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anti-work essays No one should ever work. Work is the source of nearly all the misery in the world. Almost any evil you'd care to name comes from engineering working or from living in a world designed for work. Usyd? In order to cambridge engineering phd thesis, stop suffering, we have to stop working. That doesn't mean we have to wpp fellowship essays, stop doing things. Cambridge Engineering Phd Thesis? It does mean creating a new way of life based on thesis play; in other words, a *ludic* conviviality, commensality, and maybe even art. There is more to play than child's play, as worthy as that is. Phd Thesis? I call for a collective adventure in porfolio essays, generalized joy and freely interdependent exuberance. Play isn't passive.
Doubtless we all need a lot more time for engineering phd thesis sheer sloth and porfolio essays, slack than we ever enjoy now, regardless of income or occupation, but once recovered from engineering phd thesis employment-induced exhaustion nearly all of us want to act. Oblomovism and Stakhanovism are two sides of the same debased coin. The ludic life is totally incompatible with existing reality. So much the worse for reality, the gravity hole that sucks the vitality from the little in life that still distinguishes it from mere survival. Curiously -- or maybe not -- all the old ideologies are conservative because they believe in work.
Some of them, like Marxism and most brands of anarchism, believe in work all the more fiercely because they believe in research heat, so little else. Liberals say we should end employment discrimination. I say we should end employment. Conservatives support right-to-work laws. Following Karl Marx's wayward son-in-law Paul Lafargue I support the right to be lazy. Leftists favor full employment.
Like the surrealists -- except that I'm not kidding -- I favor full *un*employment. Trotskyists agitate for cambridge permanent revolution. I agitate for permanent revelry. But if all the ideologues (as they do) advocate work -- and not only because they plan to make other people do theirs -- they are strangely reluctant to say so. Political Science? They will carry on endlessly about wages, hours, working conditions, exploitation, productivity, profitability. They'll gladly talk about anything but work itself. These experts who offer to do our thinking for us rarely share their conclusions about cambridge engineering work, for all its saliency in the lives of all of us.
Among themselves they quibble over the details. How To Write A Progress Sample? Unions and management agree that we ought to sell the phd thesis time of our lives in exchange for survival, although they haggle over porfolio essays the price. Marxists think we should be bossed by bureaucrats. Libertarians think we should be bossed by businessmen. Feminists don't care which form bossing takes so long as the bosses are women. Cambridge Phd Thesis? Clearly these ideology-mongers have serious differences over how to divvy up the spoils of papers heat transfer, power.
Just as clearly, none of them have any objection to power as such and all of cambridge phd thesis, them want to how to write a progress sample, keep us working. You may be wondering if I'm joking or serious. I'm joking *and* serious. To be ludic is not to cambridge engineering, be ludicrous. Play doesn't have to be frivolous, although frivolity isn't triviality: very often we ought to take frivolity seriously. I'd like life to binding, be a game -- but a game with high stakes.
I want to play *for* *keeps*. The alternative to work isn't just idleness. To be ludic is phd thesis, not to be quaaludic. As much as I treasure the pleasure of torpor, it's never more rewarding than when it punctuates other pleasures and pastimes. Nor am I promoting the managed time-disciplined safety-valve called leisure; far from it. Leisure is nonwork for the sake of ucsd, work. Engineering Phd Thesis? Leisure is the time spent recovering from work and in the frenzied but hopeless attempt to forget about work. Many people return from vacation so beat that they look forward to returning to papers heat, work so they can rest up. The main difference between work and leisure is that work at least you get paid for your alienation and enervation. I am not playing definitional games with anybody. When I say I want to abolish work, I mean just what I say, but I want to say what I mean by defining my terms in non-idiosyncratic ways.
My minimum definition of work is cambridge engineering, *forced* *labor*, that is, compulsory production. Both elements are essential. Work is production enforced by binding economic or political means, by the carrot or the stick. (The carrot is just the stick by other means.) But not all creation is work. Engineering? Work is never done for its own sake, it's done on account of wpp fellowship, some product or output that the worker (or, more often, somebody else) gets out of it. Engineering? This is what work necessarily is. To define it is to despise it. But work is usually even worse than its definition decrees. The dynamic of domination intrinsic to work tends over write a progress time toward elaboration. Cambridge Phd Thesis? In advanced work-riddled societies, including all industrial societies whether capitalist of Communist, work invariably acquires other attributes which accentuate its obnoxiousness. Usually -- and transfer, this is even more true in cambridge phd thesis, Communist than capitalist countries, where the transfer state is almost the only employer and everyone is an employee -- work is employment, i. e., wage-labor, which means selling yourself on the installment plan.
Thus 95% of Americans who work, work for engineering somebody (or some*thing*) else. Report Sample? In the USSR or Cuba or Yugoslavia or any other alternative model which might be adduced, the corresponding figure approaches 100%. Only the embattled Third World peasant bastions -- Mexico, India, Brazil, Turkey -- temporarily shelter significant concentrations of agriculturists who perpetuate the traditional arrangement of most laborers in the last several millenia, the payment of taxes (= ransom) to the state or rent to parasitic landlords in return for being otherwise left alone. Even this raw deal is beginning to look good. *All* industrial (and office) workers are employees and under the sort of phd thesis, surveillance which ensures servility. But modern work has worse implications. People don't just work, they have jobs. One person does one productive task all the time on an or-else basis. Even if the task has a quantum of intrinsic interest (as increasingly many jobs don't) the ucsd political science monotony of its obligatory exclusivity drains its ludic potential. A job that might engage the energies of some people, for a reasonably limited time, for the fun of it, is just a burden on those who have to do it for forty hours a week with no say in how it should be done, for the profit of owners who contribute nothing to the project, and with no opportunity for sharing tasks or spreading the work among those who actually have to do it. This is the real world of work: a world of bureaucratic blundering, of phd thesis, sexual harassment and discrimination, of bonehead bosses exploiting and scapegoating their subordinates who -- by any rational-technical criteria -- should be calling the shots.
But capitalism in the real world subordinates the rational maximization of productivity and write report, profit to the exigencies of organizational control. Phd Thesis? The degradation which most workers experience on the job is the sum of assorted indignities which can be denominated as discipline. Foucault has complexified this phenomenon but it is simple enough. Discipline consists of the totality of totalitarian controls at the workplace -- surveillance, rotework, imposed work tempos, production quotas, punching -in and -out, etc. Discipline is what the factory and porfolio essays, the office and the store share with the prison and the school and the mental hospital. It is something historically original and horrible. It was beyond the capacities of such demonic dictators of yore as Nero and Genghis Khan and Ivan the Terrible. Phd Thesis? For all their bad intentions they just didn't have the machinery to control their subjects as thoroughly as modern despots do.
Discipline is the distinctively diabolical modern mode of control, it is an innovative intrusion which must be interdicted at the earliest opportunity. Such is for career, work. Cambridge? Play is just the opposite. Play is always voluntary. What might otherwise be play is work if it's forced. This is axiomatic.
Bernie de Koven has defined play as the political science thesis suspension of cambridge engineering phd thesis, consequences. This is papers, unacceptable if it implies that play is inconsequential. The point is not that play is without consequences. This is to demean play. The point is that the consequences, if any, are gratuitous. Cambridge Phd Thesis? Playing and giving are closely related, they are the research papers heat behavioral and cambridge engineering, transactional facets of the same impulse, the play-instinct. They share an aristocratic disdain for results. The player gets something out of playing; that's why he plays. But the core reward is the experience of the activity itself (whatever it is). Thesis Statement Essay? Some otherwise attentive students of play, like Johan Huizinga (*Homo* *Ludens*), *define* it as game-playing or following rules. I respect Huizinga's erudition but emphatically reject his constraints.
There are many good games (chess, baseball, Monopoly, bridge) which are rule-governed but there is much more to play than game-playing. Phd Thesis? Conversation, sex, dancing, travel -- these practices aren't rule-governed but they are surely play if anything is. And rules can be *played* *with* at least as readily as anything else. Work makes a mockery of wpp fellowship essays, freedom. The official line is that we all have rights and live in a democracy. Other unfortunates who aren't free like we are have to live in engineering, police states.
These victims obey orders or-else, no matter how arbitrary. The authorities keep them under regular surveillance. State bureaucrats control even the smaller details of everyday life. The officials who push them around are answerable only to higher-ups, public or private. Either way, dissent and thesis statement for career essay, disobedience are punished. Informers report regularly to the authorities. All this is supposed to be a very bad thing. And so it is, although it is nothing but a description of the modern workplace. The liberals and conservatives and libertarians who lament totalitarianism are phonies and hypocrites.
There is more freedom in any moderately deStalinized dictatorship than there is in the ordinary American workplace. You find the same sort of engineering, hierarchy and discipline in an office or factory as you do in a prison or monastery. In fact, as Foucault and others have shown, prisons and factories came in at about the same time, and their operators consciously borrowed from each other's control techniques. Porfolio Essays? A worker is a par-time slave. The boss says when to show up, when to cambridge phd thesis, leave, and what to do in the meantime. He tells you how much work to do and how fast. He is free to carry his control to humiliating extremes, regulating, if he feels like it, the clothes you wear or how often you go to the bathroom. Thesis For Career Essay? With a few exceptions he can fire you for any reason, or no reason. He has you spied on by snitches and supervisors, he amasses a dossier on every employee. Talking back is called insubordination, just as if a worker is a naughty child, and it not only gets you fired, it disqualifies you for unemployment compensation.
Without necessarily endorsing it for engineering phd thesis them either, it is noteworthy that children at home and in school receive much the porfolio essays same treatment, justified in their case by their supposed immaturity. What does this say about their parents and teachers who work? The demeaning system of domination I've described rules over cambridge half the waking hours of a majority of women and the vast majority of men for decades, for most of their lifespans. For certain purposes it's not too misleading to call our system democracy or capitalism or -- better still -- industrialism, but its real names are factory fascism and office oligarchy. Essays? Anybody who says these people are free is lying or stupid. Engineering Phd Thesis? You are what you do.
If you do boring, stupid monotonous work, chances are you'll end up boring, stupid and monotonous. Work is a much better explanation for the creeping cretinization all around us than even such significant moronizing mechanisms as television and education. Porfolio Essays? People who are regimented all their lives, handed off to cambridge phd thesis, work from school and wpp fellowship, bracketed by the family in the beginning and the nursing home at the end, are habituated to heirarchy and psychologically enslaved. Their aptitude for autonomy is so atrophied that their fear of freedom is among their few rationally grounded phobias. Their obedience training at phd thesis work carries over into the families *they* start, thus reproducing the system in more ways than one, and into politics, culture and everything else. Once you drain the vitality from people at work, they'll likely submit to heirarchy and expertise in everything. They're used to it. We are so close to the world of work that we can't see what it does to us. We have to rely on outside observers from usyd other times or other cultures to appreciate the extremity and the pathology of our present position. Cambridge Engineering Phd Thesis? There was a time in our own past when the work ethic would have been incomprehensible, and perhaps Weber was on to something when he tied its appearance to a religion, Calvinism, which if it emerged today instead of four centuries ago would immediately and appropriately be labeled a cult.
Be that as it may, we have only to draw upon the wisdom of antiquity to thesis essay, put work in perspective. The ancients saw work for what it is, and their view prevailed, the Calvinist cranks notwithstanding, until overthrown by industrialism -- but not before receiving the endorsement of its prophets. Let's pretend for a moment that work doesn't turn people into stultified submissives. Let's pretend, in cambridge engineering phd thesis, defiance of any plausible psychology and wpp fellowship, the ideology of its boosters, that it has no effect on the formation of character. And let's pretend that work isn't as boring and tiring and humiliating as we all know it really is. Even then, work would *still* make a mockery of all humanistic and democratic aspirations, just because it usurps so much of our time. Socrates said that manual laborers make bad friends and bad citizens because they have no time to fulfill the responsibilities of friendship and citizenship. He was right. Because of work, no matter what we do we keep looking at out watches. The only thing free about cambridge engineering phd thesis so-called free time is that it doesn't cost the boss anything.
Free time is usyd, mostly devoted to getting ready for work, going to work, returning from work, and recovering from work. Free time is a euphemism for the peculiar way labor as a factor of production not only transports itself at its own expense to and from the workplace but assumes primary responsibility for its own maintenance and repair. Coal and phd thesis, steel don't do that. Lathes and typewriters don't do that. But workers do. No wonder Edward G. Robinson in one of his gangster movies exclaimed, Work is for saps! Both Plato and Xenophon attribute to Socrates and porfolio essays, obviously share with him an awareness of the destructive effects of cambridge engineering, work on usyd the worker as a citizen and a human being.
Herodotus identified contempt for work as an attribute of the classical Greeks at the zenith of their culture. To take only one Roman example, Cicero said that whoever gives his labor for money sells himself and puts himself in cambridge phd thesis, the rank of slaves. His candor is porfolio essays, now rare, but contemporary primitive societies which we are wont to look down upon have provided spokesmen who have enlightened Western anthropologists. Cambridge? The Kapauku of West Irian, according to Posposil, have a conception of balance in life and accordingly work only papers heat, every other day, the engineering day of rest designed to thesis for career, regain the lost power and health. Our ancestors, even as late as the eighteenth century when they were far along the path to our present predicament, at least were aware of what we have forgotten, the underside of industrialization. Their religious devotion to St. Monday -- thus establishing a *de* *facto* five-day week 150-200 years before its legal consecration -- was the despair of the earliest factory owners. They took a long time in submitting to the tyranny of the bell, predecessor of the time clock. In fact it was necessary for a generation or two to replace adult males with women accustomed to obedience and children who could be molded to fit industrial needs. Even the exploited peasants of the *ancien* *regime* wrested substantial time back from their landlord's work. According to phd thesis, Lafargue, a fourth of the French peasants' calendar was devoted to Sundays and holidays, and for career, Chayanov's figures from villages in Czarist Russia -- hardly a progressive society -- likewise show a fourth or fifth of peasants' days devoted to repose.
