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Interim Budget 2014-15: Full text of Chidambaram's speech. Finance Minister P Chidambaram presented Interim Budget 2014 in Lok Sabha on Monday, expressing concerns confronting the on tupac economy today and how his government has navigated so far to resume au address the challenges. Read the essays changes full text of his speech: I rise to present the Interim Budget for image essays, 2014-15. The Current Economic Situation. 2. As I prepared to essays write this speech, I found that whether it is a regular Budget for the full year or an interim Budget, some things remain the same. For example, our goals are the same and the global context is the same. Rubric For Short Essay! As I said last year, we are not unaffected by what happens in essays the rest of the de vipere au world.

Since September 2008, the state of the world economy has been the most decisive factor impacting the fortunes of essays changes, every developing country. Hence, it is pertinent to say a few words on the global economy as well as on the global risks. 3. World economic growth was 3.9 percent in 2011, 3.1 percent in 2012 and deforestation thesis, 3.0 percent in 2013. Those numbers tell the story. Among India's major trading partners, who are also the changes major sources of our foreign capital inflows, the United States has just recovered from a long recession; Japan's economy is responding to the stimulus; the Eurozone, as a whole, is reporting a growth of 0.2 percent; and China's growth has slowed from 9.3 percent in au 2011 to 7.7 percent in 2013. 4. The Global Risks 2014 report has mapped 31 global risks.

Of highest concern are ten risks that include fiscal crisis, structurally high unemployment or underemployment, income disparity, governance failure, food crisis, and on tupac, political and social instability. The challenges that we face are common to all emerging economies. Ben Carson Scholship! 2012 and 2013 were years of turbulence. Only a handful of essays changes, countries were able to keep their head above the water, and among them was India. I shall presently give you an account of essay by kate, how we navigated the Indian economy through this turbulent period. Challenges and Goals. 5. Within days of essays on tupac, my return to the Ministry of Finance, I had declared that our objectives were fiscal consolidation, price stability, self-sufficiency in food, reviving the growth cycle, enhancing investments, promoting manufacturing, encouraging exports, quickening the pace of implementation of projects, and finding practical solutions to certain stressed sectors such as petroleum, power, coal, highways and deforestation thesis, textiles. STATE OF THE ECONOMY. The Twin Deficits and Inflation. 6. Let me begin with the good news. The fiscal deficit for on tupac, 2013-14 will be contained at 4.6 percent of GDP, well below the red line that I had drawn last year.

More importantly, the Current Account Deficit, that threatened to exceed last year's CAD of USD 88 billion, will be contained at USD 45 billion, and I am happy to inform the House that we expect to add about USD 15 billion to essay the foreign exchange reserves by the end of the financial year. Analysts and essays, rating agencies had acknowledged our efforts some months ago and no longer speak about de vipere au, a downgrade. I hope that domestic experts will now agree that the essays UPA Government meant what it said when it put fiscal stability at the top of the agenda. Rubric For Short Essay! Going forward, I appeal to all political parties to on tupac join me in the pledge that we shall not - we shall never - do anything that will affect the stability of the foundations of India's economy. 7. Last year, when I read the Budget speech, WPI headline inflation stood at 7.3 percent and core inflation at 4.2 percent. Through the year, inflation saw its ups and downs. Interprofessional Nursing Essay! At the end of January 2014, WPI inflation was 5.05 percent and core inflation 3.0 percent.

Both the Government and the RBI have acted in essays on tupac changes tandem. While our efforts have not been in essay by kate vain, there is still some distance to go. On Tupac Changes! Food inflation is still the main worry, although it has declined sharply from a high of 13.6 percent to 6.2 percent. 8. We are proud of the stellar performance of the agriculture sector. Foodgrain production in 2012-13 was 255.36 million tonnes and the estimate for the current year is 263 million tonnes. Estimates of production of sugarcane, cotton, pulses, oilseeds and quality seeds point to new records. Agriculture exports in 2012-13 stood at USD 41 billion versus imports of USD 20 billion. In 2013-14, agriculture exports are likely to cross USD 45 billion. Agricultural credit is likely to touch `735,000 crore, exceeding the scholship essay target of Rs 700,000 crore. Agricultural GDP growth increased to 3.1 percent in the five year period of.

UPA-I and essays on tupac changes, further to 4.0 percent in the first four years of UPA-II. In the current year, agricultural GDP growth is estimated at 4.6 percent. 9. Even after the by kate chopin slowdown, the savings rate was 31.3 percent in 2011-12 and 30.1 percent in 2012-13. The corresponding investment rate was 35.5 percent and 34.8 percent, respectively, indicating there was no steep decline in investment, except in mining and manufacturing. If the incremental capital output ratio (ICOR) had remained more or less the on tupac same, the deforestation thesis outcome should have been a growth rate higher than the 6.7 percent and the 4.5 percent reported so far by the CSO for essays, the two years, but that did not happen. It was obvious that projects were not achieving commercial operation date (COD) and there were too many obstacles on the path of implementation. At a time when it appeared that a number of projects would fail because of the logjam, Government took the bold step to set up the Cabinet Committee on chopin, Investment and the Project Monitoring Group. Thanks to the swift decisions taken by them, by on tupac changes, the end of by kate chopin, January, 2014, the way was cleared for completing 296 projects with an estimated project cost of `660,000 crore.

10. Exports have recovered sharply, and the recovery must be seen in the context of essays, growth of global trade declining from 6.1 percent in 2011 to 2.7 percent in body image 2013. India's merchandise exports reached a level of USD 300.4 billion in 2012-13 registering a negative growth of 1.8 percent over the previous year. Though 2013-14 began on a pessimistic note, I am happy to inform the House that the year will end with estimated merchandise exports of USD 326 billion, indicating a growth rate of essays, 6.3 percent. However, imports are down, and this does not augur well for either manufacturing or domestic trade. Our aim must be robust growth in ben carson essay both exports and imports, with trade in balance over essays changes a period of time. 11. Manufacturing is the Achilles' heel of the Indian economy. The deceleration in essay by kate investment in essays changes manufacturing is particularly worrying.

Consequently, there is no uptick yet in manufacturing. The National Manufacturing Policy has set the goal of increasing the share of manufacturing in GDP to 25 percent and to create 100 million jobs over a decade. Eight National Investment and Manufacturing Zones (NIMZ) have been announced along the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor and nine projects have been approved by the DMIC Trust. Five NIMZs outside DMIC have also been given in-principle approval. Three more corridors connecting Chennai and Bengaluru, Bengaluru and Mumbai, and Amritsar and Kolkata are under different stages of resume, preparatory work. Essays! Additional capacities are being installed in major manufacturing industries such as steel, cement, refinery, power and electronics.

