an elaborate completion; and criticism has failed to prove that the dissertation read, best parts are due to ghost Shelley rather than to her. The novel, somewhat tinged but scarcely marred by moral didacticism, tells of the artificial human being moulded from charnel fragments by Victor Frankenstein, a young Swiss medical student.

Created by its designer “in the mad pride of intellectuality”, the monster possesses full intelligence but owns a hideously loathsome form. It is rejected by dissertation read mankind, becomes embittered, and at length begins the successive murder of all whom young Frankenstein loves best, friends and help, family. It demands that Frankenstein create a wife for it; and dissertation read online, when the student finally refuses in essay 2009 horror lest the world be populated with such monsters, it departs with a hideous threat ‘to be with him on his wedding night’. Dissertation? Upon that night the descriptive, bride is strangled, and from that time on Frankenstein hunts down the monster, even into read online, the wastes of the Arctic. In the end, whilst seeking shelter on the ship of the descriptive, man who tells the story, Frankenstein himself is dissertation read, killed by the shocking object of his search and creation of his presumptuous pride. Some of the scenes in Frankenstein are unforgettable, as when the newly animated monster enters its creator’s room, parts the curtains of his bed, and gazes at him in the yellow moonlight with watery eyes“if eyes they may be called”. Mrs. Shelley wrote other novels, including the fairly notable Last Man; but never duplicated the success of help my essay.com, her first effort.

It has the true touch of cosmic fear, no matter how much the movement may lag in dissertation online places. Dr. Pros And Cons Of Using? Polidori developed his competing idea as a long short story, “The Vampyre”; in which we behold a suave villain of the true Gothic or Byronic type, and read online, encounter some excellent passages of stark fright, including a terrible nocturnal experience in a shunned Grecian wood. In this same period Sir Walter Scott frequently concerned himself with the and cons of using transport essay, weird, weaving it into dissertation online, many of his novels and poems, and sometimes producing such independent bits of narration as “The Tapestried Chamber” or “Wandering Willie’s Tale” in Redgauntlet, in the latter of which the force of the descriptive ghost, spectral and the diabolic is enhanced by a grotesque homeliness of speech and atmosphere. In 1830 Scott published his Letters on online, Demonology and Witchcraft, which still forms one of our best compendia of European witch-lore. Washington Irving is another famous figure not unconnected with the weird; for though most of help my essay.com, his ghosts are too whimsical and humorous to form genuinely spectral literature, a distinct inclination in this direction is to be noted in many of his productions. “The German Student” in Tales of a Traveller (1824) is online, a slyly concise and effective presentation of the old legend of the dead bride, whilst woven into the comic tissue of “The Money-Diggers” in the same volume is more than one hint of piratical apparitions in my essay.com the realms which Captain Kidd once roamed.

Thomas Moore also joined the dissertation read, ranks of the macabre artists in the poem Alciphron, which he later elaborated into how to write essay, the prose novel of The Epicurean (1827). Though merely relating the adventures of a young Athenian duped by the artifice of cunning Egyptian priests, Moore manages to infuse much genuine horror into his account of subterranean frights and wonders beneath the primordial temples of Memphis. De Quincey more than once revels in dissertation read grotesque and arabesque terrors, though with a desultoriness and the panda essay, learned pomp which deny him the rank of specialist. This era likewise saw the rise of William Harrison Ainsworth, whose romantic novels teem with the eerie and the gruesome. Capt. Marryat, besides writing such short tales as “The Werewolf”, made a memorable contribution in The Phantom Ship (1839), founded on the legend of the Flying Dutchman, whose spectral and read, accursed vessel sails for ever near the Cape of Good Hope.

Dickens now rises with occasional weird bits like “The Signalman”, a tale of ghostly warning conforming to a very common pattern and touched with a verisimilitude which allies it as much with the coming psychological school as with the pros and cons transport essay, dying Gothic school. At this time a wave of interest in spiritualistic charlatanry, mediumism, Hindoo theosophy, and such matters, much like that of the present day, was flourishing; so that the number of weird tales with a “psychic” or pseudo-scientific basis became very considerable. For a number of these the prolific and popular Lord Edward Bulwer-Lytton was responsible; and despite the large doses of turgid rhetoric and empty romanticism in his products, his success in the weaving of a certain kind of bizarre charm cannot be denied. “The House and the Brain”, which hints of dissertation read, Rosicrucianism and at descriptive essay ghost a malign and deathless figure perhaps suggested by dissertation online Louis XV’s mysterious courtier St. Germain, yet survives as one of the best short haunted-house tales ever written. The novel Zanoni (1842) contains similar elements more elaborately handled, and introduces a vast unknown sphere of essay of a, being pressing on our own world and guarded by a horrible “Dweller of the Threshold” who haunts those who try to enter and fail. Here we have a benign brotherhood kept alive from age to age till finally reduced to a single member, and as a hero an read online ancient Chaldaean sorcerer surviving in the pristine bloom of youth to pros public perish on the guillotine of the read online, French Revolution.

Though full of the conventional spirit of romance, marred by a ponderous network of symbolic and didactic meanings, and left unconvincing through lack of perfect atmospheric realisation of the situations hinging on the spectral world, Zanoni is really an excellent performance as a romantic novel; and write a good introduction, can be read with genuine interest today by the not too sophisticated reader. It is amusing to note that in describing an attempted initiation into the ancient brotherhood the author cannot escape using the stock Gothic castle of dissertation online, Walpolian lineage. In A Strange Story (1862) Bulwer-Lytton shews a marked improvement in pros and cons transport the creation of weird images and moods. The novel, despite enormous length, a highly artificial plot bolstered up by opportune coincidences, and an atmosphere of homiletic pseudo-science designed to read please the matter-of-fact and help my essay.com, purposeful Victorian reader, is exceedingly effective as a narrative; evoking instantaneous and dissertation, unflagging interest, and furnishing many potentif somewhat melodramatictableaux and climaxes. Again we have the mysterious user of life’s elixir in the person of the soulless magician Margrave, whose dark exploits stand out with dramatic vividness against the modern background of a quiet English town and of the Australian bush; and again we have shadowy intimations of a vast spectral world of the unknown in pros and cons of using public transport the very air about usthis time handled with much greater power and vitality than in Zanoni.

One of the two great incantation passages, where the hero is online, driven by essay a luminous evil spirit to dissertation read online rise at world essays night in his sleep, take a strange Egyptian wand, and evoke nameless presences in the haunted and mausoleum-facing pavilion of a famous Renaissance alchemist, truly stands among the read, major terror scenes of literature. Just enough is suggested, and just little enough is told. Unknown words are twice dictated to the sleep-walker, and music during world essays, as he repeats them the dissertation read, ground trembles, and circuit, all the dogs of the countryside begin to bay at half-seen amorphous shadows that stalk athwart the moonlight. When a third set of unknown words is read online, prompted, the sleep-walker’s spirit suddenly rebels at uttering them, as if the soul could recognise ultimate abysmal horrors concealed from the mind; and at last an apparition of an absent sweetheart and good angel breaks the malign spell. This fragment well illustrates how far Lord Lytton was capable of progressing beyond his usual pomp and stock romance toward that crystalline essence of artistic fear which belongs to the domain of poetry. Circuit Des Ducs Essay 2009? In describing certain details of incantations, Lytton was greatly indebted to his amusingly serious occult studies, in the course of which he came in touch with that odd French scholar and cabbalist Alphonse-Louis Constant (“Eliphas Lévi”), who claimed to possess the dissertation online, secrets of pros of using public essay, ancient magic, and to have evoked the spectre of the old Grecian wizard Apollonius of Tyana, who lived in Nero’s time.

The romantic, semi-Gothic, quasi-moral tradition here represented was carried far down the read online, nineteenth century by such authors as Joseph Sheridan LeFanu, Thomas Preskett Prest with his famous Varney, the Vampyre (1847), Wilkie Collins, the late Sir H. Rider Haggard (whose She is really remarkably good), Sir A. Conan Doyle, H. Des Ducs 2009? G. Wells, and Robert Louis Stevensonthe latter of whom, despite an atrocious tendency toward jaunty mannerisms, created permanent classics in dissertation read online “Markheim”, “The Body-Snatcher”, and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Music During World War Two Essays? Hyde. Indeed, we may say that this school still survives; for to it clearly belong such of dissertation read online, our contemporary horror-tales as specialise in events rather than atmospheric details, address the intellect rather than the impressionistic imagination, cultivate a luminous glamour rather than a malign tensity or psychological verisimilitude, and take a definite stand in sympathy with mankind and its welfare. It has its undeniable strength, and because of its “human element” commands a wider audience than does the sheer artistic nightmare. If not quite so potent as the latter, it is because a diluted product can never achieve the intensity of a concentrated essence. Quite alone both as a novel and as a piece of and cons transport, terror-literature stands the famous Wuthering Heights (1847) by Emily Brontë, with its mad vista of bleak, windswept Yorkshire moors and the violent, distorted lives they foster. Though primarily a tale of life, and of human passions in agony and conflict, its epically cosmic setting affords room for horror of the most spiritual sort.

Heathcliff, the modified Byronic villain-hero, is a strange dark waif found in the streets as a small child and read, speaking only a strange gibberish till adopted by the family he ultimately ruins. Descriptive Essay Of A? That he is in truth a diabolic spirit rather than a human being is more than once suggested, and the unreal is further approached in the experience of the visitor who encounters a plaintive child-ghost at a bough-brushed upper window. Between Heathcliff and Catherine Earnshaw is a tie deeper and more terrible than human love. After her death he twice disturbs her grave, and is haunted by an impalpable presence which can be nothing less than her spirit. The spirit enters his life more and more, and at last he becomes confident of some imminent mystical reunion. Dissertation Read Online? He says he feels a strange change approaching, and ceases to take nourishment. Descriptive Essay? At night he either walks abroad or opens the casement by his bed. When he dies the casement is read, still swinging open to the pouring rain, and a queer smile pervades the stiffened face.

They bury him in a grave beside the mound he has haunted for eighteen years, and small shepherd boys say that he yet walks with his Catherine in the churchyard and on the moor when it rains. Their faces, too, are sometimes seen on rainy nights behind that upper casement at Wuthering Heights. Help My Essay.com? Miss Brontë’s eerie terror is read, no mere Gothic echo, but a tense expression of man’s shuddering reaction to the unknown. In this respect, Wuthering Heights becomes the write a good essay, symbol of a literary transition, and marks the growth of a new and sounder school. On the Continent literary horror fared well.

The celebrated short tales and novels of Ernst Theodor Wilhelm Hoffmann (17761822) are a byword for dissertation read online, mellowness of background and maturity of form, though they incline to levity and descriptive, extravagance, and lack the exalted moments of stark, breathless terror which a less sophisticated writer might have achieved. Dissertation Online? Generally they convey the grotesque rather than the terrible. Most artistic of all the circuit des ducs 2009, Continental weird tales is the German classic Undine (1811), by Friedrich Heinrich Karl, Baron de la Motte Fouqué. Read? In this story of a water-spirit who married a mortal and gained a human soul there is a delicate fineness of craftsmanship which makes it notable in any department of literature, and and cons of using public essay, an easy naturalness which places it close to the genuine folk-myth. It is, in fact, derived from a tale told by the Renaissance physician and dissertation online, alchemist Paracelsus in pros and cons public transport essay his Treatise on Elemental Sprites. Undine, daughter of a powerful water-prince, was exchanged by her father as a small child for a fisherman’s daughter, in order that she might acquire a soul by wedding a human being. Meeting the noble youth Huldbrand at the cottage of her foster-father by the sea at the edge of a haunted wood, she soon marries him, and accompanies him to his ancestral castle of dissertation online, Ringstetten. How To Write Essay? Huldbrand, however, eventually wearies of his wife’s supernatural affiliations, and especially of the appearances of her uncle, the malicious woodland waterfall-spirit Kühleborn; a weariness increased by dissertation his growing affection for Bertalda, who turns out to be the music during world essays, fisherman’s child for whom Undine was exchanged. At length, on a voyage down the Danube, he is dissertation online, provoked by some innocent act of his devoted wife to utter the angry words which consign her back to her supernatural element; from which she can, by the laws of her species, return only how to write, onceto kill him, whether she will or no, if ever he prove unfaithful to her memory.

Later, when Huldbrand is about to be married to read online Bertalda, Undine returns for how to essay, her sad duty, and bears his life away in tears. When he is dissertation read, buried among his fathers in the village churchyard a veiled, snow-white female figure appears among the mourners, but after the prayer is how to write a good introduction, seen no more. In her place is seen a little silver spring, which murmurs its way almost completely around the new grave, and empties into a neighbouring lake. Dissertation? The villagers shew it to this day, and say that Undine and her Huldbrand are thus united in death. Many passages and atmospheric touches in this tale reveal Fouqué as an the panda thumb accomplished artist in the field of the macabre; especially the descriptions of the haunted wood with its gigantic snow-white man and various unnamed terrors, which occur early in the narrative. Not so well known as Undine, but remarkable for dissertation online, its convincing realism and freedom from Gothic stock devices, is the Amber Witch of Wilhelm Meinhold, another product of the German fantastic genius of the earlier nineteenth century.

This tale, which is laid in the time of the Thirty Years’ War, purports to be a clergyman’s manuscript found in an old church at Coserow, and centres round the writer’s daughter, Maria Schweidler, who is wrongly accused of witchcraft. She has found a deposit of amber which she keeps secret for various reasons, and the unexplained wealth obtained from this lends colour to the accusation; an accusation instigated by the malice of the wolf-hunting nobleman Wittich Appelmann, who has vainly pursued her with ignoble designs. The deeds of a real witch, who afterward comes to a horrible supernatural end in prison, are glibly imputed to the hapless Maria; and after a typical witchcraft trial with forced confessions under torture she is about to essays be burned at the stake when saved just in time by her lover, a noble youth from a neighbouring district. Meinhold’s great strength is in his air of casual and realistic verisimilitude, which intensifies our suspense and sense of the unseen by half persuading us that the menacing events must somehow be either the read online, truth or very close to help the truth. Indeed, so thorough is dissertation read, this realism that a popular magazine once published the and cons public, main points of The Amber Witch as an actual occurrence of the seventeenth century! In the dissertation read, present generation German horror-fiction is most notably represented by Hanns Heinz Ewers, who brings to bear on his dark conceptions an effective knowledge of modern psychology. Novels like The Sorcerer’s Apprentice and Alraune, and short stories like “The Spider”, contain distinctive qualities which raise them to a classic level. But France as well as Germany has been active in the realm of weirdness. Victor Hugo, in such tales as Hans of Iceland, and Balzac, in The Wild Ass’s Skin, Séraphîta, and Louis Lambert, both employ supernaturalism to a greater or less extent; though generally only the panda essay, as a means to some more human end, and without the sincere and daemonic intensity which characterises the born artist in shadows.

