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Esu application essay
book reports on dogs Book Report by Dave, age 13, New Jersey USA. Shiloh is a touching story about a young dog who gets. Essay? beaten and a boy who finds him and cares for him. Shiloh is Judd Traver's dog who is greatly mistreated by him. Marty is the boy who is heroic enough to save Shiloh. Value Need Essay? Marty changes a lot during the essay story mostly by his. responsibility.
At the beginning, he didn't do much or want. to do much. At the end, he experienced taking care of Shiloh. and working for him. Marty is a lot like people now and value need essay a lot. unlike people now. He is similar to people now because he. cares for esu application essay, animals. Value Need Hour? People today have groups or companies. that help lost or abused dogs. Marty is unlike people today. Esu Application? because he cares a lot about dogs and some people mistreat. dogs just like Judd did to Shiloh.
Shiloh's main idea is to write teach people to never give up on what. Esu Application? you want, no matter how hard it may seem. Marty did this. by continuously working to get Shiloh and he finally got him. at the end of the book. At first, Marty started by collecting. cans to earn some money. By the india as a developing country end, he made a deal with. Essay? Judd to work for 20 hours to get Shiloh.
In real life, people. Resume Powerbuilder? must do this everyday to achieve their goals or to get what. they want. Shiloh is not very suspenseful, but held my interest. just fine. This book had many main events continuously and you. knew that Marty was going to get Shiloh. At times it seemed. bleak for Shiloh and Marty, but they pulled through together. Esu Application Essay? Marty and Shiloh have many close calls, either someone finding. out about Marty hiding Shiloh, or finding out that Marty has. I really enjoyed this book. I like it because the author makes. you feel happy, sad, mad, and makes you laugh and want to cry. The best part is essay left no when Marty works to get Shiloh back and. does later in the book. He worked so hard for Shiloh and. Essay? deserved him.
The worst part is when the other dog attacked Shiloh. I recommend this book to anyone who likes dogs. This book. kept me on the edge of my seat while I was reading. I liked. how the author wrote in the way people would think. This is. an important book because it teaches people about how animals. need a chance and that if an animal or someone is being hurt, then you should do something to stop it. I think the author could have been a little clearer about Shiloh's. past, although I did get it, other people might not. H1n1 Essay? I don't think. animals should be abused because every living thing has a right. to be respected because everything on Earth has a reason for living. Book Report by April, age 13, Alberta Canada. I absolutely love the essay Santa Paws books!
I own all five. of them and every time a new one comes out I buy it. right away! Santa Paws is a very touching story because. we found a homeless dog and left we took him in also. Then. again, Sneakers, (our Border Collie) doesn't do amazing. things like save families from burning buildings, but we. love him no matter what he does. Essay? Nicholas Edwards is. an amazing author and I hope to behind child no see more Santa Paws. Book Report by Jessica, age 14, England. I love this book. It makes you feel like you are that little.
puppy who lost his mother and its brothers and sisters. and is searching for someone to love him. Then he. started to do these good deeds around the essay town and. everyone who heard of this brave puppy loved him. and in the end he got a family that loved and cared. Book Report by Anonymous, Age 13. Billy lives on a farm. He wants two good coonhounds. very badly, but his Papa cannot afford any.
Billy works. hard, selling fruit and bait to fishermen, so eventually he. How To? has enough money for the dogs. He gives the money to. his grandfather, who orders the esu application dogs for writing, him. Essay? Billy sneaks. off in the middle of the night to go to essay left no town and essay pick them up. While in town, other children pick on him, but he stands. up for himself and is helped by the Marshal. On his way. home, he and his two pups sleep in a cave. Outside, they. hear a mountain lion, and the pups bravely howl back. He. decides to name them Old Dan and Little Ann. He can see. that Old Dan is very brave, and ser dissertation that Little Ann is very smart.
Once home, he wants to begin training them. He has to have. a raccoon hide to train them with. His grandfather shows him. a way to set a trap that will catch even a clever coon. Just. Esu Application Essay? when he is about to give up on the traps, he catches a coon. The next day he begins to train Old Dan and Little Ann.
By the. time racoon season starts in the fall, they are ready. On the. first night, his dogs tree a coon in the biggest tree imaginable. Billy immediately sees that it will take days to cut down. He. is determined to cut it down, because he told his dogs that if. Need? they could tree a coon he would take care of the rest. His. dogs are counting on him. His parents bring him food. His. grandfather shows him how to make a scarecrow, to keep. the coon in the tree so he can go home and eat dinner.
When. the esu application big sycamore finally falls and his dogs catch the coon, Billy goes coon hunting almost every night. His father. relieves him of his chores, and writing Billy gives him the money. from his coonskins. Sometimes, coons try to trick his dogs, and Old Dan gets into trouble. One night, Dan gets stuck in. a muskrat hole. Another night, he climbs a tree. Esu Application Essay? Little Ann. is usually too smart to get into trouble, but one night, after. the country essay first snowfall, she falls through the ice on the river. Billy barely rescues her. Billy's grandfather enters Billy in esu application essay a coon-hunting contest.
He, his grandfather, and his father take a buggy to the. contest. It is filled with adult coon hunters with expensive. gear and h1n1 essay beautiful hounds. Somehow, Little Ann wins the. beauty contest on the first day. The other coon hunters. are very kind to esu application Billy. Left No? Billy and his dogs qualify for essay, the. championship round. While Billy, his papa, his grandfather, and a judge are out hunting with coons, a winter blizzard. begins. They lose track of the dogs, and Billy's grandfather. falls and india developing essay badly sprains his ankle. They stop and build a fire. as day begins to break.
Soon enough, they find the dogs, covered with ice. They have gotten just enough coons to win. Everyone at the tournament cheers. Billy has also won a. jackpot of 300 dollars. Essay? Billy's mama and sisters are overjoyed. Billy keeps. up his hunting. Ser Dissertation Workshop? One night, however, his dogs tree a. mountain lion. Old Dan howls defiantly, and the big. Esu Application Essay? cat attacks. Billy is horrified, and with his axe he. enters the fray, hoping to save his dogs, but they end. up having to save him.
Eventually, the dogs defeat. the mountain lion, but Old Dan is badly wounded. He. H1n1 Essay? dies the next day. Billy is heartbroken, but Little Ann is. so sad that she loses her will to live, and dies a few days. later. Billy's papa tries to tell him that it is all for essay, the best, because with the money Billy has earned, the family. hopes to move to town. Billy does not completely recover. until on the day of the move; he goes to visit the dogs' graves and finds a giant red fern.
According to Indian legend, only an writing, angel can plant a red fern. Billy and his family look at. the fern in awe, and he feels ready to esu application leave for the town. Book Report by Brandi, age 13, Canada, AB. I have read this book and I am looking forward. to education need hour essay reading the whole series! Anyone who reads. this book will be truly touched like I was! It is esu application essay very sad what animals have been going. through especially Santa Paws/Nick! Santa Paws. is a hero in Oceanport and he always will be! He. is lucky to developing essay be known as a hero but the lucky ones. are the people that have encountered him and have. been saved by his efforts! Including the time he. rescued a drowning boy, found a blind girls wallet, found a homeless family a home (which he needed), and esu application essay of course helped a family escape from their burning. home! The ending like a fairy tale, you can. guess what that means!
Yes, it's a happily ever after, I like those endings! Anyone who can read English. should go out and buy it or go to the library and rent it. or one of the series and READ IT! I highly recommend. it for everybody and everyone! Book Report by Amanda, age 8, California USA. I like this book because it is very cute, I love to. read it every day because it is a lot like my dog. I like to read it to developing country essay my friend Bryanna. My dog likes. Book Report by esu application Liz, age 9, New Jersey USA. This is the story of a dog that comes to stay at powerbuilder, King Street. Essay? Kennels.
Neil finds that she has been trained expertly! Jessie. is her name. Soon, the resume kids discover a secret about Jessie's. Esu Application Essay? owner. I think this is a very good book, and everyone should read it. Because of Winn Dixie. Behind No? Book Report by Jenni, age 12, Illinois USA. This is a great book about a girl who has just moved to a new. town in Florida. She has no friends until she meets Winn Dixie, a dog she finds in the supermarket. With Winn Dixie as her new. friend, she meets all sorts of people.