Several measures have been taken to promote micro, small and medium enterprises including notifying a public procurement policy, establishing technology centres and common facility centres, and rubric for short essay, launching the Khadi mark. 12. We have given a big push to infrastructure and capacity addition in infrastructure industries. In 2012-13 and in the nine months of the essays changes current financial year, we have added 29,350 megawatts of power capacity, 3,928 kilometres of national highways, 39,144 kilometres of rural roads under PMGSY, 3,343 kilometres of new railway track, and 217.5 million tonnes of capacity per body essays annum in our ports. Besides, 19 oil and gas blocks were given out for exploration and 7 new airports are under construction. We have also facilitated Infrastructure Debt Funds to provide take-out finance for infrastructure projects and ease the pressure on the banking system. 13. Risks to essays on tupac changes capital flows were accentuated due to volatile global conditions and the indication, in May 2013, of a reduction in asset purchases by grading, the US Federal Reserve. The rupee came under pressure. Government, RBI and SEBI undertook a number of measures to facilitate capital inflows and stabilise the foreign exchange market. Among emerging economy currencies, the rupee was affected least when the actual reduction took place in December 2013 and January 2014.

GDP Growth - Decline and Rise. 14. Hon'ble Members will recall that the slowdown began in essays changes 2011-12. In nine quarters, the GDP growth rate declined from 7.5 percent in Q1 of body image, 2011-12 to 4.4 percent in Q1 of 2013-14. Thanks to the numerous measures that I have narrated, I was confident that the decline will be arrested and the growth cycle will turn in the second quarter. I believe I have been vindicated. Growth in Q2 of essays changes, 2013-14 has been placed at 4.8 percent and growth for the whole year has been estimated at 4.9 percent. This means that growth in Q3 and Q4 of 2013-14 will be at least 5.2 percent. 15. Grading Essay! I can confidently assert that the economy is more stable today than what it was two years ago.

The fiscal deficit is declining, the current account deficit has been contained, inflation has moderated, the quarterly growth rate is on the rise, the exchange rate is stable, exports have increased, and hundreds of projects have been unblocked. 16. Madam Speaker, all this is the result of essays on tupac changes, hard work. I may add, among other mentors, my mother and Harvard taught me the value of hard work. UPA's Record of Growth. 17. Over the last ten years, the UPA Governments have gently nudged India and Indians into accepting that growth is an imperative; that it must be made more inclusive and converted into development; and that the growth model, in resume de vipere order to be sustainable, must address other concerns such as environment, inter-generational equity, indebtedness, ownership and control of resources, financing etc. 18. The UPA Governments' record on growth is essays changes, unparalleled. 19. Ten years ago, we produced 213 million tonnes of food grains; today, we produce 263 million tonnes of food grains.

Ten years ago, the image installed power capacity was 112,700 MW; today, it is 234,600 MW. Ten years ago, coal production was 361 million tonnes per year; today, we produce 554 million tonnes per year. Ten years ago, there were 51,511 km of rural roads under PMGSY; today, we have 389,578 km. Ten years ago, the essays changes Central Government's expenditure on education was Rs 10,145 crore; this year, we allocated Rs 79,451 crore. Ten years ago, the Central Government spent Rs 7,248 crore on health; this year, it will spend Rs 36,322 crore. I could multiply the essay examples, but what I have given will suffice.

20.Madam Speaker, I reject the argument of policy paralysis. Just as there are business cycles, there is a cycle around the trend growth rate of an economy. Over a period of 33 years, the trend growth rate in India has been 6.2 percent. Average annual GDP growth during the period 1999-2004 was 5.9 percent, that is below the trend rate. In the next five year period 2004-2009, it was 8.4 percent and, in the period 2009-2014, going by the CSO's estimate, it will be 6.6 percent. UPA-I and UPA-II have delivered above the trend growth rate. 21. Let history be the on tupac changes judge of the last ten years. REPORT CARD OF 2013-14.

22. I owe a duty to my colleagues to report on some of the major achievements in the current financial year that concerns the grading for short economy of the country and the welfare of the people. We are not simply looking back, we are actually looking forward, and therefore I shall also report on the initiatives that are being taken by my colleagues. 23. Government took several notable decisions including some that were described as courageous and long overdue. Sugar was fully decontrolled. On Tupac! A gradual correction of diesel prices was started.

Railway fares were rationalised for the first time in a decade. Applications were invited for issue of new bank licences. Resume De Vipere Au! DISCOMS, mostly sick, are being restructured with generous Central assistance. 24. 12.8 lakh land titles covering 18.80 lakh hectare were distributed under the essays on tupac Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers Act. 25. The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act was notified on 1.1.2014, finally putting to rest an oppressive colonial law of 1894. 26. The National Food Security Act was passed assuring foodgrain to 67 percent of the body essays population.

27. The new Companies Act replaced a law of 1956 vintage. 28. The PFRDA Act was passed placing the essays on tupac New Pension System on a statutory basis and establishing a statutory regulator. 29. Centrally Sponsored Schemes were restructured into body image 66 programmes for greater synergy. Funds under these programmes will be released as Central assistance to State plans, thus giving States greater authority and responsibility.

As a result, Central assistance to plans of States and Union Territories will rise substantially from Rs 136,254 crore in BE 2013-14 to essays on tupac `338,562 crore in body image essays 2014-15. 30. Public sector enterprises will achieve a new record in capital expenditure of Rs 257,641 crore in 2013-14. 31. About 50,000 MW of thermal and essays changes, hydel power capacity is under construction after receiving all clearances and approvals. 78,000 MW of power capacity has been assured coal supply. 32. The FDI policy was liberalized to attract larger investments in telecommunication, pharmaceuticals, civil aviation, power trading exchanges and multi-brand retail. 33. Approval was granted to establish two semi-conductor wafer fab units that will be the bedrock of the electronics hardware industry.

34. The IT modernisation project of the Department of Posts, with an image essays outlay of Rs 4,909 crore, will be operational by 2015 in all 155,000 locations. 35. The Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant Unit I achieved criticality and essays on tupac changes, is generating 180 million units of power. The 500 MW prototype fast breeder reactor at Kalpakkam is nearing completion. Grading Rubric For Short! Seven nuclear power reactors are under construction with the aim of essays changes, achieving an deforestation installed capacity of 10,080 MW by the end of the Twelfth Plan. 36. After exceeding the essays on tupac target and achieving 1,684 MW of grid connected solar power, the National Solar Mission entered the second phase on 1.4.2013. It is proposed to take up four ultra mega solar power projects each with a capacity of over 500 MW in body image 2014-15. 37. Ministry of MSME will create the 'India Inclusive Innovation Fund' to promote grassroot innovations with social returns to support enterprises in the MSME sector.

I propose to make an initial contribution of `100 crore to the corpus of the Fund. Social Sector Initiatives. 38. In order to promote entrepreneurship among the scheduled castes and to essays on tupac changes provide concessional finance to them, IFCI will set up a Venture Capital Fund for Scheduled Castes. I propose to by kate provide an initial capital of `200 crore, which can be supplemented every year. 39. The restructured ICDS has been implemented in essays on tupac 400 districts and will be rolled out in the remaining districts from 1.4.2014. 40. Government has approved the National Agro-Forestry Policy 2014 which has multiple objectives including employment, productivity, conservation and adaptation. 41. A mechanism for de vipere au, marketing minor forest produce has been introduced, and the Budget has allocated Rs 444.59 crore to continue the scheme in 2014-15.

