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Essay about Abortion Is Morally …
Art Essay: a Complete Guide to Creating a Masterpiece of Your Essay. Here you'll find the information on what an art essay is, its types and on how to write it effectively. If you need an art analysis essay to be well-structured and accurately written contact us, please. An art essay is a type of essay focusing on essay the analysis of a given piece of art. Art is generally referred to such genres as painting, sculpture, architecture, photography, and other types of prompts human activity. The art essay, therefore, can be written on any of the above-described subcategories. In this article, we will review some basic principles of abortion essay analyzing the most common kinds of art. Before reading further, you may look through our art essay topics list containing 70 most popular topics about communication arts: An art analysis essay can be of two major types: comparative and formal.
Comparative art essays are aimed at comparing two or more pieces of art with the aim of abortion essay identifying the similarities and differences between them. Phoenix Arizona! In turn, formal art essays, serve the purpose of analyzing an art form, identifying its most salient features. Abortion Essay! Comparative analysis of an art form is based on the formal analysis. When you are doing a comparative analysis of a piece or pieces of resume for art, you should first analyze it according to the canons of the formal approach, and then they are compared and contrasted against each other. There are two possible strategies to pursue in permissible essay, this case. The first strategy is research on abortion called lumping, where you can analyze all details of exhibit A and then of exhibit B. The second strategy is often referred to as splitting when all details of exhibit A and exhibit B are analyzed in parallel. The formal analysis of an permissible essay art piece simply means that the this is what to say form is the main object of scrutiny. Abortion Permissible! Such aspects as color, line, space, and mass are analyzed in the first place.
In most cases, there is certain symbolism behind each fragment of the this it means phoenix essay piece of art, so they need to be analyzed carefully too. Abortion Essay! When analyzing a piece of art from a formal standpoint, be sure to address such questions as: The name of the artist. The period when this piece of art was created. The historic context behind the analyzed piece of art. Is What It Means To Say Analysis! Background of the artist. What is the physical condition of the work? Is it typical for the period? What movement does it belong to? Depending on the piece of art you are looking at, you may utilize different approaches in writing your art essay.
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Essay about Abortion Is Morally …
How to Write a Personal Experience Essay With Sample Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. Permissible. She specializes in essay communication helping people write essays faster and easier. 1. What you need to do to get a good grade. 2. How to explain the meaning of abortion a memory. 3. How to choose a great topic. 4. Easy organizing strategies for fabulous essays. Telling a vivid a story from your past. Explaining the cv writing services significance of that story.
Want a good grade on your essay? Instructors and testing agencies assign a lot of personal experience type essays and so it is worth your time to know how to abortion essay write one easily and effectively so that you get a top score. The reason these types of opinion conclusion assignments are given so often is essay, that anyone can write about their own experience and it doesn't require any outside resources or research. Cv Writing Us Wellington. However, even though anyone can tell a story about their life, that does not mean anyone can write a good essay about that experience. As a professor and teacher for abortion permissible essay, 30 years, I've read thousands of essays and can tell you there is a distinct difference from prompts, telling a story about yourself and writing an excellent personal experience essay. The difference between good and great: Top essays paint a vivid picture of the experience so that the essay reader feels they are there. Great papers draw a unique meaning from the experience and explain it clearly. The best papers are well-organized.
This article tells you how to do all that! How to this it means to say arizona Find Significance of Memory. Writing an essay about a personal experience or relationship can be a powerful way of both discovering the abortion meaning of your own past and conclusion, sharing that past with others. When you write about something in your past, you have two perspectives: your perspective in the present and the perspective you had at permissible essay, the time the event occurred. The space between these perspectives is usually where you will find significance in that event or relationship.
Your perspective in the present. Your perspective you had at the time the event occurred. The space between these perspectives is usually where you will find significance in opinion essay conclusion that event or relationship. If the event or relationship is recent, you will be closer to the you that experienced the event. If the abortion permissible event is more distant, you will often find yourself reflecting on the experience, your reactions and the meaning of the experience differently. As you write the essay, you will need to decide if you want to talk about the experience as you see it now, or as you saw it then.
Often, you may do both of those things, or use your perspective now as the conclusion. At the end of 8th grade, my best friend wrote me a note saying she never wanted to be my friend again. I was devastated, and terribly depressed all summer, terrified to start High School alone. Forty years later, I realize that that experience was probably what made me finally reach out to essay communication develop new friends. Those friends encouraged me to develop my life-long interest in speech, theater, and permissible, writing.
More importantly, that experience of rejection gave me a lifelong compassion for others. Any event from your past can be a good topic if it was important to prompts you. You can use either a one-time event, a reoccurring event, a person, or a place. Abortion Permissible. Brainstorm ideas by thinking about the following: A relationship with an important person like a grandparent or best friend. A single encounter with someone that changed you. An event which was small but significant. A major, life changing event. Something that you did over and over that was meaningful to you. Essay Communication Workplace. Your experience and memories of a place that embodies who you are, or has meaning for you.
How to Decide if You Have a Good Topic. To make sure you have a good topic, you need to determine what the meaning of abortion permissible that event or person was for you. To help you get ideas about the meaning and to decide whether this topic is a good choice, jot down some notes answering the following 5 questions: What did I think the meaning of the experience was when it happened? How have my thoughts about research on abortion, it changed?
What did I learn? How has my life direction been affected by this event? Is there something I would do differently if I could go back to that experience? Any regrets? Why re-invent the wheel? Use the following professional writing techniques to organize your personal essays. These strategies aren't secret and essay, they aren't hard. They are what you've seen over and over in books and movies. Now you need to use them yourself.
This is the workplace most obvious way to permissible essay tell the story. You just tell it in communication the way it happened in abortion permissible the order it happened. Most of the other organizing techniques use this way to tell the opinion essay conclusion main part of the essay story. See Anne Dillard's Handed My Own Life for builder for, a good example of permissible chronological organization of cv writing us wellington a personal essay. Characteristics of this organization strategy:
Tells story in the order that it happened. Tells story suspensefully--least important events leading to more important ones and abortion essay, finally coming to climax. Explains meaning after climax or lets events show the meaning. For example, Dillard states her understanding in a series of phrases, such as I was handed my own life, and my days were my own to plan and fill along with a lot of specific details of how she did that. Of course, she also uses the title to explain her meaning. Expectations Unfulfilled Organization.
Want an easy way to is what it means to say arizona essay organize your essay? Try Expectations Unfulfilled. Abortion Permissible Essay. This organizing strategy works best when there is a contrast (either horrific, funny, or disappointing) between your expectations about the event and what actually happened. Opinion Essay. You can also do Expectations Fulfilled, but that is generally a weaker paper idea unless you have a situation where the abortion permissible reality clearly superseded all of your expectations. Essay Conclusion. Rick Bragg's 100 Miles an essay, Hour, Upside Down and Sideways is this is what it means phoenix, a good example of this kind of essay organization. Characteristics of Expectations Unfulfilled: Introduction vividly describes expectations for a particular event . Bragg talks about how he was convinced that this V-8 convertible was going to fulfill all his desires. Maybe foreshadow the problem.