It is in Théophile Gautier that we first seem to find an authentic French sense of the unreal world, and here there appears a spectral mastery which, though not continuously used, is recognisable at once as something alike genuine and profound. Short tales like “Avatar”, “The Foot of the Mummy”, and “Clarimonde” display glimpses of forbidden visits that allure, tantalise, and sometimes horrify; whilst the Egyptian visions evoked in “One of Cleopatra’s Nights” are of the keenest and dissertation read, most expressive potency. Gautier captured the inmost soul of aeon-weighted Egypt, with its cryptic life and Cyclopean architecture, and uttered once and for all the eternal horror of its nether world of help, catacombs, where to the end of time millions of stiff, spiced corpses will stare up in the blackness with glassy eyes, awaiting some awesome and unrelatable summons. Gustave Flaubert ably continued the tradition of Gautier in orgies of poetic phantasy like The Temptation of St. Anthony, and but for a strong realistic bias might have been an arch-weaver of tapestried terrors. Later on we see the stream divide, producing strange poets and fantaisistes of the dissertation read, Symbolist and Decadent schools whose dark interests really centre more in how to write introduction abnormalities of human thought and instinct than in the actual supernatural, and subtle story-tellers whose thrills are quite directly derived from the online, night-black wells of cosmic unreality. Of the former class of “artists in sin” the illustrious poet Baudelaire, influenced vastly by world war two Poe, is the supreme type; whilst the dissertation read online, psychological novelist Joris-Karl Huysmans, a true child of the eighteen-nineties, is at once the summation and descriptive essay of a ghost, finale.

The latter and purely narrative class is continued by Prosper Mérimée, whose “Venus of Ille” presents in terse and convincing prose the same ancient statue-bride theme which Thomas Moore cast in ballad form in “The Ring”. The horror-tales of the dissertation online, powerful and war two, cynical Guy de Maupassant, written as his final madness gradually overtook him, present individualities of their own; being rather the morbid outpourings of a realistic mind in a pathological state than the healthy imaginative products of a vision naturally disposed toward phantasy and sensitive to the normal illusions of the unseen. Nevertheless they are of the keenest interest and poignancy; suggesting with marvellous force the imminence of nameless terrors, and dissertation read, the relentless dogging of an ill-starred individual by hideous and menacing representatives of the outer blackness. Of these stories “The Horla” is generally regarded as the masterpiece. Music Essays? Relating the advent to France of an invisible being who lives on water and milk, sways the minds of others, and seems to be the vanguard of a horde of extra-terrestrial organisms arrived on earth to subjugate and overwhelm mankind, this tense narrative is perhaps without a peer in its particular department; notwithstanding its indebtedness to a tale by the American Fitz-James O’Brien for details in describing the actual presence of the unseen monster. Read? Other potently dark creations of de Maupassant are “Who Knows?”, “The Spectre”, “He?”, “The Diary of a Madman”, “The White Wolf”, “On the River”, and the grisly verses entitled “Horror”. The collaborators Erckmann-Chatrian enriched French literature with many spectral fancies like The Man-Wolf, in which a transmitted curse works toward its end in a traditional Gothic-castle setting. Their power of creating a shuddering midnight atmosphere was tremendous despite a tendency toward natural explanations and scientific wonders; and pros, few short tales contain greater horror than “The Invisible Eye”, where a malignant old hag weaves nocturnal hypnotic spells which induce the successive occupants of a certain inn chamber to hang themselves on dissertation, a cross-beam. “The Owl’s Ear” and “The Waters of Death” are full of engulfing darkness and essay, mystery, the latter embodying the familiar overgrown-spider theme so frequently employed by weird fictionists. Villiers de l’Isle-Adam likewise followed the macabre school; his “Torture by Hope”, the tale of a stake-condemned prisoner permitted to escape in order to feel the pangs of online, recapture, being held by some to pros and cons of using public constitute the most harrowing short story in literature. This type, however, is less a part of the weird tradition than a class peculiar to itselfthe so-called conte cruel, in which the wrenching of the emotions is accomplished through dramatic tantalisations, frustrations, and gruesome physical horrors.

Almost wholly devoted to this form is the living writer Maurice Level, whose very brief episodes have lent themselves so readily to read online theatrical adaptation in during war two essays the “thrillers” of the Grand Guignol. As a matter of dissertation online, fact, the French genius is more naturally suited to this dark realism than to the suggestion of the unseen; since the latter process requires, for its best and most sympathetic development on a large scale, the how to essay, inherent mysticism of the Northern mind. A very flourishing, though till recently quite hidden, branch of weird literature is dissertation read, that of the Jews, kept alive and nourished in obscurity by the sombre heritage of early Eastern magic, apocalyptic literature, and cabbalism. The Semitic mind, like the Celtic and write essay introduction, Teutonic, seems to dissertation online possess marked mystical inclinations; and the wealth of underground horror-lore surviving in ghettoes and synagogues must be much more considerable than is generally imagined. Cabbalism itself, so prominent during the Middle Ages, is a system of philosophy explaining the universe as emanations of the Deity, and involving the existence of strange spiritual realms and beings apart from the of using transport, visible world, of which dark glimpses may be obtained through certain secret incantations. Its ritual is bound up with mystical interpretations of the online, Old Testament, and attributes an esoteric significance to each letter of the Hebrew alphabeta circumstance which has imparted to Hebrew letters a sort of my essay.com, spectral glamour and dissertation, potency in and cons of using essay the popular literature of magic.

Jewish folklore has preserved much of the terror and online, mystery of the past, and when more thoroughly studied is des ducs essay 2009, likely to online exert considerable influence on weird fiction. The best examples of its literary use so far are the German novel The Golem, by Gustav Meyrink, and the drama The Dybbuk, by the Jewish writer using the and cons public, pseudonym “Ansky”. Dissertation Online? The former, with its haunting shadowy suggestions of marvels and horrors just beyond reach, is laid in Prague, and music during essays, describes with singular mastery that city’s ancient ghetto with its spectral, peaked gables. The name is derived from read online a fabulous artificial giant supposed to be made and animated by mediaeval rabbis according to a certain cryptic formula. The Dybbuk, translated and produced in America in 1925, and more recently produced as an opera, describes with singular power the possession of a living body by the evil soul of a dead man.

Both golems and dybbuks are fixed types, and serve as frequent ingredients of essay, later Jewish tradition. In the eighteen-thirties occurred a literary dawn directly affecting not only the history of the weird tale, but that of short fiction as a whole; and indirectly moulding the trends and fortunes of a great European aesthetic school. It is our good fortune as Americans to be able to claim that dawn as our own, for it came in the person of our illustrious and online, unfortunate fellow-countryman Edgar Allan Poe. Poe’s fame has been subject to curious undulations, and it is now a fashion amongst the music world, “advanced intelligentsia” to minimise his importance both as an dissertation artist and as an influence; but it would be hard for any mature and reflective critic to deny the tremendous value of his work and the pervasive potency of his mind as an opener of artistic vistas. True, his type of outlook may have been anticipated; but it was he who first realised its possibilities and gave it supreme form and systematic expression. True also, that subsequent writers may have produced greater single tales than his; but again we must comprehend that it was only he who taught them by example and precept the art which they, having the way cleared for of using essay, them and given an explicit guide, were perhaps able to online carry to greater lengths. And Cons Of Using Public? Whatever his limitations, Poe did that which no one else ever did or could have done; and to him we owe the modern horror-story in dissertation its final and perfected state. Before Poe the bulk of weird writers had worked largely in the dark; without an understanding of the psychological basis of the horror appeal, and hampered by more or less of world war two essays, conformity to certain empty literary conventions such as the dissertation online, happy ending, virtue rewarded, and in general a hollow moral didacticism, acceptance of popular standards and values, and and cons of using, striving of the author to obtrude his own emotions into the story and dissertation, take sides with the partisans of the majority’s artificial ideas. Poe, on the other hand, perceived the essential impersonality of the real artist; and knew that the essay 2009, function of creative fiction is merely to express and interpret events and sensations as they are, regardless of how they tend or what they provegood or evil, attractive or repulsive, stimulating or depressingwith the author always acting as a vivid and detached chronicler rather than as a teacher, sympathiser, or vendor of dissertation read, opinion.

He saw clearly that all phases of life and thought are equally eligible as subject-matter for the artist, and being inclined by temperament to strangeness and circuit essay, gloom, decided to be the interpreter of those powerful feeling, and frequent happenings which attend pain rather than pleasure, decay rather than growth, terror rather than tranquillity, and which are fundamentally either adverse or indifferent to the tastes and traditional outward sentiments of mankind, and to the health, sanity, and normal expansive welfare of the species. Poe’s spectres thus acquired a convincing malignity possessed by none of their predecessors, and dissertation online, established a new standard of realism in essay introduction the annals of literary horror. The impersonal and artistic intent, moreover, was aided by a scientific attitude not often found before; whereby Poe studied the human mind rather than the usages of Gothic fiction, and worked with an analytical knowledge of terror’s true sources which doubled the force of his narratives and emancipated him from all the absurdities inherent in merely conventional shudder-coining. This example having been set, later authors were naturally forced to conform to it in order to compete at dissertation read online all; so that in this way a definite change began to affect the main stream of macabre writing. Poe, too, set a fashion in consummate craftsmanship; and although today some of his own work seems slightly melodramatic and descriptive essay of a, unsophisticated, we can constantly trace his influence in such things as the maintenance of a single mood and achievement of a single impression in a tale, and the rigorous paring down of incidents to such as have a direct bearing on the plot and dissertation read online, will figure prominently in essay 2009 the climax. Dissertation? Truly may it be said that Poe invented the short story in its present form. His elevation of how to write a good, disease, perversity, and decay to the level of artistically expressible themes was likewise infinitely far-reaching in read online effect; for avidly seized, sponsored, and music during world war two, intensified by his eminent French admirer Charles Pierre Baudelaire, it became the nucleus of the principal aesthetic movements in France, thus making Poe in a sense the father of the read, Decadents and during world war two, the Symbolists.

Poet and critic by nature and supreme attainment, logician and philosopher by taste and mannerism, Poe was by dissertation no means immune from pros public transport defects and affectations. His pretence to profound and obscure scholarship, his blundering ventures in stilted and laboured pseudo-humour, and his often vitriolic outbursts of critical prejudice must all be recognised and forgiven. Read? Beyond and above them, and dwarfing them to insignificance, was a master’s vision of the terror that stalks about and within us, and the worm that writhes and slavers in the hideously close abyss. Penetrating to circuit des ducs essay 2009 every festering horror in the gaily painted mockery called existence, and in the solemn masquerade called human thought and feelings that vision had power to project itself in blackly magical crystallisations and transmutations; till there bloomed in the sterile America of the ’thirties and ’forties such a moon-nourished garden of gorgeous poison fungi as not even the nether slope of read, Saturn might boast. The Panda? Verses and tales alike sustain the burthen of cosmic panic. The raven whose noisome beak pierces the heart, the ghouls that toll iron bells in pestilential steeples, the vault of Ulalume in the black October night, the shocking spires and online, domes under the sea, the “wild, weird clime that lieth, sublime, out of Spaceout of Time”all these things and more leer at us amidst maniacal rattlings in the seething nightmare of the poetry. And in the prose there yawn open for us the very jaws of the pitinconceivable abnormalities slyly hinted into a horrible half-knowledge by words whose innocence we scarcely doubt till the cracked tension of the speaker’s hollow voice bids us fear their nameless implications; daemoniac patterns and presences slumbering noxiously till waked for one phobic instant into descriptive of a ghost, a shrieking revelation that cackles itself to dissertation online sudden madness or explodes in memorable and cataclysmic echoes. A Witches’ Sabbath of help, horror flinging off decorous robes is flashed before usa sight the more monstrous because of the scientific skill with which every particular is marshalled and brought into dissertation online, an easy apparent relation to the known gruesomeness of material life.

Poe’s tales, of course, fall into pros and cons of using essay, several classes; some of which contain a purer essence of spiritual horror than others. The tales of logic and ratiocination, forerunners of the modern detective story, are not to be included at dissertation all in weird literature; whilst certain others, probably influenced considerably by Hoffmann, possess an pros public extravagance which relegates them to the borderline of the grotesque. Still a third group deal with abnormal psychology and monomania in such a way as to express terror but not weirdness. A substantial residuum, however, represent the literature of supernatural horror in its acutest form; and give their author a permanent and unassailable place as deity and fountain-head of all modern diabolic fiction. Who can forget the terrible swollen ship poised on the billow-chasm’s edge in “MS. Found in a Bottle”the dark intimations of her unhallowed age and monstrous growth, her sinister crew of unseeing greybeards, and her frightful southward rush under full sail through the ice of the Antarctic night, sucked onward by online some resistless devil-current toward a vortex of eldritch enlightenment which must end in destruction? Then there is the unutterable “M.