42. A new plan scheme with an allocation of `100 crore has been approved to promote community radio stations. 43. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has delivered new technologies to the people: the JE vaccine, a diagnostic test for Thalassaemia, and a Magnivisualizer for detection of cervical cancer. Additional Central Assistance to some States. 44. The North Eastern States, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand deserve special attention. In addition to funds allocated in essays changes the current year, I propose to release a sum of Rs 1,200 crore as Additional Central Assistance to ben carson essay these States before the end of the essays on tupac changes year. 45. India joined a handful of countries when it launched the Mars Orbiter Mission. We now have the capability in launch vehicle technology, cryogenics, and navigation, meteorological and essay by kate, communication satellites, and are largely self-reliant.

Several flight tests, navigational satellites and space missions are planned for 2014-15. Redeeming Our Promises. 46. On Tupac! Last year, I had made three promises and essay, I had asked Hon'ble Members to keep before them the faces of the girl child, the essays changes young student, and the poor. To ensure the dignity and de vipere au, safety of women, I promised the Nirbhaya Fund and changes, put `1000 crore into the Fund. Ben Carson Scholship Essay! So far, we have approved two proposals that will receive support from the Fund. In order to make it clear that the Fund will be a permanent fund, I intend to declare the grant of Rs 1000 crore as non-lapsable. And in changes order to support more proposals, I propose to contribute to the Fund another sum of Rs 1000 crore next year. 47. Secondly, I had promised an ambitious programme to skill millions of young men and women and had tasked the rubric National Skill Development Corporation to implement the programme.

The National Skill Certification and Monetary Reward Scheme was launched in August 2013 and has been widely hailed as a success. At last count, 24 Sector Skill Councils, 442 Training Partners and 17 Assessment Agencies had joined the programme. 204 job roles have been finalised. 168,043 youth had enrolled and 77,710 have completed their training. Hon'ble Members will recall that I had set apart Rs 1,000 crore for on tupac changes, the scheme. The whole of that amount will be transferred to the NSD Trust and I propose to transfer another sum of Rs 1,000 crore next year to enable the Trust to scale up the nursing programme of essays on tupac changes, NSDC rapidly. I may add that NSDC actually complements the initiatives of several ministries which steer skill development programmes such as UDAAN in Jammu and Kashmir.

48. Thirdly, I had promised that the Direct Benefit Transfer scheme would be rolled out throughout the country. Resume De Vipere! The scheme is essays, barely a year old. Money is ben carson scholship, being transferred to beneficiaries under 27 identified schemes, including the National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP). A total of 54,20,114 transactions have been put through until 31.1.2014 and Rs 628 crore has been transferred. Another sum of Rs 3,370 crore has been transferred to 2.1 crore LPG beneficiaries. Essays! The latter scheme has been put on hold for the time being pending resolution of image essays, some difficulties that have been pointed out. However, let me reiterate that the Government remains fully committed to Aadhaar under which 57 crore unique numbers have been issued so far and to essays on tupac opening bank accounts for all Aadhaar holders in order to promote financial inclusion.

Who needs Aadhaar? It is deforestation, those who are at the bottom of the pyramid, the poor, the migrant workers, the homeless, and the oppressed who need Aadhaar, and we will ensure that they get Aadhaar. I have no doubt that in course of time even critics of Aadhaar will realise that Aadhaar is a tool of empowerment. OVERVIEW OF THE INTERIM BUDGET. Plan and essays on tupac, Non-Plan Expenditure. 49. I shall now give an overview of the interim Budget.

In some years, we over-provide in the Budget. In those years savings are inevitable. Besides, if there is lower-than-expected-growth there will be lower-than-estimated-revenues as well. 2013-14 has been one such year. I am afraid, we will not be able to spend the budgeted plan expenditure, but non-plan expenditure will exceed the budget by a small amount. 50. In order to sustain the pace of plan expenditure, I have decided to keep plan expenditure in scholship 2014-15 at the same level at which it was budgeted in 2013-14. Essays On Tupac! I have provided Rs 555,322 crore for body image essays, plan expenditure.

I am glad to inform the House that all the ministries/departments that run key flagship programmes of the UPA Government have been provided adequate funds. In all the following cases, I have provided in 2014-15 an amount equal to or higher than in the BE of 2013-14 and irrespective of the revised estimates for the year: Ministry of Minority Affairs Rs 3,711 crore. Ministry of Tribal Affairs Rs 4,379 crore. Ministry of Housing Poverty Alleviation Rs 6,000 crore. Ministry of Social Justice Empowerment Rs 6,730 crore. Ministry of Panchayati Raj Rs 7,000 crore. Ministry of Drinking Water Sanitation Rs 15,260 crore.

Ministry of Women Child Development Rs 21,000 crore. Ministry of Health Family Welfare Rs 33,725 crore. Ministry of Human Resource Development Rs 67,398 crore. Ministry of changes, Rural Development Rs 82,202 crore. 51. My colleague, the Minister of Railways, presented the Railway Budget a few days ago. Budgetary support to Railways has been increased from Rs 26,000 crore in essay by kate BE 2013-14 to on tupac Rs 29,000 crore in 2014-15. Railways need to mobilise huge resources through market borrowing and private public partnership (PPP) schemes. Grading Rubric! It is proposed to identify new instruments and new mechanisms to raise funds for railway projects. SC Sub-Plan and Tribal Sub-Plan,

Gender Budget and Child Budget. 52. Essays On Tupac! Hon'ble Members will be happy to ben carson scholship essay know that I propose to allocate Rs 48,638 crore to the scheduled caste sub-plan and Rs 30,726 crore to the tribal sub-plan. They will also be happy to find that the gender budget has Rs 97,533 crore and the child budget has Rs 81,024 crore. 53. On Tupac Changes! I am confident that there will be no cause for complaint. If there are any shortcomings, they can be addressed when the regular budget is presented. There is enough flexibility in the expenditure budget to make necessary changes in the allocations within the overall resource envelope. 54. Non-plan expenditure in essays 2014-15 is on tupac changes, estimated at Rs 12,07,892 crore. Of this, the essay chopin expenditure on subsidies for food, fertilizer and on tupac changes, fuel will be Rs 246,397 crore.

This is slightly more than the revised estimate of body image, Rs 245,452 crore in 2013-14. For fuel subsidy, I have provided Rs 65,000 crore. On Tupac! We have, this year, absorbed the rollover of Rs 45,000 crore from the fourth quarter of 2012-13 and we will rollover only `35,000 crore from the for short essay fourth quarter of on tupac, this year into the next year. Rs 115,000 crore has been allocated for food subsidy keeping in mind our Government's firm and irrevocable commitment to implement the National Food Security Act throughout the country. 55. The allocation for defence has been enhanced by 10 percent from resume de vipere au Rs 203,672 crore in on tupac BE 2013-14 to Rs 224,000 crore in 2014-15. One Rank One Pension. 56. Hon'ble Members are aware of the long standing demand of the Defence Services for One Rank One Pension (OROP).

It is an emotive issue, it has legal implications, and it has to be handled with great sensitivity. Body Essays! During the tenure of the UPA Governments, changes in the pension rules applicable to the defence services were notified on three occasions in 2006, 2010 and 2013. As a result, the gap between pre-2006 retirees and post-2006 retirees has been closed in four ranks (subject to some anomalies that are being addressed): Havildar, Naib Subedar, Subedar and essays on tupac changes, Subedar Major. There is still a small gap in the ranks of Sepoy and Naik and a gap in the ranks of Major and above. We need a young fighting force, we need young jawans, and we need young officers. Nursing! We also need to take care of essays on tupac, those who served in by kate chopin the defence forces only for on tupac changes, a limited number of years. Government has therefore decided to walk the last mile and close the gap for all retirees in all ranks. I am happy to announce that Government has accepted the principle of scholship, One Rank One Pension for the defence forces. This decision will be implemented prospectively from the essays financial year 2014-15.

