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Brave New World Quotes and Analysis. . COMMUNITY, IDENTITY, STABILITY. Article. Brave New World, 1. These three words hang in a sign over the Central London Hatchery and Conditioning Centre, which creates and conditions new human life. These words comprise the slogan for society. Community means that all persons must work together to maximize the greatest happiness for society as a whole, and thesis it occurs through the artificially implanted ideas of Identity that each person has. Some are alphas, betas, gammas, etc., but each person is article reviews, supposed to be happy with their own identity. Finally, Stability is the ultimate goal of society because only through stability can happiness be maintained and all unpleasant feelings and emotions be eradicated. . Full Text Thesis. you all remember, I suppose, that beautiful and inspired saying of Our Ford#39;s: History is article reviews, bunk. Brave New World, 34. Vacation. This saying, quoted by Mustapha Mond, instructs his citizens to disregard the article reviews on science painful lessons of papers history and to ignore the past in order to article reviews, focus on future progress.
Society disregards history because if people understood what came before, they might not less willing to put their trust in science and progress. Text. History is bunk, as Mond says, because it revolves around human frailties and emotions such as love, anger, vengeance, and article on science temptation. Such things are no longer part of the essay human experience and, according to Mond, have no place in article, a society built around maximizing happiness. A gramme is better than a damn. Brave New World, 54. Essays Fsu. This phrase signifies the maximization of happiness and good feelings in Huxley#39;s utilitarian society. Article Reviews On Science. The greatest good for the greatest number of people, according to Huxley, is to thesis, minimize any negative emotions or feelings. To do this, individuals receive a gramme of soma, a narcotic that puts them into a state of unfeeling unconsciousness. Anytime individuals feel unhappy, they remember this phrase. The more stitches the less riches.
Brave New World, 51. Every person repeatedly hears this hypnopaedic phrase from an early age. The phrase is embedded so deeply into the consciousness of each person that they take its meaning to be truth. In this case, the phrase sparks consumer behavior, since the more a person repairs their consumer goods, the less they will buy, resulting in less money in on science, the economic system of society. Creating consumption is one of the chief tasks of government because consumption keeps lower castes employed with no time on their hands for disruptive behavior. What man has joined, nature is powerless to put asunder. Brave New World, 21. College Essays. This phrase, spoken by article on science the Director, plays on the common phrase during a marriage ceremony - What God has joined, let no man put asunder.
In the marriage ceremony, the college essays phrase evokes God#39;s foreknowledge of bringing two persons together in love. In this quote, the article reviews on science Director claims the supremacy of science and progress. Man, not a god or nature, has put together the human body and mind, essentially conquering nature. Everyone works for every one else. We can#39;t do without any one. Even Epsilons. Brave New World, 91. This quote from Lenina demonstrates the high priority put on application, community and identity in the society.
Social castes move from the Alphas, the most talented and beautiful people in society, to reviews on science, the Epsilons and Gammas, the world#39;s menial laborers. However, each person’s conditioning causes him to feel as though they are all part of an idea economic and social system. Later in purchase custom papers urgent, the novel, John Savage tries to point out article that such a system really only benefits those who rule it, not those that are a part of it. Full Thesis Article. So they#39;re having children all the time - like dogs. It#39;s too revolting. And yet John was a great comfort to me. Brave New World, 122.
Linda says this line when Bernard and Lenina visit her on the reservation. Linda, a former inhabitant of the civilized world, tries to explain the incomprehensible behavior of the savages, but this quote illustrates the power of the bonds of parenthood. Huxley often uses surprising emotions in particular characters to demonstrate that there are certain aspects of being human that government and society cannot suppress. Why was that old fellow [Shakespeare] such a marvelous propaganda technician? Because he had so many insane, excruciating things to get excited about. You#39;ve got to be hurt and upset; otherwise you can#39;t think of the really good, penetrating X-rayish phrases. Brave New World, 188. In this passage, Helmholtz Watson responds after John Savage reads to on science, him from Shakespeare#39;s Romeo and Juliet . Watson realizes that Shakespeare represents a certain kind of mastery over language and emotion - the same kind of college application essays fsu work that he himself does, but Shakespeare is infinitely better at such things because he deals with real human emotion, something that the reviews on science inhabitants now regard as foreign. You#39;ve got to choose between happiness and what people used to call high art.
We#39;ve sacrificed the on career goals high art. Article On Science. Brave New World, 226. In this line, Mustapha Mond responds to John Savage#39;s protests that Shakespeare#39;s literature is persuasive about women, better than anything that results from society’s emotional engineering. Mond#39;s agrees that Savage has a point, but he claims that in on science, this society, happiness is the greatest good, and great literature can only come from turmoil and unhappiness. In order to achieve the persuasive about women greatest amount of happiness possible, civilized society has sacrificed art. Article On Science. It isn#39;t only essay on career in nursing art that#39;s incompatible with happiness; it#39;s also science. Article. Science is dangerous; we have to keep it most carefully chained and muzzled. Brave New World, 231. Mustapha Mond posits that science cannot be the only factor in progress. Throughout the novel, the inhabitants of civilized society learn to regard scientific progress as the greatest good, but science often illuminates facts that do not profit an individual#39;s happiness. Progress often makes life more difficult for some and easier for others.
Science can thus be a destabilizing force in society. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/brave-new-world/study-guide/quotes in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Brave New World Brave New World Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and essay goals Analysis Summary And Analysis Chapters 1-3 Chapters 4-6 Chapters 7-9 Chapters 10-12 Chapters 13-15 Chapters 16-18 Huxley#39;s Notes Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Lesson Plan Mini-Store Aldous Huxley Biography. Brave New World Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for Brave New World is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and article on science discuss the novel. Bernard wants to take John back to London as a way to get back at the Director. He intends to embarrass the Director by exposing him as John's father. Great Depression Thesis. Well, one of many points that Huxley is article reviews, trying to make is that there is more to life than stability and ignorant complacent happiness. At the time of the books writing America was striving for this status quo of complacent pleasantry, censorship. Article. Linda confuses John with Pope.
Brave New World study guide contains a biography of Aldous Huxley, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Brave New World essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and reviews on science provide critical analysis of Brave New World by Aldous Huxley.
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Rembrandt etchings on oriental papers: papers in article reviews on science, the collection of the National Gallery of Victoria. etching, drypoint and burin, B.74, 2nd state. sheet 28.7 x 39.4 cm, plate 28.1 x 39.4 cm. National Gallery of great depression, Victoria, Melbourne. Purchased, 1891 (p.186.1-1) From at least 1647 onwards, Rembrandt executed many of his prints on papers of oriental origin. 1 Rembrandt’s systematic use of these papers is usually considered to have begun around 1647, although he may have started using them a year or two earlier (see G. On Science! Biorklund, ‘Old Paper’, in G. Biorklund #038; O. Barnard, Rembrandt’s Etchings: True and purchase custom papers urgent False – A Summary Catalogue, rev. Article! edn, Stockholm, 1968, p. 172; C. White, Rembrandt as an papers Etcher: A Study of the Artist at Work, vol . I, London, 1969, p. 16). While his European papers have been the subject of intense scrutiny, 2 I am referring to the Rembrandt watermark project begun in 1981 by Nancy Ash and Shelley Fletcher at the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC. This project has resulted in the collection of over 900 watermarks and has given rise to a cataloguing system that groups them by general type and by degree of similarity. The results of the project will soon be published. The Conservation Department at reviews on science, the National Gallery of Victoria has recorded the purchase research, fifty watermarks found on papers in the Melbourne collection.
These watermarks have been catalogued, according to reviews the National Gallery of Art’s system, by Rembrandt scholar Drs Erik Hinterding of the persuasive essays, University of Utrecht in the Netherlands. Eight of the watermarks occur in papers carrying etchings by article reviews on science, Rembrandt that were included in the recent exhibition Rembrandt: A Genius and His Impact, and are noted in the exhibition catalogue (see I. Zdanowicz, ‘Etchings by college application essays fsu, Rembrandt’, in A. Article! Blankert, Rembrandt: A Genius and urgent His Impact (exh. cat.), National Gallery of article reviews on science, Victoria, Melbourne, 1997, cat. Narrative Christmas Vacation! nos 103, 106, 107, 109, 112, 113, 115B, 116). the oriental papers remain somewhat neglected. It is hoped that this article will make some contribution in this area. Print scholars have traditionally divided oriental papers into three categories: China, Japan and India . 3 The earliest reference to article reviews Rembrandt’s use of oriental papers appears to be the on career, allusion to ‘Indian’ paper that occurs in a letter from the English traveller Edward Browne (1644–1708), written to his father from reviews Amsterdam in 1668: ‘Here is a strange variety of excellent prints … Here are divers good ones of Rembrandt and some upon Indian paper that look like washing, though scratched after his manner’ (Edward Browne, letter to his father, 1668, cited in purchase papers, E. Hinterding, ‘The History of Rembrandt’s Copperplates, with a Catalogue of Those That Survive’, Simiolus, vol. 22, no. Article! 4, 1993–94, p. 264 n. College Application Fsu! 62). Browne’s use of the term ‘Indian’ was probably the beginning of many misunderstandings, caused by the vagaries of language. As Mayer Haunton points out, ‘Indian’ in this context may simply be a reference to ‘from the article on science, Indies’ or, more particularly, to ‘imported by text thesis, the East India Company’ – rather than to India itself; a small number of papers used by Rembrandt do, apparently, bear a strong resemblance to India papers, and Rembrandt’s ownership of on science, Mogul miniatures adds circumstantial evidence in support of his also having had access to Indian papers (K. Mayer Haunton, ‘Rembrandt’s Papers’, in full text article, A Collection of Etchings by Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (1606–1669), Formed by Joseph R. Reviews! Ritman (sale cat.), eds N. Bialler, A. T. Eeles, R. Godfrey #038; K. Mayer Haunton, Artemis #038; Sotheby’s, London, 1995, n.p.).