Winn Dixie is such a good. dog that he even gets to go to church. One day the girl has a party. and during a thunderstorm, Winn Dixie gets lost. Will she find her. best friend? This book has a funny ending and I am sure that once. you read this book, you will love it. by Sheila Burnford.
Book Report by Alina, age 13, Arizona USA. This was a pretty good book. It was about three house pets- a Siamese cat, a Labrador, and a bull terrier. Esu Application? This book was. about a man who got three pets from powerbuilder people who didn't had. enough money or had to move somewhere and were not. allowed to take with them their pets.
Then the esu application essay man goes on. vacation and value education of the asks if his neighbor would pet sit the house pets. When the neighbor arrives, she finds out that the animals have. escaped through the gate and into the wild. The three pets. soon get separated and reunited in the wild. They always meet. all kinds of esu application essay, creatures and people. They always heading west. and west they always land in DANGER. Will they ever find. home to their loved ones.
Book Report by Laura, age 14, California USA. It is about what to india country essay expect from a dog. Esu Application? I learned a lot. about dogs and games to with my dog. Scooby - Doo and the Groovy Ghost. by James Gelsey. Ser Dissertation? Book Report by esu application essay Stephanie, Age 7, Utah, USA. How To? Scooby-Doo and his friends were trying to save the old Palace Theater.
There was a big guitar playing ghost haunting the theater. The ghost. wanted everyone out! It is up to Shaggy and Scooby to find who is. Essay? behind that blue ghost mask. by Joan Hiatt Harlow. Book Report by Stephanie, Age 7, Utah, USA. This book is about Maggie and her dog, Sirius. Maggie's dog is in. danger. The people in the town have outlawed all non-sheepherding. dogs. There is another problem. Maggie's cousin is sick.
I recommend. this book to kids who like action packed dog stories. by india as a developing essay Meindert DeJong. Book Report by esu application Stephanie, Age 7, Utah USA. Jon and Vestri are spending their summer with their Grandma and Grandpa. They all went to h1n1 essay writing get a puppy. They couldn't decide so they took home. all three puppies.
They had trouble taking care of esu application essay, all those puppies. My favorite part was when Grandpa and kids took the puppies fishing. Chicken Soup For The Pet Lovers Soul. H1n1 Essay? Book Report by Json, age 14, West Virginia USA. I loved this book so much because it teaches you about the good times, bad times, and sad times about dogs. Some stories make you cry.
Other. make you laugh! All the stories are true and esu application are unique in writing their own way! I recommend this book to all you PET lovers, not just dog lovers. Book Report by Kelly, age 8, Tennessee USA. I liked it because it tells step by step how to train your dog. It even works. if you do it right. It worked for me.
I recommend that you read Dog Tricks. Don't forget to buy treats! by esu application essay Phyllis Reynolds Naylor. Book Report by Andy, age 10, Indiana USA. I liked this book because I like Beagles. I have a neighbor who abuses. his Beagle like Judd treats Shiloh.
And I would like to buy her. The Dog Who Rescues Cats: The True Story of Ginny. by Philip Gonzalez. Book Report by Mary, Age 8. It's about a man who works as a construction worker and has an accident. One of his machines take his arm off and his friend, Sheila, thinks he. should get a dog and ser dissertation he does and esu application later he finds out his dog likes to save cats. How To Take Care of h1n1 essay, Your Pet. Book Report by Jennifer, Age 10, New Jersey USA. The book was a big help and I told my mother all about esu application how we should. treat our dog and india country the things we should do for her and esu application what to feed her. and when. I liked the value education need of the book because I did not know some of the things I. Essay? WatchDog and the Coyotes , by need hour Bill Wallace.
Book Report by Jocelyn, age 12, Ontario, Canada, I read a book called 'Watchdog and the Coyotes'. The author is Bill Wallace. The book is about a dog named Sweetie. Essay? He is too nice to bark or bite. Burglars were breaking into his owner's house. Then these mean coyotes were. Powerbuilder? coming and eating all Sweetie's food. Essay? One day he got mad and scared them away. for good. After that, any burglars that came around got scared away. Resume Powerbuilder? It was my. Book Report by Jocelyn, age 12, Ontario, Canada, I liked the book because it tells how to train your dog and esu application and gives lots of. information about making your dog a professional hunting dog.
Book Report by Stephanie, age 7, Virginia USA. One day a dog was walking with his owner when a dog said, You are fat! . The two dogs got into a fight and ser dissertation workshop the owners said Stop that, this instant! . Esu Application Essay? So they did what they were told to do. The end. Strider, by Beverly Cleary. Book Report by resume powerbuilder Maria, age 8, Pennsylvania USA. I like the book Strider. It is about a dog who learns to read. Lad: A Dog by Albert Payson Terhune. Book Report by Kiri, age 11, Massachusetts USA.
I'm writing about esu application essay Lad: A Dog. I think this book is a great book!! It's true. and that's what makes it so fantastic. There are many stories in here, but I'm. not gonna tell you anything-so you have to read it yourself to find out how. Shiloh Season by Phyllis Reynolds Naylor. Book Report by Joey, Age 12, Missouri USA. In the sequel to powerbuilder Shiloh, Marty still has Shiloh and Judd is drinking because. he gave Shiloh to Marty. Esu Application? Marty has 3 wishes, and one of them is to essay love him. always. Dara Lynn got bit by one of Judd's dogs and then Judd had a wreck and. broke his legs.
Marty's dad took him food. To find out more please read the book. Shiloh Season by Phyllis Reynolds Naylor. Book Report by Floyd, Age 11, Missouri USA. When the story started, everybody was talking about how Marty got Shiloh. from esu application essay Judd. Judd was mean and a drunk. Marty had a friend name David and he. spent the night at David's house. In the middle of the behind essay left night, David put on a. scary mask and essay scared Marty.
That was my favorite part of the story. Judd was. in a wreck and broke his legs. The town helped him by feeding his dogs and. bringing him food. Marty decided to write Judd a letter and at the end of india as a developing, the. story . (Oops!
You'll have to read what happens yourself!). Essay? The Sneezing Dog, by Enid Blyton. Book Report by Si Qi, age 10, Singapore. This book is about a dog which always sneezes and disturbs his owner. So one day, his owner left him on the roadside and never ever cared about him. anymore. But a little boy saw the dog and adopted him as a pet. A Dog's Secret Life. Book Report by Gizmo, Age 13, Mississippi USA. In 'A Dog's Secret Life', a lady goes undercover to see a dog's real life! She will show you what dogs think, how they feel, what they go through, and much more.
When you realize how much dogs go through, you'll just. about ser dissertation workshop die. I cried a whole lot. The Invisible Dog. Book Report by Greg, Age 8, Oregon USA. The Invisible Dog is a really great book. Esu Application Essay? I am sure you will love it. I did. Ribsy, by Beverly Cleary. Book Report by need of the hour Tyler, Age 9, Colorado, USA. My book report is about Ribsy, by essay Beverly Cleary.
It is about a dog who. gets lost, and it all starts with a flea. The flea had been making Ribsy itch. under his collar, so his owner, Henry, takes the collar off. Next thing you know. Well don't ask me what happens. I loved it. I've read it several times.
To find out. what happens after the collar comes off, read the as a country essay book! How To Train Your Dog. Book Report by RUDY, Age 11, Ohio USA. Hi! I have read a book called How To Train Your Dog and it tells this really. Esu Application? neat stuff about education need hour how to make your dog sit, lay down, roll over, fetch, and. stuff like that. Maybe you should try reading that. The Trouble With Tuck, by Theodore Taylor. Book Report by Melissa, Age 11, Georgia USA. I read a book about a dog named Friar Tuck III. It was about a dog that was. slowly becoming blind and his owner was determined she could do something. about it. Well, she got a guide dog for him, and that's how she saved her dog from.
being put to sleep because he was blind. It's a great book called The Trouble With. Jump to form below. Eyewitness Book of Dogs. by Juliete Lutton-Broc k. Random House 1991. Book Report by Matthew, Age 9, California USA. This book has a lot of essay, dog facts. One of the facts is that dogs have. As A Developing Essay? a strong sense of smell. I found another interesting fact about a dog's eyes.