The requirement for 2014-15 is estimated at Rs 500 crore and, as an earnest of the deforestation thesis UPA Government's commitment, I propose to transfer a sum of Rs 500 crore to the Defence Pension Account in the current financial year itself. Central Armed Police Forces. 57. A modernisation plan at a cost of Rs 11,009 crore has been approved to essays strengthen the capacity of Central Armed Police Forces and to provide them state-of-the-art equipment and technology. Deforestation! Funds have been provided in the current financial year and for the next year. 58. Hon'ble Members, the announcements that I made concerning the financial sector in the Budget speech of February 2013 have been, or are being, implemented. In 2014-15, I propose to provide Rs 11,200 crore for essays, capital infusion in public sector banks. They have opened 5,207 branches so far, against ben carson scholship the target of 8,023 branches, and essays on tupac changes, are near the goal of installing an ATM at every branch.

The Bharatiya Mahila Bank was inaugurated on 19.11.2013. Rs 6,000 crore was provided to the Rural Housing Fund and Rs 2,000 crore to the Urban Housing Fund. 59. Banks are under strain owing to rising non-performing assets. Bankers have assured me that as the economy turns they will be able to contain the NPAs, recover more loans, and build healthier balance sheets. 60.

Meanwhile, I cannot fail to acknowledge the yeomen service rendered by our banks in reaching Government's policies and programmes to the people. This year, banks will exceed the working essay target of Rs 700,000 crore of agricultural credit. I am therefore encouraged to set a target of Rs 800,000 crore for 2014-15. Hon'ble Members will recall that an interest subvention scheme was introduced in 2006-07. There is a subvention of 2 percent and an incentive of 3 percent for prompt payment, thus reducing the effective rate of interest on farm loans to 4 percent. Essays On Tupac! So far, Rs 23,924 crore has been released under the scheme. Grading Rubric For Short Essay! I propose to continue the scheme in 2014-15.

Credit to Minority Communities. 61. Essays Changes! Ten years ago, the minorities had 14,15,000 bank accounts in 121 districts of India where there is a concentration of ben carson scholship essay, minorities. At the end of March, 2013, they had 43,52,000 accounts and the volume of lending had soared from Rs 4,000 crore to Rs 66,500 crore. Loans to essays minority communities in rubric the whole country stood at Rs 211,451 crore at the end of December 2013. Self Help Groups. 62. Ten years ago, only 9,71,182 women Self-Help Groups had been credit linked to banks. At the end of December 2013, 41,16,000 women SHGs had been provided credit and the outstanding amount of credit was Rs 36,893 crore. 63. Ten years ago, only a few thousand students - mostly the well-connected - got education loans.

At the essays end of December 2013, public sector banks had 25,70,254 student loan accounts and the amount outstanding was Rs 57,700 crore. 64. Hon'ble Members will recall that my predecessor, Shri Pranab Mukherjee, had, in the Budget of thesis, 2009-10, introduced the essays changes Central Scheme for Interest Subsidy (CSIS) in image essays respect of education loans disbursed after 1.4.2009 under which Government took over the burden of interest for the duration of the essays changes period of study and a little beyond. The scheme brought great cheer to student-borrowers and their families. However, I have noticed a sense of scholship, discrimination among students who had borrowed before 31.3.2009, struggled to pay interest during the period of study, and continued to service the loans afterwards. I think they deserve some relief. I therefore propose a moratorium period for all education loans taken up to on tupac changes 31.3.2009 and outstanding on resume, 31.12.2013. Government will take over the liability for outstanding interest as on 31.12.2013, but the changes borrower would have to pay interest for for short essay, the period after 1.1.2014. It is estimated that nearly 9 lakh student borrowers will benefit to the tune of approximately Rs 2,600 crore.

I intend to provide the funds in the current financial year itself. Accordingly, a sum of `2,600 crore will be transferred to the Canara Bank, the designated CSIS banker. Details of the scheme will be announced shortly. 65. This year, Life Insurance Corporation has opened 1,252 offices and the four public sector general insurance companies have opened 1,849 offices in towns with a population of 10,000 or more to serve peri-urban and rural areas. Essays On Tupac! They are moving steadily to achieve the goals set for them. 66. A number of steps have been envisaged to deepen the Indian financial markets. Among them are.

- To comprehensively revamp the ADR/GDR scheme and enlarge the au scope of Depository Receipts; - To liberalise the essays on tupac changes rupee-denominated corporate bond market; - To deepen and strengthen the currency derivatives market to enable Indian companies to fully hedge against ben carson foreign currency risks; - To create one record for essays, all financial assets of every individual; - To enable smoother clearing and scholship essay, settlement for international investors looking to invest in Indian bonds. Commodity Derivatives Market. 67. Hon'ble Members will recall the payment crisis in the National Spot Exchange Limited (NSEL). Following the transfer of the subject to the Ministry of Finance, swift action was taken to sequester NSEL and to essays ensure there was no spill over of the crisis to the other regulated segments of the financial market. I propose to essay amend the Forward Contracts (Regulation) Act to on tupac changes strengthen the regulatory framework of the commodity derivatives market. Key Pending Bills. 68. I regret to essay by kate chopin record my disappointment that the Insurance Laws (Amendment) Bill and the Securities Laws (Amendment) Bill have not been passed by Parliament for reasons that have nothing to do with the merits of the Bills. Public Debt Management Agency.

69. Pursuant to the announcement in the Budget speech of 2011-12, Government is ready with the Public Debt Management Agency Bill. Essays On Tupac Changes! Following precedent, it is proposed to establish a non-statutory PDMA that can begin work in 2014-15. A VISION FOR THE FUTURE. 70. Madam Speaker, I now wish to look forward and outline a vision for the future. 71.I wonder how many have noted the fact that India's economy, in terms of the size of essays, its GDP, is the 11th largest in the world. There are great things in store. There is a well-argued view that in on tupac changes the next three decades India's nominal GDP will take the country to the third rank after the body image US and China. Just as the fortunes of the developed countries affect the emerging economies today, the fortunes of China and India will, in the future, have a significant impact on the rest of the essays changes world.

We therefore owe a responsibility not only to ourselves but to the whole world to grading rubric keep our economy in robust health. 72.The UPA Government has a clear line of sight to the goals that we have set for ourselves. I have broken down the steps toward those goals into tasks that must be undertaken by the Government of the day. I crave your leave to identify ten such tasks: i. Fiscal Consolidation: We must achieve the target of fiscal deficit of 3 percent of GDP by 2016-17, and remain below that level always. ii. Current Account Deficit: Since we will run a Current Account Deficit every year for some more years, it can be financed only by foreign investment, whether it is FDI or FII or ECB or any other kind of foreign inflow. Hence, there is no room for any aversion to foreign investment. iii. Price Stability and Growth: In a developing economy we must accept that when our aim is high growth there will be a moderate level of inflation. On Tupac! RBI must strike a balance between price stability and growth while formulating monetary policy.

iv. Essay! Financial Sector Reforms: The recommendations of the Financial Sector Legislative Reforms Commission that require no change in legislation must be implemented immediately and, for the other recommendations, we must draw a timetable for passing legislation. v. Infrastructure: We must rebuild our infrastructure and add a huge quantity of new infrastructure. Every proven model must be adopted and the PPP model must be more widely used. New financing structures must be created for on tupac changes, long term funds and pooling of investments. vi. Manufacturing: We must focus on manufacturing and especially on manufacturing for export.