The seven oriental papers used for full prints by Rembrandt in the National Gallery of Victoria collection exhibit characteristics associated with China and Japan papers. The terms China and Japan, though widely used, are essentially rather subjective, referring to the appearance of a paper, and not necessarily to article on science its place of fsu, origin. The following characteristics are associated with Rembrandt’s ‘China’ papers: they are generally thin, and when viewed in transmitted light they reveal the bamboo or reed screen pattern imparted by the papermaking mould on reviews on science, which they were formed; in colour they vary from white and greyish white to ivory. The ‘Japan’ papers, by comparison, are thicker and are often referred to as ‘vellums’. In colour, they range from pale buff, and gold, to ivory.
Frequently smoother in appearance than western papers, when viewed in transmitted light they do not generally reveal the screen pattern of the papermaking mould on which they were formed. The composition and origin of these papers have long been matters of speculation. Great! Recourse to historical references has often confused rather than clarified the issues. 4 For example, Biorklund, ‘Old Paper’, p. 172, notes [in] the auction catalogue of 1755, when the important De Burgy collection was sold, the Dutch text mentioned 48 etchings printed “Op Oostindisch papier” which the French translator of the auction catalogue erroneously interpreted as “Papier de la Chine” (see also note 3 above). The most authoritative study of the oriental papers remains that conducted by George Biorklund in 1968.
5 Biorklund, ‘Old Paper’. Article On Science! After examining the fibres from a number of these papers, Biorklund concluded that they were made up purely of full text thesis article, gampi fibres and were Japanese in origin. On Science! 6 Gampi is a deciduous plant from the family Thymelaeacea. Essays About! A few varieties are used for papermaking. Diplomorpha sikokiana Nakai is generally considered the best. Gampi is reviews on science, very difficult, if not impossible, to cultivate, and has therefore always been expensive. Although it grows throughout Southeast Asia, it is most closely associated with papermaking in Japan, where it has been used since at least the persuasive essays working women, eighth century.
Biorklund does not discuss China papers in any depth, although he does refer to reviews on science a ‘nearly white paper with a pale, silvery tone and purchase custom urgent perfectly smooth surface’ used in etchings after 1654, a paper he also believed to be composed of gampi. Article On Science! 7 Biorklund, ‘Old Paper’, p. 172, cites a number of etchings he has seen on this paler paper, including Christ at Emmaus: The Larger Plate (B.87). Depression! The National Gallery of Victoria’s impression of this print is on what we will be calling Paper 6, which may well be this same paper. Biorklund in fact rejected the proposition that any of Rembrandt’s papers may have come from article reviews on science China, because of the supposedly low quality of Chinese papers at that time, and because of the political instability in the country. 8 Biorklund, ‘Old Paper’, p. 172. Biorklund also points to the fascinating trading relationship between the Netherlands and Japan during Rembrandt’s lifetime. From 1639 until 1854 the Dutch were the only Europeans permitted to enter and live in Japan. They were, however, restricted to essay the small, artificial island of Deshima at Nagasaki, receiving annual visits of two to three vessels.
9 Deshima measured a mere 200 x 600 feet. Some twenty Dutchmen at a time were in on science, residence on the island. They lived under severe restrictions but the essay vacation, Dutch East India Company, for which they worked, maintained a very profitable business: according to article on science records, profits averaged 81 per cent in the period 1649–62. See A. Hyma, The Dutch in the Far East, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1942; G. K. Goodman, The Dutch Impact on Japan (1640–1853), Leiden, 1967. Remarkably, following an examination of on career goals, Dutch East India Company records, Biorklund was able to article on science identify two records that actually named Japanese paper as a cargo: the first ‘an invoice of the ship “De Swaen” dated October 1st 1643 for two casks of Japanese paper’; and the second ‘in a memoire [of 6 November 1644] of merchandise to be delivered by the Japanese “both for the Netherlands and for India”, 3000 sheets of purchase research urgent, Japanese paper’. 10 Biorklund, ‘Old Paper’, p. 173. I am also grateful to on science Dr Christiaan Jorg of the Groninger Museum, Groningen, for purchase custom research the following information: ‘The amount of goods mentioned in the [Dutch East India] Company records never covers the total export from reviews Decima [Deshima] by the Dutch in a given year, as the merchants were licensed (officially, it was not smuggling) to buy and full text ship their own private merchandise on return ships from Japan to on science Batavia/the Netherlands. Essay In Nursing! So the two shipments of 1643/44 can in article on science, no way be conclusive’ (Dr Christiaan Jorg, letter to purchase research papers urgent the author, 6 January 1997).
The assumption that most, if not all, of Rembrandt’s oriental papers are composed entirely of article on science, gampi fibres and are probably of Japanese origin is often repeated in depression, the literature. 11 The only mention of fibre analysis found by the author to reviews date in the literature published since Biorklund reported on his findings in 1968 appears to be that undertaken in the Asiatic Department of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, in 1970, but complete details have not been published; the conclusions drawn on great, the basis of this latter analysis appear to be similar to Biorklund’s (see S. W. Reviews! Reed, ‘Types of Paper Used by Rembrandt’, in about, Rembrandt: Experimental Etcher (exh. cat.), Museum of article reviews, Fine Arts, Boston, 1969, pp. About Christmas Vacation! 178–83). China cannot however be ruled out reviews on science, as a source of some of the papers. While all Europeans but the Dutch were excluded from full thesis Japan after 1639, the Chinese continued to trade there, having warehouses and a compound not far from Deshima. 12 See Goodman, p. 19.
It should also be remembered that between 1624 and 1661 the Dutch occupied Taiwan, a strategic location for trade, and for on science piracy. 13 The Dutch imported silk, deerskins and text thesis other products to reviews Japan from Taiwan (see Hyma, p. 155). In view of the little recent attention given to Rembrandt’s oriental papers, and narrative vacation because of the often repeated generalisations associated with them, in early 1997 it was decided that a careful examination of the seven papers represented in the National Gallery of Victoria collection would be timely in the lead-up to the exhibition Rembrandt: A Genius and His Impact, of October that year. This article documents that examination, and article its findings. Papermaking in Japan and China: a brief overview. The Chinese are credited with the invention of paper around the first century AD. The art of papermaking then appears to have spread slowly, reaching Japan only in the early seventh century. Persuasive About! 14 For an account of the history of papermaking in the Orient, see D. Hunter, Papermaking: The History and Technique of an Ancient Craft, New York, 1974. By the seventeenth century, papermaking in China and Japan had developed to the point where the two traditions could be distinguished by a number of distinctive features.
In China, a wide variety of plant material was being used for fibre sources, and papers were more likely to consist of a mixture of different fibres. 15 See H. Mullock, ‘Xuan Paper’, Paper Conservator, vol. 19, 1995, p. 26; see also Tsuen-Hsuin Tsien, ‘Raw Materials for Papermaking in China’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 93, 1973, pp. 510–48. Major sources of papermaking fibre included hemp, jute, flax, ramie, rattan, bamboo, rice, wheat stalks, and the bast fibres of some trees, notably paper mulberry (usually Broussonetia papyrifera ) and than ( Pteroceltis tatarinowii Maxim.). In contrast, papermaking in article reviews, Japan was dominated by three bast fibres: kozo , gampi and mitsumata . 16 Hemp played an important part in early Japanese papermaking but seems to have been replaced by thesis article, kozo and gampi by at least the twelfth century (see K. Masuda, ‘Japanese Paper and Hyogu’, Paper Conservator, vol. 9, 1985, p. Article Reviews! 32). Essay Goals In Nursing! Kozo ( Broussonetia kazinoki Sieb.) is article reviews, a variety from the family Moraceae, the family to which Broussonetia papyrifera also belongs. Mitsumata is usually cited as Edgeworthia papyrifera Sieb. et Zucc. (strictly speaking, it should be known as Edgeworthia chrysantha (see Y. Harvey, ‘Edgeworthia chrysantha’, Plantsman, vol. 14, no.
3, December 1992, p. Persuasive Essays! 130)). It is first recorded as a fibre for papermaking in Japan in 1597 (see Hunter, p. Article! 481). For gampi, see note 6 above. There were also differences associated with the moulds upon which the Japanese and Chinese made their sheets, and some interesting variations in techniques of sheet formation. The oriental papermaking mould consisted of a flexible screen, made of persuasive essays about working women, bamboo splints, grass or reeds tied together with silk or horsehair to form a horizontal ‘laid’ pattern.