Bragg's uncle warns him to be careful because That'un could kill you. Tell the story of what really happened (use chronological organization above). Bragg tells of race and accident which wrecked the car and ruined it for speed. Describe the contrast between reality and expectations . Bragg's memories of the crash are the abortion permissible essay radio still playing and being pulled out unscratched and of being famous not for research, having the best car, but for being the kid who survived a 100-mile crash. Reflection on experience.
You can do this by permissible essay telling your reaction or using an ironic twist, as Bragg does. Bragg tells how his car was put back together but never the same (just as his ideas of speed, freedom, and fast cars have been wrecked in the accident). Gulliver Travels Prompts. Conclude with irony. An ironic end can sometimes be a good conclusion for abortion, this sort of story. Braggs writes about how after his car gets rear-ended at the Piggly Wiggly supermarket he sells it in disgust to a preacher's kid who drove the speed limit. Using a frame story for the introduction and conclusion should be familiar to you from lots of movies.One good example of a story frame is UP.
In this case, the movie opens with the cv writing services frame of Carl looking at essay, the scrapbook Ellie has made for him about their life and essay, dreams, before flashing to the present story of Carl and Russell and their adventures. The movie returns to the frame at the end of the movie as Carl looks at the last page of the photobook Ellie has made for him. He learns that it was the journey of the relationship which was the real adventure. Another kind of frame can be a flashback. In this technique, you start in the middle of the action (or after it is over) and then flashback to abortion permissible essay an earlier memory. The Notebook uses the story of a man spending time with his wife with Alzheimer's as the frame for his re-telling the story of their romance. The advantage of using a frame is that it makes it easier for you to talk about the meaning of the story, especially if you use the present day to flashback to the past.
Be sure the frame is not just random. There should be an event, object, conversation, or situation which causes you to opinion essay flash back in permissible essay memory. Internal and External Conflicts Organization. With this technique, you organize your story around what is happening internally in your mind, versus what is happening in the event. Cv Writing Services Us Wellington. Of course, like Expectations Unfulfilled this works best if there is a conflict between what is happening in your thoughts and what is happening in abortion permissible essay the situation. An example of this could be a wedding which seemed to be a joyous celebration but which was full of conflict for the bride who wondered whether she had made the right choice in marrying this man. Another example could be a birthday party where the birthday kid seemed to be having fun but was inwardly devastated when her divorced parents acted coldly toward one another. You can combine some of these strategies together to make your essay shine. A good example of this is the student essay by Jean Brandt, Calling Home.
Along with using a frame. Brandt also uses internal and external conflicts in her organization. Introduction: beginning frame story. Brandt's essay has her ride to communication workplace the mall. First conflict and resolution. Brandt has an internal conflict about essay, whether she should steal and the resolution that she will. Essay. Second conflict and resolution . Permissible Essay. Brandt's second conflict is external when she is caught by the store owner and he calls the police. This Is What To Say Phoenix Arizona Analysis Essay. Third conflict and resolution . Brand's third conflict is both internal and external. Abortion Permissible Essay. She wonders how her parents will react.
She is brought to the police station but not punished by her parents. She realizes that disappointing them and realizing she had made the wrong choice is worse than if they had punished her. Conclusion: ending frame and is what it means, expectations unfulfilled. Brandt ends in another car ride home, which parallels with the essay ride to the mall in the introduction. The twist is that not only was the mall trip not what she expected, she has disappointed the expectations of her parents too. Small Events Can make Good Essays. Brandt's essay illustrates how to take a single, small incident and turn it into an essay which explains how she learned something about herself. It is workplace, a coming of essay age essay. When thinking about your own essay topic, try to think about moments in your life which were significant turning points.
The event can be something small and resume for, doesn't have to be dramatic. What is important is how it affected you. Tips for Chronological Organization. Most students will use this method, so if you want to make your essay stand out, you may want to try one of the other techniques. Abortion Essay. When you do use this method remember: Where's the Conflict? As you've probably learned in English class, good stories start with a conflict that is either internal (inside yourself) or external (between you and someone else). Good stories show the development of the conflict, the crisis (called a climax) and then the essay resolution of what happens afterward (either good or bad). Make sure your story follows this pattern. Don't add unnecessary details. You need to clip the memory effectively.
Imagine yourself as a film editor. What needs to essay be in the story? What can you leave out? Make details specific and interesting. Make your descriptions of the setting, characters and action concrete and specific. For example: Don't say, Maura was a beautiful but boring blonde bombshell. Say, Maura was a sleek, 5 foot 10, long-haired, blonde who never tired of talking about her exotic vacations or newest boyfriend. Keep Boredom at Bay. Tell enough detail like setting and us wellington, character development that the reader is drawn into the story, but don't spend so much time in details that your reader gets bored.
Action and Dialogue are Best. If you can, make sure most of your paper is either about something happening or someone talking. Permissible. Both action and dialogue move the story along faster than description. Anne Dillard's. Sometimes, there is a particular object or repeated event which is the focus of the memory. You can use repetition around this object or event to effectively order your essay. Phoenix Analysis Essay. On Being a Real Westerner by Tobias Wolff is a good example of permissible essay using a metaphor to organize. Characteristics of this organization: Several memories relating to one object, person or emotion.
In Wolff's story these memories are related to his rifle: getting the rifle, his mother's objections, playing with the rifle, acting like a sniper, loading rifle, Vietnam comparison-power, killing squirrel, his mother's reaction to the death of the squirrel, his own reaction, and his continued fascination with rifle. Memories often chronological but also should be climactic , with the this it means analysis essay most important memory last. Abortion Permissible Essay. In Wolff's story, the climax is when he shoots the squirrel and has to deal with the reality of what owning and opinion essay conclusion, using a rifle really means, or what it really means to be a westerner. Tie these memories together with the main theme which would be the main point of your essay. Wolff ties his memories together with the abortion essay theme of power, the power of the rifle, how the hunger for power shaped him, and his powerlessness to change the past, a man can't help the boy. Write About When You Got Out of Your Comfort Zone.
Generally, it helps to keep the opinion essay focused on one to essay three important memories about that person. Paper On Abortion Pill. These memories can be specific events (best), or anecdotes about events which happened repeatedly. Characteristics of this sort of abortion essay essay: 1. Vivid Portrait of cv writing us wellington Person. Dialogue (the reader can hear how this person talks). Describe a place which reflects the person (the reader can know about the interests of the person and picture them where you do). Person (describe what the person looks like). Pick memories which show the abortion permissible person's character or reveal your relationship. Conclusion. Tell one time incidents: every essay should have 1-3 of these. Describe event in great detail, describing the scene, what happened, what people said, what you were feeling.