Valdemar”, kept together by hypnotism for seven months after his death, and uttering frantic sounds but a moment before the breaking of the spell leaves him “a nearly liquid mass of loathsomeof detestable putrescence”. In the how to a good essay introduction, Narrative of A. Gordon Pym the read online, voyagers reach first a strange south polar land of murderous savages where nothing is pros and cons of using transport, white and where vast rocky ravines have the dissertation read, form of titanic Egyptian letters spelling terrible primal arcana of earth; and thereafter a still more mysterious realm where everything is white, and where shrouded giants and snowy-plumed birds guard a cryptic cataract of mist which empties from immeasurable celestial heights into a torrid milky sea. “Metzengerstein” horrifies with its malign hints of a monstrous metempsychosisthe mad nobleman who burns the stable of help my essay.com, his hereditary foe; the colossal unknown horse that issues from the blazing building after the owner has perished therein; the vanishing bit of ancient tapestry where was shewn the giant horse of the read, victim’s ancestor in the Crusades; the madman’s wild and constant riding on the great horse, and his fear and hatred of the steed; the meaningless prophecies that brood obscurely over the warring houses; and finally, the burning of the madman’s palace and the death therein of the owner, borne helpless into the flames and during world war two, up the vast staircases astride the beast he has ridden so strangely. Afterward the rising smoke of the ruins takes the online, form of a gigantic horse. “The Man of the Crowd”, telling of one who roams day and the panda, night to mingle with streams of people as if afraid to be alone, has quieter effects, but implies nothing less of cosmic fear. Poe’s mind was never far from terror and read, decay, and des ducs 2009, we see in every tale, poem, and philosophical dialogue a tense eagerness to fathom unplumbed wells of dissertation, night, to pierce the veil of death, and to reign in my essay.com fancy as lord of the online, frightful mysteries of time and space. Certain of Poe’s tales possess an almost absolute perfection of artistic form which makes them veritable beacon-lights in the province of the short story.

Poe could, when he wished, give to his prose a richly poetic cast; employing that archaic and 2009, Orientalised style with jewelled phrase, quasi-Biblical repetition, and recurrent burthen so successfully used by later writers like Oscar Wilde and dissertation, Lord Dunsany; and in the cases where he has done this we have an effect of lyrical phantasy almost narcotic in essencean opium pageant of help, dream in the language of dream, with every unnatural colour and grotesque image bodied forth in a symphony of read online, corresponding sound. “The Masque of the world essays, Red Death”, “SilenceA Fable”, and “ShadowA Parable” are assuredly poems in every sense of the word save the metrical one, and owe as much of their power to aural cadence as to visual imagery. Dissertation Read Online? But it is in two of the less openly poetic tales, “Ligeia” and “The Fall of the House of essays, Usher”especially the latterthat one finds those very summits of artistry whereby Poe takes his place at the head of read online, fictional miniaturists. Simple and straightforward in plot, both of help my essay.com, these tales owe their supreme magic to the cunning development which appears in the selection and online, collocation of every least incident. “Ligeia” tells of a first wife of lofty and mysterious origin, who after death returns through a preternatural force of will to take possession of the the panda thumb essay, body of a second wife; imposing even her physical appearance on the temporary reanimated corpse of her victim at the last moment. Despite a suspicion of prolixity and topheaviness, the dissertation read, narrative reaches its terrific climax with relentless power. “Usher”, whose superiority in detail and proportion is thumb essay, very marked, hints shudderingly of obscure life in dissertation inorganic things, and displays an my essay.com abnormally linked trinity of entities at the end of a long and isolated family historya brother, his twin sister, and their incredibly ancient house all sharing a single soul and dissertation read online, meeting one common dissolution at the same moment. These bizarre conceptions, so awkward in unskilful hands, become under Poe’s spell living and convincing terrors to haunt our nights; and the panda thumb, all because the author understood so perfectly the very mechanics and physiology of fear and read online, strangenessthe essential details to emphasise, the precise incongruities and pros and cons of using, conceits to select as preliminaries or concomitants to read online horror, the exact incidents and allusions to throw out innocently in 2009 advance as symbols or prefigurings of each major step toward the dissertation read online, hideous denouement to come, the nice adjustments of cumulative force and the unerring accuracy in linkage of parts which make for faultless unity throughout and thunderous effectiveness at the climactic moment, the des ducs essay 2009, delicate nuances of scenic and landscape value to select in establishing and sustaining the dissertation, desired mood and vitalising the desired illusionprinciples of essay introduction, this kind, and dozens of obscurer ones too elusive to be described or even fully comprehended by any ordinary commentator. Melodrama and read, unsophistication there may bewe are told of one fastidious Frenchman who could not bear to read Poe except in Baudelaire’s urbane and Gallically modulated translationbut all traces of such things are wholly overshadowed by a potent and inborn sense of the spectral, the morbid, and the horrible which gushed forth from every cell of the artist’s creative mentality and stamped his macabre work with the 2009, ineffaceable mark of supreme genius.

Poe’s weird tales are alive in a manner that few others can ever hope to be. Like most fantaisistes, Poe excels in incidents and broad narrative effects rather than in online character drawing. Help? His typical protagonist is generally a dark, handsome, proud, melancholy, intellectual, highly sensitive, capricious, introspective, isolated, and sometimes slightly mad gentleman of ancient family and opulent circumstances; usually deeply learned in dissertation online strange lore, and darkly ambitious of penetrating to forbidden secrets of the universe. Aside from a high-sounding name, this character obviously derives little from the early Gothic novel; for he is clearly neither the wooden hero nor the diabolical villain of Radcliffian or Ludovician romance. Indirectly, however, he does possess a sort of genealogical connexion; since his gloomy, ambitious, and help my essay.com, anti-social qualities savour strongly of the typical Byronic hero, who in turn is definitely an offspring of the Gothic Manfreds, Montonis, and dissertation read, Ambrosios. More particular qualities appear to be derived from the psychology of music essays, Poe himself, who certainly possessed much of the depression, sensitiveness, mad aspiration, loneliness, and extravagant freakishness which he attributes to his haughty and solitary victims of Fate. The public for whom Poe wrote, though grossly unappreciative of dissertation read, his art, was by no means unaccustomed to the horrors with which he dealt. America, besides inheriting the usual dark folklore of Europe, had an additional fund of write a good essay, weird associations to draw upon; so that spectral legends had already been recognised as fruitful subject-matter for literature. Charles Brockden Brown had achieved phenomenal fame with his Radcliffian romances, and Washington Irving’s lighter treatment of eerie themes had quickly become classic. This additional fund proceeded, as Paul Elmer More has pointed out, from the keen spiritual and theological interests of the first colonists, plus the strange and forbidding nature of the scene into which they were plunged.

The vast and gloomy virgin forests in whose perpetual twilight all terrors might well lurk; the hordes of coppery Indians whose strange, saturnine visages and violent customs hinted strongly at dissertation read traces of write a good essay introduction, infernal origin; the dissertation online, free rein given under the my essay.com, influence of Puritan theocracy to read all manner of notions respecting man’s relation to pros transport essay the stern and vengeful God of the Calvinists, and to dissertation online the sulphureous Adversary of that God, about whom so much was thundered in the pulpits each Sunday; and the morbid introspection developed by help my essay.com an isolated backwoods life devoid of normal amusements and of the recreational mood, harassed by commands for theological self-examination, keyed to unnatural emotional repression, and forming above all a mere grim struggle for survivalall these things conspired to produce an environment in which the dissertation, black whisperings of sinister grandams were heard far beyond the chimney corner, and in which tales of witchcraft and unbelievable secret monstrosities lingered long after the dread days of the Salem nightmare. Poe represents the the panda essay, newer, more disillusioned, and more technically finished of the weird schools that rose out of this propitious milieu. Another schoolthe tradition of moral values, gentle restraint, and mild, leisurely phantasy tinged more or less with the whimsicalwas represented by another famous, misunderstood, and lonely figure in American lettersthe shy and sensitive Nathaniel Hawthorne, scion of antique Salem and dissertation read, great-grandson of one of the essay ghost, bloodiest of the old witchcraft judges. Dissertation? In Hawthorne we have none of the violence, the daring, the high colouring, the thumb essay, intense dramatic sense, the cosmic malignity, and the undivided and impersonal artistry of Poe. Here, instead, is a gentle soul cramped by the Puritanism of early New England; shadowed and wistful, and grieved at read an unmoral universe which everywhere transcends the conventional patterns thought by music during essays our forefathers to represent divine and immutable law. Evil, a very real force to Hawthorne, appears on every hand as a lurking and read, conquering adversary; and the visible world becomes in his fancy a theatre of descriptive essay, infinite tragedy and woe, with unseen half-existent influences hovering over it and dissertation, through it, battling for supremacy and moulding the circuit 2009, destinies of the hapless mortals who form its vain and self-deluded population. Dissertation? The heritage of American weirdness was his to a most intense degree, and he saw a dismal throng of vague spectres behind the and cons of using public transport, common phenomena of life; but he was not disinterested enough to dissertation read value impressions, sensations, and beauties of narration for their own sake. He must needs weave his phantasy into some quietly melancholy fabric of didactic or allegorical cast, in which his meekly resigned cynicism may display with naive moral appraisal the perfidy of a human race which he cannot cease to cherish and essay of a, mourn despite his insight into its hypocrisy. Supernatural horror, then, is never a primary object with Hawthorne; though its impulses were so deeply woven into his personality that he cannot help suggesting it with the force of read online, genius when he calls upon the unreal world to illustrate the pensive sermon he wishes to preach.

Hawthorne’s intimations of the weird, always gentle, elusive, and restrained, may be traced throughout his work. The mood that produced them found one delightful vent in the Teutonised retelling of classic myths for children contained in A Wonder Book and Tanglewood Tales, and at other times exercised itself in casting a certain strangeness and intangible witchery or malevolence over events not meant to be actually supernatural; as in the macabre posthumous novel Dr. How To A Good? Grimshawe’s Secret, which invests with a peculiar sort of repulsion a house existing to this day in Salem, and abutting on dissertation read online, the ancient Charter Street Burying Ground. In The Marble Faun, whose design was sketched out in circuit 2009 an Italian villa reputed to be haunted, a tremendous background of genuine phantasy and mystery palpitates just beyond the common reader’s sight; and glimpses of fabulous blood in dissertation online mortal veins are hinted at during the and cons of using public, course of a romance which cannot help being interesting despite the persistent incubus of moral allegory, anti-Popery propaganda, and a Puritan prudery which has caused the late D. H. Dissertation Online? Lawrence to how to a good introduction express a longing to treat the author in a highly undignified manner. Septimius Felton, a posthumous novel whose idea was to have been elaborated and incorporated into the unfinished Dolliver Romance, touches on the Elixir of Life in online a more or less capable fashion; whilst the notes for war two essays, a never-written tale to be called “The Ancestral Footstep” shew what Hawthorne would have done with an intensive treatment of an old English superstitionthat of an ancient and dissertation online, accursed line whose members left footprints of blood as they walkedwhich appears incidentally in both Septimius Felton and Dr. Grimshawe’s Secret. Many of Hawthorne’s shorter tales exhibit weirdness, either of atmosphere or of incident, to a remarkable degree. “Edward Randolph’s Portrait”, in Legends of the Province House, has its diabolic moments. The Panda Essay? “The Minister’s Black Veil” (founded on an actual incident) and dissertation online, “The Ambitious Guest” imply much more than they state, whilst “Ethan Brand”a fragment of a longer work never completedrises to genuine heights of cosmic fear with its vignette of the pros public transport essay, wild hill country and the blazing, desolate lime-kilns, and its delineation of the Byronic “unpardonable sinner”, whose troubled life ends with a peal of fearful laughter in the night as he seeks rest amidst the flames of the furnace. Some of Hawthorne’s notes tell of weird tales he would have written had he lived longeran especially vivid plot being that concerning a baffling stranger who appeared now and read online, then in descriptive essay ghost public assemblies, and who was at last followed and found to come and go from a very ancient grave.

But foremost as a finished, artistic unit among all our author’s weird material is the famous and exquisitely wrought novel, The House of the Seven Gables, in which the relentless working out of an ancestral curse is developed with astonishing power against the sinister background of a very ancient Salem houseone of those peaked Gothic affairs which formed the read online, first regular building-up of our New England coast towns, but which gave way after the seventeenth century to the more familiar gambrel-roofed or classic Georgian types now known as “Colonial”. Of these old gabled Gothic houses scarcely a dozen are to be seen today in war two essays their original condition throughout the United States, but one well known to Hawthorne still stands in Turner Street, Salem, and is pointed out read online with doubtful authority as the scene and inspiration of the romance. Such an help my essay.com edifice, with its spectral peaks, its clustered chimneys, its overhanging second story, its grotesque corner-brackets, and its diamond-paned lattice windows, is dissertation, indeed an object well calculated to evoke sombre reflections; typifying as it does the dark Puritan age of concealed horror and help, witch-whispers which preceded the dissertation read online, beauty, rationality, and spaciousness of the eighteenth century. Hawthorne saw many in the panda thumb his youth, and knew the black tales connected with some of them. He heard, too, many rumours of a curse upon his own line as the result of his great-grandfather’s severity as a witchcraft judge in 1692. From this setting came the immortal taleNew England’s greatest contribution to dissertation read weird literatureand we can feel in help an instant the authenticity of the atmosphere presented to us. Stealthy horror and read online, disease lurk within the weather-blackened, moss-crusted, and elm-shadowed walls of the archaic dwelling so vividly displayed, and we grasp the brooding malignity of the essay 2009, place when we read that its builderold Colonel Pyncheonsnatched the land with peculiar ruthlessness from its original settler, Matthew Maule, whom he condemned to the gallows as a wizard in the year of the panic. Maule died cursing old Pyncheon“God will give him blood to drink”and the waters of the old well on the seized land turned bitter. Maule’s carpenter son consented to build the great gabled house for read online, his father’s triumphant enemy, but the old Colonel died strangely on the day of its dedication. Then followed generations of odd vicissitudes, with queer whispers about the dark powers of the Maules, and peculiar and public transport essay, sometimes terrible ends befalling the Pyncheons. The overshadowing malevolence of the ancient housealmost as alive as Poe’s House of Usher, though in a subtler waypervades the tale as a recurrent motif pervades an operatic tragedy; and when the main story is reached, we behold the dissertation read, modern Pyncheons in a pitiable state of decay.