I propose that all taxes, Central and State, that go into an exported product should be waived or rebated. I also propose that there should be a minimum tariff protection so that there is an incentive to manufacture goods in India rather than import them into India. vii. Subsidies: Given the grading for short essay limited resources, and the many claims on the resources, we must choose the subsidies that are absolutely necessary and give them only to the absolutely deserving. viii.

Urbanisation: Our cities will become ungovernable, and essays on tupac, perhaps unliveable, if we do not address the decay in our cities. Cities have wealth, cities also create wealth. That wealth should be tapped for resources to rebuild the cities with a new model of governance. ix. Skill Development: Skill development must rank alongside secondary education, university education, total sanitation and universal health care in the priorities of the Government. x. Sharing responsibility between States and Centre: States have the fiscal space to bear a reasonable proportion of the financial costs of implementing flagship programmes and must willingly do so, so that the Central Government can allocate more resources for subjects such as defence, railways, national highways and deforestation thesis, telecommunications that are its exclusive responsibility. 73. Revenues are of on tupac changes, paramount importance.

The best source of revenue is taxes and for that we need modern tax laws. I am disappointed that we have not yet been able to introduce GST. I leave it to you to answer the deforestation thesis question, who blocked the GST when an agreement on the game-changing tax reform was around the corner? We have also got ready a Direct Taxes Code that will serve us for at least the next twenty years. I intend to essays on tupac place it on the website for a public discussion without partisanship or acrimony. I appeal to all political parties to resolve to pass the GST laws and the DTC in 2014-15. Funding Scientific Research. 74. Our Government has passionately espoused the cause of science, promoted scientific research, and supported scientific applications and inventions. The Income-tax Act allows deductions for nursing essay, expenditure on scientific research, but it is limited to on tupac direct funding.

We have reflected on a new approach to deforestation thesis funding scientific research. I therefore propose to set up a Research Funding Organisation that will fund research projects selected through a competitive process. Contributions to that organisation will be eligible for essays on tupac, tax benefits. This will require legislative changes which can be introduced at interprofessional working nursing, the time of the regular Budget. 75. Essays On Tupac Changes! There has been much debate on illegal off-shore accounts held by Indians. Investigations into such accounts were launched in 2011. Despite several hurdles in obtaining evidence from the countries concerned, the Government has succeeded, through alternative methods and thesis, special efforts, in obtaining information in 67 cases and action is essays on tupac changes, underway to rubric for short essay determine the on tupac tax liability as well as impose penalty. Prosecutions for deforestation thesis, wilful tax evasion have been launched in 17 other cases. On Tupac Changes! More enquiries have been initiated into accounts reportedly held by Indian entities in no tax or low tax jurisdictions.

Changes in interprofessional working nursing Tax Rates. 76. In keeping with the conventions, I do not propose to make any announcements regarding changes to on tupac the tax laws. However, the current economic situation demands some interventions that cannot wait for the regular Budget. In particular, the manufacturing sector needs an essay immediate boost. Hence, I propose the following changes in some indirect tax rates: (i)To stimulate growth in the capital goods and consumer non-durables, I propose to reduce the excise duty from 12 percent to 10 percent on all goods falling under chapter 84 and chapter 85 of the Schedule to the Central Excise Tariff Act for the period up to 30.6.2014.

The rates can be reviewed at the time of the regular Budget. (ii) To give relief to the automobile industry which is registering unprecedented negative growth, I propose to on tupac reduce the excise duty as follows for the period up to 30.6.2014: Small cars, motor cycles, scooters. and commercial vehicles from 12% to 8% SUVs from 30% to 24% Large and mid-segment cars from 27/24% to body image 24/20%

Consequently, I propose to make appropriate reductions in the excise duty on chassis and essays changes, trailers. The rates can be reviewed at the time of the regular Budget. (iii) To encourage domestic production of mobile handsets (which has declined) and reduce the dependence on imports (which have increased), I propose to restructure the excise duties for all categories of mobile handsets. The rates will be 6 percent with CENVAT credit or 1 percent without CENVAT credit. (iv) To encourage domestic production of soaps and oleo chemicals, I propose to rationalise the customs duty structure on non-edible grade industrial oils and its fractions, fatty acids and fatty alcohols at 7.5 percent. (v) To encourage domestic production of specified road construction machinery, I propose to withdraw the exemption from CVD on similar imported machinery. (vi)To encourage indigenous production of security paper for printing currency notes, I propose to provide a concessional customs duty of 5 percent on capital goods imported by the Bank Note Paper Mill India Private Limited. 77.

I also propose to ben carson essay give relief from service tax in two cases. (i)By virtue of the definition of 'agricultural produce' in Finance Act 2012, read with the essays changes Negative List, storage or warehousing of paddy was excluded from the levy of service tax. Rice was not. The distinction is somewhat artificial. Hence, I propose to exempt loading, unloading, packing, storage and warehousing of rice from service tax. (ii) Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has requested that services provided by cord blood banks are also healthcare services and body essays, should be exempt from service tax. I propose to accept the essays on tupac changes request.

Notifications in respect of the essay above changes will be issued today. 78. I shall now present the Budget Estimates for 2014-15. 79.The current financial year will end on a satisfactory note with the fiscal deficit at 4.6 percent (below the red line of 4.8 percent) and the revenue deficit at 3.3 percent. 80. Emboldened by on tupac, the progress made, I have budgeted for receipts and expenditure in 2014-15 that will leave a fiscal deficit of 4.1 percent, which will be below the target set by the new fiscal consolidation path. Revenue deficit is estimated at 3.0 percent.

81.The estimate of plan expenditure is `555,322 crore. Non-plan expenditure is estimated at de vipere au, `12,07,892 crore. 82. Madam Speaker, Jean DrA?ze and Amartya Sen have pointed out that India was the first non-Western country - and also the first poor country in changes the world - to commit itself to by kate chopin a resolutely democratic way of governance. Democracy acknowledges diversity, respects dissent, encourages debate, and essays on tupac, decides through a government of interprofessional nursing essay, elected representatives. Neither populism nor majoritarianism nor individualism is an alternative way of governance.

83.Our way of governance has not come in the way of lifting 140 million people out of poverty in the last ten years. Essays Changes! That is the greatest achievement of the UPA Governments, and we are proud of the achievement. 84.In the ten years that I have been in the North Block, I have seen the body image best of times and difficult times. Essays! Never did I lose faith in Jawaharlal Nehru's idea of India that, in the words of Sunil Khilnani, sought to ben carson essay coordinate within the form of a modern state a variety of values: democracy, religious tolerance, economic development and cultural pluralism. It is with that faith that I shall remain on the bridge until the essays on tupac day when, I am sure, the people of India will entrust the responsibility to a hand that will hold the sceptre swayed with equity. Let me sign off with the couplet from the sage, Thiruvalluvar:

Vel Anru Venri Tharuvathu Mannavan. Kol Athuvoom Kodaathu Enin. (Not the interprofessional working nursing spear but sceptre swayed with equity Alone gives the changes ruler victory.) 85. Ben Carson! Madam Speaker, with these words I commend the Interim Budget to the House.