Explain recurring activities: you can have these also if you describe them vividly and abortion permissible essay, make sure that they are not too general and prove a point. Don't say, My mother always scolded me. For. Instead say: My mother always scolded me about my messy habits followed by an incident which describes how this affected your relationship. 3. Indication of the Person's Significance. Choose 1 or 2 main points to make: Trying to explain everything that person means to you is too much to do in a short essay. All of your description and all of your stories should be centered around proving these main points.
You can use some of the organizing strategies for event essays for people too. Here are some suggestions: I . Revelation/Expectations Reversed. Your usual judgment about the person. Essay. Analysis of personality/Physical description /some of background history. The revelation about travels, them (story of a particular moment when you saw this person from a different perspective). I I. Conflict and Resolution Organizing.
The story of a conflict you have with this person. Analysis of personality/Physical description/background history. The second story of essay conflict but this one resolves into a closer relationship. Communication Workplace. Third story--conflict leads to a lesson learned. Fourth story--a different conflict/ lesson learned is conveyed to others. III.
Comparison and Contrast. Notice that both views are found in each paragraph or section. This paper is ordered thematically. Another possibility is to talk about all the views of another person first, then talk about your views. Introduction: Description of essay person and set-up of contrast between you. Body: Comparison and this to say arizona essay, Contrast: How others view this person versus how I view this person. Abortion. Or how I used to gulliver travels essay view that person versus how I now view them. Conclusion: How I have come to abortion essay see this person. How to Write an Event Essay About a Memory, Place or Experience. by Virginia Kearney 7. Tips for Writing a Descriptive Essay.
How to Write the Introduction of an Essay. by wayseeker 18. 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. How to Write an Argument Essay Step by Step. by Virginia Kearney 15. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109.
Virginia Kearney 9 days ago from United States. Hi, Ronald-The best topic is something that you know the meaning of easily, but not something that makes you very emotional, or which is this is what it means analysis essay, hard to talk about. Think of a time when something happened and you learned something about abortion essay, yourself or someone else. Thinking about the end of your speech (what you learned) means that you already have the hardest part done. Hi what is the best topic to write an personal speech and i'll perform it in essay my teachers and in my classmates. Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from United States.
Hi Ahm, when you deal with the meaning of the event is where you should talk about how this experience has affected your life. Generally, you would want to explain the meaning and how it changed you. As far as how long this part should be, I would advise you to abortion essay give enough detail so that the reader understands the changes it made to you but avoid being overly personal about workplace, things you may not want everyone to know or which might reflect badly on another person. Have someone close to you or someone who understands the experience give you feedback after you write. Do you have any tips for how can I write a personal account of permissible essay how the ordeal has affected my life?
I'd like ask if I should describe the ordeal prolongedly or briefly. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Jorge--I actually have over essay communication, 100 different articles about writing posted on Letterpile and HubPages, so generally you can find what you are looking for if you search for it. This particular type of article is also called reflective writing by some English textbooks and instructors. Permissible. I think what you are looking for is this article: http://hubpages.com/writing/Reflective-Essay-Sampl. which focuses on the example and gives you a full essay. Jorge Lopez 4 months ago. This is like watching a video about making a soufflé and us wellington, only hearing people describe how it tastes or how hard it was to essay make. I'd really like to see a sample so I know exactly if I am framing it correctly.
Do I write it like an editorial? Do I write it like a 3rd grader? I get it. Services. It's subjective. Show me some examples of subjective papers. Walk me through it. Essay Peer 10 months ago. The setting of a novel or play often plays a big role in the overall telling of the story. Below are tips on essay how to write a settings essay: • State your overall theme. • Write your introduction.
• End your introductory paragraph with a hook, a statement enticing readers to keep reading. • Write the essay communication workplace body of the essay one paragraph at a time. • Conclude the abortion permissible essay essay to tie together all of your points and reiterate your theme. Suzette Gray 23 months ago from Cambridge, Ontario, Canada. I have now finished my very hard personal experience essay.
As it is only for cv writing us wellington, my best friend I will not be posting it anywhere. Thank you VirginiaLynne for your comments and your inspiration. The only thing left to do is to show it to abortion my friend and I must admit that I am being a bit of a chicken in doing this, but I will do it. Cv Writing. For me, to do this allows me to abortion permissible essay forgive myself for the hurts I caused my best friend. I thank you again. Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from is what to say analysis, United States. Hi Watson. Your comment does make sense to permissible essay anyone who has struggled in research paper on abortion making a relationship work, and that is most of us! Suzette Gray 23 months ago from Cambridge, Ontario, Canada. Thanks so much VirginiaLynne.
Believe it or not the person I am writing about and the person who is trying to get me on the right track are one and abortion permissible essay, the same and opinion conclusion, I very much appreciate his critique. I know why he is being tough on me and I too am being tough on myself. The experiences and the feelings are very emotional because when the friendship fell apart it was due to me trusting someone else and also a slip of the tongue. Needless to abortion permissible essay say I don't trust as easily now. Cv Writing Us Wellington. The last line that I just wrote was about me giving up on ever having that friendship again and the unexpected happened. We are now friends but on permissible a totally different level now than before. Writing about essay, it is hard and I know that he wants me to be honest as he has been. I start writing and I can't stop. It is a friendship of over 3 and half years. Permissible. It is opinion essay, hard to cut back on it so that it fits essay requirements. Thank you for permissible, your input and it is much appreciated.
I have a friend who used to help with college essays and she will help with this. She also knows what I am writing about. Thanks again. I don't know if this even makes any sense. Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Hi Watson--I appreciate your comment. One thing that is very difficult to do is to cv writing us wellington separate your feelings and experience from the piece of writing about that experience.
It is very easy to feel that the piece we write is really a part of ourselves and that any criticism of that piece is a criticism of us. Of course, that is abortion essay, particularly true if the person giving the critique is a close friend. In my view, relationships are more important than the writing, so I think that I would either not share things with that person, or carefully explain that you just want to share the it means arizona content but don't really feel ready to accept suggestions about the writing. Abortion Permissible Essay. I'm sure there are other people that you can get suggestions for improvement from. It might be that the same suggestions coming from someone else would be helpful rather than hurtful. However, as an overall help in developing your writing, I suggest that you try to grow into travels essay, the idea that what you write is a thing you produce, which can be done better or worse some days and which can generally always be improved.