Controlling for productivity, we are obviously far behind these backward societies. Phd Thesis? The exploited *muzhiks* would wonder why any of wpp fellowship essays, us are working at all. So should we. To grasp the full enormity of our deterioration, however, consider the earliest condition of humanity, without government or property, when we wandered as hunter-gatherers. Hobbes surmised that life was then nasty, brutish and engineering, short. Others assume that life was a desperate unremitting struggle for subsistence, a war waged against a harsh Nature with death and disaster awaiting the unlucky or anyone who was unequal to the challenge of the struggle for existence. Actually, that was all a projection of fears for the collapse of government authority over communities unaccustomed to doing without it, like the England of Hobbes during the Civil War. Hobbes' compatriots had already encountered alternative forms of society which illustrated other ways of life -- in North America, particularly -- but already these were too remote from their experience to be understandable. (The lower orders, closer to transfer, the condition of the Indians, understood it better and engineering, often found it attractive. Throughout the seventeenth century, English settlers defected to Indian tribes or, captured in war, refused to return. But the Indians no more defected to white settlements than Germans climb the Berlin Wall from the ucsd political senior west.) The survival of the fittest version -- the Thomas Huxley version -- of Darwinism was a better account of economic conditions in Victorian England than it was of natural selection, as the anarchist Kropotkin showed in his book *Mutual* *Aid,* *A* *Factor* *of* *Evolution*. (Kropotkin was a scientist -- a geographer -- who'd had ample involuntary opportunity for fieldwork whilst exiled in Siberia: he knew what he was talking about.) Like most social and political theory, the story Hobbes and engineering, his successors told was really unacknowledged autobiography. The anthropologist Marshall Sahlins, surveying the data on contemporary hunter-gatherers, exploded the Hobbesian myth in an article entitled The Original Affluent Society.
They work a lot less than we do, and their work is hard to distinguish from what we regard as play. Sahlins concluded that hunters and wpp fellowship, gatherers work less than we do; and cambridge, rather than a continuous travail, the food quest is intermittent, leisure abundant, and there is a greater amount of wpp fellowship, sleep in engineering, the daytime per research transfer, capita per year than in any other condition of society. They worked an engineering phd thesis average of four hours a day, assuming they were working at all. Political Senior Thesis? Their labor, as it appears to us, was skilled labor which exercised their physical and intellectual capacities; unskilled labor on any large scale, as Sahlins says, is impossible except under industrialism. Thus it satisfied Friedrich Schiller's definition of play, the only occasion on which man realizes his complete humanity by engineering giving full play to both sides of his twofold nature, thinking and feeling. As he put it: The animal *works* when deprivation is the mainspring of its activity, and it *plays* when the wpp fellowship fullness of engineering phd thesis, its strength is this mainspring, when superabundant life is its own stimulus to activity. (A modern version -- dubiously developmental -- is Abraham Maslow's counterposition of deficiency and growth motivation.) Play and freedom are, as regards production, coextensive. Even Marx, who belongs (for all his good intentions) in the productivist pantheon, observed that the usyd thesis realm of freedom does not commence until the point is engineering, passed where labor under the compulsion of necessity and porfolio essays, external utility is required. He never could quite bring himself to identify this happy circumstance as what it is, the engineering phd thesis abolition of work -- it's rather anomalous, after all, to usyd thesis, be pro-worker and anti-work -- but we can. The aspiration to go backwards or forwards to a life without work is evident in every serious social or cultural history of pre-industrial Europe, among them M. Phd Thesis? Dorothy George's *England* In* *Transition* and Peter Burke's *Popular* *Culture* *in* *Early* *Modern* *Europe*. How To Write Report Sample? Also pertinent is cambridge phd thesis, Daniel Bell's essay, Work and usyd thesis binding, its Discontents, the first text, I believe, to phd thesis, refer to the revolt against work in so many words and, had it been understood, an important correction to the complacency ordinarily associated with the political thesis volume in phd thesis, which it was collected, *The* *End* *of* *Ideology*. Neither critics nor celebrants have noticed that Bell's end-of-ideology thesis signaled not the end of social unrest but the usyd thesis beginning of a new, uncharted phase unconstrained and uninformed by ideology.
It was Seymour Lipset (in *Political* *Man*), not Bell, who announced at the same time that the fundamental problems of the Industrial Revolution have been solved, only a few years before the post- or meta-industrial discontents of college students drove Lipset from cambridge phd thesis UC Berkeley to the relative (and temporary) tranquility of Harvard. As Bell notes, Adam Smith in *The* *Wealth* *of* *Nations*, for all his enthusiasm for the market and the division of binding, labor, was more alert to (and more honest about) the seamy side of work than Ayn Rand or the Chicago economists or any of Smith's modern epigones. As Smith observed: The understandings of the greater part of men are necessarily formed by their ordinary employments. Cambridge Engineering? The man whose life is spent in performing a few simple operations. has no occasion to thesis, exert his understanding. Cambridge Engineering Phd Thesis? He generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for a human creature to become. Here, in a few blunt words, is political senior, my critique of work. Bell, writing in 1956, the Golden Age of Eisenhower imbecility and cambridge engineering phd thesis, American self-satisfaction, identified the unorganized, unorganizable malaise of the 1970's and since, the one no political tendency is able to harness, the one identified in HEW's report *Work* *in* *America*, the thesis one which cannot be exploited and so is ignored. That problem is the revolt against work. It does not figure in any text by any laissez-faire economist -- Milton Friedman, Murray Rothbard, Richard Posner -- because, in their terms, as they used to say on *Star* *Trek*, it does not compute.
If these objections, informed by the love of liberty, fail to persuade humanists of engineering, a utilitarian or even paternalist turn, there are others which they cannot disregard. Work is heat, hazardous to your health, to borrow a book title. In fact, work is phd thesis, mass murder or genocide. Directly or indirectly, work will kill most of the people who read these words. Between 14,000 and 25,000 workers are killed annually in this country on thesis statement essay the job. Over two million are disabled. Twenty to twenty-five million are injured every year.
And these figures are based on a very conservative estimation of what constitutes a work-related injury. Thus they don't count the phd thesis half million cases of occupational disease every year. I looked at one medical textbook on occupational diseases which was 1,200 pages long. Even this barely scratches the surface. The available statistics count the ucsd obvious cases like the 100,000 miners who have black lung disease, of whom 4,000 die every year, a much higher fatality rate than for AIDS, for instance, which gets so much media attention. This reflects the unvoiced assumption that AIDS afflicts perverts who could control their depravity whereas coal-mining is cambridge engineering, a sacrosanct activity beyond question. What the statistics don't show is that tens of millions of people have heir lifespans shortened by work -- which is all that homicide means, after all. Consider the doctors who work themselves to thesis for career, death in their 50's. Consider all the other workaholics.
Even if you aren't killed or crippled while actually working, you very well might be while going to work, coming from work, looking for phd thesis work, or trying to forget about work. The vast majority of victims of the automobile are either doing one of these work-obligatory activities or else fall afoul of how to write report sample, those who do them. To this augmented body-count must be added the victims of auto-industrial pollution and engineering, work-induced alcoholism and drug addiction. Porfolio Essays? Both cancer and heart disease are modern afflictions normally traceable, directly, or indirectly, to cambridge engineering phd thesis, work. Ucsd Political Senior? Work, then, institutionalizes homicide as a way of life. People think the Cambodians were crazy for exterminating themselves, but are we any different? The Pol Pot regime at least had a vision, however blurred, of an engineering phd thesis egalitarian society.
We kill people in the six-figure range (at least) in order to sell Big Macs and thesis for career essay, Cadillacs to the survivors. Our forty or fifty thousand annual highway fatalities are victims, not martyrs. They died for cambridge phd thesis nothing -- or rather, they died for work. Sample? But work is cambridge phd thesis, nothing to die for. Bad news for liberals: regulatory tinkering is useless in this life-and-death context. The federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration was designed to police the core part of the problem, workplace safety. Even before Reagan and the Supreme Court stifled it, OSHA was a farce. At previous and (by current standards) generous Carter-era funding levels, a workplace could expect a random visit from an OSHA inspector once every 46 years. State control of the economy is no solution. Work is, if anything, more dangerous in the state-socialist countries than it is here. Thesis For Career? Thousands of Russian workers were killed or injured building the Moscow subway.
Stories reverberate about covered-up Soviet nuclear disasters which make Times Beach and Three-Mile Island look like elementary-school air-raid drills. On the other hand, deregulation, currently fashionable, won't help and will probably hurt. From a health and safety standpoint, among others, work was at its worst in the days when the economy most closely approximated laissez-faire. Historians like Eugene Genovese have argued persuasively that -- as antebellum slavery apologists insisted -- factory wage-workers in the Northern American states and in Europe were worse off than Southern plantation slaves. No rearrangement of relations among bureaucrats and businessmen seems to make much difference at the point of production. Serious enforcement of even the rather vague standards enforceable in theory by OSHA would probably bring the economy to a standstill. The enforcers apparently appreciate this, since they don't even try to crack down on most malefactors.
What I've said so far ought not to be controversial. Many workers are fed up with work. There are high and rising rates of absenteeism, turnover, employee theft and sabotage, wildcat strikes, and overall goldbricking on the job. There may be some movement toward a conscious and not just visceral rejection of work. And yet the cambridge phd thesis prevalent feeling, universal among bosses and their agents and also widespread among workers themselves is that work itself is inevitable and necessary.
I disagree. It is now possible to thesis, abolish work and replace it, insofar as it serves useful purposes, with a multitude of new kinds of engineering, free activities. To abolish work requires going at it from two directions, quantitative and qualitative. On the one hand, on the quantitative side, we have to cut down massively on the amount of work being done. At present most work is useless or worse and we should simply get rid of it.
On the other hand -- and I think this the crux of the matter and the revolutionary new departure -- we have to take what useful work remains and transform it into a pleasing variety of game-like and craft-like pastimes, indistinguishable from other pleasurable pastimes, except that they happen to yield useful end-products. Surely that shouldn't make them *less* enticing to do. Then all the artificial barriers of power and property could come down. Creation could become recreation. Statement? And we could all stop being afraid of each other. I don't suggest that most work is salvageable in engineering phd thesis, this way. Porfolio Essays? But then most work isn't worth trying to save. Only a small and diminishing fraction of work serves any useful purpose independent of the defense and reproduction of the work-system and its political and engineering, legal appendages.
Twenty years ago, Paul and thesis, Percival Goodman estimated that just five percent of the work then being done -- presumably the engineering phd thesis figure, if accurate, is lower now -- would satisfy our minimal needs for food, clothing, and shelter. Theirs was only an educated guess but the main point is quite clear: directly or indirectly, most work serves the unproductive purposes of essay, commerce or social control. Right off the engineering phd thesis bat we can liberate tens of millions of salesmen, soldiers, managers, cops, stockbrokers, clergymen, bankers, lawyers, teachers, landlords, security guards, ad-men and everyone who works for them. There is a snowball effect since every time you idle some bigshot you liberate his flunkeys and underlings also. Thus the economy *implodes*. Forty percent of the workforce are white-collar workers, most of whom have some of the most tedious and idiotic jobs ever concocted. Entire industries, insurance and banking and real estate for instance, consist of nothing but useless paper-shuffling. It is no accident that the essays tertiary sector, the service sector, is growing while the secondary sector (industry) stagnates and the primary sector (agriculture) nearly disappears.
Because work is unnecessary except to those whose power it secures, workers are shifted from relatively useful to relatively useless occupations as a measure to assure public order. Anything is engineering phd thesis, better than nothing. Write A Progress Report? That's why you can't go home just because you finish early. They want your *time*, enough of cambridge engineering, it to make you theirs, even if they have no use for most of it. Thesis? Otherwise why hasn't the average work week gone down by more than a few minutes in the past fifty years? Next we can take a meat-cleaver to production work itself. No more war production, nuclear power, junk food, feminine hygiene deodorant -- and above all, no more auto industry to speak of. Engineering Phd Thesis? An occasional Stanley Steamer or Model-T might be all right, but the auto-eroticism on which such pestholes as Detroit and Los Angeles depend on is out of the question. Already, without even trying, we've virtually solved the energy crisis, the environmental crisis and how to, assorted other insoluble social problems. Finally, we must do away with far and away the largest occupation, the one with the cambridge engineering longest hours, the thesis statement lowest pay and some of the most tedious tasks around. I refer to *housewives* doing housework and child-rearing.
By abolishing wage-labor and achieving full unemployment we undermine the sexual division of cambridge engineering, labor. The nuclear family as we know it is an inevitable adaptation to the division of labor imposed by modern wage-work. Like it or not, as things have been for thesis the last century or two it is economically rational for the man to bring home the bacon, for the woman to do the shitwork to engineering phd thesis, provide him with a haven in a heartless world, and for the children to be marched off to youth concentration camps called schools, primarily to keep them out of Mom's hair but still under control, but incidentally to acquire the habits of obedience and ucsd senior, punctuality so necessary for workers. If you would be rid of patriarchy, get rid of the cambridge nuclear family whose unpaid shadow work, as Ivan Illich says, makes possible the porfolio essays work-system that makes *it* necessary. Bound up with this no-nukes strategy is the abolition of childhood and the closing of the schools.
There are more full-time students than full-time workers in this country. We need children as teachers, not students. They have a lot to contribute to engineering phd thesis, the ludic revolution because they're better at playing than grown-ups are. Adults and children are not identical but they will become equal through interdependence. Thesis For Career Essay? Only play can bridge the generation gap. I haven't as yet even mentioned the engineering possibility of cutting way down on the little work that remains by automating and cybernizing it. All the scientists and engineers and technicians freed from bothering with war research and planned obsolescence would have a good time devising means to binding, eliminate fatigue and tedium and danger from activities like mining. Undoubtedly they'll find other projects to amuse themselves with. Perhaps they'll set up world-wide all-inclusive multi-media communications systems or found space colonies.
Perhaps. I myself am no gadget freak. I wouldn't care to live in a pushbutton paradise. I don't what robot slaves to do everything; I want to do things myself. There is, I think, a place for labor-saving technology, but a modest place. The historical and pre-historical record is not encouraging. When productive technology went from cambridge engineering phd thesis hunting-gathering to agriculture and on thesis essay to industry, work increased while skills and self-determination diminished. The further evolution of industrialism has accentuated what Harry Braverman called the phd thesis degradation of work. Intelligent observers have always been aware of this.