Inside a dog's upper and lower eyelid there is a third eyelid which protects. My favorite part is the facts about wolves. I used a lot of facts from the book. when I wrote my wolf book report. I recommend this book for kids. ages 6-18 years old. Esu Application Essay? I give this book a rating of 6 out of 6 stars. Behind No? The Puppy Who Wanted A Boy. Book Report by Abigail, Age 7, Connecticut USA. The puppy searched for a boy.
And then he found a boy!! Where the esu application essay Red Fern Grows. by Wilson Rawls. Book Report by Alex, 5th grade, California USA. Billy was setting up camp in as a developing essay a cave on the way home from town. He started. to esu application essay build a fire to writing eat with his pups. When he went to essay sleep, he woke up because a. mountain lion screamed. Then he went back to developing country essay sleep. Essay? When he got home, he told his family everything. He trained his dogs night and day. And when. the big hunting day opened, Billy was ready. by Reynolds Naylor.
Book Report by Jennifer, 5th grade, California USA. The book I read was a real interesting one. It was about a dog who had. an owner abuse him. The dog wanders over to where a boy named Marty lives. Marty gets attached to workshop the dog and when the dog's owner asks the boy if. he's seen his dog, Marty says no. Marty keeps Shiloh in essay a pen as a secret until his mom finds out. Then a German Shepherd tears Shiloh up and he has to go to the doctor. Judd Travers finds out and wants his dog back by Sunday. When Sunday comes around, Marty is going to tell Judd that he's not. going to ser dissertation workshop give Shiloh back. On his way to Judd's house, Marty sees Judd shoot. a doe in the forest.
Because the deer is shot out of season, they make a bargain. Esu Application? The boy will work twenty hours for Judd. Then Judd will give Shiloh to Marty, by Beverly Cleary. Book Report by Sara, 5th grade, California. The book was about Leigh finding a dog on the beach. When he found him, he was with Barry, so they decide to both have joint custody of the dog. They decide to ser dissertation name the dog Strider. Barry and Leigh got in esu application essay a fight soon. after they found Strider. Writing? Barry ended up having full custody of esu application, Strider. When they made up, they both had joint custody of Strider again until Barry. decided to give him to Leigh because he bothered Barry's pet cats too much.
So in the end. (sorry, you'll have to read the end yourself!) See it posted on this page! Want to tell us about. a good dog book you have read? Then fill out the form below. It's easy! Hey, kids! Join Cody's Book Club today! How To Love Your Dog. Powerbuilder? A Kid's Guide to Dog Care. Copyright 1998 - 2011 by Janet Wall and esu application essay Rick Wall. May be reproduced for individual or classroom use only.
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MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays. 0.1) If you’ve been asked to essay, submit a paper in MLA style, your instructor is resume powerbuilder asking you to format the page and present the content in a specific way. Just as football referees dress a certain way, and essay Japanese chefs cook a certain way, writers in certain disciplines follow a certain set of conventions. This document will show you how to format an essay in MLA style. 0.2) If, instead of questions about as a essay, putting the final formatting touches on essay your essay, you have questions about powerbuilder, what to write, see instead my handouts on writing a short research paper, coming up with a good thesis statement, and using quotations in essay, the body of your paper. (no comma between the author and page number; commas and periods go outside of inline quotes) Works Cited List. (lots of tricky details! sort alphabetically by ser dissertation author, not by esu application the order the quotes appear in your paper)
For the most complete information, check your campus library or writing center for the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers , 8th ed. MLA Style Format (First Page) How to format the h1n1 essay writing Works Cited page of an MLA style paper. Your word processor comes with default settings (margin, line height, paragraph spacing, and typeface) that will likely need adjustment. For MLA style, you need:
1-inch margins all around 2.0 line height (double-space the esu application essay whole paper, including title block and Works Cited list) no extra spacing after the title, between paragraphs, or between bibliography items 12-point typeface (usually Times New Roman ) 1.1 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Windows) My copy of Microsoft Word for Windows defaults to. 1-inch margins all around 1.15 line height 10pt spacing between paragraphs Calibri 11-point typeface. Changing to MLA Style (Windows) The default margins in my test run were fine, but if you need to change them: Page Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Education Of The Hour? Change it to 2.0.
CTRL-A (select all your text) Home - Line Spacing - Remove Space After Paragraph Change the typeface to Times New Roman 12-point. Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) 1.2 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Mac) My copy of Microsoft Word for Mac defaults to. 1.25 inch left and essay right margins, 1 inch top and bottom 1.0 line height no extra spacing after paragraphs Cambria 12-point typeface.
In my test run, the left and right margins are too big. To change them: Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Change it to 2.0. Home - Line Spacing - 2.0 My Mac copy of MS-Word does not add extra spaces after paragraphs. If yours does: Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style (check this box) - OK The 12-point Cambria will probably be fine, but to change the typeface: Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) In the top right of every page, use your word processor’s “Page Header” function add an automatic page number and your surname. 2.1 Adding the Page Header in write, MS-Word (Windows) Insert - Page Number - Top of Page - (choose the right-justified “Plain Number” option) The cursor will jump automatically to the right place for you to t ype your surname . Click anywhere in the body of the esu application essay paper to exit the header area.
2.2 Adding the Page Header in MS-Word (Mac) Insert (in the powerbuilder top menu) - Page Numbers… - (Set “Position” to “Top of Page (header)” and “Alignment” to “Right”) Click just to the left of the new page number, and type your surname . On my test document, my name was too far over to the left; grab the triangular tab adjuster just above your name, and essay drag it a notch to how to ascript, the right . In the upper left corner, type your name, your instructor’s name, the essay course number and section, and today’s date. Centered on the next line, type an informative title that actually informs the how to write ascript reader of your main point (not just “English Paper” or “A Comparison between Hamlet and Macbeth”). Like all the other text in an MLA style paper, the title block is double-spaced . The title is in the same font as the rest of the paper — it is not boldface, or enlarged. There is no extra space above or below the title.
A truly informative title will include the essay general topic, and value education need of the essay your precise opinion on that topic. (So, if you pan to esu application essay, compare Hamlet and Macbeth, your title should state the unique point you want to how to, make about Hamlet and Macbeth. Esu Application? Reuse part of your thesis statement.) This handout presumes you already know why you should cite your sources (to establish your authority, to introduce persuasive evidence, to avoid plagiarism, etc.), These instructions focus on behind child essay how you format the page. (For a resource to help you determine how to esu application, cite a specific source, see the MLA Bibliography Builder). To fully cite a source requires two stages. The first happens in the body of your paper (the “in-text citation”) and the second happens on a separate page at the end of your paper (see “Works Cited List,” below.) 4.1 Citing a Block Quote (more than three lines) Long quotes can start to look like filler. Only use a block quote if you have a very good reason to include the whole passage. (You can usually make your point with a shorter quote.) If you do have a good reason to quote a passage that is several lines long: Select the as a developing country text and essay click the “ Increase Indent ” icon (see image, right).
Place the parenthetical citation (the author’s name and the page number) after the period . (This is different from inline quotes, below.) There is no comma between the author’s name and ascript the page number. If the quotation runs across more than one page: (Wordsworth-Fuller 20-21) or (Wordsworth-Fuller 420-21). Skip wordy introductions such as, “In his informative guide The Amazing Writing Book , published by Elizabeth Mount College in 2010, the noted composition expert Maxwell Wordsworth-Fuller describes the importance of citations in MLA style papers.” Cutting the filler leaves more room to develop your own original ideas. (See “Integrating Quotations.”) 4.2 Citing an Inline Quotation. When the passage you want to essay, quote is less than three lines long, use inline style. Powerbuilder? Here we have two brief passages, taken from the same page of the same source, so we can handle both with a single parenthetical citation. The parenthetical citation appears outside the quoted material. The period that ends the sentence comes after the essay close parenthesis . (This is write different from esu application block quotes, above.) In this example, we have changed the first word a little, lowercasing it in order to fit it into our own sentence.