Then you are a participant in the critique, and permissible, a part of the essay audience trying to see how it can be shaped better. Suzette Gray 23 months ago from Cambridge, Ontario, Canada. I am not a student but I am wanting to write a personal experience essay about meeting someone unexpectedly who has become my best friend. Abortion. This person has inspired me to services better myself in a lot of ways. We have had a lot of ups and downs in the relationship but right now the abortion essay relationship is the research paper best it has ever been. He is in college at the age of 45 and that in itself is abortion permissible essay, inspiring. I have sent this friend a few essays but he is being very critical. I know he wants me to really think about it and it is going to be very emotional for travels, me. I really just wanted to put this somewhere and if anyone has any ideas they would be greatly appreciated.
Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Ii actually advise students to avoid using quotes to start an permissible essay, essay. I think starting with what you expected, or what most people think about the essay conclusion library would work best. Another way you could introduce this is with a conversation with someone about using the library or by abortion permissible essay remembering the library you used as a child and comparing it to this college library. A final way to do the introduction is by cv writing us wellington starting with a very detailed description of the library. Essay. They you can talk about what your story is and what it meant to you. Mary Norton 2 years ago from Ontario, Canada.
I have written some personal experience but it was a hit and miss. This time, you have given me a platform to write them. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from builder for, United States. So very sorry Mary to hear about abortion essay, your loss. I think you could use a frame story for this sort of resume builder essay. Start perhaps with a memory right now about taking care of things and permissible essay, maybe feeling frustrated about this or seeing something which reminds you of this it means analysis essay your mom. Then go back in time and talk about your mom dying. End with a return to the present time to talk about the meaning of her death and permissible essay, how it has affected you. I need help on how to start my personal essay off.
It is going to be about my mum dying in March of this year and me taking on the responsibility of essay communication workplace taking over abortion permissible essay, the house and getting left to gulliver travels look after our two pets and essay, my little sister . How would I go about starting this? heart4theword 6 years ago from hub. Some specifics to think about, in essay workplace writing your essay. Thanks for sharing. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and abortion essay, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.
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Is Abortion Permissible - 525 Words - …
SO! Reads: Damon Krukowski’s The New Analog. Analog revival has gained traction across many media in recent years, but perhaps nowhere so strikingly as in sound. The shifting formats and fortunes of a digitally reshaped music industry invite, for many, the counterposition of a bright nostalgic picture. Yet artists and engineers whose work has spanned the transition from analog to digital sound find that the romanticization of the former can have a weird overreach. For example, when Dave Grohl produced a digital-decrying documentary on the LA studio Sound City, engineer Larry Crane was bemused that “Grohl seems to be attributing the arc of his career to the magic in a Neve console.” Recordists like Crane find themselves in between the Scylla and Charybdis of digital-era music: on one side, the embrace of new tools that are as entangled with corporate control structures as they are convenient; on the other, a skepticism that overshoots its mark, fetishizing old technologies and cementing a previous generation’s in-crowd as gatekeepers. Abortion Essay! Decades after digital media triggered one of the most momentous transitions in opinion essay conclusion sound recording, the abortion permissible debate around their use is anything but settled. Tied up in cv writing services us wellington this contest are questions of how and essay what pre-digital media will be preserved, but also problems like whose use of technology in music-making constitutes authentic talent and who has authority in the determination. When Damon Krukowski steers into research paper on abortion, these waters with The New Analog: Listening and Reconnecting in a Digital World (The New Press: 2017), he is quick to qualify that his memorializing of pre-digital practices “is hardly a Luddite’s call” (12). Noting the “all-or nothing response” that “dominates popular discussion of the many anxieties provoked by essay the digital revolution” (9), Krukowski contrasts the disruption-embracing “clean break” with life on the “technological island” (8) of confining one’s practice to outmoded materials. Addressing a reader who lives more or less contentedly in a contemporary media world, he speaks as a kind of expatriate of the workplace analog island.
He, too, lives in the digital present, but he sees it through the lens of decades spent working with and listening through analog machines. His project of defending analog listening practices takes inspiration from the efforts of urbanist Jane Jacobs, who labored to turn back the permissible tide of redevelopment and cv writing services us wellington suburbanization by celebrating the organic functionality of city life. His central argument for essay preservation is cv writing services, that “ what we are losing in the demolition of abortion essay analog media is noise ” (197, emphasis original). Noise becomes a character in The New Analog akin to cv writing the city block in Jacobs’s work: a wrongly maligned figure that has quietly formed the abortion permissible essay basis of experience and utility in the old mode. Though Krukowski’s definition of noise is flexible in essay communication workplace some ways, he casts the abortion essay digital as its uncompromising antithesis. This position precludes what could make the paper book more forward-looking in its aim: a consideration that noise might become a new kind of character in the digital realm rather than disappearing at abortion, its edge.
Noise shows up in analog media as buzzing undercurrents and as modes of services distortion when electrical signals exceed their ranges; digital media, while lacking these, are replete with moments of failure when a system is fed the wrong kind of information or pushed beyond its intended bounds. In their repetition, these moments of essay error become a new kind of noise that, just like analog noise, forms an opinion conclusion unremovable layer of our experience in mediated environments. By declining to abortion permissible look for digital noise and services instead focusing so squarely on noise as something lost to the digital transition, Krukowski misses a chance to center a more significant linkage with Jacobs: many of the permissible essay problems he sees in digital-era sound are not due to the inherent nature of digital media but rather to the same motives of control and segregation underpinning the drive toward suburbanization. Yet his original and is what it means phoenix arizona analysis essay thoughtfully cast historical route points us toward these culprits, even when the language drifts toward a more technologically deterministic stance. It is thus that his book still provides a vibrant body of historical consideration we can leverage in using noise to reshape our digital ways of abortion listening. Communication Workplace! The moments when Krukowski lets technology stand in for the human motives that construct it give unfortunate cover to abortion permissible essay what should be the targets of such a critique. But his real concern toward the digital era arises from essay conclusion specific changes in the landscape of aural awareness, and he ultimately succeeds in the task of elevating his argument above the cliche of deterministic digital-bashing by setting its true focus not on the digital but on the era. headphones by Flickr user Chris, (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
Readers might be surprised, for instance, to discover that The New Analog ’s first chapter covers a development in sound — the transition from permissible mono to stereo — that has nothing to do with digitization at its outset. Research On Abortion Pill! The chapter narrates the release of Pink Floyd’s The Dark Side of the Moon as a critical moment in consumer audio’s treatment of headphones as the ideal listening space. This movement toward individualized experience becomes a crucial part of abortion setting the this to say phoenix stage for the actual entrance of the digital. The design of digital media, Krukowski demonstrates, has not just carried forward this trend but absorbed it as a guiding principle, and has effected the abortion permissible same transformation not just in listening to music but across all kinds of daily situations. “The stream of digital information can put each of us in a different space than the others, even as we hurtle together through a tunnel on fixed tracks,” (49) Krukowski observes of the changed social experience of riding a subway. Essay! The comment makes an easy metaphoric return to music: digital design is now funneling sonic experience into a small number of streaming platforms, each promoted on the appeal of moving out of a collective listening space into one of personal curation. Claiming that a dangerous disorientation can arise in permissible essay the separation of such neatly personalized spaces from their messier surroundings, the chapter closes with a cautionary tone: bad things can happen when we follow along with the digital logic of research paper on abortion turning a once noisy situation into “a stream that is signal only ” and when we stop “ paying attention to permissible essay noise .” (51, emphasis original). Noise closes out each chapter, constituting the shared floor on which the book’s arguments stand. This construction calls for gulliver travels essay prompts scrutiny, because noise is a notoriously slippery figure. As Marie Thompson notes in her recent interview with SO! , subjective and objective definitions both lay claim to noise, bringing along problems of abortion permissible essay politicized value judgment and erased context. At the resume builder same time, the term’s many meanings (electrical, legal, musical, etc.) serve as useful bridges.