John Stuart Mill wrote that all the labor-saving inventions ever devised haven't saved a moment's labor. Karl Marx wrote that it would be possible to write a history of the inventions, made since 1830, for wpp fellowship essays the sole purpose of supplying capital with weapons against phd thesis the revolts of the working class. The enthusiastic technophiles -- Saint-Simon, Comte, Lenin, B. F. How To Write Report Sample? Skinner -- have always been unabashed authoritarians also; which is to say, technocrats. We should be more than sceptical about the cambridge engineering phd thesis promises of the computer mystics. *They* work like dogs; chances are, if they have their way, so will the thesis rest of us. But if they have any particularized contributions more readily subordinated to human purposes than the run of high tech, let's give them a hearing. What I really want to cambridge, see is ucsd senior thesis, work turned into play. A first step is to discard the notions of a job and an occupation.
Even activities that already have some ludic content lose most of it by being reduced to jobs which certain people, and only those people are forced to do to the exclusion of all else. Is it not odd that farm workers toil painfully in the fields while their air-conditioned masters go home every weekend and putter about in their gardens? Under a system of permanent revelry, we will witness the Golden Age of the dilettante which will put the Renaissance to shame. There won't be any more jobs, just things to do and people to do them. The secret of turning work into play, as Charles Fourier demonstrated, is to engineering, arrange useful activities to thesis binding, take advantage of cambridge engineering, whatever it is that various people at various times in fact enjoy doing. To make it possible for porfolio essays some people to do the things they could enjoy it will be enough just to cambridge engineering phd thesis, eradicate the irrationalities and distortions which afflict these activities when they are reduced to work.
I, for instance, would enjoy doing some (not too much) teaching, but I don't want coerced students and I don't care to porfolio essays, suck up to pathetic pedants for cambridge tenure. Second, there are some things that people like to do from time to time, but not for too long, and certainly not all the time. You might enjoy baby-sitting for a few hours in for career essay, order to share the company of kids, but not as much as their parents do. The parents meanwhile, profoundly appreciate the time to themselves that you free up for them, although they'd get fretful if parted from their progeny for too long. These differences among individuals are what make a life of cambridge engineering phd thesis, free play possible. The same principle applies to many other areas of activity, especially the binding primal ones. Thus many people enjoy cooking when they can practice it seriously at cambridge engineering their leisure, but not when they're just fueling up human bodies for work. Third -- other things being equal -- some things that are unsatisfying if done by a progress sample yourself or in unpleasant surroundings or at the orders of an overlord are enjoyable, at least for a while, if these circumstances are changed. Cambridge Phd Thesis? This is probably true, to how to a progress, some extent, of cambridge engineering phd thesis, all work. People deploy their otherwise wasted ingenuity to make a game of the least inviting drudge-jobs as best they can. Activities that appeal to some people don't always appeal to usyd thesis, all others, but everyone at least potentially has a variety of interests and phd thesis, an interest in variety.
As the saying goes, anything once. Fourier was the master at speculating how aberrant and perverse penchants could be put to use in post-civilized society, what he called Harmony. He thought the Emperor Nero would have turned out all right if as a child he could have indulged his taste for bloodshed by working in papers heat, a slaughterhouse. Small children who notoriously relish wallowing in filth could be organized in phd thesis, Little Hordes to clean toilets and empty the garbage, with medals awarded to the outstanding. How To Write Sample? I am not arguing for engineering these precise examples but for porfolio essays the underlying principle, which I think makes perfect sense as one dimension of an overall revolutionary transformation. Bear in cambridge engineering, mind that we don't have to take today's work just as we find it and match it up with the proper people, some of whom would have to be perverse indeed. If technology has a role in all this it is less to automate work out of existence than to research heat transfer, open up new realms for re/creation. To some extent we may want to return to handicrafts, which William Morris considered a probable and desirable upshot of communist revolution. Art would be taken back from the cambridge engineering phd thesis snobs and collectors, abolished as a specialized department catering to an elite audience, and its qualities of beauty and creation restored to integral life from which they were stolen by work. It's a sobering thought that the grecian urns we write odes about and showcase in museums were used in political science senior, their own time to store olive oil. I doubt our everyday artifacts will fare as well in the future, if there is one.
The point is that there's no such thing as progress in the world of work; if anything it's just the opposite. We shouldn't hesitate to pilfer the past for cambridge phd thesis what it has to offer, the ancients lose nothing yet we are enriched. The reinvention of daily life means marching off the edge of our maps. There is, it is true, more suggestive speculation than most people suspect. Besides Fourier and Morris -- and even a hint, here and there, in papers, Marx -- there are the writings of Kropotkin, the syndicalists Pataud and Pouget, anarcho-communists old (Berkman) and new (Bookchin). Cambridge Phd Thesis? The Goodman brothers' *Communitas* is exemplary for senior thesis illustrating what forms follow from given functions (purposes), and there is something to be gleaned from the often hazy heralds of alternative/appropriate/intermediate/convivial technology, like Schumacher and especially Illich, once you disconnect their fog machines.
The situationists -- as represented by Vaneigem's *Revolution* *of* *Daily* *Life* and in the *Situationist* *International* *Anthology* -- are so ruthlessly lucid as to be exhilarating, even if they never did quite square the cambridge engineering phd thesis endorsement of the rule of the worker's councils with the abolition of work. Better their incongruity, though than any extant version of leftism, whose devotees look to for career, be the last champions of work, for if there were no work there would be no workers, and without workers, who would the left have to organize? So the abolitionists would be largely on their own. No one can say what would result from unleashing the phd thesis creative power stultified by work. Anything can happen. The tiresome debater's problem of how to write a progress report, freedom vs. Cambridge Phd Thesis? necessity, with its theological overtones, resolves itself practically once the usyd thesis binding production of use-values is coextensive with the consumption of delightful play-activity.
Life will become a game, or rather many games, but not -- as it is now - -- a zero/sum game. An optimal sexual encounter is the cambridge phd thesis paradigm of usyd, productive play, The participants potentiate each other's pleasures, nobody keeps score, and engineering, everybody wins. The more you give, the more you get. In the ludic life, the best of how to, sex will diffuse into the better part of daily life. Engineering? Generalized play leads to the libidinization of life. Sex, in turn, can become less urgent and desperate, more playful. Porfolio Essays? If we play our cards right, we can all get more out of life than we put into it; but only cambridge engineering phd thesis, if we play for keeps. No one should ever work.
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o j simpson essay P entecostalism is arguably the most important mass religious movement of the cambridge engineering twentieth century. Today, this movement is the second largest sub-group of global Christianity. It has over 30 million American adherents and usyd thesis a worldwide following of 430 million. 1 Pentecostalism’s inauspicious beginnings at the turn of the century make the movement’s growth all the more surprising. This essay will examine how historians have interpreted the origins of American Pentecostalism and will suggest some areas for further study. Before discussing the historiography, it will help to survey the movement’s early history. Pentecostalism grew out of the Holiness revival during the second half of the nineteenth century. This revival was an expression of both social and theological discontent among the nation’s lower and middle-class groups.
Holiness advocates disapproved of the phd thesis impiety in mainline denominations and were alienated by the growing wealth and elaborateness of their churches. Not content to remain in mainline churches, they formed new religious communities committed to the theological doctrine of perfectionism. 2 These former Methodists, Presbyterians, and Baptists believed they were experiencing a renewed outpouring of the Holy Spirit much like the early church experienced in the book of Acts. The holiness revival spawned zeal for Spirit Baptism (a divine empowerment of believers) and for other gifts of the New Testament church such as healing and prophecy. Holiness leaders such as Charles Cullis, John Alexander Dowie, and Albert B. Porfolio Essays? Simpson established healing missions across the U.S. Cambridge Phd Thesis? They, like other holiness advocates, believed a new, miraculous era of the spirit was occurring which would end in the second coming of Christ. Pentecostalism took Spirit Baptism and the restoration of New Testament gifts one step further. In January, 1901, holiness minister Charles Fox Parham asked the students at his Topeka Bible school to study the scriptures and porfolio essays determine what evidence might be given of Spirit baptism. Using the pentecost account in Acts chapter two, they concluded that speaking in cambridge phd thesis, tongues was the confirmation of Holy Spirit baptism. This first wave of Pentecostalism spread in the revival that followed, but remained regional, moving into Kansas, Missouri, Texas, and Arkansas.
The 1906 revival at Azusa street, Los Angeles marks the essays second phase of the Pentecostals’ origins. William Seymour, who studied under Parham in cambridge, Houston, Texas, carried the message of pentecost to Los Angeles where he began a revival in wpp fellowship essays, one of the poorer sections of the city. Cambridge Phd Thesis? The Azusa street revival gathered the porfolio essays ethnic minority groups of Los Angeles, who discovered a sense of cambridge phd thesis, dignity and community denied them in the larger urban culture. Porfolio Essays? 3. From Azusa street the revival spread throughout the U.S. Holiness leaders from the Church of God in Christ (Memphis, Tenessee), the engineering phd thesis Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee), and the Pentecostal Holiness Church (Georgia and the Carolinas), were present at Azusa, and carried its message back to their churches. Diversity characterized their beliefs and theology; Pentecostals ranged from Wesleyan-holiness, to Reformed, and Unitarian.
4. The historiography of Pentecostalism is write a progress report as multifaceted as the movement itself. The initial historical works on Pentecostalism came from cambridge phd thesis, within the movement. Pentecostal historians wrote within a providential framework and focused on the role of God rather than human and natural causation. These histories, as Grant Wacker indicates, were apologetic and largely ahistorical. They depicted the ucsd political science Pentecostal revival as dropping from heaven like a sacred meteor. This approach is evident in the titles of such early works as The Apostolic Faith Restored (1916), and in such account as Suddenly From Heaven: A History of the Assemblies of God (1961). 5. Before 1970 few historians outside of Pentecostalism were interested in cambridge engineering, the movement. Academics’ unfamiliarity with the wpp fellowship essays world of ecstatic religion might have been one reason for this oversight. But just as likely, scholars thought the conservative religion of engineering phd thesis, Pentecostalism, like Fundamentalism, was regressive, crude, and not worthy of their interests.
In the late 1960s, the historian William G. Statement For Career? McLoughlin argued that Pentecostalism did not constitute a dynamic new force in American Religion. Cambridge Engineering Phd Thesis? For McLoughlin, Pentecostalism, like other reactionary religious movements in American history, would fade away with time. 6 David Edwin Harrell argues that before the 1970s, scholars limited their study to articulate religious bodies and to groups that were pertinent to scholars’ own academic interests. 7. Since the 1970s, historians both outside of and within the movement have critically engaged Pentecostalism. The rapid expansion of Pentecostalism in the U. Essays? S. and abroad drew scholars’ interest. At the same time scholarship on Pentecostalism grew along with the increase in university and seminary-trained Pentecostal historians.
The establishment of the Society for cambridge phd thesis Pentecostal Studies in the early 1970s evidenced this new historical enterprise. Write? 8. As historians have analyzed Pentecostalism, they have developed several explanations for its origins and growth. Some scholars focus on the historical-theological roots of the movement and emphasize the primacy of doctrine. They note the importance of Pentecostalism’s historical and theological predecessors and emphasize the religious appeal of the movement to it adherents. A few historians look at the movement’s interracial character to engineering assess its origins and thesis statement essay growth. In its initial stages, Pentecostalism was multi-ethnic and often challenged racial norms.
Scholars looking at the interracial aspect view the cambridge phd thesis movement as a radical protest to segregation and as a dynamic force of social change. With the ascendence of the new social history in the early 1970s, scholars began to wpp fellowship analyze the demographics of Pentecostalism, assessing the movement’s adherents according to social status and class. But before the rise of cambridge phd thesis, historical enquiries, sociological studies used class analysis and wpp fellowship theories of deprivation to understand the movement’s appeal. Engineering? The theology of Pentecostalism was not of primary importance for ucsd political senior thesis these scholars. Cambridge Phd Thesis? They reflected Richard Niebuhr’s class analysis of religion and posited that theology mirrored cultural and essays political conditions.
9 The prevailing view was that Pentecostalism flourished because it compensated for its adherent’s loss of phd thesis, social and political status. Usyd Binding? 10. David Edwin Harrell’s historical study of cambridge, Pentecostalism followed this pattern. Harrell found that the racial and social views of Pentecostals were conditioned by class values rather than theological presuppositions. 11 Robert Mapes Anderson also rooted the movement in its class status. In Vision of the Disinherited , Anderson studied the social class origins of thesis statement for career essay, Pentecostalism and cambridge discovered that extreme social strain among the nation’s poor and dispossessed was the source of Pentecostalism. Following Eric Hobsbawm and E. P. Thompson, Anderson located social tension (such as class conflict and class stratification) in industrialization. The shift from an agrarian to how to sample an industrial society fed estrangement and those most at odds with this change suffered status anxiety and phd thesis turned to Pentecostalism.
12 To explain how Pentecostals coped with status anxiety, Anderson looks at two major features of the movement: millennialism and speaking in tongues. Statement Essay? Pentecostals’ belief in the immanent, apocalyptic return of Jesus, he contends, brought order to their chaotic lives and alleviated social strain. Similarly, speaking in tongues provided psychic escape through religious ecstacy. 13. Anderson concludes that Pentecostalism represented a dysfunctional and maladjusted reaction to social pressures. Because of the Pentecostals’ negative appraisal of society and cambridge engineering their pessimistic outlook for the future, they were an apolitical, conservative bulwark of the status quo. They channeled their social protest into the harmless backwaters of religious ideology. 14 For Anderson, the radical social impulse inherent in the vision of the disinherited was squandered away in escapism and conservative conformity. As Grant Wacker notes, Anderson’s study is the most thorough monograph on the origins of usyd thesis binding, Pentecostalism. The breadth of Anderson’s book and the amount of data he looked at makes it a monument in the field of Pentecostal history. At the same time Wacker is phd thesis critical of some of wpp fellowship, Anderson’s basic arguments.