This flexible screen was supported within a rigid bamboo or wooden frame. In Japan, the screen and frame are referred to on science as the text thesis article, su and geta, respectively. By the seventeenth century the Japanese su was likely to be made of bamboo splints, with pampas grass and other grasses being more often used prior to article on science 1300. 17 See T. Barrett, Japanese Papermaking: Traditions, Tools, and Techniques, New York, 1983, p. 82. Because of bamboo’s fine grain it can be drawn through dies to form narrow, round, uniform splints. Working! The distance between ‘chain’ lines in a su (that is, the silk or horsehair threads connecting the splints) traditionally varied between 2.5 cm and around 4 cm. By contrast with the su, the Chinese mould traditionally lacked uniformity, with its bamboo, grass or reed splints being of various diameters and shapes, and its chain lines closer together (1.5–2 cm). In addition to article reviews making ‘laid’ papers, Japanese papermakers would also occasionally produce ‘wove’ papers by attaching to the su a finely woven piece of silk, referred to as the sha. Papers made with a sha do not usually reveal chain and laid lines when viewed in transmitted light, although sometimes chain lines can be apparent (see discussion of Papers 4 and essay on career goals 5 below). In addition to the idiosyncrasies associated with the on science, papermaking moulds used in China and Japan, there also developed in both countries significant differences in techniques of sheet formation. Basically, a sheet of paper is formed by plunging the in nursing, mould into a vat of water and fibres, lifting out the mould, and shaking it to and fro to distribute the fibres evenly before all the water drains away.
This is essentially the papermaking technique introduced to Japan from article China in custom, the seventh century. This technique came to be known in article on science, Japan as tame-zuki, which has been loosely translated as ‘the fill-and-hold way to persuasive women make paper’. 18 ibid., p. 51. Because water drains rapidly, any fibrous clumps (knots) or impurities that find their way into the vat during this process are quickly incorporated into the sheet. By the ninth century, however, the Japanese appear to have modified this process by adding neri, a viscous plant material, to article on science the vat. 19 There is some evidence that this modification to the tamezuki method may have occurred earlier in China or Korea, but most scholars attribute the invention to the Japanese (see Barrett, p. 70). Neri traditionally came from either the root of Abelmoschus manihot Medikus (known as tororo-aoi in Japanese) or the inner bark of Hydrangea paniculata Sieb. (noriutsugi in Japanese) (see Barrett, pp. 56, 287). The role of this viscous agent was to disperse the fibres evenly, both in the vat and during agitation, and also to slow the drainage of the water through the su. The addition of this agent led to goals the development of a very dynamic sheet-forming method known as nagashi-zuki, or ‘the flowing or sloshing way to make paper’. 20 See Barrett, p. Reviews! 51.
According to this method, a sheet of paper is formed by dipping the mould into the vat, lifting it out and tilting it back and persuasive essays about working women forth, allowing the slurry to flow across the mould; because drainage is slowed, any excess slurry, and with it any impurities or fibrous clumps, can be tossed back into the vat before it settles. This process is repeated several times, slowly building up a sheet of paper on the su. This complex and demanding action gives the papermaker immense control, resulting in thin and uniform sheets of great strength and beauty. The nagashi-zuki method is ideal for making thin, lightweight papers, rarely heavier than 80 gsm. 21 ibid., p. 70. When it comes to making thicker, heavier sheets, however, the viscous additive actually appears to work against article, the papermaker, slowing drainage to such an fsu extent that the fibre accumulation eventually becomes uneven, resulting in article reviews on science, an uneven sheet.
Thicker, heavyweight papers are therefore usually made using the tame-zuki method or by essays about women, laminating together thin sheets formed by the nagashi-zuki technique. Reviews! The second of these processes gives a more uniform and beautiful result. The preceding discussion is necessarily brief and is not intended to be definitive. It is important to great thesis be aware of the pitfalls that are always inherent in article, attempts to full text thesis simplify the distinctions between the Chinese and Japanese traditions of article on science, papermaking. The aim of this study has been to essays working gather objective information on the oriental papers used by Rembrandt for printmaking, of which there are seven examples in the collection of the National Gallery of Victoria. The research was also extended to a posthumous impression of a Rembrandt print, reworked by William Baillie, and to a print after Rembrandt, by James Bretherton, on article on science, oriental paper. Purchase Custom! The investigation of article reviews, all nine papers included careful visual examination, ?-radiography 22 The ?-radiography process involves placing the paper between a poly[Carbon 14] methylmethacrylate plate and a sheet of Kodak Biomax MR film. A 1:1 black and white photographic contact print can then be made. ?-radiographs are useful because they reveal details about the paper structure, including fibre distribution and quality, and any characteristics imparted by the mould upon which the sheet was formed. Thin areas appear lighter on a ?-radiography. and fibre analysis. The analysis of essay about christmas vacation, oriental paper fibres is a very specialised and often difficult task. It has been pointed out by various researchers that some fibres, particularly gampi and mitsumata, belong to on science the same family and are very similar, 23 For the similarities between gampi and mitsumata fibres, see G. Biorklund, ‘Paper Analysis’, in Biorklund #038; Barnard, p. 175; S. Beauman Murphy #038; S. Rempel, ‘A Study of the Quality of Japanese Papers Used in Conservation’, in The Book and Paper Group Annual, vol.
4, ed. J. Abt, USA, 1985, p. 68. and the situation is custom papers urgent, also complicated by the fact that, ethically, only very small samples may be removed from a work of article reviews on science, art. College Essays! Katsuhiko Masuda, Director of the Department of Restoration Technique at the Tokyo National Research Institute of Cultural Properties, was approached, and volunteered to organise the analysis on the Gallery’s behalf. The analysis was carried out in June 1997 by Akinori Okawa, Senior Researcher at the Kochi Prefectural Paper Technology Centre. Kochi is one of the three oldest papermaking prefectures in Japan. Sampling of the papers in the Gallery’s collection involved the removal of very small (literally millimetres in length) representative fibres from the verso of each. 24 This process was documented in detail (National Gallery of Victoria (Conservation Department) files). These samples were then sent to Japan for analysis.
25 In carrying out this analysis, Akinori Okawa used water to reviews on science disperse the fibres on a glass plate, dyed them with C-stain solution, and then examined them microscopically. The papers used by Rembrandt for the seven prints on great, oriental paper in reviews on science, the collection of the National Gallery of Victoria fall into three distinct categories. College Application Essays Fsu! The primary differentiating feature is the botanical source of the paper fibres, although ?-radiography has also revealed clear differences in the ways in which the sheets were formed. Reviews! Table 1 identifies the fibre type found in each paper. Further details of these seven papers, and of the two other papers examined (Papers A and on career goals in nursing B), are provided in the Appendix at the conclusion of this article, accompanied by reproductions of the ?-radiographs made in the course of the examination. Papers 1 to 5 would traditionally be referred to by print scholars as Japan papers. The small samples taken from each of these five papers indicate that they are probably composed entirely of gampi. Samples taken from Papers 1 and 2 also contain rice powder, added as a filler.
26 Akinori Okawa points out that examples of gampi papers with rice powder fillers date back to the Heian period (9 th –11 th centuries) (letters to the author, 1997 (translated by Katsuhiko Masuda)). Article Reviews! All five papers are similar in colour, ranging from application essays fsu a golden yellow to buff, are quite thick and range in basis weight from 106 to on science 200 gsm. A careful visual examination of certain physical features, namely damaged areas on the versos, and the characteristics displayed in the ?-radiographs, indicate that all of these papers are multi-layered. 27 This has been suggested previously (see Biorklund, ‘Old Paper’, p. Essay Christmas! 171). In general, the fibre quality of all five papers seems quite high (that is, the fibres are of article reviews on science, uniform length and have few knots or shives). Essay On Career Goals In Nursing! Fibre distribution is also relatively regular. Article! All this points to the likelihood that the two or more sheets making up these gampi papers were formed individually by the nagashi-zuki technique, and then couched and pressed together when wet, drying together to essays working women form a laminate. Gampi is an ideal fibre for this process because gampi sheets have a natural tendency to adhere to one another when wet.
28 See Barrett, p. 67. In Japanese papermaking, by contrast with the western tradition, felts are not used during the pressing process. The newly formed wet sheets are piled directly on top of each other, lightly pressed, then separated and brushed onto boards to dry in the sun. The tendency of gampi papers to stick together after pressing causes problems for papermakers. The ?-radiographs of Papers 4 and 5 reveal some interesting similarities. Broad, vertical and light linear bands are apparent, and article on science the spacing of full thesis, these bands is consistent with that of the chain lines of a Japanese su. This banding is article on science, further indicative of papers made using a sha on full text, top of rather raised chain lines (that is, chain lines formed with thick and rough thread rather than with fine silk). A less regular, more diffuse, and horizontal wave-like pattern is also apparent in the ?-radiographs of Papers 4 and 5. These horizontal ‘variegations’ in the paper are due to article reviews on science the accumulation of slight irregularities in the thicknesses of the individual sheets making up the college application, laminate. A similar effect can be seen in the ?-radiograph of Paper 1, only in this case the article reviews on science, orientation of the print means that the variegations are vertical.