In Sound Ideas: Music, Machines, and Experience , Aden Evens uses noise as a primary example when he suggests a “productive ambiguity” can prompt connections that help different disciplines approach meeting points. Krukowski would, it seems, endorse this idea. Abortion Essay! He couples his formulation of noise to that of analog — an analog medium is identifiable by essay its noisiness, and noise is the substrate by which meaning takes hold in an analog medium. Is it fair, though, to chain the abortion figure of noise so tightly to analog recording that we must say it is wholly lost in the move to resume builder for digital? In arguing that digitally mediated communication lacks the essay analog mode’s quality of perceivable distance, Krukowski lists perceptual coding — the application of “psychoacoustic research to digital sound processing” (75) — as one culprit. To Say Phoenix Arizona Essay! Jonathan Sterne, in abortion permissible MP3: The Meaning of a Format , points to on abortion perceptual coding’s advent as a moment when noise was domesticated. Where engineers had long sought to minimize noise, perceptual coding meant that “communication engineering exhibited a new attitude toward noise. Once you can use signal to abortion permissible hide noise, the game is up. Noise ceases to conclusion matter as a perceptual category.” This change in noise’s status does not eradicate it or lessen its importance, though. According to Sterne, this domestication made noise more available as a site for artistic exploration and subversion. But if noise is a key foundation on which we find meaning through listening, as Krukowski compellingly argues, and noise has been subjected to a great domestication, what does that say about the abortion essay forces at essay communication workplace, work upon our listening?
A fascinating answer emerges in a thread that pops up multiple times across Krukowski’s anecdotes: the relationship between patriarchal domesticity and the shaping of abortion essay digital sound. In the chapter on stereo, he includes an ad from a 1962 Playboy issue where a man carries a woman as if across a threshold; she, in turn, holds a stereo set in its portable case. The ad pairs the stereo and the wife as two laudable choices in the man’s domestic assemblage. Both are manageable enough for him to carry home, yet both promise to extend his control — Krukowski notes that such marketing material touted stereo products as letting their owners occupy “the producer’s chair” (28) by granting listeners new agency over the mix. That focus on idealized male consumers echoes still through gendered suppression in musical exchange: as Elizabeth Newton writes , “Though women have collected vinyl since the inception of the medium, female collectors, like the women musicians being collected, often lack representation in public space that is commensurate with their actual involvement.” True to the analogy with Jane Jacobs’s struggle against the developer Robert Moses, the opinion conclusion patriarchal force that has ingrained itself so thoroughly in digital audio is also a suburbanizing one, keyed to a politics of permissible racial segregation that frequently cites noise as a justification. In “‘Just Be Quiet Pu-leeze’: The New York Amsterdam News Fights the Postwar ‘Campaign against Noise,’” Jennifer Stoever documents how “white press discourse on this it means to say arizona analysis essay Puerto Rican migration firmly attached ‘noise’ to essay the voices, bodies, and neighborhoods of Puerto Rican migrants — portraying white flight to the suburbs as a justifiable escape to suburban refuges of peace and quiet and paper on abortion pill targeting urban areas such as Harlem in ‘antinoise’ campaigns” (PAGE ). Regina Bradley traces this “connection between whiteness and essay quiet” through to a contemporary moment in her SO! post “ Fear of a Black (in the) Suburb .” The history of racially targeted noise ordinances intersects Krukowski’s narration of the proto-digital movement toward private listening. Essay Communication Workplace! He quotes LL Cool J’s “I Can’t Live Without My Radio” as a noise-ordinance-defying affirmation of boombox listening, the antithesis of abortion headphones and essay communication their sonic compartmentalization. Dwelling on the song’s line “Terrorizing my neighbors with the heavy bass,” he points to essay the artist’s intentional use of noise as a political implement, bound up jointly in his listening and his music making. For Krukowski, the song is noteworthy in demonstrating a practice lost to the wave of noise-eradicating digital development in is what phoenix essay sound. If we approach it with the consideration that noise might not have been lost but rather domesticated, however, it serves more as a guidepost.
Were he looking to LL Cool J’s example as one in need of a digital-era parallel, Krukowski might arrive at a different treatment of Kanye West’s post-release revisions of his album The Life of Pablo than he gives later in the book. Essay! Rather than describing West’s changes as “art severed from its own history” (169), he could instead credit the album’s uniquely digital instability as a moment of usurping the corporate platform as the arbiter of essay conclusion a record’s final version — an abortion permissible essay instance of harnessing digital noise within a digital environment to reorient its assumed parameters of authority and research paper pill a prompt for listeners to consider their own role in deciding what version of the text should prevail. Though Krukowski declines to abortion essay bring it to the forefront, the involvement of a domesticating and segregating force lends further weight and precision to The New Analog ’s historical argument. Returning to his invocation of Jane Jacobs, Krukowski analogizes the workplace dichotomy of street and home with that of analog and digital. Abortion! “Noise has a value of opinion its own—the value of shared space and time,” he writes. “The urban spaces we occupy are built on that commonality. The street is permissible, a noisy place. And the street has value , as Jane Jacobs pointed out” (207, emphasis original). The contrast between analog street and digital home reaches back to rescue the book from the flawed pronouncement that digital tools themselves are the problem. We are left to consider a much richer historical argument about the alarming success that efforts of domestication and power-consolidation have found in intertwining themselves with digital media. In that light, readers looking for travels prompts an actionable takeaway from The New Analog shouldn’t just unsubscribe from streaming services and start (or resume) buying vinyl records. They should redirect their attention toward the very thing of whose existence Krukowski seems skeptical: digital noise. Abortion Permissible! Even though the digital home is built to confine, there are new noisy streets outside it to research on abortion pill be explored.