Wacker contends that Anderson assumes Pentecostals’ faith is irrelevant if it does not foment social and economic protest. Wacker also criticizes him for cambridge phd thesis judging religious rewards to be less satisfying than material ones. 15 For Wacker, and porfolio essays a number of other scholars, theology and phd thesis doctrine, as much as social class, explains the roots of the porfolio essays movement. Wacker dwells on the positive functions of faith in the origins and cambridge engineering phd thesis spread of Pentecostalism. He notes that the movement provided individuals with certitude about the reality of the supernatural.
Pentecostals coped with economic uncertainties, social ostracism, and usyd binding racism by ordering their lives with a primitive faith. Seeing the world as morally degenerate, Pentecostals championed scriptural inerrancy, opposed scientific evolution and biblical criticism, and issued numerous cultural prohibitions. Pentecostalism, Wacker contends, was appealing because its doctrines were situated in a traditional, mythic system that protected believers from the encroachments of modernity. 16. Scholars, including Grant Wacker, Edith Blumhofer, and D. William Faupel, have looked at the restorationist and millennial roots of the engineering movement. Wacker describes the restorationist impulse as a yearning to return to a time before time, to a space outside of space, to a mythical realm that Alexander Campbell [founder of the porfolio essays Disciples of Christ] called the ‘ancient order of things. This was not a nostalgic longing for frontier revivalism, but a desire to engineering phd thesis return to first century Christianity.
17 Pentecostals linked the a progress sprititual gifts they received, such as speaking in cambridge phd thesis, tongues, prophesying, and healing with those described in the book of Acts. Edith Blumhofer sees restorationism and millennialism shaping the transfer foundation of the Assemblies of God. Engineering? Pentecostals, according to Blumhofer, asserted that the new era of the spirit, before Christ’s second coming, would bring about a return to thesis primitive Christianity. The early Assemblies of God were caught up in this historylessness and sought a return to primitive ecclesiastical foundations. Church leaders advocated a strict congregational government and opposed creeds and the formulation of doctrine.
18. This millennial vision, according to James R. Cambridge Phd Thesis? Goff Jr., led to increased missionary activity among Pentecostalis. Charles Fox Parham, for example, concluded that speaking in foreign tongues would allow Pentecostals to missionize the science senior thesis world before Christ’s second coming. 19 Goff indicates that this missionary impulse explains both the origins and rapid growth of engineering, Pentecostalism. Preaching Christ’s immanent return, Pentecostals won converts among their uneasy listeners. Pentecostalism spread, says Goff, because of thesis, its adherents’ millennial urgency. Scholars also have accounted for cambridge the origins of Pentecostalism by locating the movement within late nineteenth century religious currents. Donald Dayton suggests that the how to write report sample roots of cambridge phd thesis, Pentecostalism lie in the emergence of four theological doctrines during the second half of the nineteenth century: salvation, healing, baptism of the Holy Spirit, and the second coming of Christ. 20 Dayton traces how these doctrines developed within the thesis for career essay Holiness movement and were then taken up by cambridge engineering phd thesis Pentecostals. He stresses both the transfer Wesleyan-holiness origins, which accented the perfectionist side of Spirit baptism, and cambridge engineering the Keswick-Reformed origins, which emphasized Spirit baptism as a spiritual empowerment in the believer.
21 Like Dayton, Raymond J. Cunningham has studied the roots of Pentecostalism in the healing and political science senior thesis faith cure movements of the late nineteenth century. By accentuating divine gifts, these groups often fed directly into Pentecostalism. 22. Vinson Synan’s The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition is a general survey which highlights the nineteenth century roots of the movement. Synan situates the origins of Pentecostalism in the Wesleyan-holiness doctrine of sanctification or the second blessing. For Methodists and pre-Pentecostals, sanctification perfected the cambridge phd thesis believer after conversion. Report? The Pentecostals, states Synan, made the cambridge engineering second blessing synonymous with the pentecost account in Acts. Thus, speaking in tongues became a sign of sanctification. 23. Scholars from the Reformed wing of Pentecostalism have argued that the Keswick-Reformed roots better address the movement’s origins.
These scholars contend that Pentecostals were not as influenced by Wesleyan-perfectionism as they were by Keswick theology. 24 Keswickians stressed the ucsd political science finished work of conversion and did not believe in a second work of grace as did Wesleyans. Edith Blumhofer’s 1977 Harvard dissertation challenged Synan’s thesis by accenting the theological contributions of engineering phd thesis, Reformed and wpp fellowship Fundamentalist leaders. 25 Blumhofer argues that these leaders provided the Pentecostals with an engineering, understanding of Spirit Baptism which little resembled the Wesleyan view. For them, Spirit baptism empowered the believer to serve God, but was not a morally perfecting experience. Assemblies of God historian William Menzies also challenges Synan’s view. Menzies argues that the second-blessing advocates were less influential than Reformed, finished work Pentecostals. For most early Pentecostals, Menzies contends, speaking in tongues was associated with spiritual power and with an anointing to serve rather than spiritual perfection.
26. These internecine historiographic battles get at an important point: from the beginning Pentecostals experienced internal and external antagonisms that helped shape and transform them. 27 Both Donald Dayton and Grant Wacker have written about these struggles and how they affected Pentecostalism. Wacker, writing on the anti-Pentecostal forces within radical evangelicalism, shows how doctrinal differences precipitated conflict. Contrary to Anderson, Wacker contends that class variation did not cause conflict as much as doctrinal distinctions did. The reason non-Pentecostal Holiness leaders so vehemently opposed Pentecostals, says Wacker, was because Pentecostals demanded that all sanctified Christians must speak in tongues.
28 Doctrine also gave rise to schisms within the movement. The Wesleyan factions (the Apostolic Faith Union and the Church of God) fought with the porfolio essays Reformed wing (Assemblies of God), and Reformed, Trinitarian Pentecostals waged war on Unitarian Pentecostals. Scholars have also focused on how Pentecostals reacted to engineering the culture around them. Most agree that while Pentecostalism was largely apolitical, early Pentecostals’ opposition to America’s political and social culture was politically charged. 29 Pentecostals were centered on soul-winning and perceived politics and national events to be dangerous diversions. But early Pentecostals were also both prohibitionists and pacifists (many chose C. O. status during WW I). According to Mickey Crews, the predominately rural Church of how to write a progress report sample, God (Cleveland) often stood in opposition to the prevailing contemporary attitudes toward wealth, recreation, and dress. Likewise, during the Jim Crow era the Church of God was one of the more racially integrated churches in the South. The early years of engineering phd thesis, this church were marked by racial cooperation.
Like Populism, Crews indicates, the papers heat Church of God offered women as well as blacks opportunities to serve in positions of leadership which they would not have had in traditional organizations. 30. A few historians of Pentecostalism trace the movement’s success to its racial progressiveness. Church of God in Christ historian Leonard Lovett contends that historians have not viewed black Pentecostalism in its proper historical context and have failed to appreciate the cambridge phd thesis movement’s black roots. Lovett stresses the prominence of the black leader William Seymour and the importance of Azusa’s interracial character. He also gives attention to the Africanisms of the thesis early revival. Cambridge Engineering? 31 Similarly, Iain MacRobert studies the black roots of Pentecostalism, emphasizing both the role of Seymour in the revival and the place of African concepts of community, spiritual power, spirit possession . . . equality, black personhood, dignity, and the desire for revolution.
MacRobert attributes schisms in the movement to white racism. He argues that the white leadership in the Apostolic Faith Union and wpp fellowship essays the Assemblies of God turned their backs on their interracial heritage, segregating their churches according to race. 32 In a more recent work, Harvey Cox suggests that the inter-ethnic character of cambridge, Azusa street was the movement’s sine qua non . 33. Edith Blumhofer and Joe Creech have countered that a myth of Azusa street prevails in these accounts. Early Pentecostalism, they contend, was not a homogenous movement but developed from a variety of sources. Blumhofer argues that Azusa street could not hold the allegiance of its own enthusiasts, who broke away to form numerous rival congregations nearby, none of which was known to replicate the racial mix of the papers heat mother congregation. 34 Creech maintains that Azusa has remained important in the historiography because it provides historians with a racially progressive narrative of Pentecostalism and because it serves to unify and homogenize a heterogeneous movement. 35.
Pentecostalism’s diverse heritage has drawn the attention of historians who have sought an explanation for the movement’s origins. Engineering Phd Thesis? The rise of Pentecostalism at political thesis, the turn of the century tells us how a number of America’s poor coped with the economic, social, and religious challenges of engineering, modernity. Wpp Fellowship Essays? Like Fundamentalists, Pentecostals built their faith on doctrinal certitude and religious zeal. Pentecostals faced their disordered world by cambridge returning to ucsd political senior thesis primitive Christianity and a by re-instituting New Testament spiritual gifts. Convinced of Christ’s immanent return, their social outlook was often otherworldly. Although Pentecostals did not engage politics directly, their actions reveal political and phd thesis social protests nonetheless. Early Pentecostals were often pacifists as well as prohibitionists.
Concurrently, in religious practice they stood in heat transfer, opposition to both racism and engineering phd thesis the denigration of women. 36. It is becoming more difficult for historians to porfolio essays dismiss Pentecostals as socially irrelevant. Pentecostal’s views on race, gender, and theology were complicated and deserve more scholarly attention. Since the 1970s the movement has been studied in greater detail. However, the fields of cambridge engineering phd thesis, American history and statement American religious history would benefit from cambridge engineering, a broadening of the usyd thesis current scholarship. There are various areas of phd thesis, Pentecostal history that still have not been studied. Certain institutional and biographical histories need to be written. Thesis? A scholarly history of the predominately black, six million member Church of God in Christ has yet to be undertaken.
Similarly, few scholars have studied the histories of the numerous Unitarian Pentecostals. Cambridge Engineering? There is still a paucity of biographies on some key leaders, including William J Seymour, A. J. Tomilson (Church of God Cleveland), Charles H. Mason (Church of God in Christ), and Gaston Barnabas Cashwell (Fire Baptized Holiness Church, Pentecostal Holiness Church, Church of God, Pentecostal Free-Will Baptist Church). Historians of Pentecostalism have not taken advantage of the full range of extent sources. Many have relied on political science senior thesis, institutional records and sources from the movement’s leadership. The documents of Pentecostalism’s rank and file remain unstudied; personal records, diaries, and correspondences are virtually untouched. Cambridge Engineering Phd Thesis? 37 Pentecostalism still needs to ucsd senior thesis have histories written from the bottom up.
Such works might reveal how Pentecostalism differed among the lower levels of the movement. Engineering? Did doctrinal controversies plague the write a progress report sample laity as it did church leaders? Did the laity differ significantly from the clergy in social or economic status? 38 How did the laity accept gender and racial norms within Pentecostalism? The role of women in the early movement in cambridge engineering, particular has received slight attention. Porfolio Essays? 39 Historians know that women often acted as worship leaders and evangelists in early Pentecostalism, but as of yet no one has critically assessed the role of women in the movement as a whole. Cambridge? Did women enjoy more opportunities within Pentecostal sects than they did in mainline churches?
If so, were women drawn to the movement who might otherwise have not joined Pentecostal churches? Did the roles of women in Fundamentalist churches differ from those of porfolio essays, women in cambridge engineering, Pentecostal ones? The confluence of race and wpp fellowship essays gender is engineering also an area that merits careful consideration. Wpp Fellowship? A church such as the Church of engineering phd thesis, God in a progress sample, Christ did not ordain women, but still had the most powerful Women’s Department of any black denomination in the U. S. Were women’s roles in this church like those Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham describes in the National Baptist Convention? One Historian of Pentecostalism suggests that they were similar.
The Church of engineering, God in Christ, according to Cheryl Sanders, rejected the norms of white patriarchy and usyd thesis binding affirmed black female personhood by esteeming women leaders and educators. Sanders also suggests that it was not gender, but spiritual gifts that qualified individuals for leadership in the Holiness and Pentecostal churches. 40 Whether this was true in most Holiness and Pentecostal churches is unlikely, but these sects often broke with racial and gender norms. Another area of promise for further research is the study of Pentecostalism and Populism as parallel social protests. Secular and religious historians have raised similar questions about both movements.
Both arose during a period of economic and social instability, in which America underwent drastic changes. In this regard, both have been analyzed as protest movements of the dispossessed and marginalized. Scholars also have been concerned with whether the Holiness-Pentecostal and the Populist movements moved beyond racial and gender norms. 41 Scholars generally agree that both groups’ demographics are remarkably similar. Nonetheless, no one has published a work dealing with these groups as parallel movements. Such studies might reveal why some were attracted to Holiness-Pentecostalism and others to the Farmers’ Alliance and Populism. Was affiliation arbitrary? Or, was it dictated by such factors as region, class, and religious world view? Could the success of Pentecostalism in the South and Midwest after 1900 and cambridge engineering phd thesis 1906 be accounted for by the ucsd political senior thesis failures of Populism in these same regions? Similarly, a major study of their congruities might shed light on how these movements differed as social protests. In the coming years scholars may be asking these and other questions in cambridge engineering phd thesis, their search for the origins of Pentecostalism.
Before the 1970s the history of Pentecostalism was not a dot on the horizon of American historiography. The state of the field has grown significantly in the last thirty years and will continue to heat transfer advance in cambridge phd thesis, the twenty first century. As of yet, however, the amount of scholarship is not equal to the movement’s numeric strength. Pentecostalism’s mass appeal should challenge historians to look deeper into the movement’s distant past. 1. Grant Wacker, Searching for thesis statement for career Eden with a Satellite Dish: Primitivism Pragmatism and the Pentecostal Character, in Religion and American Culture , David G. Hackett, ed. (New York and London: Routledge, 1995), 440. Grant Wacker, a prominent historian of Pentecostalism, defines Pentecostals as believing in a post-conversion experience known as baptism in engineering phd thesis, the Holy Spirit. Pentecostals, he says, believe that a person who has been baptized in the Holy Spirit will manifest one or more of the nine spiritual gifts described in 1 Corinthians 12 and 14. Ibid., 441. 2. Research Heat? Melvin Easterday Dieter, The Holiness Revival of the Nineteenth Century (Layham, Maryland and London: Scarecrow Press Inc., 1996), 199-200.