The ?-radiograph of Paper 1 reveals a laminate made up of sheets formed on a sha over a very fine su. Here there is no sign of chain lines, so it would appear that the college fsu, su had low-profile chain lines made with fine thread such as silk. 29 I am very grateful to Timothy Barrett for reviews pointing out to me the significance of the broad and diffuse chain lines seen in the ?-radiographs of college, Papers 4 and article on science 5. I am also indebted to him for providing me with a unique sheet of handmade Japanese paper, which, when ?-radiographed, exhibited many of the characteristics seen in the ?-radiographs of Papers 1, 4 and persuasive working 5. This handmade paper consists of some ten sheets (each formed by the nagashi-zuki method) that have been pressed together while still wet, and allowed to dry as a laminate. Papers 2 and 3 are relatively small and have sustained areas of damage that make it difficult to discern the types of patterns apparent in the ?-radiographs of Papers 1, 4 and 5. Slight damage on the versos of Papers 2 and 3, however, indicates that they are laminates, and the ?-radiographs of both papers further exhibit the wavelike variegations associated with laminates consisting of sheets made using the nagashi-zuki method. Historically, paper has permeated almost every aspect of life in Japan. Reviews On Science! The population of Japan is estimated to have been between fifteen and twenty million people at the time of the college application essays fsu, arrival of the Dutch in the early seventeenth century. 30 See Hyma, p. 140. Reviews! It has been noted by one writer that during the Edo period (1615–1868) paper was second only to rice as a source of fsu, tax revenue for the Japanese government. 31 See S. Hughes, Washi: The World of Japanese Paper, Tokyo, 1978, p. 45. Paper has been used in Japan for functional purposes, such as clothing and shelter (for example, umbrellas and article on science wall screens), as well as for cerebral and essays about aesthetic pursuits such as calligraphy. These broad-based demands resulted in a proliferation of papermakers and in hundreds of different types of paper, each having a colloquial name.
These names often described a paper’s colour, place of origin, uses and any number of article reviews on science, other details. Many of the full text thesis article, names have survived, although the modern Japanese papers to which they are ascribed frequently bear little real resemblance to the earlier papers. Article Reviews On Science! 32 ibid., p. 171; A. Great! Dwan, ‘A Method for Examining and Classifying Japanese Papers Used by Artists in the Late Nineteenth Century: The Prints of James Abbott McNeill Whistler’, in Conservation Research, Studies in the History of Art, vol. 41, Washington DC, 1993, p. 108. Papers 1 to 5 show characteristics consistent with those of a type of Japanese paper known as torinoko. Torinoko can be translated as ‘bird’s egg’ and reviews on science refers to the brownish colour of the paper. Examples of torinoko, which is traditionally made from gampi, date back as far as the Nara period (710–94). 33 See Hughes, p. 191. At various times in goals in nursing, its more recent history torinoko has also been made from article reviews other fibres, including mitsumata, kozo and wood pulp (see Dwan, p. Persuasive Essays About! 113).
The paper is first mentioned in Japanese literature in article, the fourteenth century, and by essays working women, the middle of the article on science, fifteenth century appears to have become extremely popular among the upper class. Despite being very expensive, it seems to narrative have enjoyed even greater popularity in the seventeenth century. Interestingly, in the Jesuit Japanese-Portuguese dictionary Vocabulario da lingoa de Iapam com adeclaracao em portugues, published in Nagasaki in 1603, ‘the names of paper made of gampi, i.e. torinoko and its derivatives, outnumber all other kinds of paper’. 34 B. Jugaku, Papermaking by article reviews on science, Hand in Japan, Tokyo, 1959, p. Narrative Essay Christmas! 16. Only thirty-six years separate the publication of this dictionary and the confinement of the Dutch to the island of Deshima, at Nagasaki. A bamboo and article reviews mitsumata paper. Paper 6 would traditionally be referred to by print scholars as a China paper. College! It is a relatively lightweight (53 gsm), pale, thin paper. It is also more absorbent than the gampi papers, probably because of article reviews, its bamboo fibre component, and the printing ink has penetrated through to the verso. The chain and laid lines imparted by the su are clearly visible. The laid lines are irregular and the spacing between the chain lines is relatively narrow (approximately 2 cm).
The paper also contains numerous fibrous knots and fibre 4 of varying lengths. Despite these factors suggesting a Chinese origin, however, it is quite possible that Paper 6 was made in Japan. The Japanese have for centuries made a type of paper called gasenshi, or ‘imitation Chinese calligraphy paper’. 35 See Dwan, p. 111. The ?-radiograph of text article, Paper 6 is almost identical to reviews on science a ?-radiograph of a gasenshi paper reproduced by great depression thesis, Dwan (p. Article Reviews! 122 ( The Duet, no. 2)). Gasenshi is an ideal paper for ink painting ( sumi-e ) and for calligraphy (shoclo). One of the most famous of the Chinese calligraphy papers it probably seeks to imitate is Xuan paper, which was first produced in college application fsu, Anhui province (central China) during the Tang dynasty (618–906). Xuan papers have always enjoyed a tremendous reputation among calligraphers, and continue to article on science do so today.
The highest grade of this paper is made from the purchase research papers urgent, bast fibre of the than tree ( Pteroceltis tatarinowii Maxim.), while lower grades (often used by artists for practice purposes) are made from various ratios of than and rice straw. 36 See Mullock, p. 28. Article Reviews On Science! Than, or seitan as it is known in Japanese, apparently cannot be cultivated in Japan, 37 ibid., p. 26. and it is probably for this reason that gasenshi, the Japanese version of narrative about vacation, Xuan paper, is traditionally made from mitsumata and bamboo fibres. Although mitsumata is article on science, native to Korea, China and Japan, it is almost exclusively associated with papermaking in Japan. It seems most probable, then, that Paper 6 is purchase custom research papers urgent, a Japanese gasenshi paper, though the possibility that it is Chinese in origin cannot be ruled out. Paper 7 is a wonderfully large sheet with broad, uninked margins around the etched image and would traditionally be referred to by print scholars as a Japan paper. Superficially, it is visually similar in many respects – including colour and thickness – to the gampi papers. Close examination reveals it to article on science be made up of two similar sheets that have been formed separately and then pasted to each other, rather than formed and dried together. 38 The recto sheet extends 0.5 mm beyond the verso sheet, at the bottom edge.
The adhesive exposed as a consequence on christmas, the back of the on science, recto sheet was found to be starch-based. The ?-radiograph of the bottom left corner reveals a darker rectangular area at great depression thesis, the top right; this is the inked image area, the lighter surrounding areas being the uninked margins. There is a vague horizontal linear pattern, reminiscent of laid lines. Reviews! The long diagonal lines, most apparent in persuasive working women, the upper half of the ?-radiography, are due to the starch paste applied by brush to adhere the two sheets together. Like the mitsumata and bamboo paper (Paper 6), this paper contains fibres of varying lengths, and knots (the small black dots seen in the ?-radiography). Although bamboo has a history of usage in on science, Japanese papermaking, its role appears to be that of a filler rather than a fibre per se (it is added to bast fibres to produce a paper with certain qualities, such as gasenshi).
The use of about women, bamboo as a fibre on its own is not a practice commonly associated with Japanese papermaking. For this reason it cannot be ruled out that Paper 7 may be a paper of Chinese origin. A posthumous impression of a Rembrandt etching on an imitation oriental paper. Paper A, which bears an impression of the Rembrandt etching Cornelis Claesz Anslo, Mennonite Preacher, 1641 (B.271, 2nd state), reworked by on science, the Irish printmaker and dealer Captain William Baillie (1723–1810), illustrates the degree to which oriental papers could be imitated in Europe by the late eighteenth century. Hinterding notes that Baillie refers to such ‘oriental’ papers as ‘Indian paper’ or as ‘the finest Japan paper’, in his own catalogue, The Works of Captain William Burnie, of 1792. 39 Hinterding, p. 272. The ?-radiograph of Paper A shows that it convincingly replicates the features of a Chinese paper, but as Biorklund revealed in 1968 the college application essays, imitation oriental papers do not contain any oriental fibres at all. 40 Biorklund, ‘Paper Analysis’, p. Article! 175. Fibre analysis of Paper A shows it to be made of cotton. A further point of essay, interest: An eighteenth-century copy after Rembrandt, on a true oriental paper.
The National Gallery of Victoria has in its collection a copy after Rembrandt’s print The Rat Catcher, 1632 (B.121). Made in the late eighteenth century by the English artist James Bretherton (active 1770–1781), this copy is printed on authentic Xuan paper (Paper B), probably 100 per cent seitan. Within the context of the National Gallery of article reviews, Victoria’s relatively small collection of Rembrandt etchings, it has been possible objectively to describe and group seven oriental papers in persuasive essays about women, terms of fibre type and other information obtained by ?-radiography and careful visual examination. Reviews On Science! Although the majority of the papers reflect previous findings in terms of the dominance of gampi, there is essay on career goals in nursing, such a startling diversity (particularly in the case of the article reviews, gampi laminates) that any generalisations about essays Rembrandt’s oriental printing papers should be made with great care. It could be said, however, that in this small group all but Paper 7 exhibit characteristics closely associated with Japanese papermaking traditions and techniques. Clearly, more research is required.
The examination of article reviews, many more prints by Rembrandt on oriental papers, and depression of similar oriental papers of the same era, is essential before an understanding of this interesting aspect of Rembrandt’s oeuvre can be reached. It is hoped that this modest research will encourage others. Jacobus van Breda , Robert Raynor Conservator of Paper, National Gallery of Victoria (in 1997). Areas shown in the ?-radiographs are indicated in the reproductions of the etchings. Article Reviews On Science! All ?-radiographs are reproduced at actual size. Triangular markings accompanying ?-radiographs indicate position of college application essays fsu, chain lines. Christ at Emmaus: The Larger Plate 1654. etching, drypoint and burin, B.87, 1st state. sheet 20.9 x 16.2 cm, plate 20.7 x 16.0 cm.
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. Purchased, 1891 (p.186.4-1) Gampi laminate with uncooked rice powder filler. High fibre quality; even distribution. Approximate basis weight 168 gsm. etching, B.200, sheet 16.4 x 8.6 cm. plate 15.8 x 8.0 cm.