Poor old Hepzibah, the eccentric reduced gentlewoman; child-like, unfortunate Clifford, just released from undeserved imprisonment; sly and treacherous Judge Pyncheon, who is the old Colonel all over againall these figures are tremendous symbols, and are well matched by the stunted vegetation and descriptive essay ghost, anaemic fowls in the garden. It was almost a pity to supply a fairly happy ending, with a union of sprightly Phoebe, cousin and last scion of the Pyncheons, to the prepossessing young man who turns out to be the last of the Maules. This union, presumably, ends the curse. Online? Hawthorne avoids all violence of diction or movement, and keeps his implications of terror well in the background; but occasional glimpses amply serve to sustain the mood and redeem the work from pure allegorical aridity. Incidents like the bewitching of essay, Alice Pyncheon in the early eighteenth century, and the spectral music of her harpsichord which precedes a death in dissertation read the familythe latter a variant of an immemorial type of a good essay, Aryan mythlink the online, action directly with the supernatural; whilst the dead nocturnal vigil of a good essay, old Judge Pyncheon in the ancient parlour, with his frightfully ticking watch, is stark horror of the most poignant and genuine sort. The way in which the Judge’s death is first adumbrated by the motions and sniffing of a strange cat outside the window, long before the fact is suspected either by the reader or by any of the characters, is a stroke of genius which Poe could not have surpassed. Later the strange cat watches intently outside that same window in the night and on the next day, forsomething.

It is clearly the psychopomp of primeval myth, fitted and adapted with infinite deftness to read its latter-day setting. But Hawthorne left no well-defined literary posterity. His mood and attitude belonged to the age which closed with him, and it is the spirit of Poewho so clearly and realistically understood the natural basis of the horror-appeal and the correct mechanics of its achievementwhich survived and blossomed. Among the earliest of Poe’s disciples may be reckoned the brilliant young Irishman Fitz-James O’Brien (18281862), who became naturalised as an American and perished honourably in the Civil War. It is he who gave us “What Was It?”, the first well-shaped short story of a tangible but invisible being, and the prototype of de Maupassant’s “Horla”; he also who created the inimitable “Diamond Lens”, in which a young microscopist falls in love with a maiden of an infinitesimal world which he has discovered in a drop of water. O’Brien’s early death undoubtedly deprived us of some masterful tales of strangeness and terror, though his genius was not, properly speaking, of the same titan quality which characterised Poe and help my essay.com, Hawthorne. Closer to real greatness was the eccentric and read online, saturnine journalist Ambrose Bierce, born in 1842; who likewise entered the Civil War, but survived to write some immortal tales and to disappear in 1913 in as great a cloud of mystery as any he ever evoked from his nightmare fancy. Bierce was a satirist and pamphleteer of note, but the bulk of his artistic reputation must rest upon his grim and essay, savage short stories; a large number of which deal with the dissertation online, Civil War and form the write essay introduction, most vivid and realistic expression which that conflict has yet received in read fiction. Virtually all of Bierce’s tales are tales of horror; and whilst many of them treat only of the physical and psychological horrors within Nature, a substantial proportion admit the malignly supernatural and form a leading element in America’s fund of weird literature. Mr.

Samuel Loveman, a living poet and critic who was personally acquainted with Bierce, thus sums up the genius of the great shadow-maker in the preface to pros of using public some of his letters: “In ‘The Death of Halpin Frayser’, flowers, verdure, and the boughs and leaves of dissertation, trees are magnificently placed as an opposing foil to unnatural malignity. Not the accustomed golden world, but a world pervaded with the mystery of blue and during essays, the breathless recalcitrance of dissertation, dreams, is Bierce’s. Yet, curiously, inhumanity is not altogether absent.” The “inhumanity” mentioned by during essays Mr. Loveman finds vent in a rare strain of sardonic comedy and graveyard humour, and a kind of delight in dissertation online images of cruelty and the panda, tantalising disappointment. The former quality is well illustrated by some of the subtitles in the darker narratives; such as “One does not always eat what is on the table”, describing a body laid out for dissertation read, a coroner’s inquest, and “A man though naked may be in descriptive essay ghost rags”, referring to a frightfully mangled corpse. Bierce’s work is in general somewhat uneven. Many of the stories are obviously mechanical, and marred by a jaunty and commonplacely artificial style derived from journalistic models; but the grim malevolence stalking through all of them is unmistakable, and several stand out as permanent mountain-peaks of American weird writing. “The Death of Halpin Frayser”, called by Frederic Taber Cooper the most fiendishly ghastly tale in the literature of the Anglo-Saxon race, tells of a body skulking by night without a soul in a weird and horribly ensanguined wood, and of a man beset by ancestral memories who met death at the claws of that which had been his fervently loved mother. “The Damned Thing”, frequently copied in popular anthologies, chronicles the hideous devastations of an invisible entity that waddles and flounders on the hills and in the wheatfields by night and day. “The Suitable Surroundings” evokes with singular subtlety yet apparent simplicity a piercing sense of the dissertation, terror which may reside in the written word. In the story the weird author Colston says to his friend Marsh, “You are brave enough to read me in a street-car, butin a deserted housealonein the forestat night!

Bah! I have a manuscript in my pocket that would kill you!” Marsh reads the manuscript in “the suitable surroundings”and it does kill him. “The Middle Toe of the Right Foot” is clumsily developed, but has a powerful climax. A man named Manton has horribly killed his two children and his wife, the latter of whom lacked the write, middle toe of the right foot. Ten years later he returns much altered to dissertation read online the neighbourhood; and, being secretly recognised, is provoked into a bowie-knife duel in circuit des ducs essay 2009 the dark, to be held in the now abandoned house where his crime was committed. When the moment of the online, duel arrives a trick is played upon him; and help my essay.com, he is left without an antagonist, shut in a night-black ground floor room of the reputedly haunted edifice, with the thick dust of read online, a decade on every hand. No knife is drawn against him, for only a thorough scare is intended; but on the next day he is found crouched in a corner with distorted face, dead of sheer fright at something he has seen. The only clue visible to the discoverers is one having terrible implications: “In the dust of years that lay thick upon the floorleading from the door by which they had entered, straight across the room to within a yard of Manton’s crouching corpsewere three parallel lines of footprintslight but definite impressions of bare feet, the outer ones those of how to write a good essay, small children, the inner a woman’s. From the point at which they ended they did not return; they pointed all one way.” And, of course, the woman’s prints shewed a lack of the middle toe of the right foot. “The Spook House”, told with a severely homely air of journalistic verisimilitude, conveys terrible hints of shocking mystery. In 1858 an read entire family of seven persons disappears suddenly and unaccountably from a plantation house in public essay eastern Kentucky, leaving all its possessions untouchedfurniture, clothing, food supplies, horses, cattle, and dissertation read, slaves. About a year later two men of high standing are forced by the panda thumb a storm to take shelter in the deserted dwelling, and in so doing stumble into online, a strange subterranean room lit by an unaccountable greenish light and having an iron door which cannot be opened from within.

In this room lie the decayed corpses of all the missing family; and as one of the discoverers rushes forward to embrace a body he seems to recognise, the music essays, other is so overpowered by dissertation online a strange foetor that he accidentally shuts his companion in the vault and loses consciousness. Recovering his senses six weeks later, the survivor is unable to find the hidden room; and my essay.com, the house is online, burned during the Civil War. The Panda Thumb Essay? The imprisoned discoverer is never seen or heard of again. Bierce seldom realises the atmospheric possibilities of his themes as vividly as Poe; and much of his work contains a certain touch of naiveté, prosaic angularity, or early-American provincialism which contrasts somewhat with the efforts of later horror-masters. Nevertheless the genuineness and artistry of his dark intimations are always unmistakable, so that his greatness is in dissertation read no danger of circuit des ducs 2009, eclipse. As arranged in dissertation his definitively collected works, Bierce’s weird tales occur mainly in public essay two volumes, Can Such Things Be? and dissertation, In the Midst of Life. The former, indeed, is almost wholly given over to the supernatural. Much of the best in American horror-literature has come from pens not mainly devoted to that medium.

Oliver Wendell Holmes’s historic Elsie Venner suggests with admirable restraint an unnatural ophidian element in a young woman pre-natally influenced, and sustains the atmosphere with finely discriminating landscape touches. In The Turn of the Screw Henry James triumphs over his inevitable pomposity and prolixity sufficiently well to create a truly potent air of sinister menace; depicting the hideous influence of two dead and evil servants, Peter Quint and how to a good, the governess Miss Jessel, over a small boy and girl who had been under their care. James is perhaps too diffuse, too unctuously urbane, and too much addicted to subtleties of speech to realise fully all the wild and devastating horror in his situations; but for all that there is a rare and dissertation, mounting tide of fright, culminating in music during essays the death of the little boy, which gives the novelette a permanent place in its special class. F. Dissertation? Marion Crawford produced several weird tales of varying quality, now collected in a volume entitled Wandering Ghosts. “For the Blood Is the Life” touches powerfully on a case of moon-cursed vampirism near an essay ancient tower on the rocks of the lonely South Italian sea-coast. “The Dead Smile” treats of family horrors in an old house and an ancestral vault in Ireland, and introduces the online, banshee with considerable force. “The Upper Berth”, however, is thumb essay, Crawford’s weird masterpiece; and is one of the most tremendous horror-stories in all literature. Dissertation Online? In this tale of a suicide-haunted stateroom such things as the spectral salt-water dampness, the strangely open porthole, and the nightmare struggle with the nameless object are handled with incomparable dexterity. Very genuine, though not without the essay, typical mannered extravagance of the eighteen-nineties, is the strain of horror in the early work of Robert W. Chambers, since renowned for products of a very different quality. The King in Yellow, a series of read online, vaguely connected short stories having as a background a monstrous and suppressed book whose perusal brings fright, madness, and spectral tragedy, really achieves notable heights of cosmic fear in spite of uneven interest and a somewhat trivial and affected cultivation of the Gallic studio atmosphere made popular by Du Maurier’s Trilby. The Panda? The most powerful of its tales, perhaps, is “The Yellow Sign”, in which is introduced a silent and terrible churchyard watchman with a face like a puffy grave-worm’s. A boy, describing a tussle he has had with this creature, shivers and sickens as he relates a certain detail. “Well, sir, it’s Gawd’s truth that when I ’it ’im ’e grabbed me wrists, sir, and when I twisted ’is soft, mushy fist one of ’is fingers come off in me ’and.” An artist, who after seeing him has shared with another a strange dream of a nocturnal hearse, is shocked by the voice with which the watchman accosts him. The fellow emits a muttering sound that fills the head like thick oily smoke from a fat-rendering vat or an odour of read, noisome decay.

What he mumbles is merely this: “Have you found the Yellow Sign?” A weirdly hieroglyphed onyx talisman, picked up in how to write essay the street by the sharer of his dream, is shortly given the artist; and after stumbling queerly upon the hellish and dissertation read, forbidden book of horrors the two learn, among other hideous things which no sane mortal should know, that this talisman is indeed the nameless Yellow Sign handed down from the accursed cult of Hasturfrom primordial Carcosa, whereof the volume treats, and some nightmare memory of which seems to lurk latent and ominous at the back of all men’s minds. Soon they hear the rumbling of the black-plumed hearse driven by the flabby and corpse-faced watchman. He enters the night-shrouded house in quest of the Yellow Sign, all bolts and bars rotting at his touch. And when the people rush in, drawn by a scream that no human throat could utter, they find three forms on essay, the floortwo dead and one dying. Dissertation Read Online? One of the dead shapes is descriptive essay of a, far gone in decay. It is the churchyard watchman, and the doctor exclaims, “That man must have been dead for months.” It is worth observing that the author derives most of the names and allusions connected with his eldritch land of primal memory from the tales of Ambrose Bierce. Other early works of read, Mr. Chambers displaying the outré and macabre element are The Maker of Moons and In Search of the Unknown. One cannot help regretting that he did not further develop a vein in which he could so easily have become a recognised master.

Horror material of pros and cons of using transport, authentic force may be found in the work of the New England realist Mary E. Wilkins; whose volume of online, short tales, The Wind in the Rose-Bush, contains a number of noteworthy achievements. In “The Shadows on my essay.com, the Wall” we are shewn with consummate skill the response of a staid New England household to uncanny tragedy; and the sourceless shadow of the online, poisoned brother well prepares us for the climactic moment when the shadow of the secret murderer, who has killed himself in a neighbouring city, suddenly appears beside it. Charlotte Perkins Gilman, in “The Yellow Wall Paper”, rises to a classic level in subtly delineating the how to a good introduction, madness which crawls over a woman dwelling in the hideously papered room where a madwoman was once confined. In “The Dead Valley” the read, eminent architect and mediaevalist Ralph Adams Cram achieves a memorably potent degree of vague regional horror through subtleties of atmosphere and description. Still further carrying on our spectral tradition is the gifted and versatile humourist Irvin S. Cobb, whose work both early and recent contains some finely weird specimens. “Fishhead”, an help my essay.com early achievement, is banefully effective in its portrayal of unnatural affinities between a hybrid idiot and the strange fish of an isolated lake, which at the last avenge their biped kinsman’s murder. Later work of Mr. Cobb introduces an element of possible science, as in the tale of hereditary memory where a modern man with a negroid strain utters words in dissertation online African jungle speech when run down by a train under visual and my essay.com, aural circumstances recalling the maiming of his black ancestor by a rhinoceros a century before. Extremely high in artistic stature is the novel The Dark Chamber (1927), by the late Leonard Cline.

This is the tale of a man whowith the characteristic ambition of the Gothic or Byronic hero-villainseeks to defy Nature and recapture every moment of his past life through the abnormal stimulation of memory. To this end he employs endless notes, records, mnemonic objects, and read, picturesand finally odours, music, and help my essay.com, exotic drugs. At last his ambition goes beyond his personal life and reaches toward the black abysses of hereditary memoryeven back to pre-human days amidst the steaming swamps of the Carboniferous age, and to dissertation still more unimaginable deeps of primal time and entity. He calls for madder music and how to write essay, takes stronger drugs, and finally his great dog grows oddly afraid of him. A noxious animal stench encompasses him, and he grows vacant-faced and sub-human. In the online, end he takes to the woods, howling at night beneath windows. He is finally found in a thicket, mangled to death. Beside him is the mangled corpse of his dog.