Examples of these new sects include: the Fire-Baptized Holiness Church, the Church of God (Anderson, Indiana), the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene, and the Apostolic Holiness Union. 3. Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of cambridge engineering, American Pentecostalism (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979), 69. 4. The best surveys of early Pentecostal history in America are: Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited , Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition: Charismatic Movements in the Twentieth Century (Grand Rapids and Cambridge: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Porfolio Essays? Co., 1997), Edith Blumhofer, Restoring the Faith: The Assemblies of God, Pentecostalism, and American Culture (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1993), 1-141, and Wacker, Pentecostalism in Encyclopedia of American Religious Experience, Vol. 7 , Charles H. Lippy and Peter Williams, eds. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1988), 933-945. 5. Engineering Phd Thesis? Wacker, Are the political science senior Golden Oldies Still Worth Playing? Reflections on History Writing among Early Pentecostals, Pneuma: The Journal for Pentecostal Studies (Fall 1986): 86.
For a discussion of the providential approach, see, Augustus Cerillo, Jr., Interpretive Approaches to the History of American Pentecostal Origins, Pnuema 19, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 31-36. 6. McLoughlin was responding to Henry P. Van Dusen’s Life magazine article which acknowledged the cambridge engineering phd thesis growing importance of American sects. Van Dusen The Third Force’s Lesson for Others, Life (June 9, 1958):122-123. McLoughlin, Is There a Third Force in Christendom? Religion In America, William G. McLoughlin and Robert N. Bellah, eds. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1968), 47, 52, 56. American historians have been slow to recognize the movement’s importance. There is no mention of Pentecostalism in all the following: Arthur M. Schlesiger Jr.’s The Almanac of American History (Greenwich, Connecticut: Brompton Books Corporation, 1993), Eric Foner and John A. Garraty, eds. The Readers Companion to papers transfer American History (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1991), George Brown Tindall America: A Narrative History, Vol. II (New York and London: W. W. Norton and Company, 1988). 7. David Edwin Harrell, White Sects and engineering phd thesis Black Men (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1971), 5, 6.
8. Cerrillo locates this change in Pentecostal denominations’ growing historical consciousness, the rising social status of Pentecostals, and a greater interest in higher education. The number of Pentecostals completing their Ph.D.s at major universities was rising in the 1960s and wpp fellowship essays 1970s: Vinson Synan (University of cambridge, Georgia), Grant Wacker (Harvard), Edith Blumhofer (Harvard), James Goff (University of Arkansas), Mickey Crews (Auburn), Leonard Lovett (Emory). Statement Essay? The Origins of American Pentecostalism, Pnuema 15, no. 1 (Spring 1993): 78. 9. H. Richard Niebuhr maintained that religion is so interwoven with social circumstances that the cambridge phd thesis formulation of theology is necessarily conditioned by these.
The Social Sources of Denominationalism (Cleveland and New York: The World Publishing Company, 1957), 17, 75-76. 10. In the 1940s, sociologists Liston Pope and John Holt argued that Pentecostalism found most of its adherents among society’s dispossessed, rural poor. For Holt and Pope, Pentecostalism’s response to social crisis was a natural byproduct of social disorganization. Holt posited that, migration and concomitant urbanization of an intensely rural, and religiously fundamentalist population led to the creation of papers transfer, holiness sects which attempted to recapture their sense of security . . . Holiness Religion: Cultural Shock and cambridge engineering Social Reorganization, American Sociological Review 5, issue 5 (Oct. How To Write A Progress? 1940): 740-741. Pope, Millhands and Preachers: A Study of Gastonia (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1942), 84-91, 126-140. For sociologists like Charles Y. Glock and Howard Ellinson, religion served as an escape mechanism for the deprived and was unable to alter social status. Glock, The Role of Deprivation in the Origin and Evolution of Religious Groups, in Religion and Social Conflict, Robert Lee and engineering phd thesis Martin E. How To Write? Marty eds. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1964), 27, 29.
Howard Elinson, The Implications of Pentecostal Religion for Intellectualism, Politics, and Race Relations, American Journal of Sociology 70 (1965): 403-415. Phd Thesis? For a counter view, see, Harry G. Lefever, Religion of the Poor: Escape or Creative Force? Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 16, no. 3 (September 1977), 525-534. 11. Harrell, Black Sects and White Men , xvi, 130-131. Racial integration most often occurred, says Harrell, in political science thesis, the poorest sects like the engineering Church of God (Cleveland) and wpp fellowship essays the Church of God of engineering, Prophecy which were not vying for middle-class status.
12. Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), 113. Anderson compiled biographical data on forty-five leaders in the early Pentecostal movement and found that the group as a whole lay in a sort of limbo between working and middle-class. Neither quite one nor the other, they were marginal men and women. ibid., 108, 136. In his study of the Church of wpp fellowship essays, God Cleveland, Mickey Crews also emphasizes the class origins of Pentecostalism. Crews argues that the engineering phd thesis Populist movement and science thesis the Church of God arose among farmers in cambridge engineering phd thesis, similar socio-economic circumstances. Church of thesis statement essay, God: A Social History (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1990), 1-18. 13. Ibid., 80, 113, 96.
14. Ibid., 239. R. Laurence Moore also notes that the otherworldliness of Pentecostals cut short social protests by diffusing class hostilities. Religious Outsiders and the Making of Americans (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 140-142. 15. Wacker, Taking Another Look at the Vision of the Disinherited, Religious Studies Review 8, no. 1 (January, 1982): 18, 19, 20.
16. Wacker, The Functions of Faith in Primitive Pentecostalism, Harvard Theological Review 77, no. 3 (1984): 355, 356, 363. Cambridge? D. William Faupel, The Restoration Vision in Pentecostalism, The Christian Century 107, no. 29 (October 17, 1990): 938. Research Heat Transfer? On the importance of engineering, restorationism to Pentecostal eschatology, see Faupel’s, The Everlasting Gospel: The Significance of Eschatology in the Development of Pentecostal Thought (Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 1996) 17. Porfolio Essays? Searching for Eden with a Satellite Dish, in cambridge phd thesis, Religion and American Culture: A Reader, David G. Hackett, ed. ( New York, London: Routledge, 1995), 442-444. Wacker, Functions of Faith, 361, 364. 18.
Blumhofer, Restoring the Faith , 4-5, 84, 116. 19. James R. Goff Jr. Fields White Unto Harvest: Charles F. Parham and the Missionary Origins of Pentecostalism (Fayetville and London: The University of Arkansas Press, 1988), 15, 164. 20. Dayton, The Theological Roots of Pentecostalism (Metuchen, New Jersey: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1987), 11, 173-174. Pentecostals often speak of a four-square gospel, using these doctrines to thesis for career essay identify themselves.
21. Ibid., 92-104, 104-106. Timothy Smith has written on cambridge phd thesis, the evolution of porfolio essays, Wesleyan perfectionism into Pentecostalism in How John Fletcher Became the Theologian of cambridge engineering, Wesleyan Perfectionism, 1770-1776, Wesleyan Theological Journal 15, no. 1 (Spring 1980): 67-86. On Sprit Baptism as an enduement of essays, power, see: John Fea, Power from on High in an Age of Ecclesiastical Impotence: The ‘Enduement of the Holy Spirit’ in American Fundamentalist Thought, 1880-1936, Fides Et Historia 26, no. Engineering Phd Thesis? 6 (Summer 1994): 23-35. 22.
Raymond J. Cunningham, From Holiness to Healing: The Faith Cure in America 1872-1892, Church History 43, no. 3 (September 1974): 507, 508. 23. Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition , xi . Synan is a member of the Holiness-Pentecostal Church, which is papers transfer Wesleyan in engineering, orientation. 24. This name comes from the holiness conferences held in Keswick, England beginning in 1875. Leaders of the Keswick Convention, mostly evangelical Anglicans, held to the teachings of John Calvin, who taught that sin in the believer would not be eradicated until death.
William W. Menzies, The Non-Wesleyan Origins of the Pentecostal Movement, in Aspects of Pentecostal Charismatic Origins , Vinson Synan ed. (Plainfield, New Jersey: Logos International, 1975), 85-89. 25. Edith Waldvogel (Blumhofer), The ‘Overcoming Life’: A Study in the Reformed Evangelical Origins of Pentecostalism, (Ph.D. diss., Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University, 1977), 1-148. Blumhofer looks at such leaders as Reuben A. Torrey, Albert B. Simpson, Dwight L. Moody, and a number of British Keswick leaders. How To Write A Progress Sample? Allen L. Clayton argues that the prominence of the Reformed wing, which was Christocentric rather than pneumatocentric in orientation, gave rise to the Oneness, Jesus only Pentecostals. By emphasizing the central role of Christ, Oneness Pentecostals began to cambridge baptize in Jesus’ name only. The Significance of William Durham for Pentecostal Historiography, Pnuema (Fall 1979): 38-39. 26.
William W. Write Report? Menzies, The Non-Wesleyan Origins of the Pentecostal Movement, 93. 27. According to Wacker, the secondary literature on engineering, Pentecostalism is almost as contentious as the controversies it describes. Travail of a Broken Family: Evangelical Responses to Pentecostalism in America, 1906-1916, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 47, no. 2 (July 1996): 509. 28. Ibid., 508, 526-527.
Dayton, The Limits of Evangelicalism: The Pentecostal Tradition, in The Variety of American Evangelicalism, Dayton and Robert K. Statement Essay? Johnston, eds. (Downers Grove, Illinois: Inter Varsity Press, 1991), 49-51. Dayton gives insight on the recurrent battles between Holiness and cambridge engineering Pentecostal Wesleyans to lay claim to the Wesleyan heritage, Wesleyan Tug-of-War on Pentecostal Link, Christianity Today 23 (December 15, 1978): 43. Porfolio Essays? On the enmity between Pentecostals and Evangelicals, see Horace S. Ward Jr., The Anti-Pentecostal Argument, in Aspects , 102-107, and Wacker, Travail of phd thesis, a Broken Family. Others look at the communal and societal opposition the wpp fellowship essays movement experienced: Synan, Old Time Power: A Centennial History of the International Pentecostal Holiness Church (Franklin Spring, Georgia: LifeSprings Resources, 1998), 140-145, Crews, Church of God , 117-123, 74-78. Kurt O. Berends analyzes the communal antagonism Pentecostals spawned in Social Variables and Community Response in Pentecostal Currents in phd thesis, American Protestantism , ed. Edith Blumhofer, Russell P. Splitter, and Grant A. Political Science Thesis? Wacker (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1999), 68-89.
29. Both R. Laurence Moore, Religious Outsiders , 142, and Wacker, Early Pentecostals, 155, have made this point. 30. Crews, The Church of God , 17-18, 93-107. 31. Lovett, Black Origins of the Pentecostal Movement in Aspects , 127, 137-138. 32. Iain MacRobert, The Black Roots and White Racism of Early Pentecostalism (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1988), 36. 33. Phd Thesis? Harvey Cox, Fire From Heaven: The Rise of Pentecostal Spirituality and essay the Reshaping of Religion in the Twenty-First Century (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1995), 58-59.
34. Blumhofer, For Pentecostals, a Move Toward Racial Reconciliation, The Christian Century 3, no. 14 (April 27, 1994), 445. 35. Joe Creech, Visions of cambridge phd thesis, Glory: The Place of the Azusa Street Revival in Pentecostal History, Church History 65, no. 3 (1996): 408, 409, 410.
36. Write Report Sample? On the participation of women in the Holiness-Pentecostal tradition, see Cheryl J. Sanders’, Saints in Exile: The Holiness-Pentecostal Experience in African America Religion and Culture (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 32-34. Engineering Phd Thesis? According to Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, although the major black Pentecostal bodies denied women ordination, they nonetheless assumed powerful roles as exhorters, church mothers, missionaries, teachers, and deaconesses. ‘Together and in Harness’: Women’s Traditions in the Sanctified Church, Signs 10, no. 4 (Summer 1985): 683. 37. David Bundy, The Historiography of the Wesleyan/Holiness Tradition, Wesleyan Theological Journal 30, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 70. 38. Mickey Crews suggests that in the Church of God there was a difference: Although the overwhelming majority of Church of God members and ministers came from the lower socioeconomic classes, their principal spokesmen did not. The Church of God , 6. 39.
Two biographies exist on key women leaders of Pentecostalism, but nothing has been written on less notable women, Wayne E. Research Papers Heat Transfer? Warner, The Women Evangelist: The Life and Times of Charismatic Evangelist Maria B. Woodworth-Etter (Metuchen, New Jersey and cambridge phd thesis London: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1986). Blumhofer, Aimee Semple McPherson (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans, 1993). Scholarship on gender and Fundamentalists may provide some clues to porfolio essays how similar studies on Pentecostals might look: Margaret Lamberts Bendroth, Fundamentalism and Gender, 1875 to the Present (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1993), Betty A. DeBerg, Ungodly Women: Gender and the First Wave of American Fundamentalism (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990). 40. Sanders History of Women in cambridge phd thesis, the Pentecostal Movement, Cyberjournal for Pentecostal/Charismatic Research [http:www.pctii.orgcybertab1.html] 2 (July, 1997): 5. 41. On Populism and women see, Julie Roy Jeffrey, Women in the Southern Farmers Alliance: A Reconsideration of the Role and Status of Women in the Late Nineteenth-Century South, Feminist Studies 3 (Fall 1975): 72-91. How To Report? Marion K. Barthelme, Women in the Texas Populist Movement: Letters to the Southern Mercury (Austin: Texas A. M. University Press, 1997), 3-76. Michael Lewis Goldberg, An Army of Women: Gender and Politics in Gilded Age Kansas (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997). Engineering Phd Thesis? On women in the Pentecostal-Holiness Movements see, Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, ‘Together and in Harness’: Women's Traditions in the Sanctified Church, in Black Women in America: Social Science Perspectives , Micheline R. Malson, Elisabeth Mudimbe-Boyi, Jean F. O'Barr and porfolio essays Mary Wyer, eds. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990).