To let the reader know what we changed, we put  around it. Again, note the ascript absence of esu application, a full sentence that explains who Wordsworth-Fuller is and as a developing country where the quote comes from. All that info will be in the Works Cited list, so we leave it out of the essay body of the paper. Let’s imagine we want to how to write, reference Wordsworth-Fuller’s general idea about citation as a way to establish credibility, but we don’t need to esu application essay, include any of the technical details. We can save space, and make it much easier on our reader, if we paraphrase: Use paraphrasing for variety, or to make a passing reference without taking up much space. If we use an author’s idea, rephrased in ser dissertation, our own words, we must still cite the idea. A research paper isn’t a research paper unless you end with full bibliographical details on every source you cited. This part can be tedious and tricky; leave yourself plenty of time to do it. Start a new page . MS-Word Wind: Insert - Page Break - New Page.
MS-Word Mac: Document Elements - Break - Page. Title your new page: Works Cited. MLA style calls for no extra spaces above or below the page title; no special formatting. 5.1. How to Create an Individual Works Cited Entry.
Exactly what goes into each item in your bibliography depends on what kind of item it is. Esu Application Essay? The following pages give you some questions to answer, then let you push a button to resume powerbuilder, get an esu application, individual works-cited entry. If you prefer a more narrative explanation, see Purdue OWL’s handouts for powerbuilder how to create a bibliography entry for a book, an article in a periodical (such as a journal or newspaper), or an electronic source (such as an email, web page or a YouTube clip). See also this list of other common sources (such as a personal interview or a movie). 5.2. Esu Application? How to Organize Your Works Cited list.
Sort the entries alphabetically by the author ‘s last name. If the author is an organization (such as a government agency or non-profit foundation), alphabetize according to the name of the organization . If you are citing a painting, or a composer, then obviously “author” has to be interpreted a little loosely. Of The? Unless your instructor ask you to organize your Works Cited list differently, everything should be alphabetized together, in a single list. Essay? MLA does not require that you separate works of different kinds, or that you cite works in the order that they appeared in ser dissertation, your paper, or that you write annotations to go along with each item. Use double-spaced line height. (in my copy of Word, I select the text and choose Format - Paragraph - Line spacing - Double - OK.) Use hanging indent paragraph format. Esu Application? (In my copy of india developing country essay, word, I select the text then choose Format - Paragraph - Indentation - Special - Hanging Indent.) 29 May 2011 — new document posted, replacing outdated handout written in esu application essay, 1999. 06 Jun 2011 — expanded section on organizing the Works Cited list, since several readers asked for clarification. 07 Jun 2011 — reorganized for emphasis. 19 Apr 2012 — added numbers to more subheads. 30 Nov 2016 — added annotated Works Cited sample image. If your college instructor wants you to cite every fact or opinion you find in an outside source, how do you make room for your own opinion?
Paraphrase, quote selectively, and avoid summary.Dennis G. Jerz. MLA Works Cited Citation Builder. 0 thoughts on h1n1 writing “ MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays ” I think you should add an explanation about esu application, page numbers. How To Write Ascript? That was what I was looking for, but I couldn’t find the significant area. Section 2 explains how to esu application essay, put page numbers in the header, and section 4 discusses page numbers in citations. How do you in text cite a website? I didnt really see much about that. Very good information, I really needed this incite on research paper formats. Ser Dissertation? It has such thorough details and essay that make it so much easier to understand. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the value education need hour essay text appears on esu application within the authors works?
That means the quote is from page 20 of the as a country essay book or article written by Wordsworth-Fuller. Thank you for esu application essay valuable information. Before my college year in America I didn’t know what MLA Format was, but with this delicate information I will survive my college year. Thank you for no useful information about how to esu application essay, write MLA format essay. Before my college year I didn’t know there were many different forms of essay. When my professor asked me to write MLA format I had no idea how to behind essay no, write it, but with your delicate information I think I will survive my college year. Thank you again. I’m glad to know you found this page helpful. Most instructors will be happy to esu application, help if you stop by during their office hours, and if your prof is too busy for that most universities will have a writing center where you can get help at as a country essay any stage of any assignment involving writing. With your delicate information about to write MLA format essay in right way will lead me to successful college year. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the text appears on within the essay authors works?
In this case, your paper would be referring to something you found on page 20 of the text by Wordsworth-Fuller. i think you should add an explanation about page header. that was what i was looking for. Is the h1n1 essay writing Table of esu application essay, Contents double spaced – MLA? “@pretti_slimm: @Thyler_Jonzy http://t.co/QIf00vlgws try this site looks helpful”I just found a sample paper on resume powerbuilder Google. Im in middle school and essay I have to do this. I have never heard of MLA Format and this helped ALOT. Thanks so much! Hopefully I get a good grade on this paper! I really find this useful (especially fudging the line spacing to powerbuilder, 2.1). Good job! Can you put what information is supposed to be in each paragraph.
Emma, I’m afraid I don’t understand the esu application question. I feel like you’ve asked me what emotions are supposed to be in value education need essay, each verse of a song, or what colors are supposed to be in esu application essay, a painting. There are many different kinds of songs and paintings, created for different reasons; likewise, there are many different kinds of paragraphs, written for different reasons. that was beautiful. I am writing to value education of the hour, request permission to link your webpage, “MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays” to our website. Lansdale School of Business.
I am glad you found this page helpful. Essay? Yes, you are welcome to include a link and a brief extract. Thank you so much!! I love the Bib builder!! I’m glad to behind left, hear you found it helpful! RT @DennisJerz: MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays #mlastyle http://t.co/B6pGb3Pkeh. How do you add footnotes to an MLA style paper? Most word processors will have an esu application essay, Insert - Footnote or Insert - Note (footnote or endnote) option. Most short college papers don’t need footnotes. (They aren’t for documenting sources — use an in-text citation and a Works Cited list instead.) I suggest you talk to india as a country essay, your instructor about whether you really do need to use a footnote.
When using MLA format, do you list the esu application essay book title, the title of the article or both? For guidance on value of the citing individual sources, see the link in item 4, above. This page is about formatting the paper once you’ve already written it. I wrote a paper and it looks just like your example. Esu Application Essay? I followed everything to the “t” and value hour my professor says that my header is esu application essay indented and my paragraphs are double indented and the page numbers are in wrong format. What can I do? Winston, I suggest you talk to your professor. I have been teaching from thiis handout for years, and when a student makes a formatting error on h1n1 writing a rough draft, I just ask them to fix it for the revision. But your instructor is the one who designed the assignment and esu application essay who evaluates your submissions, so he or she is the person to approach with questions.
I agree. .let me ask you this. Are your headers indented? The screenshot was taken from a page that I created following the instructions for child left using MS-Word with a MacBook Pro. I followed the instructions that are on the page. But surely your instructor gave you guidelines, in a handout or an assigned textbook, which is why I encourage you to esu application essay, have this conversation with your instructor. Ser Dissertation? Whether your instructor does or does not agree with the information on this page really doesn’t matter, since your instructor created the assignment and evaluates it according to his or her own criteria. Esu Application? I suggest you let your your teacher know you are confused about what you did wrong, and ask for an opportunity to make minor formatting changes to a paper that, we hope, met all the major criteria. We get asked often about resume powerbuilder, what “format” the college application essay should be in. Essay? Although not generally… http://t.co/v1TTNxtE4e.
seems easy enough. Dennis, what lends itself to science in h1n1, the APA system? And what lends itself to the Humanities with the MLA? TIA. As compared to MLA papers, APA papers tend to be shorter, and divided up into sections. Esu Application Essay? Authors who use APA style tend to publish more frequently, because their knowledge goes out of date more quickly; so the date is prominent in APA citations, and page numbers are rare. By contrast, people who use MLA style tend to write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and “conclusions.” Humanities scholarship generally doesn’t go out of date quickly. Instead of conducting experiments, humanists read and write a lot of longer essays and books, re-interpreting and quoting passages from them.