They have killed each other. Essay Ghost? The atmosphere of dissertation read, this novel is malevolently potent, much attention being paid to the central figure’s sinister home and household. A less subtle and well-balanced but nevertheless highly effective creation is Herbert S. Gorman’s novel, The Place Called Dagon, which relates the descriptive essay, dark history of dissertation online, a western Massachusetts backwater where the descendants of refugees from the the panda thumb essay, Salem witchcraft still keep alive the morbid and degenerate horrors of the Black Sabbat. Sinister House, by Leland Hall, has touches of magnificent atmosphere but is marred by a somewhat mediocre romanticism. Very notable in their way are some of the weird conceptions of the novelist and short-story writer Edward Lucas White, most of whose themes arise from actual dreams. “The Song of the Sirens” has a very pervasive strangeness, while such things as “Lukundoo” and “The Snout” rouse darker apprehensions. Mr. White imparts a very peculiar quality to his talesan oblique sort of glamour which has its own distinctive type of online, convincingness. Of younger Americans, none strikes the note of cosmic terror so well as the California poet, artist, and fictionist Clark Ashton Smith, whose bizarre writings, drawings, paintings, and stories are the descriptive essay of a, delight of a sensitive few.

Mr. Smith has for his background a universe of remote and paralysing frightjungles of poisonous and iridescent blossoms on the moons of Saturn, evil and grotesque temples in Atlantis, Lemuria, and forgotten elder worlds, and dank morasses of spotted death-fungi in dissertation online spectral countries beyond earth’s rim. His longest and most ambitious poem, The Hashish-Eater, is in pentameter blank verse; and opens up chaotic and a good essay introduction, incredible vistas of kaleidoscopic nightmare in the spaces between the stars. In sheer daemonic strangeness and fertility of conception, Mr. Smith is perhaps unexcelled by any other writer dead or living. Who else has seen such gorgeous, luxuriant, and feverishly distorted visions of infinite spheres and multiple dimensions and read, lived to tell the tale? His short stories deal powerfully with other galaxies, worlds, and dimensions, as well as with strange regions and aeons on help, the earth. He tells of dissertation online, primal Hyperborea and its black amorphous god Tsathoggua; of the lost continent Zothique, and of the fabulous, vampire-curst land of Averoigne in mediaeval France. Some of Mr. Smith’s best work can be found in the brochure entitled The Double Shadow and Other Fantasies (1933). Recent British literature, besides including the pros of using public essay, three or four greatest fantaisistes of the present age, has been gratifyingly fertile in the element of the weird.

Rudyard Kipling has often approached it; and online, has, despite the omnipresent mannerisms, handled it with indubitable mastery in such tales as “The Phantom ’Rickshaw”, “ ‘The Finest Story in the World’ ”, “The Recrudescence of Imray”, and “The Mark of the Beast”. This latter is the panda thumb, of particular poignancy; the pictures of the naked leper-priest who mewed like an otter, of the spots which appeared on the chest of the man that priest cursed, of the growing carnivorousness of the victim and of the fear which horses began to display toward him, and of the dissertation read online, eventually half-accomplished transformation of that victim into a leopard, being things which no reader is during war two, ever likely to forget. The final defeat of the malignant sorcery does not impair the force of the dissertation read, tale or the the panda thumb essay, validity of its mystery. Lafcadio Hearn, strange, wandering, and exotic, departs still farther from the realm of the real; and with the supreme artistry of a sensitive poet weaves phantasies impossible to an author of the solid roast-beef type. His Fantastics, written in America, contains some of the most impressive ghoulishness in all literature; whilst his Kwaidan, written in Japan, crystallises with matchless skill and delicacy the eerie lore and whispered legends of that richly colourful nation. Still more of Hearn’s weird wizardry of language is shewn in some of his translations from the dissertation read, French, especially from Gautier and Flaubert. Essay Of A Ghost? His version of the latter’s Temptation of St. Anthony is a classic of fevered and riotous imagery clad in the magic of singing words.

Oscar Wilde may likewise be given a place amongst weird writers, both for certain of his exquisite fairy tales, and for his vivid Picture of Dorian Gray, in which a marvellous portrait for years assumes the duty of ageing and coarsening instead of read online, its original, who meanwhile plunges into every excess of vice and help, crime without the outward loss of online, youth, beauty, and freshness. There is a sudden and potent climax when Dorian Gray, at last become a murderer, seeks to destroy the essay 2009, painting whose changes testify to dissertation read online his moral degeneracy. Help My Essay.com? He stabs it with a knife, and a hideous cry and crash are heard; but when the servants enter they find it in all its pristine loveliness. “Lying on the floor was a dead man, in evening dress, with a knife in his heart. Read? He was withered, wrinkled, and loathsome of visage. It was not till they had examined the rings that they recognised who it was.” Matthew Phipps Shiel, author of many weird, grotesque, and adventurous novels and tales, occasionally attains a high level of horrific magic. “Xélucha” is a noxiously hideous fragment, but is excelled by Mr. Shiel’s undoubted masterpiece, “The House of Sounds”, floridly written in the “yellow ’nineties”, and re-cast with more artistic restraint in the early twentieth century. This story, in final form, deserves a place among the foremost things of its kind. It tells of a creeping horror and menace trickling down the pros and cons of using public transport, centuries on read online, a sub-arctic island off the coast of Norway; where, amidst the sweep of pros and cons, daemon winds and the ceaseless din of hellish waves and cataracts, a vengeful dead man built a brazen tower of terror.

It is vaguely like, yet infinitely unlike, Poe’s “Fall of the House of Usher”. In the dissertation read, novel The Purple Cloud Mr. Shiel describes with tremendous power a curse which came out of a ghost of the arctic to destroy mankind, and which for a time appears to have left but a single inhabitant on our planet. The sensations of this lone survivor as he realises his position, and read, roams through the corpse-littered and treasure-strown cities of the world as their absolute master, are delivered with a skill and of a, artistry falling little short of actual majesty. Unfortunately the second half of the book, with its conventionally romantic element, involves a distinct “letdown”.

Better known than Shiel is the ingenious Bram Stoker, who created many starkly horrific conceptions in a series of novels whose poor technique sadly impairs their net effect. The Lair of the read, White Worm, dealing with a gigantic primitive entity that lurks in and cons essay a vault beneath an ancient castle, utterly ruins a magnificent idea by a development almost infantile. The Jewel of Seven Stars, touching on a strange Egyptian resurrection, is less crudely written. But best of all is the famous Dracula, which has become almost the standard modern exploitation of the frightful vampire myth. Dissertation Read? Count Dracula, a vampire, dwells in a horrible castle in the Carpathians; but finally migrates to England with the design of populating the country with fellow vampires.

How an Englishman fares within Dracula’s stronghold of terrors, and how the dead fiend’s plot for domination is at last defeated, are elements which unite to form a tale now justly assigned a permanent place in English letters. Dracula evoked many similar novels of supernatural horror, among which the best are perhaps The Beetle, by ghost Richard Marsh, Brood of the Witch-Queen, by “Sax Rohmer” (Arthur Sarsfield Ward), and The Door of the Unreal, by Gerald Biss. The latter handles quite dexterously the standard werewolf superstition. Much subtler and more artistic, and dissertation read, told with singular skill through the juxtaposed narratives of the several characters, is the novel Cold Harbour, by Francis Brett Young, in which an ancient house of strange malignancy is powerfully delineated. The mocking and well-nigh omnipotent fiend Humphrey Furnival holds echoes of the Manfred- Montoni type of early Gothic “villain”, but is redeemed from triteness by many clever individualities. Only the slight diffuseness of explanation at the close, and the somewhat too free use of the panda essay, divination as a plot factor, keep this tale from approaching absolute perfection. In the novel Witch Wood John Buchan depicts with tremendous force a survival of the evil Sabbat in a lonely district of read online, Scotland.

The description of the black forest with the evil stone, and of the terrible cosmic adumbrations when the horror is finally extirpated, will repay one for wading through the very gradual action and help my essay.com, plethora of Scottish dialect. Some of dissertation read, Mr. Buchan’s short stories are also extremely vivid in their spectral intimations; “The Green Wildebeest”, a tale of African witchcraft, “The Wind in the Portico”, with its awakening of how to a good, dead Britanno-Roman horrors, and “Skule Skerry”, with its touches of sub-arctic fright, being especially remarkable. Clemence Housman, in the brief novelette “The Were-wolf”, attains a high degree of gruesome tension and achieves to some extent the atmosphere of authentic folklore. In The Elixir of Life Arthur Ransome attains some darkly excellent effects despite a general naiveté of plot, while H. B. Online? Drake’s The Shadowy Thing summons up strange and terrible vistas. George Macdonald’s Lilith has a compelling bizarrerie all its own; the first and simpler of the two versions being perhaps the more effective.

Deserving of distinguished notice as a forceful craftsman to descriptive of a ghost whom an unseen mystic world is ever a close and vital reality is the poet Walter de la Mare, whose haunting verse and exquisite prose alike bear consistent traces of online, a strange vision reaching deeply into veiled spheres of beauty and terrible and forbidden dimensions of being. In the my essay.com, novel The Return we see the soul of a dead man reach out of its grave of two centuries and fasten itself upon the flesh of the living, so that even the dissertation read, face of the victim becomes that which had long ago returned to dust. Of the shorter tales, of which several volumes exist, many are unforgettable for their command of fear’s and sorcery’s darkest ramifications; notably “Seaton’s Aunt”, in a good essay introduction which there lowers a noxious background of malignant vampirism; “The Tree”, which tells of a frightful vegetable growth in the yard of a starving artist; “Out of the Deep”, wherein we are given leave to imagine what thing answered the dissertation read online, summons of a dying wastrel in a dark lonely house when he pulled a long-feared bell-cord in the attic chamber of his dread-haunted boyhood; “A Recluse”, which hints at des ducs essay what sent a chance guest flying from a house in the night; “Mr. Kempe”, which shews us a mad clerical hermit in quest of the human soul, dwelling in a frightful sea-cliff region beside an archaic abandoned chapel; and “All-Hallows”, a glimpse of dissertation, daemoniac forces besieging a lonely mediaeval church and miraculously restoring the rotting masonry. De la Mare does not make fear the sole or even the dominant element of thumb, most of dissertation, his tales, being apparently more interested in help the subtleties of dissertation read online, character involved.

Occasionally he sinks to sheer whimsical phantasy of the Barrie order. Still, he is among the very few to whom unreality is a vivid, living presence; and as such he is able to put into his occasional fear-studies a keen potency which only a rare master can achieve. His poem “The Listeners” restores the Gothic shudder to how to write a good modern verse. The weird short story has fared well of late, an important contributor being the read, versatile E. F. The Panda? Benson, whose “The Man Who Went Too Far” breathes whisperingly of a house at the edge of a dark wood, and of Pan’s hoof-mark on the breast of a dead man. Mr. Benson’s volume, Visible and Invisible, contains several stories of singular power; notably “Negotium Perambulans”, whose unfolding reveals an read online abnormal monster from an ancient ecclesiastical panel which performs an act of miraculous vengeance in a lonely village on the Cornish coast, and “The Horror-Horn”, through which lopes a terrible half-human survival dwelling on unvisited Alpine peaks. My Essay.com? “The Face”, in another collection, is lethally potent in its relentless aura of doom. H. R. Wakefield, in his collections They Return at Evening and Others Who Return, manages now and dissertation, then to achieve great heights of music war two essays, horror despite a vitiating air of sophistication. The most notable stories are “The Red Lodge” with its slimy aqueous evil, “‘He Cometh and He Passeth By’”, “‘And He Shall Sing . . .’”, “The Cairn”, “‘Look Up There!’”, “Blind Man’s Buff”, and read online, that bit of lurking millennial horror, “The Seventeenth Hole at Duncaster”. Mention has been made of the weird work of H. Help My Essay.com? G. Wells and read, A. Conan Doyle.

The former, in “The Ghost of Fear”, reaches a very high level; while all the items in Thirty Strange Stories have strong fantastic implications. During War Two? Doyle now and then struck a powerfully spectral note, as in “The Captain of the ‘Pole-Star’ ”, a tale of arctic ghostliness, and “Lot No. 249”, wherein the reanimated mummy theme is used with more than ordinary skill. Hugh Walpole, of the same family as the founder of Gothic fiction, has sometimes approached the bizarre with much success; his short story “Mrs. Lunt” carrying a very poignant shudder. John Metcalfe, in the collection published as The Smoking Leg, attains now and then a rare pitch of potency; the tale entitled “The Bad Lands” containing graduations of horror that strongly savour of genius. More whimsical and inclined toward the amiable and innocuous phantasy of Sir J. M. Barrie are the short tales of E. M. Forster, grouped under the dissertation online, title of The Celestial Omnibus. Essay? Of these only one, dealing with a glimpse of Pan and his aura of dissertation read, fright, may be said to hold the true element of cosmic horror. Mrs. H. D. Everett, though adhering to very old and conventional models, occasionally reaches singular heights of spiritual terror in how to write her collection of short stories.

L. Read? P. Hartley is notable for his incisive and extremely ghastly tale, “A Visitor from Down Under”. May Sinclair’s Uncanny Stories contain more of traditional occultism than of that creative treatment of fear which marks mastery in this field, and are inclined to lay more stress on human emotions and psychological delving than upon the stark phenomena of a cosmos utterly unreal. It may be well to remark here that occult believers are probably less effective than materialists in delineating the spectral and the fantastic, since to them the phantom world is so commonplace a reality that they tend to of using public transport refer to it with less awe, remoteness, and impressiveness than do those who see in it an absolute and stupendous violation of the natural order. Of rather uneven stylistic quality, but vast occasional power in its suggestion of lurking worlds and beings behind the read online, ordinary surface of life, is the work of William Hope Hodgson, known today far less than it deserves to be. Despite a tendency toward conventionally sentimental conceptions of the essay of a, universe, and of man’s relation to dissertation it and to his fellows, Mr. Hodgson is perhaps second only to Algernon Blackwood in descriptive ghost his serious treatment of unreality. Few can equal him in adumbrating the nearness of nameless forces and dissertation, monstrous besieging entities through casual hints and insignificant details, or in conveying feelings of the spectral and the abnormal in connexion with regions or buildings. In The Boats of the “Glen Carrig” (1907) we are shewn a variety of malign marvels and accursed unknown lands as encountered by the survivors of a sunken ship. The brooding menace in circuit des ducs 2009 the earlier parts of the book is impossible to surpass, though a letdown in the direction of ordinary romance and online, adventure occurs toward the end.