On Populism and Race see, Herbert Shapiro, The Populist and the Negro: A Reconsideration, in phd thesis, The Making of Black America, August Meier ed. (NY: Atheneum, 1969), 32. Thesis? Gerald Gaither, Blacks and the Populist Revolt: Ballots and Bigotry in engineering, the New South (Tuscaloosa, AL:University of Alabama Press, 1977). Porfolio Essays? On Holiness-Pentecostal movements and race, see, Iain MacRobert , The Black Roots and White Racism of Early Pentecostalism in the U. S. A. Harrell, White Sects and Black Men . Randall J. Stephens is a doctoral student in History at the University of Florida. Mr. Engineering Phd Thesis? Stephens wishes to express special thanks to Dr.
David G. Hackett and Bland Whitley for their comments on earlier versions of this paper.
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Practical IP Issues in Developing a Business Plan. A business plan is a mechanism to ensure that the resources or assets of a business are applied profitably across all its activities for developing and retaining a competitive edge in phd thesis, the market place. For a new business it provides a blueprint for success, while for an ongoing business it provides an overview of where a business is at present, how the business is positioning itself, and how it seeks to porfolio essays achieve its objectives to become and/or remain successful. Putting together a good business plan takes a lot of cambridge engineering phd thesis, work. Then what justifies the ucsd political science senior thesis, time and energy you'll spend creating a plan? A business plan can be used for a variety of purposes: To examine the cambridge engineering phd thesis, feasibility of your business idea: A written business plan forces a company to think through all the key issues - such as the potential demand for research transfer, its products or services, the phd thesis, nature of the competition, entry barriers, the unique selling proposition of the new or improved products or services, resources required, critical employees, relevant technologies and thesis statement essay, strategic partners, raising funds, projected start-up costs, marketing strategies, and the like. Engineering! To access start-up services and financing : Business incubators and potential investors and lenders require well-formulated and realistic business plans. This is often not the case; no wonder some 80 % of business plans received by investors and wpp fellowship essays, business incubators are rejected. To provide strategic guidance: A business plan is a reference point providing you and cambridge phd thesis, your management team with an objective basis for determining if the business is on track to wpp fellowship meet the phd thesis, goals and objectives in how to report sample, the time frame set and with the cambridge phd thesis, available resources.
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Have you proper permissions to engineering use written material, graphics, photographs, music or anything else created by a third party for thesis statement essay, use on your web site or in any other manner? Does your web site have any metatags, hypertext links, frames or deep links to other web sites? Are these duly authorized by the third parties concerned? 6. Do you know enough about your competitor's IP strategies and IP portfolios? Do you have a plan for gathering competitive intelligence? Do you gather or plan to engineering phd thesis use IP information/databases for obtaining competitive intelligence on how to report, your competitors?
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Do you have a special marketing strategy? Do you plan to export? If so, have you used or plan to use a regional or international filing or registration system (such as the Patent Cooperation Treaty, the Madrid system or the porfolio essays, Hague Agreement) for cambridge engineering phd thesis, patent applications and trademark or design registrations? Have you assessed the potential to commercialize some or all of your IP assets partly or wholly through licensing, franchising and/or selling them? Have you conducted an independent IP audit periodically? And has valuation been done of your IP assets? Was this done independently? How far have you considered taxation and transfer, incentives issues associated with the commercialization of your IP? There may be taxation-related requisites (such as registering) to the commercialization of IP.
The taxation treatment of revenues and expenses resulting from the cambridge phd thesis, commercialization of your IP can differ widely from the accounting treatment. There may be government financial assistance measures associated with IP assets and their commercialization. Do you plan to wpp fellowship essays use your IP assets as security or collateral for a loan, or to create a tradable security in the securities market? What is the possibility of securitization of future revenue streams linked to a bundle/portfolio of your IP assets? Do you have a staff education program that covers the phd thesis, management and protection of ucsd science senior, your IP assets? Business plans are a crucial tool for approaching start-up service providers and investors and considering the market opportunities for cambridge phd thesis, your business.
Because IP provides your enterprise competitive advantages and increases its value, it is necessary to let start-up service providers and investors know about usyd, your IP assets by adequately integrating them into your business plan.
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For instance, if you come with a simple topic at first, with an outline you can clarify thoughts and can come up with supporting details before writing the actual text and content. In addition to broadening and cambridge phd thesis clarifying your ideas, it also enables you to organize ideas while staying on the topic. When you have an outline, you do not miss on arguments and points you want to highlight. When you have outline in front of you, you are able to organize your ideas in a way that they have the most impact. Furthermore, the outline normally creates a step-by-step guide for you, making the writing process easier. Research Papers Heat? This guide will eventually save your time. When you are done with the outline of the essay, you just have to cambridge, write paragraphs and support it with details.
Additionally, with an porfolio essays, outline, you will not forget the necessary points you want to involve. All you need to do is connect the dots and ideas after you are done with the essay outline. Just like there are different types of essay writing, there are different types of outlines available for it too. The types of the essays depend on the purpose they are being written for. Now, we will highlight a few types of essays in this section that are commonly preferred in academic writing.
The informative essay outline is a form of writing that only lists down the facts. It is also called as expository essay that presents balanced analysis of a topic. In this type of engineering phd thesis, essay, the writer uses an informational tone and explains the entire topic, using the statistics, facts, and figures along with examples. Essays? This type involves a variety of essays such as cause and effect essay. Also, such kinds of informative essays explain the process or come up with ‘ how to’ approach. Phd Thesis? In these essays, writers are likely to use a third person tone and research papers not involve their own feelings and emotions. As the name of the essay implies, it is the type of essay that elaborates a story of a real life experience. Readers may think that writing it in cambridge engineering, the form of story, but in real, it involves a lot of narrative challenges. Writers find this kind of approach difficult and often end up writing about themselves as they find it easy to narrate their own story. A Progress? In order to involve the cambridge reader, writer should come up with a vivid approach.
The main thing all writers should keep in mind while writing this form of essay is to use the first person tone. Using I, we, us, etc. Political Science Senior? will engage readers in the essay and cambridge phd thesis they will feel like they are a part of the story. Additionally, a well-written and drafted narrative essay will also end up concluding with a personal statement. Compare and Contrast Essay Outline. Compare and contrast essay outlines two subjects such as places, people, events, and objects that are vastly and closely related. This type of essay compares and contrasts, determining the differences and similarities as well. While readers may think that the comparison is simple, if you see it from a writer’s perspective, this kind of essay requires a lot of research and effort.
Additionally, this kind of essay likely argues on a point with supported facts, which is not an easy task. A comparative essay is often written to state something that is unknown, determine if one thing is for career, superior to another thing, or to clear up misunderstandings. It is also written by writers to lead to a new way of engineering phd thesis, seeing, doing, and understanding something in general. We have a number of compare and contrast essay outline templates, you can simply download them and save it on your desktop for practice. How To Report Sample? Support Research with Citations.
As the name implies, an cambridge engineering, argumentative essay outline is used to write a progress, persuade someone to think the way you do supporting your argument with credible citations. When you try to form an essay out of different elements, it may become difficult to organize; argumentative essay outlines can help you look at those elements closely. This is the cambridge type of essay where a writer has to carefully investigate on porfolio essays a topic, generate and evaluating by collecting evidence. After they have assessed everything, they can then establish on the topic in a concise manner. This type of essay has to involve a lot of research in order to get factual and correct information.
Also, they are very lengthy when they are written. Cambridge Engineering Phd Thesis? Writers can collect information from empirical studies. They cannot just write anything without proper reference, they need to cite credible sources. Persuasive essays have the core aim to convince the readers to accept writer’s point of view. This type of essay also presents facts and figures citing it with credible sources so that the reader is convinced. Additionally, writers also give sound reasoning and expert opinions. In addition to this, the writers has a lot of pressure as they have to present argument of all sides and then logically present their own, trying to research papers, persuade the reader about their point of view. Persuasive essay outline helps writer to communicate clearly and cambridge engineering phd thesis make readers understand why their point of view is correct. Essay outlines are necessary to be made right in the beginning because they provide a proper guidance and structure for writers. The outline briefly summarizes the content of the essay and organizes the content in a coherent manner.
If you also want to write an essay outline, follow the steps below to make an effective essay outline. The first thing you should do in order to form an effective outline is to highlight or underline the important terms and words you see in usyd thesis, the instructions. When you highlight the terms in the instructions, you are able to focus on them and cambridge phd thesis things become more understandable. If you are not able to understand those things, then you should first attempt to understand those phrases properly. You can ask your instructor in case anything seems confusing or vague to you. Come Up With a Topic and usyd binding Identify Its Purpose. In order to come up with a good topic, you need to cambridge phd thesis, do some pre-writing exercises to get started.
Simply list all the ideas and thoughts that come in your mind on a piece of paper. Once you have listed all of ucsd political science senior, them, you can then look over it and expand the cambridge engineering phd thesis topics. This brainstorming will broaden your thoughts and porfolio essays ideas and make you come up with different things you need to learn, helping you find the true topic for your essay or research. Then, you need to cambridge engineering phd thesis, identify the purpose of the topic. You should ensure that your purpose matches in the requirements of your essay assignment. Identify Your Audience and Develop Thesis. After you have decided the purpose of the paper, it is time to identify your audience.
Here you need to think who is going to read your paper. Will they be strangers, your classmates, or your instructor? You need to sample, identify the expectations and needs of the cambridge engineering audience considering what they know and what they do not know. Thesis Statement? When you know the purpose of the essay and have identified your audience, you should develop your thesis statement. Ensure that your thesis statement is arguable and detailed. Decide on cambridge phd thesis a Basic Outline Style and Structure. Normally, there are two ways of styles you can choose from, decimal outline structure and alphanumeric structure. Both of these structures are commonly used.
Alphanumeric structure is identified by capitalized letters and roman numbers. On the other hand, decimal outline structure uses a series of numbers to identify each subsection. However, both of them are considered best ones, so the choice is entirely yours. Wpp Fellowship Essays? Introduction In The First Section. Cambridge Phd Thesis? Now, it is time to organize your information in the essay outline. You should include introduction in the first section using an attention–grabbing opening related to for career, your topic. The information that you will be providing in the outline will become more specific as you go to further into subsections. After the overview section, next section should include background and history of the cambridge engineering phd thesis problem that needs to be explored. Porfolio Essays? You should make sure that you keep these sections brief.
After that, the last part of the introduction section should discuss the thesis statement of your essay. Body in the Second Section. The body is usually the largest part of the essay. But this is phd thesis, just the usyd binding essay outline, so make sure that you do not write the whole of it. Instead, just list down the points you are supposed to cover when writing the essay. Engineering Phd Thesis? You should not label each and every point. But just make sure that you provide the usyd thesis binding main idea of the cambridge engineering phd thesis topic you will be discussing.
Conclusion in the Last Section. Usyd Thesis Binding? This is the last section of the phd thesis essay outline where you just have to ucsd senior thesis, summarize the overall discussion in the essay. Engineering Phd Thesis? You can take information from the introduction section as well as body of the essay and conclude the essay. Since you can repeat things, you should re-state the idea in a different manner. After that, you can make a concluding statement. Porfolio Essays? Essay writing is cambridge engineering, challenging especially for students. If you aiming a good score and wpp fellowship essays stand out in your class, you can practice on the variety of essay outlines available on our main website.
Simply download the cambridge phd thesis essay outline from our website and save it on your desktop and start practicing. We wish you better grades.
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First Amendment Essays and Research Papers. Amendment One The Constitution of the United States is an outline of the engineering national government of the United Stated of America. It was written . in 1787. Porfolio Essays! Fifty-five men were there. They are known as the cambridge engineering phd thesis “Founding Fathers” or “Framers of the Constitution.” The Constitution of the porfolio essays United States was approved on June 21, 1788. The Constitution of the United States divides the government into three branches. First the Legislative branch, then the Judicial branch, last the Executive branch. Engineering Phd Thesis! The Constitution. 1st United States Congress , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Separation of church and state 1745 Words | 5 Pages.
petition the thesis for career essay Government for phd thesis a redress of grievances. The first and the most significant of the amendments to our Constitution . is the First Amendment . The amendment that established our freedoms as citizens of our new confederation. The First Amendment insures freedom of speech and of the porfolio essays press. The First Amendment ratification was completed on December 15, 1791. This happened when the eleventh State, which is Virginia, approved this amendment . At that time there were fourteen States in the Union. First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Freedom of speech , Freedom of speech in cambridge engineering, the United States 1212 Words | 4 Pages. Reflections on the First Amendment.
the First Amendment HIS/301 April 9, 2013 Mr. De La Pena Reflections on the First . Amendment The first amendment to the United States Constitution states that no law can be made to create a national religion, or imped the free practice of any or no religion. It also states that no one can infringe on the freedom of ucsd senior speech, freedom of engineering phd thesis press, and that no one can interfere with the right to peaceably assemble. Usyd Binding! This paper will cover the rights of privacy the first amendment protects. First Amendment to phd thesis, the United States Constitution , Judicial review , Law 971 Words | 3 Pages. First Amendment and porfolio essays the Freedom of Expression. First Amendment Question In modern times we view America as a thriving nation at the top of the power rankings amongst . countries. Such supremacy is found not through the cambridge engineering weapons of transfer mass destruction but instead in the people living in a free society. The idea of free society can be related to the first amendment found in the constitution which enforces the cambridge phd thesis idea of freedom. The first amendment is statement, vital to functioning of a free society. Justice Robert Johnson once said, “No official can prescribe.
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Abe Fortas , Education , First Amendment to the United States Constitution 2348 Words | 6 Pages. The Evolution of the First Amendment. The Evolution of the First Amendment The first amendment states, Congress shall make no law . respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to cambridge engineering phd thesis, assemble, and to usyd thesis binding, petition the government for cambridge phd thesis a redress of grievances.(encyclopedia) The inhabitants of the North American colonies did not have a legal right to express opposition to research papers, the British government that ruled them. Nonetheless. Censorship , Democracy , First Amendment to the United States Constitution 996 Words | 3 Pages. The First Amendment and Its Conflict Freedom of speech, of phd thesis religion, of the press, to assemble peacefully, and essay petition; this . set of guarantees, protected by cambridge engineering, the First Amendment , comprises what we refer to as freedom of expression.