MLA style makes the write page numbers prominent, so that other scholars can easily find and re-read those same passages for themselves, and further the work of scholarship as it is esu application essay conducted in how to, the humanities. Thanks for esu application essay the reply. What do you mean by ” MLA style tend to need of the, write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and “conclusions.”? Are we not suppose to use conclusions in MLA format? In my English class, we use MLA with conclusions, but what do you mean by “procedure” and “conclusions”? I understand each instructor is different but is it right to use conclusions in an MLA paper…or am I getting confused? Typically papers written in MLA style DO have a conclusion, but it would not be set off in a separate section under the subheading “Conclusion.” MLA papers tend NOT to follow a standard, particular structure. Papers written in the sciences DO have a fairly rigid set of sections, with separate subheadings. Esu Application? But it’s best for you to talk to h1n1 essay writing, your teacher about the specifics of any asisgnment.
Ok, thanks. I just wanted to ask and clarify it. Also, doesn’t the word “humanist” means something else entirely? The Humanist term today implies ‘human’ and esu application is often used for powerbuilder atheists, for example… or am I wrong? I used the term “humanist” to mean “a person who studies the culture of humans,” without intending the esu application more specific meaning you mention. At my school, the humanities division includes theologians. this was very helpful i got an A 95 percent.
hi my name is Jessie i have to writ a 2 pages Essay about MLA can someone help me. thank u i got an A 97 percent. u a real nigga dennis. This wasn’t helpful at all. Shavez, what were you looking for? This page is behind child essay no about formatting a paper you have already written. The first section includes links to pages about esu application essay, how to write essays.
Thank you very much for this useful information. As a freshman in highschool, my biology teacher asked for me to how to write, write an essay in mLA format about evolution. Essay? I had no clue what mLA format was,so I searched it up and it brought me here. In middle school I never wrote an essay in this format before,but I feel very confident to type my first mLA essay and I’m excited to do so! (Right after I finish my draft .) thank you very much! (???)? I’m using a book title and author as my paper heading. How is that formatted? I would tell my own students that a book title and the name of an how to write ascript, author is not a good paper title, and I would ask them to esu application essay, write a title that catches the reader’s attention, identifies the developing country topic, and esu application essay identifies what position the paper is going to take on the topic. But if you are not my student, then I’m not the workshop person who will be evaluating your paper. MLA style puts the essay book title in italics. Behind Child Essay? Other than that, I really don’t have any advice for you.
Very informative. Esu Application Essay? It helped introduce my tired old mind to the MLA format. So, I can better help coach and ser dissertation prepare my wife for her English course. Esu Application Essay? Thank you very much. which writing style (MLA, APA) have more importance for students of social sciences, media sciences and value need of the business? I think you should include online resource citation instructions. Click on esu application “Citing” at the top of the page. How To Ascript? One of the options on the other end of essay, that link is how to cite a web page. This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class.
Especially the essay no citation builder. Thank you! cool it was helpful. is the text or what you wrote supposed to esu application essay, be centered in the page or to the left margin. How do I cite a photo that I found online? Is it a historical photograph or a photograph published in resume powerbuilder, a book that someone scanned and posted on essay line, is it a photograph of something like a sculpture? Is your paper focused on write ascript the work of the photographer, the makeup artist who prepared the essay model, the resume powerbuilder digital image enhancer who altered the image, the model?
There is essay no single correct way to education of the hour essay, cite a photograph, because there are many different reasons to essay, cite a photograph. Your instructor would be able to ser dissertation, give you more specific advice. Essay? In general, though, the 8th edition of the MLA guide would say something like this: Olsen, Jimmy. “Superman Rescues Boy Scouts from resume powerbuilder Lava Pit.” Photograph. Esu Application Essay? The Daily Planet . July 22, 1956. If you found the picture on a blog or a Flickr gallery, adjust the citation accordingly.
If you found the image as the result of a Google search for something, you might very well end up finding a page that re-uses someone else’s picture without appropriately giving credit. There are many variables. Talk to your instructor, who will be the one grading your work, and will therefore be the right person to advise you on what to do. hahahah xD me too same. I would Like You To Give Simple Instructions Not Complicated Ones , and powerbuilder Include also how much Papers Should be worked on. Khalid, if there is essay any particular detail you are confused about, please let me know what question you have and perhaps I can help. How To Write? There is no specific answer to esu application essay, how much a paper should be worked on. It depends on what grade you want to earn, how much time you have, whether your instructor is willing to india as a developing country, meet with you before the due date, whether your instructor will give you the chance to revise your work, and many other factors. This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the citation builder.
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Obama’s Health Care Speech to Congress. Following is the prepared text of President Obama’s speech to Congress on essay, the need to overhaul health care in the United States, as released by the White House. Madame Speaker, Vice President Biden, Members of Congress, and the American people: When I spoke here last winter, this nation was facing the worst economic crisis since the ser dissertation workshop Great Depression. Esu Application. We were losing an average of 700,000 jobs per month. Credit was frozen. And our financial system was on the verge of collapse.
As any American who is still looking for work or a way to pay their bills will tell you, we are by no means out value education of the essay of the woods. Esu Application. A full and vibrant recovery is many months away. And I will not let up until those Americans who seek jobs can find them; until those businesses that seek capital and credit can thrive; until all responsible homeowners can stay in their homes. Powerbuilder. That is our ultimate goal. But thanks to the bold and esu application essay, decisive action we have taken since January, I can stand here with confidence and say that we have pulled this economy back from the brink. I want to thank the members of this body for your efforts and your support in india developing essay, these last several months, and especially those who have taken the difficult votes that have put us on a path to recovery. Esu Application Essay. I also want to thank the American people for their patience and resolve during this trying time for our nation. But we did not come here just to clean up crises. We came to build a future. So tonight, I return to h1n1 writing, speak to esu application, all of powerbuilder, you about an issue that is central to that future – and that is the issue of esu application, health care. I am not the first President to take up this cause, but I am determined to be the last.
It has now been nearly a century since Theodore Roosevelt first called for health care reform. And ever since, nearly every President and writing, Congress, whether Democrat or Republican, has attempted to meet this challenge in some way. A bill for comprehensive health reform was first introduced by John Dingell Sr. in 1943. Sixty-five years later, his son continues to introduce that same bill at the beginning of esu application, each session. Our collective failure to meet this challenge – year after year, decade after decade – has led us to a breaking point.
Everyone understands the extraordinary hardships that are placed on the uninsured, who live every day just one accident or illness away from bankruptcy. These are not primarily people on welfare. These are middle-class Americans. Some can't get insurance on writing, the job. Others are self-employed, and can't afford it, since buying insurance on your own costs you three times as much as the coverage you get from your employer. Esu Application Essay. Many other Americans who are willing and how to ascript, able to pay are still denied insurance due to previous illnesses or conditions that insurance companies decide are too risky or expensive to cover. We are the only advanced democracy on Earth – the only wealthy nation – that allows such hardships for millions of its people. There are now more than thirty million American citizens who cannot get coverage. In just a two year period, one in every three Americans goes without health care coverage at some point. And every day, 14,000 Americans lose their coverage.
In other words, it can happen to essay, anyone. But the problem that plagues the essay health care system is not just a problem of the uninsured. Those who do have insurance have never had less security and stability than they do today. More and more Americans worry that if you move, lose your job, or change your job, you'll lose your health insurance too. Essay. More and more Americans pay their premiums, only to discover that their insurance company has dropped their coverage when they get sick, or won't pay the write ascript full cost of care. It happens every day.
One man from Illinois lost his coverage in the middle of chemotherapy because his insurer found that he hadn't reported gallstones that he didn't even know about. They delayed his treatment, and he died because of it. Another woman from Texas was about to get a double mastectomy when her insurance company canceled her policy because she forgot to declare a case of acne. Essay. By the time she had her insurance reinstated, her breast cancer more than doubled in left, size. That is heart-breaking, it is wrong, and no one should be treated that way in the United States of America. Then there's the problem of rising costs. Essay. We spend one-and-a-half times more per person on as a developing essay, health care than any other country, but we aren't any healthier for it. This is one of the reasons that insurance premiums have gone up three times faster than wages. It's why so many employers – especially small businesses – are forcing their employees to esu application, pay more for insurance, or are dropping their coverage entirely. Resume. It's why so many aspiring entrepreneurs cannot afford to esu application, open a business in the first place, and why American businesses that compete internationally – like our automakers – are at a huge disadvantage.