National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. Felton Bequest, 1958 (3836-4) Gampi laminate uncooked rice powder filler. Article Reviews! High fibre quality; fairly even distribution. Thesis! Approximate basis weight 106 gsm. Article On Science! Note that some printed lines from the image are visible in essays fsu, the ?-radiograph. etching, drypoint and burin, B.36D, 1st state. sheet 10.3 x 7.6 cm, plate 10.0 x 7.6 cm. National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. Felton Bequest, 1933 (61-4) Gampi laminate.
High fibre quality; fairly even distribution. Approximate basis weight 123 gsm. etching, drypoint and burin, B.74, 2nd state. sheet 28.7 x 39.4 cm, plate 28.1 x 39.4 cm. National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. Purchased, 1891 (p.186.1-1)
Gampi laminate. High fibre quality; even distribution. Approximate basis weight 200 gsm. Note diffuse vertical chain lines. etching, drypoint and burin, B.94, 2nd state. sheet 18.2 x 21.8 cm, plate 18.0 x 21.6 cm. National Gallery of article reviews on science, Victoria, Melbourne. Felton Bequest,1933 (67-4) Gampi laminate.
High fibre quality; fairly even distribution. Approximate basis weight 110 gsm. Note the diffuse vertical chain lines. etching, drypoint and burin (B.87, 1st state) sheet 21.4 x 16.1 cm plate 21.1 x 15.8 cm. National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. Felton Bequest, 1933 (60-4) Bamboo and mitsumata.
High to medium fibre quality, with small knots; fairly even distribution. About Vacation! Approximate basis weight 53 gsm. Note the narrowly spaced vertical chain lines and irregular laid lines. Note also that some printed lines from the image are visible in the ?-radiograph. etching, drypoint and burin, B.283, 5th state. sheet 43.5 x 36.1 cm, plate 34.2 x 29.1 cm. National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. Everard Studley Miller Bequest, 1959 (534-5) Bamboo (two sheets pasted together). Medium to low fibre quality, with some very long fibres and reviews with small knots. Approximate basis weight 133 gsm.
Cornelis Claesz Anslo, Mennonite Preacher 1641. etching and custom papers drypoint, B.271, 2nd state. sheet 19.1 x 16.5 cm, plate 18.8 x 15.8 cm. National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. Felton Bequest, 1958 (3824-4)
Cotton. Medium to low fibre quality, with fibres of various lengths and with small knots; fairly even distribution. Approximate basis weight 35 gsm. sheet 14.4 x 12.6 cm plate 14.0 x 12.4 cm. National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. Felton Bequest, 1962 (997-5) Pteroceltis tatarinowii Maxim. (known as than (China) or seitan (Japan)). Medium to low fibre quality, with fibres of various lengths and article on science with small knots; fairly even distribution. Approximate basis weight 28 gsm.
Although I gratefully acknowledge the generous assistance of the following individuals, I am responsible for the conclusions reached in this article, and for any errors. I am deeply indebted to: Akinori Okawa, Senior Researcher at the Kochi Prefectural Paper Technology Centre, for undertaking the fibre analysis of the oriental papers; Katsuhiko Masuda, Director of the narrative essay christmas vacation, Department of Restoration Technique at the Tokyo National Research Institute of Cultural Properties, for organising the fibre analysis and for reviews on science translating correspondence from Mr Okawa; and vacation Timothy Barrett, of the University of Iowa Center for the Book, for examining the ?-radiographs and reviewing my comments on the gampi papers. I am also very grateful to the following people for their assistance: Jill Thurlow, Royal Botanical Gardens, Melbourne; Professor William Coaldrake, University of article reviews, Melbourne; Dr Geoff Irvine and John Ward, CSIRO, Melbourne; Neil Holland, Scientific Document Services; Rosie Freemantle, Ian Potter Conservation Centre, University of Melbourne; Johann Alcock, State Library of Victoria; Ruth Shervington, Art Foundation Development Conservator of Paper, National Gallery of Victoria; Rodney Manning, Helen Skuse and Gary Sommerfeld, National Gallery of Victoria. Finally, my sincere thanks to Irena Zdanowicz, Senior Curator of Prints and Drawings at the National Gallery of Victoria, for her encouragement and advice; and to Lyndsay Knowles, Senior Conservator of application fsu, Paper, for article reviews her constant enthusiasm, unfailing support and ever-patient ear. 1 Rembrandt’s systematic use of these papers is usually considered to on career have begun around 1647, although he may have started using them a year or two earlier (see G. Article On Science! Biorklund, ‘Old Paper’, in essay, G. Biorklund #038; O. Barnard, Rembrandt’s Etchings: True and False – A Summary Catalogue, rev. edn, Stockholm, 1968, p. 172; C. White, Rembrandt as an article on science Etcher: A Study of the Artist at essay goals, Work, vol . I, London, 1969, p. 16). 2 I am referring to the Rembrandt watermark project begun in 1981 by article, Nancy Ash and Shelley Fletcher at the National Gallery of great thesis, Art, Washington DC.
This project has resulted in the collection of over 900 watermarks and has given rise to a cataloguing system that groups them by general type and by article reviews on science, degree of similarity. The results of the on career goals in nursing, project will soon be published. The Conservation Department at the National Gallery of Victoria has recorded the fifty watermarks found on papers in article on science, the Melbourne collection. These watermarks have been catalogued, according to the National Gallery of Art’s system, by Rembrandt scholar Drs Erik Hinterding of the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands. Eight of the watermarks occur in papers carrying etchings by Rembrandt that were included in the recent exhibition Rembrandt: A Genius and His Impact, and are noted in the exhibition catalogue (see I. Zdanowicz, ‘Etchings by Rembrandt’, in A. Blankert, Rembrandt: A Genius and His Impact (exh. cat.), National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, 1997, cat. Essay On Career In Nursing! nos 103, 106, 107, 109, 112, 113, 115B, 116). 3 The earliest reference to Rembrandt’s use of oriental papers appears to article on science be the purchase research urgent, allusion to ‘Indian’ paper that occurs in a letter from the English traveller Edward Browne (1644–1708), written to his father from Amsterdam in 1668: ‘Here is a strange variety of excellent prints … Here are divers good ones of Rembrandt and some upon Indian paper that look like washing, though scratched after his manner’ (Edward Browne, letter to article reviews on science his father, 1668, cited in E. Hinterding, ‘The History of Rembrandt’s Copperplates, with a Catalogue of Those That Survive’, Simiolus, vol. 22, no. 4, 1993–94, p. 264 n. 62). Browne’s use of the term ‘Indian’ was probably the beginning of many misunderstandings, caused by the vagaries of language. Application! As Mayer Haunton points out, ‘Indian’ in this context may simply be a reference to ‘from the Indies’ or, more particularly, to ‘imported by the East India Company’ – rather than to India itself; a small number of papers used by Rembrandt do, apparently, bear a strong resemblance to India papers, and Rembrandt’s ownership of Mogul miniatures adds circumstantial evidence in support of his also having had access to Indian papers (K. Mayer Haunton, ‘Rembrandt’s Papers’, in A Collection of Etchings by Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (1606–1669), Formed by Joseph R. Ritman (sale cat.), eds N. Bialler, A. T. Eeles, R. Godfrey #038; K. Mayer Haunton, Artemis #038; Sotheby’s, London, 1995, n.p.).
4 For example, Biorklund, ‘Old Paper’, p. 172, notes [in] the auction catalogue of 1755, when the important De Burgy collection was sold, the Dutch text mentioned 48 etchings printed “Op Oostindisch papier” which the French translator of the auction catalogue erroneously interpreted as “Papier de la Chine” (see also note 3 above). 6 Gampi is a deciduous plant from the family Thymelaeacea. A few varieties are used for papermaking. Diplomorpha sikokiana Nakai is generally considered the best. Gampi is very difficult, if not impossible, to cultivate, and has therefore always been expensive. Although it grows throughout Southeast Asia, it is article on science, most closely associated with papermaking in Japan, where it has been used since at least the eighth century. 7 Biorklund, ‘Old Paper’, p. Thesis! 172, cites a number of etchings he has seen on this paler paper, including Christ at Emmaus: The Larger Plate (B.87). The National Gallery of Victoria’s impression of article, this print is on what we will be calling Paper 6, which may well be this same paper. 8 Biorklund, ‘Old Paper’, p. 172. 9 Deshima measured a mere 200 x 600 feet.
Some twenty Dutchmen at a time were in residence on the island. They lived under severe restrictions but the Dutch East India Company, for which they worked, maintained a very profitable business: according to records, profits averaged 81 per cent in the period 1649–62. See A. Hyma, The Dutch in the Far East, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1942; G. K. Goodman, The Dutch Impact on Japan (1640–1853), Leiden, 1967. 10 Biorklund, ‘Old Paper’, p. 173. I am also grateful to in nursing Dr Christiaan Jorg of the Groninger Museum, Groningen, for on science the following information: ‘The amount of goods mentioned in the [Dutch East India] Company records never covers the narrative vacation, total export from article reviews Decima [Deshima] by the Dutch in a given year, as the merchants were licensed (officially, it was not smuggling) to buy and ship their own private merchandise on return ships from Japan to Batavia/the Netherlands. So the narrative vacation, two shipments of 1643/44 can in no way be conclusive’ (Dr Christiaan Jorg, letter to the author, 6 January 1997).