However, many people will say that the law has stopped people from being able to porfolio essays, exercise their rights. Personally I believe that people have lost their freedom to exercise their rights mentioned in cambridge engineering, the first amendment . Inhibiting a person’s right to exercise the. First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Fourteenth Amendment to science, the United States Constitution , Freedom of association 1388 Words | 4 Pages. The First Amendment The First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is part of our countries Bill of . Rights. The first amendment is perhaps the cambridge phd thesis most important part of the how to write sample U.S. Engineering! Constitution because the ucsd political science amendment guarantees citizens freedom of cambridge engineering religion, speech, writing and publishing, peaceful assembly, and the freedom to raise grievances with the Government. In addition, amendment requires that there be a separation maintained between church and state.
Our first amendment to the United States Constitution. First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution , Freedom of speech 1954 Words | 5 Pages. First Amendment Rights in Public Schools. In 1789, James Madison first proposed a set of documents that gave certain inalienable rights to Americans. On December 15, 1791 the research papers . first ten amendments to engineering phd thesis, the U.S. Constitution were ratified and became known as the science senior Bill of Rights. The First Amendment of the Constitution is the most sacred to Americans. It says that, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the cambridge engineering right of. Education , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Freedom of speech 2102 Words | 6 Pages. Censorship and essays the First Amendment: the American Citizen's Right to Fr.
Censorship and the First Amendment : The American Citizen's Right to Free Speech Are we protected from censorship under the . First Amendment ? In other words do individuals or groups have the right or the power to examine material and remove or prohibit anything they consider objectionable? This argument has been progressing for centuries, in fact the first notable case was against phd thesis, John Peter Zenger, in 1743. Zenger was an editor of a New York colonial newspaper that often published articles critical. Censorship , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Freedom of speech 1862 Words | 6 Pages. Does the first Amendment affect your livelihood?
Does the first Amendment affect your livelihood? Hmmm. I'm not sure. Is water wet? Is the grass green? Do skittles come in . different colors? Do we even really need to ask? Of course it does. The first Amendment is important for a lot of reasons, one being that it allows us to show our individuality and uniqueness. If we weren't allowed to express ourselves, be it in research heat, writing dancing, comedy, and many other ways, then our individuality and uniqueness would never be seen.
We might as well be mindless. First Amendment to cambridge phd thesis, the United States Constitution , Freedom of association , Freedom of porfolio essays speech 832 Words | 3 Pages. Walz vs. New York: Violation of the Establishment Clause of the engineering First Amendment. religious organizations (i.e. Churches, Synagogues) indirectly forced him to support said organizations. The case, Walz v. Tax Commission of City of New . York, addressed the issue of if property tax exemptions violated the Establishment Clause of the research papers heat first amendment . The case was decided May 4, 1970 and cambridge engineering the ruling served to reinforce the opinion that the purpose of such tax exemptions is thesis for career essay, not to inhibit or advance religion. Not only does the tax-exempt status of engineering phd thesis religious organizations force taxpayers to.
Engel v. Political Thesis! Vitale , Establishment Clause of the First Amendment , First Amendment to the United States Constitution 1095 Words | 4 Pages. First Amendment Is the Cornerstone of the United States of America. First Amendment is the Cornerstone of the United States of America On July 4, 1776 the Declaration of Independence was . signed freeing the thirteen American colonies from Great Britain, creating what would become the cambridge phd thesis most powerful democratic country in history. The United States of America’s path to success is filled with trial, error, and countless sacrifices. The founding fathers envisioned a nation that was governed by the people not by essays, a tyrannical king. On December 15, 1791 a very.
First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Human rights , Individual rights 1071 Words | 3 Pages. First Amendment to phd thesis, the United States Constitution and Freedom. under the First Amendment . The First Amendment allows people to speak their opinions in a public . Science Senior! forum even though the majority may find it offensive. The Supreme Court protects three types of freedom of engineering speech: pure, symbolic, and speech plus conduct. Pure speech is the most basic kind of speech protected under the first Amendment . This speech covers words that are written in texts such as magazine, newspapers, movies, Internet, and much more. Pure speech is statement essay, very important. The First Amendment restricts. First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Freedom of expression , Freedom of speech 1225 Words | 4 Pages. Us Bill of Rights First Amendment
Mary Cathleen ThomasUnited States GovernmentGovt-2305-54245Jinnell Killingsworth | U.S. Bill of Rights | “ Amendment I” | | | . 2/19/2011 | | “The First Amendment ” In the beginning, our founding fathers where working on drafting a formal Constitution for our newly formed country. The representatives for some of the newly formed states, worried about the current draft of the engineering phd thesis Constitution. Ucsd! Many of the states and there representatives, had concerns about the wording of the current. Engel v. Vitale , Establishment Clause of the First Amendment , First Amendment to the United States Constitution 1740 Words | 5 Pages.
Jeremaiha McIntosh Greg Turner English1A 11/2/12 Our First Amendment Issue Being able to express one’s . self is one of the most important rights of the people to maintain a connected society right to cambridge engineering phd thesis, speech should be accepted to do so. Porfolio Essays! The first amendment is cambridge phd thesis, one of the most fundamental rights that individuals have. It is fundamental to the existence of porfolio essays democracy and the respect of human dignity. Engineering Phd Thesis! This amendment describes the principal rights of the citizens of the how to write report sample United States. First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Flag Desecration Amendment , Freedom of association 1389 Words | 4 Pages. The Infringement of the First Amendment in High School Theatre. infringe upon the student body’s First Amendment rights? Schools should make no policy that would chastise a student for speaking . their mind or expressing oneself, unless the process by which they are expressing themselves meddles with the educational methods and engineering the claims of others. Research Papers Transfer! If a student threatens another student under “the right” of being able to speak freely, one would hope a school would take immediate action before potential harm occurs. The First Amendment clearly states that “Congress.
Censorship , Education , First Amendment to phd thesis, the United States Constitution 1305 Words | 4 Pages. The First Amendment The First Amendment is, in many people's eyes, considered the . most important amendment in the United States Constitution. It protects the rights to freedom of religion, freedom of expression, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly and freedom of papers press from phd thesis, government interference. Basically, the usyd amendment gives people the ability to live their lives the way that they want to, with the lifestyle that they choose. If people don't like what they hear, they have. First Amendment to cambridge phd thesis, the United States Constitution , Freedom of speech , Freedom of thought 896 Words | 3 Pages. The First and Second Amendment When the Constitution was written, it was not the how to write sample intent of the phd thesis authors to assure human . rights to its citizenry, it was written in order to set up a federal government that would allow the United States to be a self-governing entity, and to put in place a system of government that would serve the citizens of the country in the way that they saw fit. After the ratification of the Constitution in 1787, “people soon began to notice that it did not list many of.
First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution , Human rights 1029 Words | 3 Pages. First Amendment Paper The First Amendment is thesis for career essay, part of the engineering Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights is our . rights as citizens living in the United States of usyd thesis binding America. In this paper I will look at engineering three provisions to usyd, the First Amendment , highlighting one case for each provision. Included are one case to discuss freedom of speech, one case to discuss separation of church and state and engineering one case to how to a progress sample, discuss freedom of association. 1.) Discuss at least one Supreme Court case of significance related to engineering phd thesis, three. Appeal , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Fourteenth Amendment to porfolio essays, the United States Constitution 1399 Words | 4 Pages. Reflections on engineering, the First Amendment.
Reflections on the First Amendment On December 15th, 1971, the first X amendments to the . Constitution went into affect. The first X amendments to how to write a progress report, the constitution were known as the Bill of Rights. The First Amendment was written by James Madison because the American people were demanding a guarantee of their freedom. The First Amendment was put into place to protect American’s freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom of cambridge assembly and freedom of petition. Political! The First Amendment was written as follows; . First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Fourteenth Amendment to cambridge engineering, the United States Constitution , Supreme Court of the United States 1858 Words | 5 Pages. Reflections on binding, the First Amendment Paper. Reflections on cambridge phd thesis, the First Amendment Paper Ephraim Iivula HIS/301 May 29, 2011 Kenneth Johnston . Wpp Fellowship Essays! University of Phoenix Reflections on the First Amendment According to phd thesis, the First Amendment of the United States Constitution, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of thesis statement for career essay religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the engineering right of the people peaceably to assemble, and. American Civil Liberties Union , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution 1615 Words | 5 Pages. State of the First Amendment Q1. As you may know, the First Amendment is part of the U.S. . Constitution.
Can you name any of the specific rights that are guaranteed by the First Amendment ? In the First Amendment I can name three specific rights that are guaranteed by this Amendment . One of them is the Freedom of speech, the second is freedom of religion and lastly freedom is the press. Two of the usyd thesis freedoms that I could not name were the right to petition and the right of assembly. Most of the phd thesis people. First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Flag Desecration Amendment , Freedom of speech 1059 Words | 3 Pages. First Amendment Lynda Davis Hist/301 September 16, 2012 Nort Seever 2 The word “privacy” is not mentioned in the . Constitution, although the Constitution does strongly imply the right to usyd, privacy.
The right to privacy is evident in the first 10 amendments . The First Amendment protects the right to cambridge phd thesis, private individual worship regarding religion. Freedom of papers transfer speech and freedom of press are also protected in the First Amendment . There have been many cases regarding the cambridge engineering First Amendment . . Censorship , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution 1531 Words | 5 Pages. Reflections on the First Amendment. Reflections on the First Amendment Megan Cresse His/301 June 18, 2013 Karen Levosky Reflections on the First . Amendment The First Amendment is essays, one of the most important Amendments in the Bill of engineering phd thesis Rights. The forefathers felt that the Bill of Rights was needed in wpp fellowship essays, the Constitution to assure the rights of the people and proceeded to cambridge engineering, add such protection in the First Amendment . Presently and throughout history the First Amendment stands as an important role in America. Many believe it is the most. First Amendment to thesis, the United States Constitution , Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution , Law 1202 Words | 4 Pages. Supreme Court has clearly established that independent government contractors like Mr.
Brady are not to be terminated for exercising their rights under the . Cambridge Engineering Phd Thesis! First Amendment . See Bd. Of County Comm’rs v. Umbehr, 518 U.S. 668, 672 (1996) (declaring “the right of independent government contractors not to be terminated for exercising their First Amendment rights”); see also O’Hare Truck Serv., Inc. v. City of Northlake, 518 U.S. 712, 723 (1996) (“Independent contractors, as well as public employees, are entitled. Buckley v. Valeo , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution 897 Words | 3 Pages. First Amendment The First Amendment was written because at America's inception, citizens . demanded a guarantee of their basic freedoms. The First Amendment protects the five basic freedoms that are essential to the American way of life. These freedoms are: the freedom of porfolio essays speech, the freedom of press, the freedom of assembly, the freedom of petition, and the freedom of religion. Freedom of speech allows you to say what is on your mind, in public or private places, without fear of getting punished. Democracy , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Freedom of association 599 Words | 2 Pages.
? The First Amendment How did/does technology affect objectivity? How do multiple developments in technology effect society . and challenge a journalists’ ability to communicate. Correlate speed (in any epoch/era) and the profound affect it makes on engineering phd thesis, the need for First Amendment privileges. On September 25, 1789 the First Amendment was submitted to the states for ratification in order to fix the Constitution that lacked guarantees for civil liberties. On December 15, 1791, it was adopted. First Amendment to porfolio essays, the United States Constitution , Freedom of speech , Journalism 767 Words | 2 Pages. Why the 1st Amendment Is the Best. Amendment Essay By: Christina Ramler Neil Gaiman once said, “The current total of countries in the world with First . Amendments is one. Cambridge Engineering! You have guaranteed the freedom of speech.
Other countries don’t have that.” At the time of the amendments ’ creation, a vast majority of operating countries had not yet granted their people such freedoms. Granting every citizen of the United States this right seemed to papers heat, have been an important landmark in engineering, this nation’s history. Along with others, this right is declared. Censorship , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Freedom of association 1142 Words | 4 Pages. ? First draft Free speech is a fundamental value for a democratic society. Research Transfer! In the article “ Free Speech: Westboro Church . Supreme Court Case Tests First Amendment ” from Christian Science Monitor (October 2, 2010), author Warren Richey discusses about the first amendment right and free speech implications in some court cases. The author mentions veriest leaders of large cults that propagate hateful speeches. He acknowledges cases like burning the American flag, a Nazi parade in the.
Belief , Censorship , First Amendment to phd thesis, the United States Constitution 783 Words | 3 Pages. The First Amendment to the U.S Constitution Is a Progressive Legislation, According to Many Observers. It Should Be Incorporated Into Domestic Law. THE FIRST AMENDMENT TO THE U.S CONSTITUTION IS A PROGRESSIVE LEGISLATION, ACCORDING TO MANY OBSERVERS. IT SHOULD BE INCORPORATED . INTO DOMESTIC LAW. The United States of America has one of the world's powerful systems of legal fortification for a progress report sample freedom of the press. The First Amendment of the engineering phd thesis U.S.
Constitution provides the foundation assurance of press freedom and freedom of speech. In this essay I will be keen on highlighting the significance of the First Amendment and relating its motive of usyd binding freedom. First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Freedom of cambridge speech , Journalism 1748 Words | 5 Pages. When I think about the dreams of the thesis essay founders I think about the amendments . These amendments represented their core beliefs. Engineering! When . I think about that I look at society and think how well have the amendments been followed. In a sense most of the how to a progress report sample amendments have been followed well, but in the last 20 or 30 years that has been declining rapidly.
The 1st amendment , probably the easiest to follow is being silently fought. Now it may not be illegal to say something but by the time you say it you might. Christianity , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Religion 1245 Words | 4 Pages. The Controversy of the cambridge engineering phd thesis Phrase Under God Pledge of Allegiance is one of the most common morning traditions throughout American public schools.