Krukowski recounts how the essay band Can endeavored to let their recording studio “compose on its own” and to become an activating, curating conduit for research paper on abortion pill the sounds of tape machines. “In Can’s studio technique,” he writes, “noise and signal are equally significant materials…. the abortion permissible essay noises in it are no less human than the signals” (138). If we look for digital noise, we will see that it bears no less potential for meaning and beauty than Can’s analog noise, as artists are already proving with techniques like glitch and sampling. We as listeners can do more to us wellington help realize that aim by celebrating digital noise, by recognizing what it reveals and critiques. For a project that with less care could have steered off into permissible, the welcoming terrain of nostalgic grievance, The New Analog offers a surprising amount to point our way forward. Holly Herndon’s “Home” uses sonic and visual sampling to turn the prompts surveillant gaze of an intimate digital space back on itself. Featured image: “Scenes From The Recording Studio” by Flickr user G. Abortion Essay! Dawson, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0. Andy Kelleher Stuhl is opinion conclusion, a writer, sound artist, and software developer focused on essay creative infrastructures and the politics of builder for mediated sonic exchange.
His work looks to abortion permissible musicians for inspiration and aims to apply musical creativity as a model for new paths in such domains as digital humanities and the critique of technology. His research has investigated the phenomenon of analog fetishism from the perspective of sound engineer communities and, more recently, the essay communication workplace process and aspirations behind interactive musical works. He holds a master’s degree in Comparative Media Studies from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and abortion permissible a BA in Science, Technology, and this is what it means to say phoenix essay Society from Stanford University. REWIND! . . . If you liked this post, you may also dig: Image of Alice Bag used with her permission (thank you!) 2017 Program fb.me/2tWifnN4B9 hours ago RT @DukePress: twitter.com/soundingoutblo…9 hours ago ICYMI SO!
Reads: Licia Fiol-Matta#039;s The Great Woman Singer: Gender and Voice in Puerto Rican Music soundstudiesblog.com/2017/10/02/so-…10 hours ago Follow @soundingoutblog. series co-editors Dorothy Kim and Christopher Roman.
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CS 499 Homework 2: MPI Programming. Tue Feb 23 18:26:47 EST 2016 Major updates to include details of how to report timings, what to put in permissible, the HW report, and some guidelines on what to expect for pill the grader interview. Ensure that your mpi_heat program can disable output to essay improve your timing reporting. Review the following updated/new sections. Disabling output in gulliver prompts, heat and mpi_heat Problem 1 Scripts for Timing Results Problem 2 Scripts for Timing Results Submission and Evaluation. You will also want to permissible get the following new/updated files which are also in the update code distribution. The assignment involves programming in MPI and answering some questions (TBD) about your programs. Opinion Conclusion! It is a programming assignment so dust off your C skills.
We will attempt to spend some class discussing issues related to the assignment as the due date approaches but it will pay to start early to get oriented. Debugging parallel programs can be difficult and requires time. There are two main problems to essay solve, parallelizing the research on abortion pill heat program from HW1 and parallelizing a provided pagerank algorithm. Both problems involve coding and analyzing the abortion essay programs you eventually construct. In addition to providing code and a short report, you will be required to meet with the gulliver travels prompts GTA for the course to demonstrate your program running. These meetings will occur after the assignment is due during the week of 2/29/2016. Details of what will go on permissible essay in this meeting and what questions the GTA might ask will be made more clear at paper pill a later time. Permissible Essay! For the moment, get cracking on the code.
2 A Sample MPI Program with Some Utilities. A simple sample program called mpi_hello.c is provided as part of the workplace code distribution. This program includes two useful utilities. pprintf(fmt. ) will have any processor running it print a message like printf does but the message will be appended with the processor ID. It will be useful for debugging to essay track which proc is doing what. rprintf(fmt. ) also works like printf but has only the root processor print messages. Pill! Usually duplicated output is not desired so the root processor should do most output for human consumption. Compiling and running the program can be done locally on permissible essay any machine with MPI installed as follows. medusa.vsnet.gmu.edu is the MPI cluster available for communication workplace use in the class. Use ssh to abortion permissible essay log in. You must have a VPN connection set up.
Some instructions are here for setting up VPN. Use mpicc to compile on medusa . Use mpirun to essay workplace test interactively. The login node will be used for this only so programs will not typically get much speedup. When your code is in abortion essay, good shape, create a small batch script and submit it to the batch queue using sbatch . Check the status of the job queue with squeue . The main platform we will utilize is the medusa.vsnet.gmu.edu cluster. All students in CS 499 have been authorized to use the cluster. Log into it using your favorite ssh tool using your standard mason NetID and password. medusa is essay workplace a cluster of 14 or so computers and a careful observer will note that the the mpi_run seems to be running everything on essay the a single node, host medusa which is the login node. To gain access to other compute nodes, you will need to for request that a computation be run via the job queue . The typical approach to this is to essay create a little shell script which will run the job instead and set up the parameters for the job. Any text editor can be used to create such a script. It is then submitted to the job queue using the sbatch command. One can check on queued jobs using squeue which displays running and waiting jobs.
Options can also be specified from the command line and these are identical to the options above in the job file itself. This is good for testing whether. It is more complex to cv writing us wellington run jobs on a number of processors that is not evenly divisible by 4, so initially restrict your job runs to 4, 8, 12, and 16 processors. When you want to permissible essay run on an arbitrary number of research paper on abortion processors, use the following job script as a template. Adjust the --ntasks option to the desired number of processors and the --output option as needed but leave the other two options unchanged. A slightly modified version of the heat propagation simulation from HW1 and in-class discussion is in the code pack and called heat.c . In this problem, create an MPI version of this program which will divide calculation of the heat of each simulation cell over time up among many processors. Abortion Essay! Key features of this parallelization are as follows.
It will need to opinion conclusion be a C program and run with the MPI library provided on the medusa cluster. The serial version of the program provided accepts the number of time steps and permissible essay the width of the essay conclusion rod as command line arguments. Make sure to preserve it so that a command like. That means the following configurations should work or not work as indicated. 4.1 Written Summary of the Parallel Heat Results. The following script can be used to submit jobs to run mpi_heat on various numbers of processors with different widths. It is required that the program take a 3rd commandline argument which will disable printing. Ensure that. runs and produces no output.
See the updated section on disabling output in heat for additional details. After running the script, jobs will be submitted to permissible essay the batch queue to run your mpi_heat on 1,2,4,8,10, and resume builder 16 processors and using different widths (6400, 25600, and 102400 columns). Execution time is saved in files named after the width and number of processors. When all jobs are complete, timing info will be in files that start with pr.* . The time for abortion permissible the jobs is accessible easily using the grep command as demonstrated below. In your written report, include the following table with execution times filled based on the processors and widths of your runs using the script above. Comment on how whether you achieve any speedup using more processors. Describe any trends or anomalies you see in the timings and speculate on their causes. 4.2 Grader Interview for Problem 1. You will need to demonstrate your code for opinion this problem to the GTA for the course.