11 The only mention of article on science, fibre analysis found by the author to date in the literature published since Biorklund reported on his findings in 1968 appears to be that undertaken in the Asiatic Department of the Museum of narrative essay about christmas, Fine Arts, Boston, in 1970, but complete details have not been published; the conclusions drawn on the basis of article reviews on science, this latter analysis appear to narrative essay about christmas be similar to Biorklund’s (see S. W. Reed, ‘Types of on science, Paper Used by Rembrandt’, in thesis, Rembrandt: Experimental Etcher (exh. cat.), Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1969, pp. 178–83). 12 See Goodman, p. 19. 13 The Dutch imported silk, deerskins and other products to on science Japan from Taiwan (see Hyma, p. Custom Research Urgent! 155). 14 For an account of the history of on science, papermaking in the Orient, see D. Hunter, Papermaking: The History and college fsu Technique of an Ancient Craft, New York, 1974. 15 See H. Mullock, ‘Xuan Paper’, Paper Conservator, vol.
19, 1995, p. 26; see also Tsuen-Hsuin Tsien, ‘Raw Materials for Papermaking in China’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 93, 1973, pp. 510–48. 16 Hemp played an important part in early Japanese papermaking but seems to reviews on science have been replaced by kozo and narrative essay christmas gampi by at least the twelfth century (see K. Masuda, ‘Japanese Paper and Hyogu’, Paper Conservator, vol. Article On Science! 9, 1985, p. 32). Kozo (Broussonetia kazinoki Sieb.) is a variety from the application, family Moraceae, the family to article reviews on science which Broussonetia papyrifera also belongs. Essay On Career Goals In Nursing! Mitsumata is usually cited as Edgeworthia papyrifera Sieb. Article On Science! et Zucc. (strictly speaking, it should be known as Edgeworthia chrysantha (see Y. Harvey, ‘Edgeworthia chrysantha’, Plantsman, vol. 14, no. 3, December 1992, p. 130)).
It is first recorded as a fibre for papermaking in Japan in 1597 (see Hunter, p. 481). For gampi, see note 6 above. 17 See T. Barrett, Japanese Papermaking: Traditions, Tools, and Techniques, New York, 1983, p. Full! 82. 19 There is some evidence that this modification to the tamezuki method may have occurred earlier in China or Korea, but most scholars attribute the invention to the Japanese (see Barrett, p. 70). Neri traditionally came from either the root of Abelmoschus manihot Medikus (known as tororo-aoi in Japanese) or the inner bark of Hydrangea paniculata Sieb. (noriutsugi in Japanese) (see Barrett, pp. 56, 287). 20 See Barrett, p. 51. 22 The ?-radiography process involves placing the paper between a poly[Carbon 14] methylmethacrylate plate and a sheet of Kodak Biomax MR film. A 1:1 black and white photographic contact print can then be made. Reviews! ?-radiographs are useful because they reveal details about the paper structure, including fibre distribution and quality, and full text article any characteristics imparted by the mould upon which the sheet was formed. Thin areas appear lighter on a ?-radiography.
23 For the similarities between gampi and mitsumata fibres, see G. Biorklund, ‘Paper Analysis’, in Biorklund #038; Barnard, p. 175; S. Article Reviews! Beauman Murphy #038; S. Rempel, ‘A Study of the Quality of Japanese Papers Used in Conservation’, in narrative essay about, The Book and article reviews on science Paper Group Annual, vol. 4, ed. J. Abt, USA, 1985, p. 68. 24 This process was documented in detail (National Gallery of great depression thesis, Victoria (Conservation Department) files). 25 In carrying out this analysis, Akinori Okawa used water to disperse the fibres on a glass plate, dyed them with C-stain solution, and then examined them microscopically. 26 Akinori Okawa points out that examples of gampi papers with rice powder fillers date back to the Heian period (9 th –11 th centuries) (letters to the author, 1997 (translated by Katsuhiko Masuda)). 27 This has been suggested previously (see Biorklund, ‘Old Paper’, p. 171). 28 See Barrett, p. 67.
In Japanese papermaking, by contrast with the western tradition, felts are not used during the pressing process. The newly formed wet sheets are piled directly on top of each other, lightly pressed, then separated and article on science brushed onto boards to about dry in reviews, the sun. The tendency of gampi papers to stick together after pressing causes problems for papermakers. 29 I am very grateful to Timothy Barrett for pointing out to me the significance of the broad and diffuse chain lines seen in the ?-radiographs of Papers 4 and great depression 5. I am also indebted to reviews on science him for providing me with a unique sheet of handmade Japanese paper, which, when ?-radiographed, exhibited many of the characteristics seen in the ?-radiographs of Papers 1, 4 and 5. This handmade paper consists of essay about christmas, some ten sheets (each formed by the nagashi-zuki method) that have been pressed together while still wet, and reviews on science allowed to dry as a laminate. 30 See Hyma, p. 140. 31 See S. Persuasive Essays About! Hughes, Washi: The World of Japanese Paper, Tokyo, 1978, p. 45.
32 ibid., p. 171; A. Dwan, ‘A Method for Examining and Classifying Japanese Papers Used by Artists in article reviews on science, the Late Nineteenth Century: The Prints of James Abbott McNeill Whistler’, in Conservation Research, Studies in the History of Art, vol. 41, Washington DC, 1993, p. 108. 33 See Hughes, p. Persuasive About Working Women! 191. At various times in its more recent history torinoko has also been made from other fibres, including mitsumata, kozo and wood pulp (see Dwan, p. 113). 34 B. Jugaku, Papermaking by Hand in Japan, Tokyo, 1959, p. Article! 16. 35 See Dwan, p. Essays Working Women! 111. The ?-radiograph of Paper 6 is almost identical to a ?-radiograph of a gasenshi paper reproduced by Dwan (p. 122 (The Duet, no. 2)).
36 See Mullock, p. 28. 38 The recto sheet extends 0.5 mm beyond the verso sheet, at the bottom edge. On Science! The adhesive exposed as a consequence on the back of the recto sheet was found to be starch-based. 39 Hinterding, p. 272. 40 Biorklund, ‘Paper Analysis’, p. 175.
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30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and article reviews on science strengthens their analytical skills. Teachers assign a lot of book reports to ensure that students read lots of books, especially at that critical early age when they are still trying to master the written word. To cut down on some of the college essays fsu, workload, students and teachers can find a book report template to download and fill in. This gives more time to enjoy the act of reading, so students can become life long learners. A book report is typically given as an assignment to students in elementary and middle school.
Students fill out a form answering basic questions about the book they were assigned to read. Turning in the report serves as proof to the teacher that the student read the book and, hopefully, got something out of it. These reports may ask students to detail what the book was about, the names of the main characters, what the article reviews on science, theme of the narrative, book is, and where the events are set. Article. Some reports may ask specific questions about events or characters to ensure that the students read the book all the way through. The report can also help students understand the book better by asking them to think about christmas, its meaning and the plot. Teachers may also hand out worksheets for students to complete in class or as homework. These are usually limited to the earlier grades when students are still learning to read. Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the book without requiring multiple sentence answers. These questions may ask students to name a favorite character, or mention the main conflict in a few words. It’s not uncommon for the teacher to read a picture book with the article reviews, class and have students fill out essay on career in nursing, a worksheet afterwards.
If the classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a ‘Reading Time’ when students pick out a book to read. When they finish, the students fill out the worksheet and submit it to their teacher. Reviews. Book report forms are a popular choice of full thesis, assignment for elementary school classes. These forms make it simple for students to complete the report by filling out the worksheet. These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to article reviews each different book that is essay on career goals, assigned. These forms also help introduce students to the idea of on science, a book report format and show them what kind of information may be expected on women, longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to complete in the higher grades. On Science. A form is also easier to depression grade, especially for reviews on science teachers who have a large classroom and more assignments to go over than usual. A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to answer questions in paragraph format. These each ask students to detail a different element of the book. All book report forms will ask for the title, author name, and the illustrator’s name, if it is a picture book.
The other elements on essay, a simple form include: Setting – This is where the book’s events took place, i.e. New York. Characters – A list of who the main characters are and their names. Plot – A basic overview of the major events in the book. Your impressions – Whether you like the book or not, and reviews why.
A simple form may also just ask the students to describe the essay christmas, beginning, middle, and end events of the book in three questions. Students may also be expected to identify the climax, which is the article on science, most intense point of the book where the main character’s problems are resolved or made worse. This helps get students thinking about the traditional progression of a plot. Eventually, teachers transition students to writing a multi-page book report. The report is usually written in a word processing software, like MS Word. Students can find book report format templates for these assignments too.
These longer reports are written out in paragraph form. The teacher asks the students to address different elements of a book in their own words or with their own formatting. A simple way to purchase research urgent organize these reports is to divide them into three basic sections, the introduction, main body, and article reviews on science conclusion. In the main body, students can create a different subheading for each element to address. For instance, Introduction – The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and narrative why you chose the book. Main Body – The middle part of the report; includes summary, theme, setting, and characters. Conclusion – A short summary of the book report and article reviews opinion of the book. Difference Between The Book Report Types.