The expression of loyalty was altered and modified four . times during its existence to write report, be muttered, yawned, or delivered by millions of students. The first composed version stated “ I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands, one nation indivisible, with liberty and justice for all (Robinson). The most current addition of the Pledge adds the phrase “under God,” implying “monotheism. Dwight D. Eisenhower , Elk Grove Unified School District v. Newdow , Establishment Clause of the First Amendment 1397 Words | 4 Pages. Concept of Religion and Constitution.
Concept of Religion The first amendment states that there is to be a separation of state and religion. Phd Thesis! The founding fathers of research . this country wrote the amendments however, they did not follow what they wrote. They opened meeting with prayer. The public schools said the Our Father prayer and also in the morning they had a bible reading. Until one person made the decision that it was a violation of her first amendment rights. Now it is a violation of the 1st amendment . Now what is up for cambridge questioning.
Establishment Clause of the First Amendment , First Amendment to the U.S. Ucsd Political Senior! Constitution , First Amendment to the United States Constitution 940 Words | 4 Pages. ? First Amendment : Lemon v. Kurtzman and the Freedom of Religion . Freedom of engineering Religion is perhaps one of the porfolio essays greatest freedoms that the United States of America provides. The Establishment Clause and the Free Exercise Clause of are the first lines of the First Amendment to cambridge phd thesis, the Constitution of the porfolio essays United States and comprise this Freedom of engineering Religion. They read, “Congress shall make no law respecting the establishment of transfer religion. Establishment Clause of the First Amendment , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Lemon v. Kurtzman 1108 Words | 4 Pages. Shodanea Brown Media Law And Ethics. ?Professor: Cornick Name: Shodanea Brown Topic: The First Amendment was adopted on December 15, 1791, as one of the engineering phd thesis ten . amendments that constitute the Bill of Rights. A careful reading of the First Amendment reveals that it protects several basic liberties freedom i.e. religion, speech, press, petition, and research heat assembly. Interpretation of the phd thesis amendment is far from easy, as court case after court case has tried to define the limits of these freedoms.
The prohibition on abridgment of the freedom of. Establishment Clause of the First Amendment , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Freedom of ucsd political senior expression 940 Words | 3 Pages. 2013 Describe your understanding of the First Amendment There has been a long debate about the Constitutionality of cambridge phd thesis paid . military chaplains. Is there a legal basis for such or is it a mere supposition? Does the heat transfer government have a legitimate and legal basis to pay chaplains for their services or is cambridge phd thesis, it doing so just because and is getting away with it? Could it be legally challenged and done away with? These are the questions. The First Amendment of the Bill of Rights to the United States Constitution.
Establishment Clause of the First Amendment , First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution , First Amendment to the United States Constitution 1064 Words | 4 Pages. Situ Period 3, History Bill of Rights – Persuasive Essay Of all the essays Amendments we have, there are 10 main ones. Out of the ten main ones, I . personally believe that the First Amendment is the most important one. There is a reason why this amendment is so important. The reason this amendment is so important because it protects the freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition.
One of the cambridge phd thesis freedoms the First Amendment protects is religion. Freedom of religion supports the thesis binding right for cambridge engineering phd thesis people. First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Freedom of assembly , Freedom of porfolio essays association 473 Words | 2 Pages. Supreme Court Case: Engel v. Vitale Analysis. SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION A. Engineering! According to the First Amendment , the enactment of any law establishing a religion is political science senior, prohibited. . Under the supervision of the Constitution, Congress cannot interfere with the freedom of religion; however, the cambridge engineering Fourteenth Amendment does not allow the states (or their officials) to limit the porfolio essays basic rights of all citizens. B. In the case of Engel v. Vitale, the Board of Regents for the State of New York approved a short, voluntary prayer to engineering phd thesis, be recited at porfolio essays the start of school. Engel v. Vitale , Establishment Clause of the cambridge First Amendment , First Amendment to the United States Constitution 1293 Words | 4 Pages. ? The First and Second Amendments of the porfolio essays United States Constitution On September 25, 1789, The Bill Of Rights was submitted to cambridge engineering, . the states for porfolio essays approval, based on the previous Constitution's insufficient assurances for civil freedom, liberties and justice.
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A federal appeals court had ruled in favor of school officials in Plano, Texas,on the cambridge liability question, and the justices. Establishment Clause of the First Amendment , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , High school 966 Words | 3 Pages. Essential Restrictions on First Amendment. Essential Restrictions on the First Amendment Limitations on freedoms of society are crucial, especially in America. As Roger . Rosenblatt noted in how to, his essay, “We Are Free to Be You, Me, Stupid and Dead,” many people express their freedom of speech in very offensive and controversial ways.
Often their expressions violate other amendments and freedoms as well. A few examples given by Rosenblatt included acts of freedom of speech performed by professional sports players. Cambridge Phd Thesis! Many believe these were. Civil rights and liberties , Expression , First Amendment to the United States Constitution 377 Words | 2 Pages. his property which violates the porfolio essays Fifth Amendment . It proves that the government cannot take private property with just compensation. The court . Engineering Phd Thesis! found that Baltimore deprived him of his private property and gave him $4,500. It was later reversed but then appealed to the Supreme Court in 1833. *judges in the majority opinion: *they did not hear the arguments of the porfolio essays city of Baltimore. *Reason for cambridge majority ruling: *the limitations on government in the Fifth Amendment were intended to limit the powers of. Engel v. Vitale , Establishment Clause of the First Amendment , First Amendment to the United States Constitution 1433 Words | 8 Pages. Religion in Education: the wpp fellowship Pledge of Allegiance. This simple little phrase started controversies for years to cambridge engineering phd thesis, come, especially in classrooms all around the country.
Before we can begin to report, dissect the . Cambridge! modern day issues regarding the pledge, we have to understand the history of the issue. The first lawsuit regarding the pledge was Minersville School District v Gobitis. Lillian (12) and William (10) Gobitis were expelled from their public school because they refused to recite the Pledge of Allegiance. This lawsuit took place in 1940, before the. Establishment Clause of the First Amendment , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , High school 1292 Words | 3 Pages. general and Judeo-Christianity in particular” (Wikipedia). My views are more in line with Justine Moore. “Moore claimed that the Ten Commandments are the ucsd political thesis . moral foundation of U.S. law, stating that in order to restore this foundation, we must first recognize the source from which all morality springs. [by] recognizing] the sovereignty of God. He added that the addition of the monument to the state judiciary building marked the beginning of the restoration of the moral foundation of phd thesis law to. American Civil Liberties Union , Establishment Clause of the political science senior thesis First Amendment , First Amendment to the United States Constitution 1103 Words | 4 Pages.
The case of Zelman v. Simmons-Harris is a landmark case that dealt with vouches for schooling and the 1st Amendment . The case was officially . Cambridge Phd Thesis! decided upon on June 27, 2002, but the binding case and history dates back to 1995. In 1995, the Ohio Legislature passed into law the Cleveland Scholarship and phd thesis Tutoring Program as part of the 1995 budget act. The Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program was a pilot program that gave families up $2,250 to support their children’s academics. Aid was given to ucsd political science, parents. Establishment Clause of the First Amendment , First Amendment to cambridge engineering, the United States Constitution , High school 1374 Words | 4 Pages. Constitution preventing the Government from passing legislation respecting, promoting, or otherwise supporting an establishment of religion. The clause has . been at the heart of many court cases that have gone through the United States Judiciary.
From the wpp fellowship essays first case of Bradfield v. Roberts in cambridge phd thesis, 1899 to the most recent case of Santa Fe Independent School Dist. v. Doe in senior thesis, 2000. Although some cases dealt with appropriations, many cases brought before the courts dealt with the introduction of religion and religious. Engel v. Cambridge Phd Thesis! Vitale , Establishment Clause of the First Amendment , First Amendment to the United States Constitution 1151 Words | 5 Pages. Chick-Fil-a First Amendment Controversy. Chick-Fil-A First Amendment Controversy The Wall Street Journal article written by Jack Nicas titled “ First . Science Thesis! Amendment Trumps Critics of Chick-fil-A” overviews the hotly debated topic of Chick-Fil-A and engineering phd thesis it’s CEO Dan Cathy’s comment that he supports “the biblical definition of a family unit”. His comments have sparked outrage, assertions of bigotry, a record revenue day, millions of social media postings, hundreds of thousands of protestors, and porfolio essays even comments from mayors in Chicago and Boston that.
First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Freedom of association , Freedom of speech 691 Words | 2 Pages. Susan Jocoby: The First Amendment and cambridge engineering Censorship. Jacoby then argues that pornography can hardly be deemed more offensive than Nazism, which is also protected by the First . Amendment . Next, Jacoby takes on the argument that the First Amendment is refuted by kiddie porn by submitting that kiddie porn is an issue of child abuse, not the First Amendment . Also, she counters the argument made by feminists that censorship of pornography is thesis statement for career, more sensible than other forms of phd thesis censorship, by pointing out that some nude depictions are attractive to some women. Censorship , Child pornography , Feminism 749 Words | 2 Pages. to the First Amendment For many years there have been issues about speaking out in a private or public setting. Some people . might believe that there is no difference between the two, but there is a difference. Wpp Fellowship! Private settings only have a hand full of cambridge engineering individuals speaking within a group, whereas in public settings people are speaking out to the world, more so because the report speech is available to everyone.
People are free to say whatever they want because they are protected by the First Amendment. First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Fred Phelps , Freedom of cambridge engineering phd thesis speech 1560 Words | 5 Pages. A First Amendment Junkie by Susan Jacoby. for the First . Thesis! Although a very respected female journalist, Susan Jacoby was labeled as a First Amendment junkie . by many other women for her personal views concerning the censorship of pornography in society. Ultimately, she believed that censorship of any kind against cambridge phd thesis, pornography was wrong. Feminists were infuriated that another female acknowledged pornography's right to exist. Susan Jacoby did not necessarily agree with pornography, but she felt that its rights guaranteed under the First Amendment. Censorship , Civil rights and liberties , First Amendment to the United States Constitution 518 Words | 2 Pages. Law is primarily about the First Amendment . What different types of wpp fellowship speech can you identify that may have different protection . under the first amendment ? Under the First Amendment many types of speech receive the most stringent levels of protection while others receive little to cambridge engineering, no protection at how to report all. Political or religious speech are two of the biggest and most important areas of speech that receive the most protection and seem to be at the core of the cambridge First Amendment rights.
These two types. Civil rights and thesis liberties , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Freedom of expression 843 Words | 3 Pages. ?1. Could the Framers of the Bill of Rights have conceived of cambridge phd thesis pornography as “speech” that would be protected by the First . Amendment ? What is the rationale for granting this type of expression a degree of constitutional protection? Examination of the arguments over ucsd science the first amendment say the sole intent of the amendment was to cambridge engineering phd thesis, insure a person could speak out against the government and political senior thesis support the political party of their choice without fear of retribution. The Supreme Court extended freedom. First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Supreme Court of the engineering United States , United States Constitution 1247 Words | 4 Pages.
Papers become vital information for research transfer all to be aware of. The First Amendment is part of the cambridge engineering phd thesis Bill of Rights which grants the . people of the United States of America the freedom of religion, abridging the freedom of speech and freedom of the press. In the beginning when the First Amendment began, the Amendment applied to laws created by the Congress. Write Report Sample! When Gitlow v. Cambridge! New York case happened, the Supreme Court appointed the First Amendment to each state. When the situation of protecting state secrets. Classified information , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Pentagon Papers 1403 Words | 4 Pages. Are We Really Free to Speak and Express Ourselves.
ARE WE REALLY FREE TO SPEAK AND EXPRESS OURSELVES? How many people believe we are really free to speak or express ourselves under the protection of our . first amendment ? And if we are really free to express ourselves, why is it that people have lost their jobs or have got into trouble by their mere words? Is it fair that we express ourselves with body art and clothing that are distasteful to others regardless of their age, race, religion, or creed? How about rap artists and song writers? Should. First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Freedom of usyd expression , Freedom of speech 1588 Words | 5 Pages. how far does the First Amendment let us go and how do people use it to get out of theMrs. Grantir situations?
Based on engineering, my reading . of two different essays issued with The First Amendment rights, i read: an essay tittled, We Are Free to Be You, Me, Stupid, and Dead, that comes from Roger Rosenblatt's essay collection called where we stand :30 reasons why we love our country, and an essay from Stanley Fish, tittled The free speech, Pollies, where he argues that the first Amendment rights is offen. Censorship , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Freedom of thesis binding association 816 Words | 3 Pages. ?Kiersten Foster AP Government Politics December 8, 2013 Mr. Raveret Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission: . Phd Thesis! First amendment rights or the government's cold shoulder to corporations? With the bitter wounds of British tyranny still stinging, the research papers heat Founding Fathers thought up the engineering phd thesis first amendment . Democracy flourishes only how to write a progress report sample when freedoms to express views, both political and those of other concerns, are guaranteed. What happens, however, when your own government. American Civil Liberties Union , Buckley v. Valeo , Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission 911 Words | 4 Pages. What speech does the first amendment protect on college campuses? By definition, a speech code is cambridge, any rule or regulation . that limits, restricts, or bans speech beyond the strict legal limitations upon freedom of thesis speech or press found in the legal definitions of harassment, slander, libel, and fighting words ( First Amendment ). There is not one real speech code that all public college campuses follow. The first amendment includes freedom of engineering speech, but does not limit any speech codes on college.
Censorship , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Freedom of expression 794 Words | 3 Pages. Family (Article 41, Constitution of Ireland). For any change to occur to research papers transfer, the Constitution there has to be a referendum in cambridge, which every citizen over eighteen . is entitled to a vote. Thesis Statement! Currently there have been thirty proposals and twenty-one amendments . Cambridge Engineering! The latest amendment concerned the rights of Irish children. Garner et al (2009: 188) report that “Only three states- the UK, New Zealand, and Israel-now do not have a specific constitution. The last twenty years have seen an enormous surge of constitution-writing.
Articles of Confederation , Constitution , First Amendment to the United States Constitution 1399 Words | 4 Pages.