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an essay on milk All online transactions are done using all major Credit Cards or Electronic Check through either PayPal™ or Moneybookers™. These are safe, secure, and efficient ways to make payment online. Deciding whether to formula feed or breastfeed the essays on tupac baby is one of the crucial decisions expectant mothers make before giving birth. Organizations such as World Health Organizations (WHO), American Medical Association (AMA), American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and American Dietetic Association recommend breastfeeding as the essay by kate chopin best option for the newborn. Most of this organizations and other supporters of breastfeeding affirm that it defends the baby against essays changes infection, reduces the risks of grading certain chronic conditions and prevents allergies.

According to Brown, Isaacs and Lechtenberg (23), babies need to be fed on breast milk for the first half a year. Beyond this period, Clark (32) encourages feeding on breast milk for not less than 12 months. Regardless of experts’ belief that breastfeeding is the suitable nutritional choice for babies. Some women might not be able to breastfeed. For several women, the choice to formula feed or breastfeed relies hugely on their level of comfort, medical considerations and on tupac lifestyles.

Infant formula is the suitable alternative for mothers who might incapable of scholship essay breastfeeding. Feeding the baby formula guarantees that the nutritional needs of the baby be met. In addition, the mother will still be capable of bonding with the on tupac baby. The choice to formula feed or breastfeed seems to be an extremely personal one. In this regard, this paper attempts to compare and contrast the two ways of feeding newborns in order to establish the best one. Breastfeeding plays a pivotal role in fighting infections. According to Riordan and Wambach (78), the antibodies passed from the mother to the baby can assist in lowering the risks of contracting some condition such as ear infections, respiratory infections, diarrhea and meningitis.

Breastfeeding also protects the baby from infection by significantly contributing to the immune system of the baby. Breastfeeding achieves this by improving the barriers to infections and decreasing the growth of viruses and bacteria. According to de vipere au, Brown, Isaacs and Lechtenberg (45), breastfeeding is beneficial for babies since it safeguards against asthma, obesity, diabetes and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) The second advantage of breastfeeding is its nutritional value and ease of digestion. Breastfeeding is frequently referred to as perfect food for on tupac changes, digestive system of the baby. Breast milk contains components such as protein, lactose, and fat, which are easily digestible by the immature digestive system of the baby. According to Clark (45), infants fed on breast milk have less difficulty with digestion than babies fed on formula. De Vipere Au. Breast milk seems to be easily digested, which implies that breastfeed babies have fewer diarrhea instances. Breast milk also comprises of various minerals and vitamins required by the newborn, including vitamin D produced by the skin. Nevertheless, exposing the newborn to the sun might increase the risk of skin damage.

The third advantage of breast milk is that it is free. It is evident that breast milk does not cost any money (Brown, Isaacs and Lechtenberg 45). On the other hand, formula feeding increases the cost of on tupac changes bringing up the deforestation thesis baby. Essays On Tupac Changes. In addition, due to the antibodies and immunities passed onto the babies, they fall sick less often than babies fed on formula. Ben Carson Scholship. According to on tupac changes, researchers, babies fed on breast milk utterly have few episodes of ear infections. This implies that the mother makes few visits to ben carson scholship essay, the doctor, which translates to less money for over-the-counter medications and prescriptions. Changes. Breastfeeding has some convenience. Breastfeeding mothers do not have to take last minute rush to buy formula. This is because the working milk is always fresh and available. Additionally, when breastfeeding, there is no need to warm up the bottle in the late night (Clark 45).

Breastfeeding mothers are flexible enough to go out and about with their babies because breast milk is always available. However, breastfeeding has various disadvantages. The first challenge related to breastfeeding is personal comfort (Clark 76). Usually many mothers do not feel comfortable with breastfeeding. Latch-on pain seems to be usual for the first week of breastfeeding.

The pain lasts less than a minute for every breastfeeding. It is essays changes, recommended that the ben carson scholship essay mother should seek medical help if the pain persists. Most of the times, the pain can be dealt with by using suitable techniques. Sometimes the pain might imply that there are some infections. The second challenge of breastfeeding is time and frequency of on tupac feeding. It is evident that breastfeeding needs significant commitment from the mothers (Brown, Isaacs and Lechtenberg 55).

Some mothers have affirmed that nursing makes it hard for them to travel, work or make errands. This is due to grading essay, the breastfeeding schedule or the need to pump the essays milk during the day. Babies fed on breast milk need to eat more frequently than those fed on formula, since breast milk digests faster. Interprofessional Essay. This is quite tiring to the mother who might find herself in demand for every 2 or 3 hours. Breastfeeding mothers have to be very careful about what they consume as food (Clark 34). This is because the food consumed might be passed onto the baby. Breastfeeding women need to avoid food containing mercury and limit the essays on tupac changes consumption of mercury fish intake. The intake of caffeine should be limited to no more than 300 mg each day.

This is because caffeine causes some irritability and grading rubric essay restlessness in essays changes some babies. Other maternal medical conditions, breast surgery and medicines might pose problems during breastfeeding (Clark 66). Medical conditions like HIV/AIDS or those involving chemotherapy might make breastfeeding unsafe. As such, mothers need to check with the doctor concerning the safety of taking medications while breastfeeding. Mothers can feed their babies on formula. Formula feeding has various advantages over breast milk. Formula feeding has the advantage of convenience (Brown, Isaacs and Lechtenberg 56). Body Image Essays. The mother or another caregiver can feed the newborn at any given moment, though this also true for mothers who pump their breast milk. This enables the mother to on tupac changes, share the duties of feeding. Fathers can also participate in the feeding of the baby, unlike in breastfeeding where the mother is the only one involved in the feeding.

Formula feeding, unlike breastfeeding, comes with flexibility. A formula-feeding woman can leave the newborn with a caregiver or a partner. According to Clark (67), there is no need to interprofessional, pump the milk or schedule work and obligations around the feeding schedule of babies. Formula-feeding mothers do not need to look for a private place to feed their babies. Nevertheless, if a mother is changes, active with the essay by kate baby, she will need to supplies for making babies. Another advantage of formula feeding is associated with time and essays on tupac changes frequency of feedings. Essay. Since formula seems to essays changes, digest slower than breast milk, babies fed on deforestation thesis, formula often eat after long intervals of time.

In addition, women feeding their babies on formula do not need to worry about the changes food they consume that will affect their babies (Clark 45). Formula feeding also has some disadvantages. Formula lacks the important antibodies present in breast milk. This implies that formula does not offer the baby with the additional protection against illnesses and infections. Formula is expensive since it needs to essay, be bought. Powdered formula is the least expensive. Essays Changes. Ready-to-feed is the most expensive. Image. According to Brown, Isaacs and Lechtenberg (71), the cost of formula feeding can add up to about 1500 dollars during the first year of life.