The short book report form is research papers urgent, handed out by the teacher and can be completed in one night like a homework assignment. Article. A multi-page report is created by the student and may take more than one night to finish. Short templates are available in lots of fun book report ideas suitable for young children. Great Depression Thesis. They have questions with a few lines to hand write the reviews, answers in on career in nursing a few short sentences. Some templates may include activities to make them more interesting to students, such as having them draw out a scene from the book or re-write the ending. Multi-page reports start out as two page reports and article on science gradually increase in size through middle school and high school. Essay Goals. Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for young students as the five page reports are for high school students. Reviews. The great thing about these assignments is great, that students are usually free to organize their book report ideas however they desire.
They can create bold sub-headers for the main body of the report. Students can write about the theme, characters, and setting separately. Reviews On Science. Or they can leave out the headers and devote their report to a specific element, such as the text article, book theme. This allows students to weave information about characters and setting into the report where they are most relevant to the theme. The former works well for short chapter books, and the latter is better for books that may feature multiple themes. Ideas for Different Kinds of Book Reports.
There is more than one way to complete a book report. Both teachers and students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. Write a review of the article reviews on science, book. Create the report in the form of a newspaper or blog review. Summarize the book without giving away the plot or the ending. Talk about what made you like it or, if you hated it. Feel free to give the book a thumbs up or down rating at full the end. Do a diary. Use a journal template to create a diary written by one of the article on science, main characters. There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the events of the book from that character’s point of view. Depression. Interview one of the characters.
Create an imaginary interview with one of the characters in the book. Ask them questions about where they come from, why the character did something important to the plot, and on science what the character thinks about the outcome of the events in the book. Write a newspaper article. Create an imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the major events in the book, such as a theft or an narrative about christmas vacation important discovery. Make sure to answer the who, what, where, when, and why of these events in your article. Reviews. What To Do Once You’ve Written The Report. When students finish writing out their book reports, they have completed what is research, called the “First Draft” or “Rough Draft”. This is just the first stage of the report, but it is the most difficult part.
Finishing up that report in the following steps is a lot easier. Read and mark the report. Read through the book report from reviews on science, beginning to end to get a feel for narrative about vacation it overall. Get a brightly colored pen to mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in article the report. Young students may want to college application essays fsu read through their reports with their parents or a tutor.
Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for points before the final report is due. The teacher reviews the draft, makes edits, and suggestions for changing the report before final submission. Article Reviews. Make edits to the report. Go back into the report file and make the text, easy grammar and spelling fixes. Take a look at article on science your teacher’s suggestions or the ideas you wrote down for things to change in the report. Create a plan to make those additions or changes. College. Make the changes to the report.
Don’t forget to save your file as a separate document. For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and this updated version as, Report2.doc. Review the report. Print out a fresh copy of the report. Article Reviews On Science. Read through it one more time looking for spelling errors and grammar mistakes.
Keep an eye out for spots where the text doesn’t make sense. This can sometimes happen when you add new content to urgent a report. If there are mistakes, fix them in reviews the document file and review one more time. Your final draft is custom, ready to print out when you can no longer find any mistakes. Book reports are a big part of the reviews, curriculum. That doesn’t mean they have to be a lot of work for the students or the teacher. Make assigning these reports less of a hassle with these tips. Assign one book for the entire class to read. This can cut down on the effort required in great depression understanding submitted reports.
Pick out a short book report template to use. There is no need to use valuable time in creating one from scratch. Print out more copies of the article on science, form than are needed. Some students may lose theirs and need an extra form. Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Remind students at least twice before a book report due date. Keep the word count requirement low. Teachers also have to spend more time reviewing longer reports.
Consider creative alternatives to some written reports. Essay On Career Goals In Nursing. When your curriculum includes a lot of book reports, give students the option of turning in a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break. Being assigned a book report to article complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report. Make sure you don’t fall behind on the work by following a few of these tips. Make up a reading schedule to complete the book well in advance of the report being due. Use a calendar to remind yourself.
Assign yourself different steps to complete each night for the report, i.e. make an outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the teacher for help with ideas if you can’t figure out how to get started. Look for great thesis examples of completed reports to see how they are structured. Book reports vary in their length and article on science complexity. Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to thesis fill in article reviews about the books they read. Those in middle school and high school usually have to write multiple page reports. Nearly all reports require students to talk about the plot, theme, characters, and how they liked the book.
Both students and teachers can find a lot of templates to use. Those looking for something generic for students to fill in after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form. Those who want more control over the look and wording of the template should download a .doc file.
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How to article reviews Increase Your Essay Word Count. When you have an essay assignment with a minimum word count, one of the worst feelings is when you believe you have finished only to thesis article find that you’re still well below the minimum you have to reach (as opposed to having too many words). Reviews? Many students try to solve this problem by rewriting the essay’s sentences to make them wordier or splitting contractions. While these do increase word count, they usually make the essay weaker in the process. It doesn’t have to be that way. If you ever find yourself in a position where you need to increase the number of words for an essay, below are some simple techniques which can help you add to application your writing while improving it instead of writing unneeded filler. Skim through your essay looking for reviews on science, any place you have used an example to full text make a point.
In most cases, you should be able to provide additional examples which will make your essay stronger by reviews, showing your understanding of the topic while also increasing the purchase custom papers word count. You can also go through the essay and on science, look for statements made where inserting an example would be appropriate to help support the statement. An effective way of increasing word count and improving your essay at custom research urgent, the same time is to address different viewpoints to your own. You have the reviews on science opportunity to discuss how these alternative viewpoints differ from the conclusions you have made, and essay on career goals in nursing, it gives you an opportunity to explain why you believe your conclusions are superior. This shows you have considered a range of different opinions while coming to your conclusions, and in doing so make your essay stronger while adding more words. When you find the statements in your writing, if inserting an example doesn’t make sense, then clarifying the statement may be appropriate. This can be achieved by inserting one or more specific statements to clarify the original one. A common way to do this is to follow the statement with, “In other words…” It’s important not to reviews over-clarify statements or use this for every statement you write as it will begin to look like filler, but using it sporadically throughout your essay can increase the word count and show you perfectly understand the points you’re trying to make. Another way to improve your essay and essay on career goals in nursing, increase word count is to find additional sources you haven’t previously mentioned which support the statements and conclusions you have made. The more sources you have, the reviews stronger the essay will be in most cases. Research Papers Urgent? Spending some time searching for additional sources to add to the essay can be a great way to add quality content to it.
Chances are you already have appropriate quotations in article, your essay, and if that’s the case, skip over this suggestion. Narrative About Christmas Vacation? Adding more will likely not add to your essay. If you haven’t used any, however, finding appropriate quotations from article reviews on science, experts in the field that support your statements can be an excellent way to add words to your essay while improving it at the same time. Rework Introduction and application, Conclusion. If all of the above haven’t enabled you to reach your word count minimum and on science, you need some filler, look to put it in your introduction and conclusion rather than the body of the essay. Most teachers give more leeway with the introduction and conclusion to essay christmas vacation be wordy than the guts of the essay. This is something you should try to avoid if at all possible (it’s never good to on science be wordier than you have to application essays be), but if you tried everything else, it’s better to do it in article on science, these two places than in the heart of the essay. If you’re writing an essay which has a minimum page count instead of a minimum word count, the above suggestions will work, but you have a bit more wiggle room as well. You can make slight adjustments to narrative about christmas vacation the font and font size you use through a Words per Page Counter.
As long as you don’t go overboard, this can be a relatively easy way to increase page count while not taking away from the essay. I hate it when teachers give a word count. Word count shouldn’t matter at all. It should be the quality of the writing. If I can get my point across in 1000 words, why do I need to write 2500?
It makes no sense at all. You have never been a teacher. Reviews On Science? If you ever are, you will know why we give word counts. That’s a lazy answer. Students who write well shouldn’t be punished with a word count because other students aren’t good students. It’s the teacher’s job to help those students who aren’t doing as well without forcing those good students to do stupid things that make no sense for depression thesis, them. If you can make it more fun to read, this can also help with word count.
Add emphasizes or explain something in article, more detail. There are so many great ways to full text article increase your word count. It shouldn’t be too hard if you put your mind to it! Word count never mattered as soon as I got to college, my professors used the “bikini rule,” short enough to keep it interesting, long enough to cover the important parts. Don’t use 2000 words to say what you can in on science, 500. This isn’t the correct question to article ask. It’s easy to increase word count on an essay, but it’s difficult to increase word count to make the essay better. So many people decide to increase their word count by inserting sentences, paragraphs, quotes and other non-necessary information simply to reach the word count. While it achieves the goal of increasing the article reviews on science word count, it doesn’t make the great depression thesis essay any better, and it usually makes it much worse. What you should always strive for is to increase the number of words in article reviews on science, the essay while also making the essay stronger than it was before.
In my experience, college is even worse than high school in this regard. I regularly have to conform to word counts and page counts. Right now, I’m writing a research paper that has an 8 page minimum. Why? Because the professor said so. Persuasive Essays Women? I could certainly be a lot more concise if I didn’t have to pad it out, but this is article on science, what’s required of me. The kicker is that the prof is DEFINITELY going to take off points due to great thesis obvious padding. DON’T FORCE ME INTO AN ARBITRARY LENGTH, THEN.
Just change the font style to a bigger one and then do the same with the size of the font but not too big or it will seem too obvious. That’s just nasty. So basically you’re saying that you don’t trust your students to article reviews on science be able to write correctly in your class? Isn’t that more a reflection on your teaching than it is on the students who are writing? See what you just did you got your point across in 18 words YOU JUST ARE STUPID! Anyways why are you on this web site if you are a teacher? If it makes so much sense to give word count limits to teachers then please explain. but that makes no sense…there is no reason to do so if they are great at writing all ready… what do i do if my word count is 800 and i only have 512.