An inaccurate and pseudo-romantic attempt to reproduce eighteenth-century prose detracts from the general effect, but the really profound nautical erudition everywhere displayed is a compensating factor. The House on the Borderland (1908)perhaps the my essay.com, greatest of all Mr. Hodgson’s workstells of a lonely and evilly regarded house in Ireland which forms a focus for hideous other-world forces and online, sustains a siege by blasphemous hybrid anomalies from a hidden abyss below. The wanderings of the how to write introduction, narrator’s spirit through limitless light-years of cosmic space and kalpas of eternity, and dissertation read, its witnessing of the solar system’s final destruction, constitute something almost unique in and cons public transport essay standard literature. Dissertation Online? And everywhere there is manifest the author’s power to suggest vague, ambushed horrors in natural scenery. But for a few touches of commonplace sentimentality this book would be a classic of the first water. The Ghost Pirates (1909), regarded by Mr. Hodgson as rounding out a trilogy with the descriptive essay, two previously mentioned works, is a powerful account of a doomed and haunted ship on its last voyage, and of the terrible sea-devils (of quasi-human aspect, and perhaps the spirits of bygone buccaneers) that besiege it and dissertation read online, finally drag it down to an unknown fate. With its command of maritime knowledge, and its clever selection of hints and incidents suggestive of latent horrors in Nature, this book at times reaches enviable peaks of power. The Night Land (1912) is a long-extended (583 pp.) tale of the earth’s infinitely remote futurebillions of my essay.com, billions of dissertation read, years ahead, after the death of the sun.

It is told in a rather clumsy fashion, as the dreams of a man in the seventeenth century, whose mind merges with its own future incarnation; and is seriously marred by painful verboseness, repetitiousness, artificial and nauseously sticky romantic sentimentality, and an attempt at archaic language even more grotesque and absurd than that in help my essay.com “Glen Carrig”. Allowing for all its faults, it is yet one of the most potent pieces of macabre imagination ever written. The picture of dissertation read online, a night-black, dead planet, with the remains of the human race concentrated in a stupendously vast metal pyramid and besieged by monstrous, hybrid, and altogether unknown forces of the darkness, is pros and cons of using public transport essay, something that no reader can ever forget. Shapes and read, entities of an altogether non-human and inconceivable sortthe prowlers of the black, man-forsaken, and circuit des ducs essay 2009, unexplored world outside the read online, pyramidare suggested and partly described with ineffable potency; while the night-bound landscape with its chasms and slopes and dying volcanism takes on an almost sentient terror beneath the author’s touch. Midway in the book the central figure ventures outside the pyramid on a quest through death-haunted realms untrod by circuit des ducs essay 2009 man for dissertation, millions of yearsand in how to write introduction his slow, minutely described, day-by-day progress over unthinkable leagues of immemorial blackness there is dissertation read, a sense of the panda essay, cosmic alienage, breathless mystery, and terrified expectancy unrivalled in dissertation the whole range of literature. Public Transport Essay? The last quarter of the book drags woefully, but fails to spoil the tremendous power of the whole. Mr. Hodgson’s later volume, Carnacki, the Ghost-Finder, consists of several longish short stories published many years before in magazines.

In quality it falls conspicuously below the level of the other books. We here find a more or less conventional stock figure of the “infallible detective” typethe progeny of M. Dupin and Sherlock Holmes, and the close kin of dissertation online, Algernon Blackwood’s John Silencemoving through scenes and events badly marred by an atmosphere of professional “occultism”. A few of the episodes, however, are of undeniable power; and afford glimpses of the pros transport essay, peculiar genius characteristic of the author. Naturally it is impossible in a brief sketch to trace out dissertation all the classic modern uses of the terror element. The ingredient must of necessity enter into all work both prose and verse treating broadly of life; and we are therefore not surprised to circuit essay 2009 find a share in dissertation read online such writers as the poet Browning, whose “Childe Roland to the Dark Tower Came ” is instinct with hideous menace, or the novelist Joseph Conrad, who often wrote of the dark secrets within the sea, and of the daemoniac driving power of Fate as influencing the lives of lonely and maniacally resolute men.

Its trail is one of infinite ramifications; but we must here confine ourselves to its appearance in a relatively unmixed state, where it determines and dominates the work of art containing it. Somewhat separate from the main British stream is that current of weirdness in Irish literature which came to the fore in the Celtic Renaissance of the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Ghost and fairy lore have always been of great prominence in Ireland, and for over an hundred years have been recorded by a line of such faithful transcribers and translators as William Carleton, T. Crofton Croker, Lady Wildemother of Oscar WildeDouglas Hyde, and of a ghost, W. B. Yeats. Brought to notice by online the modern movement, this body of myth has been carefully collected and studied; and its salient features reproduced in des ducs the work of later figures like Yeats, J. M. Synge, “A. E.”, Lady Gregory, Padraic Colum, James Stephens, and their colleagues. Whilst on the whole more whimsically fantastic than terrible, such folklore and its consciously artistic counterparts contain much that falls truly within the domain of cosmic horror. Tales of burials in sunken churches beneath haunted lakes, accounts of death-heralding banshees and dissertation online, sinister changelings, ballads of des ducs essay 2009, spectres and read, “the unholy creatures of the of a, raths”all these have their poignant and definite shivers, and mark a strong and dissertation read, distinctive element in weird literature. Despite homely grotesqueness and absolute naiveté, there is genuine nightmare in the class of narrative represented by the yarn of Teig O’Kane, who in punishment for essay of a, his wild life was ridden all night by a hideous corpse that demanded burial and drove him from churchyard to churchyard as the dead rose up loathsomely in each one and refused to accommodate the newcomer with a berth. Yeats, undoubtedly the greatest figure of the Irish revival if not the greatest of all living poets, has accomplished notable things both in dissertation original work and in the codification of old legends.

The best horror-tales of today, profiting by the long evolution of the type, possess a naturalness, convincingness, artistic smoothness, and skilful intensity of appeal quite beyond comparison with anything in the Gothic work of a century or more ago. During? Technique, craftsmanship, experience, and psychological knowledge have advanced tremendously with the dissertation read, passing years, so that much of the older work seems naive and artificial; redeemed, when redeemed at all, only by a genius which conquers heavy limitations. The tone of jaunty and inflated romance, full of false motivation and investing every conceivable event with a counterfeit significance and carelessly inclusive glamour, is now confined to lighter and more whimsical phases of supernatural writing. Serious weird stories are either made realistically intense by close consistency and perfect fidelity to Nature except in the one supernatural direction which the author allows himself, or else cast altogether in the realm of phantasy, with atmosphere cunningly adapted to the visualisation of a delicately exotic world of unreality beyond space and time, in which almost anything may happen if it but happen in true accord with certain types of imagination and illusion normal to the sensitive human brain. This, at least, is the dominant tendency; though of course many great contemporary writers slip occasionally into some of the flashy postures of help my essay.com, immature romanticism, or into bits of the equally empty and dissertation online, absurd jargon of pseudo-scientific “occultism”, now at one of its periodic high tides. Mr. Machen, with an impressionable Celtic heritage linked to keen youthful memories of the wild domed hills, archaic forests, and the panda thumb, cryptical Roman ruins of the Gwent countryside, has developed an imaginative life of rare beauty, intensity, and historic background. He has absorbed the mediaeval mystery of dark woods and ancient customs, and dissertation read online, is a champion of the Middle Ages in all thingsincluding the a good essay introduction, Catholic faith. He has yielded, likewise, to the spell of the Britanno-Roman life which once surged over his native region; and finds strange magic in the fortified camps, tessellated pavements, fragments of statues, and kindred things which tell of the day when classicism reigned and Latin was the language of the country. A young American poet, Frank Belknap Long, Jun., has well summarised this dreamer’s rich endowments and wizardry of expression in the sonnet “On Reading Arthur Machen”: “There is a glory in the autumn wood;

The ancient lanes of dissertation read online, England wind and climb. Past wizard oaks and gorse and tangled thyme. To where a fort of mighty empire stood: There is a glamour in the autumn sky; The reddened clouds are writhing in the glow. Of some great fire, and help, there are glints below. Of tawny yellow where the embers die.

High-rais’d in splendour, sharp against the North, The Roman eagles, and dissertation, thro’ mists of gold. The marching legions as they issue forth: I wait, for I would share with him again. The ancient wisdom, and the ancient pain.” Of Mr. Machen’s horror-tales the most famous is perhaps “The Great God Pan” (1894), which tells of a singular and terrible experiment and pros transport, its consequences. A young woman, through surgery of the brain-cells, is made to see the vast and monstrous deity of Nature, and becomes an idiot in consequence, dying less than a year later. Dissertation Online? Years afterward a strange, ominous, and foreign-looking child named Helen Vaughan is placed to board with a family in rural Wales, and music during world, haunts the woods in unaccountable fashion. A little boy is thrown out of dissertation read online, his mind at how to write a good sight of dissertation read, someone or something he spies with her, and introduction, a young girl comes to a terrible end in similar fashion.

All this mystery is strangely interwoven with the Roman rural deities of the place, as sculptured in antique fragments. After another lapse of years, a woman of strangely exotic beauty appears in society, drives her husband to horror and death, causes an artist to paint unthinkable paintings of Witches’ Sabbaths, creates an epidemic of suicide among the dissertation read online, men of her acquaintance, and is finally discovered to be a frequenter of the lowest dens of vice in London, where even the most callous degenerates are shocked at pros and cons of using essay her enormities. Through the clever comparing of notes on the part of those who have had word of her at various stages of her career, this woman is discovered to be the read online, girl Helen Vaughan; who is the childby no mortal fatherof the young woman on whom the thumb essay, brain experiment was made. Online? She is a daughter of hideous Pan himself, and at the last is put to death amidst horrible transmutations of form involving changes of sex and a descent to the most primal manifestations of the life-principle. But the charm of the tale is in the telling. Music During War Two? No one could begin to describe the cumulative suspense and ultimate horror with which every paragraph abounds without following fully the precise order in which Mr. Machen unfolds his gradual hints and revelations. Melodrama is undeniably present, and coincidence is stretched to a length which appears absurd upon dissertation read, analysis; but in the malign witchery of the tale as a whole these trifles are forgotten, and the sensitive reader reaches the during world war two, end with only an appreciative shudder and a tendency to repeat the words of one of the characters: “It is dissertation, too incredible, too monstrous; such things can never be in this quiet world. . . . Why, man, if such a case were possible, our earth would be a nightmare.” Less famous and less complex in plot than “The Great God Pan”, but definitely finer in atmosphere and general artistic value, is the essay of a, curious and dimly disquieting chronicle called “The White People”, whose central portion purports to be the diary or notes of a little girl whose nurse has introduced her to some of the forbidden magic and soul-blasting traditions of the noxious witch-cultthe cult whose whispered lore was handed down long lines of peasantry throughout Western Europe, and whose members sometimes stole forth at night, one by dissertation read online one, to meet in black woods and lonely places for descriptive of a, the revolting orgies of the online, Witches’ Sabbath. Mr. Machen’s narrative, a triumph of skilful selectiveness and restraint, accumulates enormous power as it flows on in a stream of innocent childish prattle; introducing allusions to strange “nymphs”, “Dôls”, “voolas”, “White, Green, and Scarlet Ceremonies”, “Aklo letters”, “Chian language”, “Mao games”, and the like.

The rites learned by the nurse from her witch grandmother are taught to the child by the time she is three years old, and her artless accounts of the dangerous secret revelations possess a lurking terror generously mixed with pathos. Evil charms well known to anthropologists are described with juvenile naiveté, and finally there comes a winter afternoon journey into the old Welsh hills, performed under an imaginative spell which lends to the wild scenery an added weirdness, strangeness, and suggestion of grotesque sentience. The details of this journey are given with marvellous vividness, and form to the keen critic a masterpiece of essay, fantastic writing, with almost unlimited power in the intimation of potent hideousness and cosmic aberration. At length the childwhose age is then thirteencomes upon a cryptic and banefully beautiful thing in the midst of a dark and read online, inaccessible wood. She flees in awe, but is permanently altered and repeatedly revisits the essay, wood. In the end horror overtakes her in a manner deftly prefigured by an anecdote in the prologue, but she poisons herself in time. Like the mother of dissertation read, Helen Vaughan in The Great God Pan, she has seen that frightful deity.

She is discovered dead in the dark wood beside the cryptic thing she found; and that thinga whitely luminous statue of Roman workmanship about which dire mediaeval rumours had clusteredis affrightedly hammered into dust by the searchers. In the episodic novel of The Three Impostors, a work whose merit as a whole is somewhat marred by an imitation of the jaunty Stevenson manner, occur certain tales which perhaps represent the high-water mark of Machen’s skill as a terror-weaver. The Panda? Here we find in its most artistic form a favourite weird conception of the author’s; the notion that beneath the mounds and rocks of the wild Welsh hills dwell subterraneously that squat primitive race whose vestiges gave rise to our common folk legends of fairies, elves, and dissertation read online, the “little people”, and help my essay.com, whose acts are even now responsible for certain unexplained disappearances, and occasional substitutions of strange dark “changelings” for normal infants. Dissertation? This theme receives its finest treatment in the episode entitled “The Novel of the Black Seal”; where a professor, having discovered a singular identity between certain characters scrawled on how to write a good, Welsh limestone rocks and those existing in a prehistoric black seal from Babylon, sets out on a course of discovery which leads him to unknown and online, terrible things. Help? A queer passage in the ancient geographer Solinus, a series of mysterious disappearances in the lonely reaches of Wales, a strange idiot son born to a rural mother after a fright in which her inmost faculties were shaken; all these things suggest to the professor a hideous connexion and a condition revolting to any friend and respecter of the human race. Dissertation Read Online? He hires the idiot boy, who jabbers strangely at times in a repulsive hissing voice, and is subject to odd epileptic seizures. Once, after such a seizure in the professor’s study by how to write introduction night, disquieting odours and dissertation online, evidences of unnatural presences are found; and soon after that the professor leaves a bulky document and goes into the weird hills with feverish expectancy and strange terror in his heart. He never returns, but beside a fantastic stone in the wild country are found his watch, money, and descriptive ghost, ring, done up with catgut in online a parchment bearing the pros and cons of using, same terrible characters as those on the black Babylonish seal and the rock in the Welsh mountains. The bulky document explains enough to bring up the most hideous vistas.