Formula can result in constipation and on tupac the possibility of producing gas. According to Clark (71), babies fed on formula might have firmer bowel movements and more gas than children fed on for short, breast milk. According to Riordan and Wambach (71), formula cannot match the essays changes complexity of breast milk. In conclusion, breastfeeding is appropriate for babies. However, for any nutritional choice by the mother, it is important to consult the doctor about the choice. Breastfeeding should be preferred over formula feeding, though in circumstances where the mother cannot breast, because of complications, she can resort to formula feeding.

The major advantage of breastfeeding over formula feeding is the transfer of antibodies to the baby through breast milk. The antibodies are significant in protection of the baby against infections. Brown, Judith, et al. Nutrition through the life cycle . Essay. New York: Cengage Learning, 2011. Clark, Shonna. Breastfeeding vs.

Bottlefeeding . 22 October 2008. 23 April 2013 http://voices.yahoo.com/breastfeeding-vs-bottlefeeding-2058599.html. Riordan, Jan and Karen Wambach. Breastfeeding and human lactation. New York: Jones Bartlett Learning, 2010.

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china essay topics FROM COUNTRY TO CITY. Social Changes of China in Photography. Translated by essays on tupac, John Yu Zou. The Chinese Reform has been underway for more than a quarter of essay by kate a century. Essays Changes. This historical social transformation is one in which all of Chinese society is moving toward urbanization. In the context of working nursing essay such a massive makeover, Chinese documentary photography provides a sustained focus on social changes and unprecedented new social experiences. With support from Bates College, I organized this exhibition of on tupac changes photographs with works by seven contemporary Chinese photographers to illuminate the path that China has traveled in the past twenty-five years. Body. The exhibition is intended to illustrate changes in Chinese society to an American audience. The photographs by the painter Liu Xiaodi were taken in the late 1970s and early 1980s. At the time, while he was an art student on fieldwork trips in China’s rural areas, he sketched and took photographs.

As an art student, he was motivated to take the photographs as source material for his paintings. However, it is precisely because Liu did not receive formal schooling as a photographer that these images are free from some of the conventions of art photography. Instead of methodically orchestrating light and essays on tupac composition, he merely recorded what he saw through the camera, so that upon his return to the city, he could scrutinize the images again and rework them into his paintings. Without the photographer’s preoccupations, Liu’s work conveys a moment of transparency and simplicity. Village (series), 1978-1979. I place Liu at the beginning of the exhibition because his images of Chinese rural life retain the traces of a society bound by the social structure and lifestyles of the Maoist era.

Agricultural production among Chinese peasants, the conditions and substance of country living, and the states of the mind and mutual relations among people all receive representation in Liu’s works. The photographs that he originally took for his painting projects made him an working, accidental witness to a unique episode in Chinese history. Master of the House (series) Zhao Weidong, 16, Jiyvan County, Compared with Liu Xiaodi’s non-conceptual approach, Jiang Jian projects a distinctive formal and essays on tupac changes conceptual awareness in his portraits taken in Henan province during the de vipere au, 1990s. His technique has an essays on tupac changes, apparent and essays misleading straightforwardness. He positions peasant figures against images on the wall of the main room, the equivalent in Chinese rural architecture to the living room in an urban residence. In traditional Chinese living spaces, the central wall hanging in essays on tupac changes the main room expresses the values of essays Chinese patriarchy and is usually a large-sized painting or work of calligraphy.

The memorial tablets on the offering table express the importance of the lineage of the clan and the centrality of family ethics. Traditionally, the essays, cultural signs found in these graphic and rubric essay calligraphic images impose symbolic restraint upon the behavior of family members. Essays On Tupac. The main room is also the center of interprofessional working essay family activities including memorial services to ancestors, family conferences, and the reception of guests. The area serves family members and essays on tupac changes constitutes the key venue where they interact with visitors. These photographs reveal that, in essay chopin the context of contemporary Chinese social transformation, we find not only essays on tupac changes, ancient traditions persist in the space of these main rooms, but political ideologies and various elements of popular culture have now entered the space and are competing against one another.

Numerous political messages, images of contemporary popular culture, and signs of traditional culture coexist within the same space. Today, interiors revealing traditional ritual activities are becoming more rare in China, especially in the coastal cities. Essays. They are being replaced by décor evoking Western-style living rooms. Essays On Tupac. The Master of the House series expresses the persistence of deforestation thesis Chinese rural society and folk traditions in on tupac an increasingly urban China. How do we understand the concurrence of popular society, traditional culture, Confucian traditions, and political ideologies, and their mutual impact on contemporary China? To what extent may we achieve accuracy in their description with the help of different theories and methodologies? Many of us are facing these questions. Ben Carson Scholship Essay. The unique approach of the Master of the House series provides some heuristic leads.

Jiang Jian invites his subjects to adopt standing or sitting positions in a living space that is still richly resonant with meaning, and then within that format he records every visual detail of essays changes their bodily presence and their surroundings. It is through such detail that he displays the conditions of life among Chinese peasants, and through bold folk coloring he highlights the cultural taste in rural central China. At the same time, Jiang is also able to interprofessional nursing, render a scenario characterized by the coexistence of government ideologies, contemporary popular culture, and traditional culture. Of course, what we may further learn from the photographs is that the essays changes, process of urbanization is also one in resume de vipere which the essays, values of urban living begin to be widely circulated and to take root in rural areas. Jiang Jian thus makes available to us a set of visual documents to help understand the daily lives of Chinese peasants in a specific geographic region. Besiege the City by the Country (series) Through the 1990s, Zhang Xinmin, from Guangdong province, was engaged in a colossal visual project: Besiege the City by the Country: The Long March of Chinese Peasants to the City . This project consisted of three.

parts: Village and Small Town Life , To the City , and The City . In a panoramic sweep, Zhang tried to capture the single most significant event in the contemporary transformation of Chinese society: peasants’ departure. from their land and their integration into city life. Since the 1980s, because of image radical changes in China’s social structure and economic policies, there has been a fevered acceleration in the process of urbanization. Massive numbers of surplus laborers from rural China flocked to the city in search of work. Essays On Tupac. According to a survey conducted by the Rural Survey Team at China’s Central Statistics Bureau, by 2001 almost ninety million Chinese workers had moved from rural to urban regions. Besiege the City by the Country (series) However, for peasant workers, the prospects for life and work in the city have not been good. Essay. The challenges they face in the cities far surpass finding adequate food and shelter.

Cities and their social structures have also not been prepared enough, in either material or psychological terms, to welcome peasant workers. On Tupac. Even though the cities and image essays their traditional residents have grown dependent upon the services of peasant workers, the changes, latter are often subject to ill treatment. Zhang’s photographs reveal the urban survival techniques of Chinese peasants and their gradual transition toward their new roles as city dwellers. The moments he captures forcefully convey the image, details of peasant life in the city, whether it is the taking of pictures for identification cards, which is the first step toward finding a job in the city, or the pin-ups of voluptuous women and the blown-up images of changes a Chinese banknote decorating their mosquito-netted bunks. Zhang Xingmin’s photographs remind us that in the process of urbanization, peasant workers have come to body, constitute a key component of contemporary Chinese urban life. Their living and working conditions in the cities should be acknowledged as a part of China’s social reality, and a part of China’s urban culture. Through his photographic eye, Zhang gives detailed representation to their ordeals in the urban environment.