And it's why those of us with health insurance are also paying a hidden and ser dissertation workshop, growing tax for those without it – about $1000 per year that pays for somebody else's emergency room and charitable care. Finally, our health care system is placing an unsustainable burden on esu application essay, taxpayers. When health care costs grow at the rate they have, it puts greater pressure on programs like Medicare and Medicaid. If we do nothing to slow these skyrocketing costs, we will eventually be spending more on Medicare and child essay no, Medicaid than every other government program combined. Put simply, our health care problem is essay our deficit problem. Nothing else even comes close. These are the write ascript facts. Essay. Nobody disputes them. We know we must reform this system. The question is how. There are those on ascript, the left who believe that the esu application only way to fix the system is through a single-payer system like Canada's, where we would severely restrict the private insurance market and child essay left, have the government provide coverage for everyone.
On the right, there are those who argue that we should end the employer-based system and essay, leave individuals to ser dissertation, buy health insurance on their own. I have to say that there are arguments to be made for both approaches. But either one would represent a radical shift that would disrupt the health care most people currently have. Since health care represents one-sixth of our economy, I believe it makes more sense to build on esu application, what works and writing, fix what doesn't, rather than try to build an entirely new system from scratch. Esu Application. And that is precisely what those of you in h1n1, Congress have tried to do over the past several months. During that time, we have seen Washington at its best and its worst.
We have seen many in this chamber work tirelessly for the better part of this year to offer thoughtful ideas about how to achieve reform. Esu Application. Of the essay five committees asked to develop bills, four have completed their work, and the Senate Finance Committee announced today that it will move forward next week. That has never happened before. Esu Application Essay. Our overall efforts have been supported by an unprecedented coalition of doctors and nurses; hospitals, seniors' groups and even drug companies – many of whom opposed reform in the past. And there is agreement in this chamber on about eighty percent of what needs to be done, putting us closer to ascript, the goal of reform than we have ever been. But what we have also seen in these last months is the same partisan spectacle that only hardens the esu application disdain many Americans have toward their own government. Instead of ser dissertation workshop, honest debate, we have seen scare tactics. Some have dug into unyielding ideological camps that offer no hope of compromise. Too many have used this as an opportunity to score short-term political points, even if it robs the essay country of our opportunity to solve a long-term challenge. Essay Writing. And out of esu application essay, this blizzard of charges and counter-charges, confusion has reigned.
Well the time for bickering is behind essay over. The time for games has passed. Now is the season for action. Now is when we must bring the essay best ideas of both parties together, and show the American people that we can still do what we were sent here to do. Now is the time to deliver on health care. The plan I'm announcing tonight would meet three basic goals: It will provide more security and child essay left, stability to those who have health insurance. It will provide insurance to those who don't. Essay. And it will slow the growth of write, health care costs for our families, our businesses, and our government.
It's a plan that asks everyone to take responsibility for meeting this challenge – not just government and esu application essay, insurance companies, but employers and individuals. And it's a plan that incorporates ideas from Senators and Congressmen; from Democrats and education need of the, Republicans – and yes, from some of my opponents in both the primary and general election. Here are the details that every American needs to know about this plan: First, if you are among the hundreds of millions of essay, Americans who already have health insurance through your job, Medicare, Medicaid, or the h1n1 writing VA, nothing in esu application, this plan will require you or your employer to change the coverage or the as a country essay doctor you have. Let me repeat this: nothing in our plan requires you to change what you have. What this plan will do is to essay, make the insurance you have work better for you. Under this plan, it will be against the law for insurance companies to deny you coverage because of a pre-existing condition. As soon as I sign this bill, it will be against the law for insurance companies to drop your coverage when you get sick or water it down when you need it most. They will no longer be able to resume powerbuilder, place some arbitrary cap on the amount of coverage you can receive in a given year or a lifetime. We will place a limit on how much you can be charged for out-of-pocket expenses, because in the United States of essay, America, no one should go broke because they get sick. Workshop. And insurance companies will be required to cover, with no extra charge, routine checkups and preventive care, like mammograms and colonoscopies – because there's no reason we shouldn't be catching diseases like breast cancer and colon cancer before they get worse.
That makes sense, it saves money, and essay, it saves lives. That's what Americans who have health insurance can expect from workshop this plan – more security and esu application essay, stability. Now, if you're one of the tens of millions of Americans who don't currently have health insurance, the second part of this plan will finally offer you quality, affordable choices. If you lose your job or change your job, you will be able to get coverage. If you strike out on ser dissertation workshop, your own and essay, start a small business, you will be able to get coverage.
We will do this by creating a new insurance exchange – a marketplace where individuals and small businesses will be able to shop for health insurance at competitive prices. Ser Dissertation. Insurance companies will have an esu application incentive to workshop, participate in this exchange because it lets them compete for essay, millions of new customers. As one big group, these customers will have greater leverage to bargain with the how to write ascript insurance companies for esu application essay, better prices and quality coverage. This is how large companies and government employees get affordable insurance. It's how everyone in education essay, this Congress gets affordable insurance. And it's time to give every American the same opportunity that we've given ourselves. For those individuals and small businesses who still cannot afford the lower-priced insurance available in the exchange, we will provide tax credits, the size of which will be based on your need.
And all insurance companies that want access to this new marketplace will have to abide by the consumer protections I already mentioned. Essay. This exchange will take effect in four years, which will give us time to value of the hour, do it right. In the meantime, for those Americans who can't get insurance today because they have pre-existing medical conditions, we will immediately offer low-cost coverage that will protect you against financial ruin if you become seriously ill. This was a good idea when Senator John McCain proposed it in the campaign, it's a good idea now, and we should embrace it. Now, even if we provide these affordable options, there may be those – particularly the esu application young and essay writing, healthy – who still want to esu application, take the risk and go without coverage. There may still be companies that refuse to value of the hour essay, do right by esu application, their workers.
The problem is, such irresponsible behavior costs all the rest of us money. Of The Essay. If there are affordable options and people still don't sign up for health insurance, it means we pay for those people's expensive emergency room visits. If some businesses don't provide workers health care, it forces the rest of us to pick up the esu application essay tab when their workers get sick, and essay, gives those businesses an unfair advantage over their competitors. And unless everybody does their part, many of the esu application insurance reforms we seek – especially requiring insurance companies to cover pre-existing conditions – just can't be achieved. That's why under my plan, individuals will be required to carry basic health insurance – just as most states require you to carry auto insurance. Likewise, businesses will be required to either offer their workers health care, or chip in to help cover the ser dissertation workshop cost of their workers. There will be a hardship waiver for those individuals who still cannot afford coverage, and 95% of all small businesses, because of esu application, their size and narrow profit margin, would be exempt from these requirements. But we cannot have large businesses and individuals who can afford coverage game the system by how to ascript, avoiding responsibility to themselves or their employees. Improving our health care system only works if everybody does their part. While there remain some significant details to be ironed out, I believe a broad consensus exists for the aspects of the plan I just outlined: consumer protections for those with insurance, an esu application exchange that allows individuals and small businesses to purchase affordable coverage, and a requirement that people who can afford insurance get insurance. And I have no doubt that these reforms would greatly benefit Americans from behind child essay no all walks of life, as well as the esu application essay economy as a whole.
Still, given all the writing misinformation that's been spread over the past few months, I realize that many Americans have grown nervous about reform. So tonight I'd like to address some of the key controversies that are still out there. Some of essay, people's concerns have grown out of bogus claims spread by those whose only agenda is to kill reform at any cost. Need Hour Essay. The best example is the claim, made not just by radio and esu application, cable talk show hosts, but prominent politicians, that we plan to set up panels of bureaucrats with the power to behind child essay, kill off senior citizens. Such a charge would be laughable if it weren't so cynical and irresponsible. Esu Application. It is behind child no a lie, plain and esu application, simple.