Professor Gregg, from the massed evidence presented by the Welsh disappearances, the rock inscription, the accounts of ancient geographers, and online, the black seal, has decided that a frightful race of dark primal beings of immemorial antiquity and wide former diffusion still dwells beneath the essays, hills of read, unfrequented Wales. Further research has unriddled the message of the black seal, and proved that the idiot boy, a son of some father more terrible than mankind, is the heir of monstrous memories and possibilities. And Cons Essay? That strange night in the study the dissertation, professor invoked ‘the awful transmutation of the hills’ by the aid of the black seal, and write a good essay introduction, aroused in the hybrid idiot the horrors of his shocking paternity. He “saw his body swell and become distended as a bladder, while the face blackened. . . .” And then the supreme effects of the invocation appeared, and online, Professor Gregg knew the stark frenzy of cosmic panic in its darkest form. He knew the abysmal gulfs of abnormality that he had opened, and went forth into the wild hills prepared and resigned. He would meet the unthinkable ‘Little People’and his document ends with a rational observation: “If I unhappily do not return from the panda essay my journey, there is no need to dissertation conjure up here a picture of the awfulness of my fate.”

Also in of a The Three Impostors is the “Novel of the White Powder”, which approaches the online, absolute culmination of loathsome fright. Help? Francis Leicester, a young law student nervously worn out by seclusion and read online, overwork, has a prescription filled by an old apothecary none too careful about the state of introduction, his drugs. The substance, it later turns out, is an unusual salt which time and varying temperature have accidentally changed to something very strange and terrible; nothing less, in short, than the mediaeval Vinum Sabbati, whose consumption at the horrible orgies of the online, Witches’ Sabbath gave rise to shocking transformations andif injudiciously usedto unutterable consequences. Innocently enough, the youth regularly imbibes the music war two, powder in read online a glass of water after meals; and at first seems substantially benefited. Gradually, however, his improved spirits take the form of write introduction, dissipation; he is absent from home a great deal, and appears to have undergone a repellent psychological change. One day an read online odd livid spot appears on his right hand, and he afterward returns to his seclusion; finally keeping himself shut within his room and admitting none of the household. The doctor calls for an interview, and departs in a palsy of horror, saying that he can do no more in that house. Two weeks later the patient’s sister, walking outside, sees a monstrous thing at the sickroom window; and servants report that food left at the locked door is no longer touched.

Summons at the door bring only a sound of shuffling and a demand in a thick gurgling voice to be let alone. At last an 2009 awful happening is reported by a shuddering housemaid. The ceiling of the room below Leicester’s is stained with a hideous black fluid, and a pool of viscid abomination has dripped to the bed beneath. Dr. Haberden, now persuaded to return to the house, breaks down the young man’s door and strikes again and again with an iron bar at read the blasphemous semi-living thing he finds there. It is “a dark and putrid mass, seething with corruption and hideous rottenness, neither liquid nor solid, but melting and changing”. Burning points like eyes shine out of its midst, and before it is despatched it tries to lift what might have been an arm. Soon afterward the and cons public, physician, unable to endure the memory of what he has beheld, dies at sea while bound for a new life in America. Mr.

Machen returns to the daemoniac “Little People” in “The Red Hand” and “The Shining Pyramid”; and in The Terror, a wartime story, he treats with very potent mystery the effect of man’s modern repudiation of dissertation online, spirituality on the beasts of the world, which are thus led to question his supremacy and to world war two unite for online, his extermination. Of utmost delicacy, and passing from mere horror into of a ghost, true mysticism, is The Great Return, a story of the Graal, also a product of the war period. Too well known to need description here is the tale of “The Bowmen”; which, taken for authentic narration, gave rise to the widespread legend of the “Angels of dissertation read online, Mons”ghosts of the old English archers of music during war two, Crécy and Agincourt who fought in 1914 beside the hard-pressed ranks of England’s glorious “Old Contemptibles”. Mr. Online? Blackwood’s lesser work is marred by several defects such as ethical didacticism, occasional insipid whimsicality, the flatness of benignant supernaturalism, and a too free use of the trade jargon of essay, modern “occultism”. A fault of his more serious efforts is online, that diffuseness and long-windedness which results from an my essay.com excessively elaborate attempt, under the handicap of a somewhat bald and journalistic style devoid of dissertation read online, intrinsic magic, colour, and vitality, to visualise precise sensations and nuances of uncanny suggestion. But in spite of all this, the major products of Mr. Blackwood attain a genuinely classic level, and evoke as does nothing else in literature an awed and convinced sense of the immanence of strange spiritual spheres or entities. The well-nigh endless array of Mr.

Blackwood’s fiction includes both novels and shorter tales, the music essays, latter sometimes independent and sometimes arrayed in series. Foremost of all must be reckoned “The Willows”, in which the nameless presences on a desolate Danube island are horribly felt and dissertation, recognised by a pair of idle voyagers. Here art and restraint in narrative reach their very highest development, and an impression of music during world essays, lasting poignancy is produced without a single strained passage or a single false note. Another amazingly potent though less artistically finished tale is “The Wendigo”, where we are confronted by horrible evidences of a vast forest daemon about which North Woods lumbermen whisper at evening. The manner in which certain footprints tell certain unbelievable things is really a marked triumph in craftsmanship. In “An Episode in a Lodging House” we behold frightful presences summoned out of black space by a sorcerer, and “The Listener” tells of the dissertation online, awful psychic residuum creeping about an old house where a leper died. Pros And Cons Public? In the volume titled Incredible Adventures occur some of the finest tales which the read, author has yet produced, leading the fancy to wild rites on nocturnal hills, to secret and terrible aspects lurking behind stolid scenes, and to war two essays unimaginable vaults of mystery below the read, sands and help, pyramids of online, Egypt; all with a serious finesse and delicacy that convince where a cruder or lighter treatment would merely amuse.

Some of music during essays, these accounts are hardly stories at all, but rather studies in elusive impressions and half-remembered snatches of read online, dream. Plot is descriptive of a ghost, everywhere negligible, and atmosphere reigns untrammelled. John SilencePhysician Extraordinary is a book of five related tales, through which a single character runs his triumphant course. Marred only by traces of the read, popular and conventional detective-story atmospherefor Dr. Silence is one of those benevolent geniuses who employ their remarkable powers to aid worthy fellow-men in difficultythese narratives contain some of the author’s best work, and produce an descriptive essay of a illusion at once emphatic and lasting. Read? The opening tale, “A Psychical Invasion”, relates what befell a sensitive author in a house once the help my essay.com, scene of dark deeds, and how a legion of read online, fiends was exorcised. “Ancient Sorceries”, perhaps the finest tale in essay the book, gives an almost hypnotically vivid account of an old French town where once the unholy Sabbath was kept by all the people in the form of read online, cats. In “The Nemesis of Fire” a hideous elemental is evoked by new-spilt blood, whilst “Secret Worship” tells of a German school where Satanism held sway, and where long afterward an evil aura remained. “The Camp of the Dog” is a werewolf tale, but is weakened by moralisation and professional “occultism”. Too subtle, perhaps, for definite classification as horror-tales, yet possibly more truly artistic in an absolute sense, are such delicate phantasies as Jimbo or The Centaur. Mr.

Blackwood achieves in these novels a close and palpitant approach to the inmost substance of dream, and works enormous havock with the help my essay.com, conventional barriers between reality and imagination. Beauty rather than terror is the keynote of Dunsany’s work. He loves the vivid green of jade and of copper domes, and the delicate flush of sunset on the ivory minarets of impossible dream-cities. Humour and irony, too, are often present to read impart a gentle cynicism and modify what might otherwise possess a naive intensity. Nevertheless, as is inevitable in a master of triumphant unreality, there are occasional touches of cosmic fright which come well within the authentic tradition. Dunsany loves to hint slyly and adroitly of monstrous things and incredible dooms, as one hints in help a fairy tale. In The Book of Wonder we read of read online, Hlo-hlo, the gigantic spider-idol which does not always stay at home; of what the Sphinx feared in the forest; of Slith, the thief who jumps over the edge of the the panda, world after seeing a certain light lit and knowing who lit it; of the anthropophagous Gibbelins, who inhabit an evil tower and guard a treasure; of the Gnoles, who live in the forest and from whom it is not well to steal; of the City of Never, and dissertation online, the eyes that watch in the Under Pits; and of kindred things of darkness. A Dreamer’s Tales tells of the introduction, mystery that sent forth all men from Bethmoora in the desert; of the vast gate of Perdóndaris, that was carved from a single piece of read online, ivory; and of the voyage of poor old Bill, whose captain cursed the crew and paid calls on nasty-looking isles new-risen from the sea, with low thatched cottages having evil, obscure windows. Many of Dunsany’s short plays are replete with spectral fear. In The Gods of the Mountain seven beggars impersonate the seven green idols on a distant hill, and enjoy ease and honour in a city of pros of using transport, worshippers until they hear that the real idols are missing from their wonted seats. A very ungainly sight in the dusk is reported to them“rock should not walk in the evening”and at online last, as they sit awaiting the arrival of a troop of dancers, they note that the approaching footsteps are heavier than those of good dancers ought to be.

Then things ensue, and in help the end the presumptuous blasphemers are turned to green jade statues by dissertation read the very walking statues whose sanctity they outraged. But mere plot is the very least merit of this marvellously effective play. The incidents and pros of using public transport, developments are those of a supreme master, so that the read online, whole forms one of the most important contributions of the present age not only to drama, but to literature in general. A Night at an Inn tells of four thieves who have stolen the emerald eye of Klesh, a monstrous Hindoo god. They lure to descriptive essay of a their room and succeed in slaying the three priestly avengers who are on their track, but in the night Klesh comes gropingly for his eye; and having gained it and departed, calls each of the despoilers out into read, the darkness for an unnamed punishment. The Panda Essay? In The Laughter of the Gods there is a doomed city at the jungle’s edge, and a ghostly lutanist heard only by those about to die (cf. Alice’s spectral harpsichord in Hawthorne’s House of the Seven Gables ); whilst The Queen’s Enemies retells the anecdote of Herodotus in dissertation online which a vengeful princess invites her foes to a subterranean banquet and des ducs, lets in the Nile to drown them. But no amount of mere description can convey more than a fraction of Lord Dunsany’s pervasive charm. His prismatic cities and unheard-of rites are touched with a sureness which only mastery can engender, and we thrill with a sense of read, actual participation in his secret mysteries.

To the my essay.com, truly imaginative he is dissertation read online, a talisman and a key unlocking rich storehouses of dream and fragmentary memory; so that we may think of him not only as a poet, but as one who makes each reader a poet as well. The art of Dr. James is by no means haphazard, and in essay introduction the preface to one of his collections he has formulated three very sound rules for macabre composition. A ghost story, he believes, should have a familiar setting in the modern period, in order to approach closely the reader’s sphere of experience. Its spectral phenomena, moreover, should be malevolent rather than beneficent; since fear is the read, emotion primarily to be excited. And finally, the technical patois of “occultism” or pseudo-science ought carefully to be avoided; lest the charm of casual verisimilitude be smothered in of a ghost unconvincing pedantry. Dr.

James, practicing what he preaches, approaches his themes in a light and often conversational way. Creating the illusion of every-day events, he introduces his abnormal phenomena cautiously and gradually; relieved at every turn by dissertation online touches of homely and my essay.com, prosaic detail, and sometimes spiced with a snatch or two of antiquarian scholarship. Conscious of the close relation between present weirdness and accumulated tradition, he generally provides remote historical antecedents for his incidents; thus being able to utilise very aptly his exhaustive knowledge of the past, and dissertation read, his ready and convincing command of archaic diction and the panda essay, colouring. A favourite scene for a James tale is some centuried cathedral, which the author can describe with all the familiar minuteness of a specialist in that field. Sly humorous vignettes and bits of online, life-like genre portraiture and characterisation are often to be found in Dr.

James’s narratives, and serve in his skilled hands to augment the general effect rather than to spoil it, as the same qualities would tend to do with a lesser craftsman. In inventing a new type of help, ghost, he has departed considerably from the conventional Gothic tradition; for where the older stock ghosts were pale and read online, stately, and apprehended chiefly through the sense of sight, the average James ghost is how to a good introduction, lean, dwarfish, and hairya sluggish, hellish night-abomination midway betwixt beast and manand usually touched before it is seen. Sometimes the spectre is of still more eccentric composition; a roll of read online, flannel with spidery eyes, or an invisible entity which moulds itself in bedding and shews a face of crumpled linen. Dr. James has, it is clear, an intelligent and of using transport essay, scientific knowledge of human nerves and feelings; and knows just how to apportion statement, imagery, and subtle suggestions in order to secure the best results with his readers.

He is an dissertation artist in incident and arrangement rather than in atmosphere, and reaches the emotions more often through the intellect than directly. Pros Of Using Public? This method, of course, with its occasional absences of sharp climax, has its drawbacks as well as its advantages; and many will miss the thorough atmospheric tension which writers like Machen are careful to build up with words and scenes. But only a few of the tales are open to read the charge of des ducs essay, tameness. Generally the laconic unfolding of abnormal events in read adroit order is amply sufficient to produce the desired effect of cumulative horror. The short stories of Dr. James are contained in four small collections, entitled respectively Ghost-Stories of an Antiquary, More Ghost Stories of an Antiquary, A Thin Ghost and circuit des ducs 2009, Others, and A Warning to dissertation the Curious. There is also a delightful juvenile phantasy, The Five Jars, which has its spectral adumbrations. Amidst this wealth of material it is hard to select a favourite or especially typical tale, though each reader will no doubt have such preferences as his temperament may determine. “Count Magnus” is assuredly one of the best, forming as it does a veritable Golconda of suspense and suggestion. Circuit Essay 2009? Mr.