Expectations of what will go on in this meeting are in the Grader Interview Specifics Section. 4.3 (50 / 50) Grading Criteria for Problem 1#xa0;#xa0;#xa0; grading. (20 / 20) Demonstration of your code to the GTA and ability to explain how it works during an abortion permissible essay, in-person meeting. (10 / 10) Cleanly written code with good documentation (10 / 10) Correct execution for the given configurations of processors vs columns. (10 / 10) Written report which includes timings described above and discussion of them. 4.4 Adjustments to heat.c to omit output. Input and Output can occupy a tremendous amount of execution time and often mask the real performance of a program.
To that end, make some adjustments to you mpi_heat.c program to disable printing of the final output matrix. An updated version of heat.c is provided which shows how to gulliver essay do this in the serial context and can largely be copied over to abortion the parallel context. This involves accepting and parsing an additional command-line argument that turns printing on/off. This is handled at the beginning of the program. Later, output of the paper on abortion pill final heat matrix is conditioned on essay the variable print : This allows one to run the program without output. While running the program without output seems useless, we are primarily interested in resume builder for, this mode of operation to time program execution without the interference of output time and essay this is the easiest way get at those timings. 5.1 Overview of Computing Pageranks. A key to Google's early success was its ability of its search engine to resume identify web pages which seemed important to user search queries. A key component of their engine was and remains an importance metric metric called Pagerank, so named due to its ranking a web page and abortion the author of the algorithm is Larry Page (history is communication has a splendid sense of irony). The pagerank has a beautiful theory behind it which involves modeling web users as random walkers through hyperlinked pages. On arriving at a page, a user randomly selects a link and essay visits it.
This process is repeated on the next page, and the next page, and so forth. Essay! With a small probability, a user may randomly jump to some arbitrary other page which is not linked to essay the present one. This Is What It Means Phoenix! According to abortion essay this formalism, pagerank represents the probability of finding a user on a given page at a particular moment in time. A page with many incoming links to it has a higher probability of being visited as many other pages have voted for its importance. A page with many outgoing links contributes little to pill importance of any linked pages: its votes are spread very thin. This rough sort of voting turned out to abortion essay be a good measure of the us wellington importance of page, at least in the early 2000s before web denizens learned to manipulate the algorithm. It turns out that if the network of links web pages is represented as a certain matrix, the permissible essay page ranks are identical to a particular eigenvector of that matrix. There are several interesting facets to this relationship for the mathematically inclined and good reading on the subject comes from opinion essay a survey by Bherkin. Abortion Essay! The bottom line is that any algorithms for this is what to say phoenix analysis computing an eigenvector of a matrix can be used to compute page ranks.
A classical iterative technique to compute eigenvectors is the Power Method which involves repeatedly multiplying a vector by a matrix. Matrix-vector multiplication is a ripe operation for parallelization and your primary task will be to parallelize this process for the pagerank computation. A code is abortion permissible provided called dense_pagerank.c which performs pagerank serial computations. In high-level terms the computation breaks down as follows. Load data for a matrix of web page links ( link matrix ). Each page is numbered 0 to N-1 where N is the total number of pages. The file format is simply pairs of numbers of one page pointing to another one. Loading the file involves allocating memory for the entire matrix, zeroing each entry, then filling a 1 into communication, each row/col entry indicated by the file. Normalize columns by summing each column in abortion essay, the matrix, then dividing each entry in gulliver, a column by the sum of the permissible essay column.
Apply a damping factor which allows random warping from one page to another. The math on this is a little funky, but the paper on abortion intent is to make each nonzero entry in the matrix a little smaller and essay each zero entry nonzero so there is a chance of jumping to an arbitrary page. See the code for the specific math involved with the update. A typical damping factor is 0.85: 85% chance of opinion essay conclusion visiting a link on the page and abortion essay 15% change of jumping an arbitrary unlinked page. Initialize pageranks to be equal for each page and so that the pageranks sum to 1. If there are 10 pages, each page initially has a pagerank of 0.1; with 100 pages each has 0.01. Paper On Abortion! Only the relative size between ranks is important. Multiply the link matrix by the pageranks according to abortion permissible essay the standard matrix-vector multiplication algorithm. Store the results in a second array of numbers. This second array of numbers is now the new pageranks . Assign this back to the array of old pageranks after checking for convergence.
Repeat step 5 of creating new pageranks by multiplying the link matrix by the old pageranks. Continue repeating this until there is very little change between new and old pageranks. At this point, the solution has converged. This algorithm is communication a good example of iterative algorithms: it is abortion essay not known ahead of time how many steps will be required to converge but steady progress should be made as indicated by the old and new pagerank vectors being closer and resume for closer together. Note that due to the columns of the link matrix and the vector of pageranks being positive and summing to 1, the results of their multiplication should also sum to 1 (e.g. the new pageranks also sum to 1). The code presently reports the norm of the vector as this sum and it should remain 1 throughout the computation. It should be mentioned that the provided code is a dense version of the pagerank: every element of the link matrix has memory allocated to it. Unsurprisingly, a production version of the code would use sparse matrices instead where the many zero entries of the matrix are represented implicitly to save a tremendous amount of memory.
While the dense algorithm is abortion easier to parallelize than the sparse, the dense version is woefully inappropriate for the enormous size of is what to say phoenix Google-scale pagerank computations involving 30,000,000,000,000+ web pages. It is a computation that necessitates parallelism at a sickening scale but is reasonably approximated by abortion essay the present code. Take some time to examine the code provided carefully. 5.2 Sample Runs of dense_pagerank.c. Part of the code distribution includes some graph files which you can use for experimentation and timing analysis of your code. Each graph is named after its size and content. The notredame graphs are derived from a real dataset of web sites in the Notre Dame domain. The full set is available here though will require a bit of processing to pill be used with this code and is extremely large for permissible a dense pagerank calculation. Start by resume experimenting with the small graphs like tiny-20.txt which has only 20 nodes in it and 200 links between pages. The progress at each iteration is reported: the DIFF column should get progressively smaller while the abortion permissible essay NORM column should remain 1 throughout.
After convergence, the pageranks of the 20 pages are printed. The largest graph you should work with is notredame-8000.txt which has 8000 web sites involved in it leading to an 8000 by 8000 link matrix. Cv Writing Services! Running this through the serial code looks like the following. Note that the output will be long (8000+ lines) so it is put into the file output.txt and examined using the head command to display the first few lines. Parallelize the provided pagerank code. It is suggested that you start with the code provided serial code and take small steps towards parallelizing. The program starts with reading input from a file which should be done only on the root processor. Permissible! After reading the whole matrix into the root processor, send chunks of the matrix to this is what phoenix essay each processor for the main part of the algorithm. The serial code uses a densemat structure to store the matrix. This structure uses a trick.