There are also those who claim that our reform effort will insure illegal immigrants. This, too, is false – the reforms I'm proposing would not apply to those who are here illegally. And one more misunderstanding I want to clear up – under our plan, no federal dollars will be used to fund abortions, and federal conscience laws will remain in place. My health care proposal has also been attacked by some who oppose reform as a government takeover of the entire health care system. As proof, critics point to a provision in our plan that allows the uninsured and small businesses to need essay, choose a publicly-sponsored insurance option, administered by the government just like Medicaid or Medicare. So let me set the record straight. My guiding principle is, and always has been, that consumers do better when there is choice and competition. Unfortunately, in 34 states, 75% of the esu application insurance market is controlled by five or fewer companies. In Alabama, almost 90% is controlled by just one company.
Without competition, the price of insurance goes up and the quality goes down. And it makes it easier for india as a country, insurance companies to treat their customers badly – by cherry-picking the healthiest individuals and trying to drop the esu application sickest; by overcharging small businesses who have no leverage; and by value of the essay, jacking up rates. Insurance executives don't do this because they are bad people. They do it because it's profitable. Esu Application Essay. As one former insurance executive testified before Congress, insurance companies are not only resume powerbuilder, encouraged to find reasons to esu application essay, drop the value need seriously ill; they are rewarded for it. All of this is in service of meeting what this former executive called Wall Street's relentless profit expectations. Now, I have no interest in putting insurance companies out of business. Esu Application Essay. They provide a legitimate service, and employ a lot of our friends and neighbors.
I just want to hold them accountable. The insurance reforms that I've already mentioned would do just that. But an additional step we can take to keep insurance companies honest is by making a not-for-profit public option available in behind child essay left, the insurance exchange. Let me be clear – it would only essay, be an option for those who don't have insurance. No one would be forced to choose it, and it would not impact those of you who already have insurance. In fact, based on Congressional Budget Office estimates, we believe that less than 5% of resume powerbuilder, Americans would sign up. Despite all this, the insurance companies and their allies don't like this idea. They argue that these private companies can't fairly compete with the government. And they'd be right if taxpayers were subsidizing this public insurance option. But they won't be. I have insisted that like any private insurance company, the public insurance option would have to be self-sufficient and rely on the premiums it collects.
But by avoiding some of the overhead that gets eaten up at esu application essay private companies by education essay, profits, excessive administrative costs and executive salaries, it could provide a good deal for consumers. Esu Application Essay. It would also keep pressure on private insurers to keep their policies affordable and treat their customers better, the same way public colleges and universities provide additional choice and competition to students without in any way inhibiting a vibrant system of india country essay, private colleges and universities. It's worth noting that a strong majority of Americans still favor a public insurance option of the sort I've proposed tonight. But its impact shouldn't be exaggerated – by the left, the right, or the media. It is only one part of my plan, and should not be used as a handy excuse for the usual Washington ideological battles. To my progressive friends, I would remind you that for decades, the driving idea behind reform has been to end insurance company abuses and make coverage affordable for those without it. The public option is only a means to esu application essay, that end – and we should remain open to other ideas that accomplish our ultimate goal. And to my Republican friends, I say that rather than making wild claims about a government takeover of health care, we should work together to address any legitimate concerns you may have.
For example, some have suggested that that the public option go into effect only in those markets where insurance companies are not providing affordable policies. Others propose a co-op or another non-profit entity to administer the plan. These are all constructive ideas worth exploring. But I will not back down on workshop, the basic principle that if Americans can't find affordable coverage, we will provide you with a choice. And I will make sure that no government bureaucrat or insurance company bureaucrat gets between you and the care that you need. Finally, let me discuss an esu application essay issue that is a great concern to workshop, me, to members of this chamber, and to the public – and that is how we pay for esu application essay, this plan. Here's what you need to know. First, I will not sign a plan that adds one dime to our deficits – either now or in the future. Period.
And to prove that I'm serious, there will be a provision in this plan that requires us to come forward with more spending cuts if the savings we promised don't materialize. Part of the reason I faced a trillion dollar deficit when I walked in how to write, the door of the White House is because too many initiatives over the last decade were not paid for – from the esu application Iraq War to tax breaks for the wealthy. Left. I will not make that same mistake with health care. Second, we've estimated that most of this plan can be paid for by finding savings within the existing health care system – a system that is esu application essay currently full of india developing, waste and abuse. Right now, too much of the hard-earned savings and tax dollars we spend on health care doesn't make us healthier. That's not my judgment – it's the judgment of medical professionals across this country.
And this is essay also true when it comes to Medicare and ser dissertation workshop, Medicaid. In fact, I want to esu application essay, speak directly to America's seniors for a moment, because Medicare is another issue that's been subjected to demagoguery and distortion during the course of powerbuilder, this debate. More than four decades ago, this nation stood up for the principle that after a lifetime of hard work, our seniors should not be left to struggle with a pile of essay, medical bills in powerbuilder, their later years. That is esu application essay how Medicare was born. Ser Dissertation. And it remains a sacred trust that must be passed down from one generation to the next. That is why not a dollar of the essay Medicare trust fund will be used to resume, pay for this plan. The only thing this plan would eliminate is the hundreds of billions of dollars in waste and fraud, as well as unwarranted subsidies in Medicare that go to insurance companies – subsidies that do everything to essay, pad their profits and nothing to improve your care.
And we will also create an independent commission of doctors and write ascript, medical experts charged with identifying more waste in the years ahead. These steps will ensure that you – America's seniors – get the essay benefits you've been promised. They will ensure that Medicare is there for future generations. And we can use some of the savings to fill the gap in education hour, coverage that forces too many seniors to pay thousands of dollars a year out of their own pocket for prescription drugs. That's what this plan will do for you.
So don't pay attention to esu application, those scary stories about how your benefits will be cut – especially since some of the same folks who are spreading these tall tales have fought against Medicare in the past, and just this year supported a budget that would have essentially turned Medicare into powerbuilder a privatized voucher program. Essay. That will never happen on workshop, my watch. I will protect Medicare. Now, because Medicare is such a big part of the esu application essay health care system, making the program more efficient can help usher in essay, changes in esu application, the way we deliver health care that can reduce costs for everybody. We have long known that some places, like the Intermountain Healthcare in Utah or the india country Geisinger Health System in rural Pennsylvania, offer high-quality care at costs below average. The commission can help encourage the essay adoption of these common-sense best practices by doctors and medical professionals throughout the system – everything from reducing hospital infection rates to encouraging better coordination between teams of doctors. Reducing the waste and inefficiency in Medicare and Medicaid will pay for write, most of this plan. Much of the esu application rest would be paid for with revenues from the very same drug and insurance companies that stand to benefit from tens of millions of developing country essay, new customers. This reform will charge insurance companies a fee for their most expensive policies, which will encourage them to provide greater value for esu application, the money – an idea which has the support of Democratic and Republican experts.
And according to these same experts, this modest change could help hold down the cost of health care for all of us in the long-run. Finally, many in this chamber – particularly on the Republican side of the essay aisle – have long insisted that reforming our medical malpractice laws can help bring down the cost of health care. Esu Application Essay. I don't believe malpractice reform is a silver bullet, but I have talked to enough doctors to know that defensive medicine may be contributing to unnecessary costs. H1n1 Essay. So I am proposing that we move forward on a range of ideas about how to put patient safety first and let doctors focus on practicing medicine. I know that the Bush Administration considered authorizing demonstration projects in individual states to test these issues. It's a good idea, and I am directing my Secretary of Health and Human Services to move forward on this initiative today. Add it all up, and the plan I'm proposing will cost around $900 billion over ten years – less than we have spent on the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, and less than the esu application tax cuts for the wealthiest few Americans that Congress passed at the beginning of the previous administration. Most of these costs will be paid for with money already being spent – but spent badly – in the existing health care system.
The plan will not add to our deficit. The middle-class will realize greater security, not higher taxes. And if we are able to slow the growth of health care costs by writing, just one-tenth of esu application essay, one percent each year, it will actually reduce the deficit by $4 trillion over the long term. This is the plan I'm proposing. It's a plan that incorporates ideas from many of the people in this room tonight – Democrats and Republicans. India. And I will continue to seek common ground in the weeks ahead. If you come to me with a serious set of proposals, I will be there to listen.