Wraxall is an English traveller of the middle nineteenth century, sojourning in Sweden to read online secure material for a book. Becoming interested in music during world war two the ancient family of De la Gardie, near the village of Råbäck, he studies its records; and finds particular fascination in the builder of the existing manor-house, one Count Magnus, of whom strange and terrible things are whispered. The Count, who flourished early in the seventeenth century, was a stern landlord, and famous for dissertation read, his severity toward poachers and delinquent tenants. His cruel punishments were bywords, and there were dark rumours of influences which even survived his interment in the great mausoleum he built near the churchas in the case of the two peasants who hunted on his preserves one night a century after his death. There were hideous screams in the woods, and near the tomb of Count Magnus an unnatural laugh and the clang of a great door.

Next morning the priest found the two men; one a maniac, and the other dead, with the flesh of his face sucked from the bones. Mr. Wraxall hears all these tales, and of using public, stumbles on more guarded references to a Black Pilgrimage once taken by dissertation read the Count; a pilgrimage to Chorazin in of a ghost Palestine, one of the dissertation, cities denounced by Our Lord in the Scriptures, and in which old priests say that Antichrist is to be born. No one dares to hint just what that Black Pilgrimage was, or what strange being or thing the Count brought back as a companion. Meanwhile Mr. Wraxall is increasingly anxious to the panda explore the dissertation read, mausoleum of and cons transport, Count Magnus, and dissertation, finally secures permission to do so, in the company of circuit 2009, a deacon. Read? He finds several monuments and three copper sarcophagi, one of des ducs essay 2009, which is the Count’s. Round the edge of this latter are several bands of engraved scenes, including a singular and hideous delineation of a pursuitthe pursuit of a frantic man through a forest by a squat muffled figure with a devil-fish’s tentacle, directed by a tall cloaked man on a neighbouring hillock.

The sarcophagus has three massive steel padlocks, one of which is lying open on dissertation read online, the floor, reminding the traveller of a metallic clash he heard the day before when passing the mausoleum and wishing idly that he might see Count Magnus. His fascination augmented, and the key being accessible, Mr. Wraxall pays the mausoleum a second and of using public transport essay, solitary visit and finds another padlock unfastened. The next day, his last in Råbäck, he again goes alone to read online bid the long-dead Count farewell. Once more queerly impelled to circuit des ducs 2009 utter a whimsical wish for a meeting with the buried nobleman, he now sees to his disquiet that only one of the padlocks remains on the great sarcophagus. Even as he looks, that last lock drops noisily to read the floor, and there comes a sound as of creaking hinges.

Then the monstrous lid appears very slowly to rise, and Mr. Wraxall flees in panic fear without refastening the door of the mausoleum. During his return to England the traveller feels a curious uneasiness about his fellow-passengers on how to introduction, the canal-boat which he employs for the earlier stages. Cloaked figures make him nervous, and dissertation, he has a sense of of a ghost, being watched and followed. Of twenty-eight persons whom he counts, only twenty-six appear at meals; and the missing two are always a tall cloaked man and a shorter muffled figure. Completing his water travel at Harwich, Mr. Wraxall takes frankly to flight in a closed carriage, but sees two cloaked figures at a crossroad. Finally he lodges at a small house in dissertation a village and spends the time making frantic notes. On the second morning he is found dead, and during the inquest seven jurors faint at sight of the body. The house where he stayed is never again inhabited, and upon its demolition half a century later his manuscript is discovered in a forgotten cupboard. In “The Treasure of Abbot Thomas” a British antiquary unriddles a cipher on some Renaissance painted windows, and thereby discovers a centuried hoard of help, gold in a niche half way down a well in the courtyard of a German abbey.

But the crafty depositor had set a guardian over that treasure, and something in the black well twines its arms around the searcher’s neck in such a manner that the read, quest is abandoned, and a clergyman sent for. Each night after that the discoverer feels a stealthy presence and detects a horrible odour of mould outside the door of his hotel room, till finally the clergyman makes a daylight replacement of the stone at the mouth of the treasure-vault in the wellout of which something had come in the dark to avenge the disturbing of old Abbot Thomas’s gold. As he completes his work the cleric observes a curious toad-like carving on the ancient well-head, with the Latin motto “Depositum custodi keep that which is a good introduction, committed to thee.” Other notable James tales are “The Stalls of Barchester Cathedral”, in which a grotesque carving comes curiously to life to avenge the secret and subtle murder of an old Dean by his ambitious successor; “‘Oh, Whistle, and I’ll Come to You, My Lad’”, which tells of the horror summoned by a strange metal whistle found in a mediaeval church ruin; and “An Episode of Cathedral History”, where the dismantling of a pulpit uncovers an read online archaic tomb whose lurking daemon spreads panic and pestilence. Dr.

James, for all his light touch, evokes fright and hideousness in their most shocking forms; and will certainly stand as one of the few really creative masters in his darksome province. Startling mutations, however, are not to be looked for in either direction. In any case an approximate balance of tendencies will continue to circuit des ducs exist; and while we may justly expect a further subtilisation of technique, we have no reason to think that the read online, general position of the spectral in literature will be altered. It is a narrow though essential branch of human expression, and will chiefly appeal as always to my essay.com a limited audience with keen special sensibilities. Whatever universal masterpiece of tomorrow may be wrought from phantasm or terror will owe its acceptance rather to a supreme workmanship than to a sympathetic theme. Yet who shall declare the dark theme a positive handicap?

Radiant with beauty, the Cup of the Ptolemies was carven of onyx.

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federalist essay 51 Publius (James Madison) February 6, 1788. To what expedient then shall we finally resort, for maintaining in practice the necessary partition of power among the several departments, as laid down in the constitution? The only answer that can be given is, that as all these exterior provisions are found to be inadequate, the defect must be supplied, by so contriving the interior structure of the government, as that its several constituent parts may, by their mutual relations, be the means of read online keeping each other in their proper places. Without presuming to undertake a full developement of this important idea, I will hazard a few general observations, which may perhaps place it in pros essay, a clearer light, and enable us to form a more correct judgment of the principles and dissertation online structure of the government planned by the convention.

In order to war two lay a due foundation for that separate and distinct exercise of the different powers of government, which, to a certain extent, is admitted on all hands to be essential to read the preservation of liberty, it is evident that each department should have a will of its own; and consequently should be so constituted, that the members of each should have as little agency as possible in the appointment of the circuit, members of the others. Dissertation Read Online! Were this principle rigorously adhered to, it would require that all the appointments for the supreme executive, legislative, and judiciary magistracies, should be drawn from the same fountain of authority, the people, through channels having no communication whatever with one another. Perhaps such a plan of constructing the several departments, would be less difficult in practice, than it may in contemplation appear. Des Ducs Essay 2009! Some difficulties, however, and some additional expense, would attend the execution of it. Some deviations, therefore, from the principle must be admitted. In the constitution of the dissertation read, judiciary department in particular, it might be inexpedient to insist rigorously on the principle; first, because peculiar qualifications being essential in the members, the primary consideration ought to be to select that mode of choice which best secures these qualifications; secondly, because the permanent tenure by how to write essay which the appointments are held in that department, must soon destroy all sense of dependence on the authority conferring them. It is equally evident, that the members of each department should be as little dependent as possible on those of the others, for the emoluments annexed to their offices. Were the executive magistrate, or the judges, not independent of the legislature in dissertation online, this particular, their independence in every other, would be merely nominal. But the great security against a gradual concentration of the several powers in the same department, consists in giving to thumb those who administer each department, the read, necessary constitutional means, and personal motives, to resist encroachments of the others. The provision for pros essay defence must in this, as in all other cases, be made commensurate to the danger of dissertation attack.

Ambition must be made to help counteract ambition. The interest of the online, man, must be connected with the constitutional rights of the place. It may be a reflection on human nature, that such devices should be necessary to control the abuses of government. World War Two! But what is government itself, but the greatest of dissertation online all reflections on human nature? If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary. In framing a government which is to be administered by during world war two essays men over read, men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to the panda thumb control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself. A dependence on dissertation read online the people is, no doubt, the primary control on the government; but experience has taught mankind the necessity of auxiliary precautions. This policy of supplying, by opposite and rival interests, the defect of circuit des ducs essay better motives, might be traced through the whole system of human affairs, private as well as public. Dissertation Read! We see it particularly displayed in des ducs essay, all the subordinate distributions of power; where the constant aim is, to divide and arrange the several offices in such a manner as that each may be a check on dissertation read online the other; that the private interest of every individual may be a centinel over the public rights. These inventions of prudence cannot be less requisite in the distribution of the supreme powers of the and cons of using public transport, state.

But it is not possible to give to each department an equal power of self-defence. In republican government, the legislative authority necessarily predominates. The remedy for this inconveniency is, to divide the legislature into different branches; and to render them, by different modes of election, and different principles of action, as little connected with each other, as the dissertation online, nature of pros and cons essay their common functions, and their common dependence on the society, will admit. It may even be necessary to guard against dangerous encroachments by still further precautions. As the weight of the legislative authority requires that it should be thus divided, the weakness of the executive may require, on online the other hand, that it should be fortified. An absolute negative on the legislature, appears, at first view, to write a good essay be the natural defence with which the executive magistrate should be armed. But perhaps it would be neither altogether safe, nor alone sufficient. On ordinary occasions, it might not be exerted with the requisite firmness; and on online extraordinary occasions, it might be perfidiously abused. May not this defect of an absolute negative be supplied by some qualified connexion between this weaker department, and the weaker branch of the stronger department, by how to a good which the latter may be led to support the dissertation, constitutional rights of the former, without being too much detached from the rights of its own department? If the help my essay.com, principles on which these observations are founded be just, as I persuade myself they are, and they be applied as a criterion to the several state constitutions, and to the federal constitution, it will be found, that if the latter does not perfectly correspond with them, the former are infinitely less able to bear such a test.

There are moreover two considerations particularly applicable to the federal system of America, which place that system in a very interesting point of view. First. In a single republic, all the power surrendered by the people, is submitted to the administration of a single government; and the usurpations are guarded against, by a division of the government into distinct and separate departments. In the compound republic of America, the power surrendered by the people, is first divided between two distinct governments, and dissertation online then the portion allotted to each subdivided among distinct and separate departments. Hence a double security arises to the rights of the help my essay.com, people. Read! The different governments will control each other; at the same time that each will be controled by itself.

Second. It is of great importance in a republic, not only to guard the society against the oppression of its rulers; but to guard one part of the society against the injustice of the other part. Des Ducs Essay 2009! Different interests necessarily exist in different classes of citizens. Dissertation! If a majority be united by a common interest, the rights of the minority will be insecure. There are but two methods of providing against this evil: the one, by creating a will in the community independent of the majority, that is, of the my essay.com, society itself; the dissertation online, other, by comprehending in the society so many separate descriptions of citizens, as will render an unjust combination of a majority of the whole very improbable, if not impracticable. The first method prevails in pros transport, all governments possessing an hereditary or self-appointed authority. This, at best, is but a precarious security; because a power independent of the society may as well espouse the unjust views of the major, as the rightful interests of the minor party, and may possibly be turned against both parties. The second method will be exemplified in dissertation read online, the federal republic of the United States. Whilst all authority in it will be derived from, and dependent on the society, the essay, society itself will be broken into so many parts, interests, and classes of citizens, that the rights of individuals, or of the minority, will be in little danger from interested combinations of the majority. In a free government, the security for civil rights must be the same as that for religious rights.

It consists in the one case in the multiplicity of interests, and in read, the other, in the multiplicity of sects. The degree of security in both cases will depend on the number of during interests and sects; and dissertation read this may be presumed to depend on the extent of country and introduction number of people comprehended under the same government. This view of the subject must particularly recommend a proper federal system to all the dissertation, sincere and considerate friends of ghost republican government: since it shows, that in exact proportion as the territory of the union may be formed into more circumscribed confederacies, or states, oppressive combinations of a majority will be facilitated; the best security under the republican form, for the rights of read online every class of citizens, will be diminished; and consequently, the stability and independence of some member of the government, the only other security, must be proportionally increased. Justice is the end of government. It is the end of civil society. It ever has been, and ever will be, pursued, until it be obtained, or until liberty be lost in the pursuit. In a society, under the forms of which the stronger faction can readily unite and oppress the pros of using transport essay, weaker, anarchy may as truly be said to reign, as in dissertation read, a state of nature, where the weaker individual is not secured against essay introduction, the violence of the stronger: and as, in the latter state, even the stronger individuals are prompted, by the uncertainty of their condition, to submit to dissertation a government which may protect the weak, as well as themselves: so, in ghost, the former state, will the more powerful factions or parties be gradually induced, by read a like motive, to wish for a government which will protect all parties, the weaker as well as the more powerful. It can be little doubted, that if the state of Rhode Island was separated from the confederacy, and left to itself, the insecurity of rights under the popular form of government within such narrow limits, would be displayed by such reiterated oppressions of factious majorities, that some power altogether independent of the people, would soon be called for by the voice of the very factions whose misrule had proved the necessity of it. In the and cons transport, extended republic of the United States, and among the great variety of interests, parties, and sects, which it embraces, a coalition of a majority of the dissertation, whole society could seldom take place upon any other principles, than those of thumb essay justice and the general good: whilst there being thus less danger to a minor from the will of the major party, there must be less pretext also, to provide for the security of the read online, former, by introducing into the government a will not dependent on the latter: or, in other words, a will independent of the society itself.

It is public no less certain than it is important, notwithstanding the contrary opinions which have been entertained, that the dissertation, larger the society, provided it lie within a practicable sphere, the write a good, more duly capable it will be of self-government. And happily for the republican cause , the practicable sphere may be carried to a very great extent, by a judicious modification and mixture of the federal principle . Source: The Federalist: The Gideon Edition, eds. George W. Carey and James McClellan (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2001), 267-272. James Madison, like most Americans at the time, understood that once a single branch of dissertation government — legislative, executive or judicial — had accumulated all political power in its hands, nothing could stop it from acting tyrannically. The checks and balances between the branches built into the proposed Constitution, he explained in and cons essay, Federalist 51, are therefore essential to keep those powers properly separated among the branches. In the midst of dissertation read explaining these “inventions of prudence,” Madison offered thoughtful reflections on why human nature makes politics — especially the great task of framing a government comprised of men rather than angels — so challenging. Questions for consideration: What is the best way to keep the powers of essay government properly separated among the branches in practice? Why is framing a good government made difficult by human nature? What are the dissertation online, two possible sources of oppression and what remedies does Madison propose to essay of a prevent them?

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