Shanghailanders (series), 1992-1995. In the 1990s, urbanization in on tupac China grew at an extraordinary pace. Chopin. Many social tensions intensified and became highly visible. While the speed of social change no doubt left an indelible impact on the values and lifestyles of changes peasants, it also profoundly reshaped the ideas and daily lives of urban dwellers. Beginning in the early 1990s, the Shanghai photographer Lu Yuanmin spent ten years producing the ben carson scholship, series Shanghailanders . With his highly personal perspective, he brought forth images of Shanghai urbanites assaulted by profound economic change. At the center of on tupac Lu Yuanmin’s photographs is deforestation a cohort of Shanghai residents who maintained their habitual ways of living on the eve of radical upheavals in on tupac changes Chinese society. The subjects of the Shanghailanders series are those who remained unconcerned with changes in their external world. For a long time, this social group received almost no attention in Chinese media and press.

They were not the soldiers, workers, and peasants glorified in government propaganda, nor those “contemporary heroes” who responded positively to the new economic policies from above and actively engaged in commerce when the society moved toward a market economy. These were instead the people left behind by resume de vipere au, their own times. Essays On Tupac. Like Zhang Xinmin’s peasant workers, these Shanghai urbanites were largely neglected by mass media. Body. But unlike the essays, peasant workers caught in Zhang’s gritty images, Shanghai’s residents asked for neither the ben carson scholship, society’s attention nor its assistance. They were a self-sufficient lot. At some level these Shanghailanders represent the majority of the population in the metropolis, urban residents who stayed largely outside public discourse. In terms of social background, Lu belongs to the same culture as his sitters. His photographs reveal a strong sense of identification with his subjects.

In these images independent, self-possessed Shanghailanders receive the deepest of sympathy from the artist, but the particulars of their living environments also become subjects of exquisite description. In this series, the Shanghailanders appear willing to lose themselves in times that have passed. From their reserved and somewhat defiant manners, we may appreciate the complicated psychological reaction of a particular group to radical social transformation. Essays. The stillness of their gestures and positions contrasts dramatically with the violent and unpredictable social mobility within Chinese society at the time. Through Lu’s lenses, they serve as a static point of reference to observe and consider drastic social changes. Shangai Sketch (series), 2002. Zhou Ming’s early works, The Last Day of No. Grading For Short. 1 National Railway and Housing Shortages , were series that recorded Shanghai urban life at the beginning of the 1990s.

From then on, he gave priority to street shots in an effort to capture changes in Shanghai’s urban public spaces. These were distinctive for the employment of what photographers call the “optic unconscious.” Zhou seeks to render the reality of Shanghai in a style that straddles documentary record and personal viewpoint. On Tupac Changes. He does so by gathering a large number of photographic details of everyday life in thesis the city. He also juxtaposes graphic symbols of very different significance within the. same frame to provoke associations regarding the passage of time. The New Residences of Luoyang series, created by Luo Yongjin in the 1990s, addresses an ancient Chinese capital of six different dynasties. Luoyang is not a typical modern city, and the images evoke a “pre-modern” urban architectural style. Depicting contemporary Chinese residential buildings of extraordinary solidity and power, the photographer articulates a deep-seated Chinese architectural aesthetic and spatial consciousness. Essays. By way of stark visual reduction, these works bring together the essay, architectural aspects of Chinese residential construction and the reductive nature of Western modernist architecture, even though the on tupac, similarity comes across as rather crude. Au. The aggressive architectural surfaces in the images stand in contrast to the clusters of skyscrapers in the coastal cities, and are evidence that urbanization in the Chinese interior follows a different pattern from the coast.

New Residences of Luoyang (series) Such works by Luo provide a meaningful point of departure for an understanding of the relationship between architecture and urban life and development in interior Chinese cities, as well as the limited aesthetic resources of essays Chinese city dwellers in these areas. After Luo began working in Shanghai, his collage-style, grid-partitioned works singularly expressed the image, modern city’s endless expansiveness and self-duplication. In the essays, recent publication, Research Report on Contemporary Chinese Class (Lu Xueyi editor, Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe, Beijing, 2002), Chinese sociologists redefined the social classes in China. According to essay chopin, this model, Chinese society now may be divided into ten classes.

The leading classes of the Maoist era, the industrial workers and peasants, are ranked eighth and ninth, posited above only the tenth class, made up of the unemployed and semi-unemployed. According to this scheme industrial workers and peasants are no longer the decisive forces propelling social progress in China. Essays Changes. The “masters” of Chinese society in Maoist times now define the lowest strata of the social hierarchy. Heaviness of Industry (series) At a time when working-class existence is essay chopin increasingly marginalized and workers’ images appear with ever decreasing frequency in China, Zhou Hai’s Heaviness of Industry project refocuses our attention on the life and working conditions of essays industrial workers who have been irretrievably remade into the society’s “silent majority.” Zhou’s documentary project began in 1997 and is, according to him, still ongoing. In his own writing, he makes it clear that the motive in taking these pictures is to draw more peoples’ attention toward what is hidden behind industries, toward the labor and subsistence of the workers. His images are intended to call attention to de vipere, the human component of the abstract notion of industry. He wants to demonstrate the heaviness of industry as supported by these silent human figures, a heaviness borne by the real members of the working class. While the images in the Heaviness of Industry series strive to show the workers’ labor and subsistence in physical terms, they also expose the drift of the working class as a whole from the center of Chinese society to essays changes, its peripheries.

The Heaviness of Industry series catalogs a number of raw moments in workers’ operational routines from a rich variety of perspectives. Zhou’s images do not aestheticize the grading rubric, laborers’ physical hardship, nor do they present sensational characterizations of human tragedy. Neither singing praise to modernization nor reflecting upon on tupac changes, the negative consequences of the process may be as important as providing a site for an extensive social appreciation of the material experiences of “industry,” of the persons who are engaged in rubric for short industrial production, of the essays, relationship between the human body and work, of the value of work to the entire society. Heaviness of Industry (series) Because of the nursing, special conditions of essays on tupac social development and scholship essay historical coincidences, modernization in China is essays changes following a unique trajectory.

Well before its infrastructural base undergoes systematic industrial modernization, the country faces a transition toward a digital society. The conflicting objectives and realities between the pursuit of industrialization and the drive toward post-industrial environments result in much awkwardness in actual social experience. The industrial workers in image Zhou’s pictures embody such awkwardness in the most direct terms. These works do not excessively elaborate upon the experience itself. Rather, they introduce us to the complicated psychological states — a mixture of pride, perseverance, loss, and helplessness — with which the changes, workers react toward the de vipere au, complexities of the historical moment. By weaving together subliminal settings and essays on tupac intimate depictions, Zhou takes his subjects away from the Maoist myths handed down from the past and returns them to their actual condition and deforestation salvation.

From the documentary works by these Chinese photographers, we may conclude that there is changes a parallel between the working, growth of Chinese documentary photography and changes in Chinese society. The appearance of works with a distinct social vision bespeaks of the beginning of a process in which Chinese photography is emerging from the essays, constraints of state ideologies. Photographers are taking individual critical stances toward the reality of for short society. The cameras in the photographers’ hands are tools to record dramatic transformation and day-to-day social experience while they articulate a personal worldview.