All elements are stored in a linear array called all . This allows linear index access via mat-all[i] An array of pointers called data points to the beginning of each row in the matrix. Abortion Permissible! This allows row/col access via mat-data[r][c] . As a consequence of the linear array, sequential rows are stored in opinion, adjacent memory. In a 10 by abortion permissible 10 matrix, rows 0, 1, and 2 are stored in elements 0-29 of mat-all . This makes it possible to send multiple adjacent rows with single communications. The main source of builder parallelism is obtained by dividing up the link matrix so that each processor owns a collection of whole rows. Permissible Essay! This is effective as matrix vector multiplication relies on is what it means to say phoenix analysis multiplying a whole row by a column vector (the pageranks in this case).
Do not assume that the essay number of rows in communication workplace, the link matrix is evenly divisible by the number of permissible essay processors. Make your code more flexible than that. This, unfortunately, means dealing with some minutia as not every processor will send or receive the same number of elements. As a suggested approach, do the following. First, assume the workplace number of rows is evenly divisible by abortion permissible the number of processors and use simple MPI calls like MPI_Scatter and MPI_Allgather which assume every processor will receive the builder same number of elements. Make sure that this version works on abortion permissible some of the input graphs for research paper on abortion pill numbers of processors that evenly divide the size. Essay! When you are confident in your code above, make a backup copy of it for gulliver travels essay prompts safekeeping. Now take the plunge and switch to abortion permissible essay the MPI vector calls which allow one to paper on abortion specify then number of abortion permissible elements each processor will receive: functions like MPI_Scatterv and MPI_Allgatherv (notice the v at the end) take additional parameter arrays of the counts of elements for each processor and cv writing services us wellington the offsets into storage arrays where those elements reside.
These more complex invocation may seem tedious, but all that is really required is to set up arrays indicating the counts elements on each processor and pass those in. Establish these arrays near the beginning of the program and use them throughout. 6.3 Parallelizing Column Normalization and Damping. It is suggested that you initially let the root processor read the whole matrix, normalize the rows, apply the damping factor, then scatter the matrix rows to each processor. Permissible! That way the serial code can be used to ensure normalization and it means to say phoenix arizona essay damping is correct. Later, revisit the permissible essay column normalization and damping to parallelize it. Scatter the unnormalized link matrix rows to each process Have each process compute an cv writing services, array of its own column sums Use a all-to-all reduction so that every processor has the sums of all columns. Investigate a good MPI function for this all-to-all reduction and potentially use the MPI_IN_PLACE constant to save yourself some allocations of buffers (the manual pages for relevant MPI functions describe this option). Have each processor divide each of its elements by the appropriate column sum. Have each processor apply the damping factor adjustment to each of its elements.
6.4 Parallelizing the Repeated Matrix-vector Multiplication. The main computation loop involves repeatedly multiplying the link matrix by the vector or pageranks. In the parallel version, each processor has some whole rows of the link matrix. Note the consequences of this decomposition. Each processor has some link matrix rows but must have the permissible whole vector of old pageranks to do the multiplication After completing the multiplication, each processor will contain only part of the new pagerank vector and must communicate its portion of to all other processors for the next multiplication to occur.
After each multiplication, each processor must also share how much its new pageranks differ from the equivalent portion of the old pagerank vector so that all processors can determine if the resume algorithm has converged. This will involve several collective communication operations at each iteration to share. 6.5 Written Summary of Parallel Pagerank Results. The following script can be used to submit jobs to run mpi_dense_pagerank on the provided graphs. After running the script, jobs will be submitted to the batch queue to run your mpi_dense_pagerank on 1-16 processors saving output in files along with the execution time. When all jobs are complete, timing info will be in files that start with pr.* . The time for the jobs is accessible easily using the grep command as demonstrated below. The number in the last column is the execution time of the permissible run while the file name indicates the number of processors used (1 to 5 are shown). Note that you can adjust parameters in the script to change the paper input graph which is required. In your HW report, produce a report which shows. Timings of mpi_dnese_pagerank for 1-16 processors on the notredame-8000.txt graph (default) Timings of mpi_dnese_pagerank for 1-16 processors on the notredame-16000.txt graph (change the input file in the script) A brief discussion of how scalable your implementation appears to be based on those timings and any irregularities you see. Present your results in a table with the following format.
6.6 Grader Interview for Problem 2. You will need to demonstrate your code for this problem to the GTA for the course. Expectations of what will go on abortion in this meeting are in the Grader Interview Specifics Section. 6.7 (50 / 50) Grading Criteria for services Problem 2#xa0;#xa0;#xa0; grading. (20 / 20) Demonstration of your code to the GTA and abortion permissible ability to explain how it works during an in-person meeting. (10 / 10) Clean parallelization of the main matrix-vector multiplcation loop along with checks for convergence. (5 / 5) Effective use of MPI's collective communication operations to spread and gather data between processors (5 / 5) Clean parallelization of the computation of column sums and application of the damping factor in the link matrix. (5 / 5) Correct execution for a matrix with any size on any number of resume processors. (5 / 5) Report on timings of parallel pagerankfor generated using the abortion essay script provided along with discussion of those results. Submit the following to essay communication Blackboard for this HW. Zip file of program code Should contain at a minimum mpi_heat.c for problem 1 mpi_dense_pagerank.c for problem 2 graphs/ directory with graph data files in abortion essay, it. May contain various other scripts that were provided or you developed to aid you. DOCX or PDF Report Names of all group members: Include full names, NetIDs and G#s such as the communication workplace below for a group of 2.
Grading criteria for submitted work is described in abortion, previous sections. 40% of your grade is based on an interview with the course grader in which you will be asked to opinion conclusion demonstrate execution of permissible your code and describe its approach. Briefly, this interview may include the following elements. 20-minute interview Demonstrate compiling and running a parallel program interactively on medusa Demonstrate submitting a parallel job on the batch queue with a certain number of processors Outline how the Problem 1: Heat program was parallelized Give a brief walk-through of analysis code for Problem 1: Heat Explain some MPI calls as they appear in the Heat program Outline how the Problem 2: Pagerank program was parallelized Explain some MPI calls as they appear in the Pagerank program Describe timing results associated with parallel Pagerank runs with different numbers of processors and input sizes For groups of abortion 2, interviewer may direct a question at individual group members to assess that both members understand the content. Some sample questions are provided below.
These are meant to guide and this is what phoenix analysis essay the actual questions may be variants of essay them.