Oh my god, you are right. Teachers too often tried to make things easier on application essays themselves to the detriment of the students are trying to teach. I think making minimum word counts is one of article, those. Full Text Article? On the other hand, I think that maximum word counts can actually be beneficial because it forces the students to better edit their writing. “Teachers too often tried to make things easier on themselves to the detriment of the students [they] are trying to teach.” Are you making this very bold statement because you have experienced it as a teacher, completed an in-depth research on reviews this topic, or are you just making your opinion seem like a fact? I ask simply because I am a teacher, a high school English teacher to be more specific, and full thesis article, I found your comment to be nothing but overblown opinion. Article? I cannot speak for every teacher, but in my class, I have to put a minimum word count on essays women my essay assignments or I would have the article reviews majority of the students attempt to turn in great depression thesis, a paragraph and say it is an essay. It would not matter that I instructed them on the purpose of the reviews essay, explained what an essays about women, introductory paragraph, body paragraph, and a conclusion paragraph are and their individual purposes. It also would not matter if I also spent an on science, entire six week grading period teaching, instructing, modeling, and practicing writing essay, I would still have some that would turn in a ridiculously short essay and full, argue that they have “gotten to the point.” However, any logical person would know that these student’s essays would not meet the required components of an essay and article, would not serve as evidence of mastery, which is what a teacher is suppose to do right?
Help students master certain skills, regardless of what is “easier on” them? Just grade them an persuasive essays, F. nobody likes your long paragraphs. Exactly! 2000 words in 4 days! IMPOSSIBLE.
Just write approx 500 words per day; spend like 1-2 hours for the next couple day adding like 500 words every time. Or you could be a knucklehead like me and try to get it all done in one go, then me suffering the next morning because you fell asleep at article reviews, 3:30. Now you need to write an article on essay on career in nursing how to decrease word count when you go hopelessly over the maximum allowed. Yes! This is what I need. I don’t understand how people can write under the word count given. I’m ALWAYS over, and by reviews, a lot. I had a 1000 word paper to write and I wrote 2500.
Teachers never give enough word count for writing. The second link in the first paragraph is to just such an persuasive working, article. A thesaurus is your friend when you are only a bit under word count. I’m glad to see you added one to your tool. it’s so much easier than going back and forth to another thesaurus website. Thank you for article on science, making this useful tool and not charging any money for it. Adjectives and adverbs can help with this, but it won’t make the purchase custom research papers urgent essay stronger. You usually want to eliminate adverbs and adjectives in your writing to make it better. On Science? You have to make a decision as to whether word count is more important or a better essay is more important before using these methods.
I’m 500 words short of the minimum word count my teacher assigned for my essay. What is the best way to increase word count fast without a lot of effort? Did you even read the article? Don’t use contractions. Writing takes effort. If you want to write with no effort, your writing is going to suck. I hate that I never seem to be able to write enough words for assignments.
If I have answered a question, why do I need to on career goals in nursing write more meaningless words? You should never write meaningless words. Article On Science? You would be much better off adding a different perspective or adding more support to your view. meaningless words will only essays working women, lower your grade. I have to article write 7,000+ characters with spaces. By thursday! I have 5,200 done. What should I do? As a teacher, I’m glad to see legitimate ways for students to narrative essay about christmas vacation increase their essay word count instead of reviews on science, all the “tricks” students don’t think we know, but we do. Adding random words in white so it appears the persuasive essays working women word count is on science, higher than it is doesn’t work because we know approximately how many pages the assignment should be. Best to actually do the work!
You are the exception. I have a great way to increase word count when I’m short on persuasive essays about words. I will write a bunch of random text at the end of the essay, then change it to white so you can’t see it even though it’s there. Now the reviews on science teacher thinks you have written the text required word count. Brilliant! Teachers are so clueless that this works 100% of the time. Now you will never be under your word count and article on science, you don’t have to write a bunch of filler crap that isn’t needed. You can thank me later. To add onto this, feel free to persuasive women change the font size of the white text to fit in more words into less space. There must be so many students who come to this article for the exact same reason as I did. (“hi” all you sleep-deprived people) I’m 500 words short on my essay and I need to reviews figure out how to make it longer before tomorrow’s class. thank you for this list of depression, ideas.
I think I’ll be able to incorporate a few of them to make my essay long enough to reach the word count. Yes, this is the on science exact reason I’m here, but I need to add 600 words to essays about working women my essay. Why do teachers make the assignments so long when there is only a limited amount to say on the given topic? I’m one of those looking for a way to extend an essay by article reviews, 300 words when I’ve already said everything there is to depression say on on science the topic. I guess I’ll add a lot of useless quotes just to satisfy the papers teacher.
I think attitude has a lot to article on science do with it. If you’re writing an essay you have little to no interest in writing, it’s much more difficult to write it and reach the word count. Essay On Career In Nursing? If it’s something you have a lot of on science, interest in, then the issue is full text, usually staying beneath the word count limit. One of the best ways to increase word count on essays is to take an interest in the topic. If you learn to become more curious and have an interest in article on science, things that may not at first seem to be interesting, you’ll be surprised at how much easier it is to write essays and to always reach the great designated word count. That easy to say and all, what if your teacher assigns you a topic? And what if that topic is totally boring? It’s hard to article write about things that are boring and you have no interest in, so of course it’s going to be difficult to reach the word count. If you’re in school, you have to write with the teacher tells you to write, not what interests you.
So your suggestion sounds good and all, but in reality we don’t have that choice. I think the best way to increase the word count of an essay is to add more examples. Research Papers Urgent? This clarifies what you’re trying to reviews on science say which adds value to about christmas vacation the essay so anyone reading will understand exactly the point you want to get across. Article? All my friends are bad at giving examples, but I am good and I’m always going over the word count while they are always under. ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha. My entire essay is almost only quotes.
This is the easiest way to make your essay meet word count. Just put in a lot of text, quotes and reviews on science, you’ll get there in no time. It maybe the easiest way to on career increase your word count, but if your entire essay is all quotes you probably aren’t going to get a very good grade on it. Reviews? Quotes should be used to support the goals points that you’re trying to reviews on science make, but they shouldn’t be your entire essay. Narrative About? If you want to article do well in school, you have to know the difference between these two.
This is lazy writing. It will not help you become better in the long run, and the teacher will see what you’ve done and mark down your paper. The easiest way is urgent, often not the article on science best way to approach increasing an essay word count. This is really a skill that every teacher should teach their students. Not just assign an essay, but explain how the steps they need to take to reach a word count. Application Essays Fsu? It would be a great benefit to most students (I know some students are wordy and always hit their word count, but most of us don’t).
I wish teachers cared enough to actually help us. On almost any topic you care to mention volumes have been written. To imagine you have covered the topic fully and still be 500-600 words short of required count is ridiculous. The idea that the article on science shortfall is due to the clarity of text thesis article, your arguments or exceptional command of article, language vocabulary is laughable in fsu, most cases. If it’s too short, it lacks content. Article? Do more research. The quality of your writing may suggest you are the persuasive essays working love child of William Shakespeare and Jane Austen, but if it doesn’t cover the assignment material you won’t get the marks. Teachers know the key points they expect to be covered on an assignment and allow a word allocation for each point, as well as marks allocation. For example, a 1,000 word requirement may indicate a short intro and on science, conclusion and 4 x 200 word key points. You might be able to work out the scheme by reviewing assignments where you scored well. How many key points did you make, compared to word count?
Word count = 170. Not everyone is born with the ability to write or enjoys writing, so sometimes it can be extremely hard to write a long essay. These tips surely did help a lot. Thesis? I would also suggest learning enjoy writing more. If you like to do it, it should be easier to do. how do you learn to like something? either you like it or you don’t.
Any teachers out there? Why exactly do assignments have a minimum and maximum word count assigned? Is it for on science, the students’ benefit or the teachers? I’m curious as it would seem that word count shouldn’t really matter, but that actual writing for the assignment. I waiting to hear a good answer to this question. Word count forces students to be more concise in their writing and focus on the most important points. Minimum word counts make the student research more to goals in nursing find alternative supporting evidence they may have overlooked without it. If you can’t increase your word count, you don’t know what you’re writing about well enough.
There should be no issue writing about any topic up to 5000 words as long as you are familiar with the topic. Reviews? If you find you don’t have enough to write about something, it’s because you haven’t taken the full text article time to study the reviews topic well enough. This isn’t true. Sometimes you don’t need a lot of essay on career, words to article cover the topic at hand and adding more words just to essays working increase word count does nothing but add unneeded words. Sure, you can add the words, but they are useless and don’t make the article reviews essay better. Why would anyone want to do that? I stumbled upon this and it’s been helpful, but are there other ways to increase word count? I still have about 500 more words to write.
Any teachers out full text thesis, there? Why exactly do assignments have a minimum and maximum word count assigned? Is it for the students’ benefit or the teachers? I’m curious as it would seem that word count shouldn’t really matter, but that actual writing for the assignment. As teachers, we know approximately how long an essay should be to get the points across for that particular assignment.
That is why we assign a word count. If the reviews on science student is well under they have not explored the depression topic in-depth enough and if they are well over, they are being too wordy. The best way to increase a paper’s word count is to do more research. The more research you do, the more information you’ll have, and the more you can write on the topic.