My door is always open. But know this: I will not waste time with those who have made the calculation that it's better politics to kill this plan than improve it. I will not stand by while the special interests use the same old tactics to keep things exactly the way they are. If you misrepresent what's in the plan, we will call you out. Essay. And I will not accept the status quo as a solution. Not this time. Not now. Everyone in value of the hour essay, this room knows what will happen if we do nothing.
Our deficit will grow. More families will go bankrupt. More businesses will close. More Americans will lose their coverage when they are sick and need it most. And more will die as a result. We know these things to be true. That is essay why we cannot fail. Because there are too many Americans counting on us to how to ascript, succeed – the ones who suffer silently, and the ones who shared their stories with us at town hall meetings, in esu application, emails, and in letters. I received one of those letters a few days ago.
It was from our beloved friend and colleague, Ted Kennedy. Child Essay No. He had written it back in esu application essay, May, shortly after he was told that his illness was terminal. He asked that it be delivered upon writing his death. In it, he spoke about what a happy time his last months were, thanks to essay, the love and support of family and friends, his wife, Vicki, and his children, who are here tonight . And he expressed confidence that this would be the h1n1 writing year that health care reform – that great unfinished business of esu application, our society, he called it – would finally pass. He repeated the truth that health care is decisive for our future prosperity, but he also reminded me that it concerns more than material things. Resume Powerbuilder. What we face, he wrote, is above all a moral issue; at esu application essay stake are not just the details of policy, but fundamental principles of social justice and h1n1 essay, the character of our country. I've thought about that phrase quite a bit in recent days – the character of our country. One of the unique and esu application, wonderful things about America has always been our self-reliance, our rugged individualism, our fierce defense of freedom and education need, our healthy skepticism of essay, government. And figuring out the appropriate size and role of government has always been a source of rigorous and sometimes angry debate. For some of how to, Ted Kennedy's critics, his brand of liberalism represented an affront to American liberty. In their mind, his passion for universal health care was nothing more than a passion for big government.
But those of us who knew Teddy and esu application, worked with him here – people of ser dissertation workshop, both parties – know that what drove him was something more. His friend, Orrin Hatch, knows that. They worked together to provide children with health insurance. His friend John McCain knows that. They worked together on a Patient's Bill of esu application, Rights. Essay Left No. His friend Chuck Grassley knows that. They worked together to esu application, provide health care to children with disabilities. On issues like these, Ted Kennedy's passion was born not of some rigid ideology, but of his own experience.
It was the experience of having two children stricken with cancer. He never forgot the sheer terror and helplessness that any parent feels when a child is badly sick; and he was able to imagine what it must be like for those without insurance; what it would be like to have to say to a wife or a child or an aging parent – there is something that could make you better, but I just can't afford it. That large-heartedness – that concern and regard for the plight of others – is not a partisan feeling. It is not a Republican or a Democratic feeling. It, too, is part of the behind child American character. Esu Application Essay. Our ability to stand in other people's shoes.
A recognition that we are all in this together; that when fortune turns against one of us, others are there to lend a helping hand. A belief that in resume powerbuilder, this country, hard work and responsibility should be rewarded by some measure of security and fair play; and an acknowledgement that sometimes government has to step in to essay, help deliver on h1n1 essay, that promise. This has always been the history of our progress. In 1933, when over esu application half of our seniors could not support themselves and millions had seen their savings wiped away, there were those who argued that Social Security would lead to socialism. Ser Dissertation. But the men and essay, women of Congress stood fast, and we are all the better for it. In 1965, when some argued that Medicare represented a government takeover of health care, members of Congress, Democrats and Republicans, did not back down. They joined together so that all of us could enter our golden years with some basic peace of mind. You see, our predecessors understood that government could not, and should not, solve every problem. They understood that there are instances when the gains in security from government action are not worth the added constraints on our freedom. But they also understood that the danger of too much government is matched by the perils of ascript, too little; that without the essay leavening hand of wise policy, markets can crash, monopolies can stifle competition, and the vulnerable can be exploited.
And they knew that when any government measure, no matter how carefully crafted or beneficial, is subject to scorn; when any efforts to help people in need are attacked as un-American; when facts and reason are thrown overboard and only timidity passes for ser dissertation workshop, wisdom, and we can no longer even engage in a civil conversation with each other over the things that truly matter – that at essay that point we don't merely lose our capacity to solve big challenges. India Country. We lose something essential about ourselves. What was true then remains true today. Essay. I understand how difficult this health care debate has been. I know that many in this country are deeply skeptical that government is looking out for them.
I understand that the politically safe move would be to india as a developing essay, kick the can further down the road – to defer reform one more year, or one more election, or one more term. But that's not what the moment calls for. Essay. That's not what we came here to do. We did not come to fear the h1n1 writing future. We came here to shape it. I still believe we can act even when it's hard. I still believe we can replace acrimony with civility, and gridlock with progress. I still believe we can do great things, and that here and esu application, now we will meet history's test. Because that is h1n1 writing who we are. That is our calling.
That is our character. Thank you, God Bless You, and may God Bless the United States of America. More In PoliticsMore In U.S. Politics. White House Asks Congress for $29 Billion in Hurricane Aid. The administration asked lawmakers to approve more relief for Puerto Rico and other areas battered by hurricanes and to shore up the federal flood insurance program. The secretary of state had hoped to douse questions about how long he will stay, but instead further fueled a debate about his future.
After resisting any gun legislation for decades, Republican lawmakers say they will examine the kits used in Las Vegas to essay, turn rifles into writing rapid-firing weapons.
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clutter essay all rights reserved. Essay. AHR is published in PDF and Print-on-Demand format by ANU E Press. ‘You're all crazy. Every one of you. You just sit here, in your cosy little house, with your cold sodas and your Facebook pages, like it all matters. Like it's even real. How To Write Ascript. But it's not! It's all going to burn and you're going to essay be nothing but bleached skulls. Don't you get it?
You're dead! All of h1n1 writing, you are dead!' (Riley in ‘Strange Things Happen') Procrastinating one Sunday, I set aside a pile of print-outs from on-line media stories on the perils and inanities of Facebook and esu application settled in for a serious read of the South China Morning Post (in hard copy, of course, with hot coffee on the side). You may need to know this great newspaper to appreciate my shock at finding therein a sententious editorial about Facebook (‘Facebook no substitute for real world contact'). While it is resume powerbuilder a Murdoch property, criticised at times for a willingness to accommodate the pressures of esu application essay, Beijing, the SCMP is still a hard news-focussed paper, full of behind left no, serious analysis of events around the esu application, world: it does not feature frothy columnists, and powerbuilder celebrity wardrobe malfunctions rarely make the front page. Yet here, with no context beyond a slight story about phishing attacks on Facebook, was one of those loopy, furious moral blares that in recent years I have come to essay associate with Australian newspapers: ‘there is always superficiality to networking on the Web', the india developing essay, writer opined.
If Facebook ‘perhaps' helps us keep in touch with friends in faraway places, ‘making new friends and maintaining old friendships requires effort, emotional commitment and contact in the real world. Facebook is no substitute for face time'. My print-out collection is full of essay, attempts like this to behind left adjudicate what is and isn't real in the lives of hundreds of millions of people. Esu Application Essay. Many of these pieces must be written (I surmise) by value education of the essay stressed-out journalists with no more access than I have to lots of personal ‘face time'. As a Facebook user whose loved ones are often very far away, of course I disagree with the editorial's premises; anyone who thinks that social networking is essay a ‘superficial' matter of clicking should explain to me (to begin with) in just what world the effort of write ascript, making a photo album for friends and family does not involve emotional commitment; and in what kind of real world it counts as an evasion of contact to have an on-line party, or to send gifts, humour and words of comfort or affection to people across space and time. It would have to esu application essay be a world without regard for writing and reading, obviously: no love of powerbuilder, letters, no emotional responses to rock art and cathedrals; no crying over novels and poems, either. Come to esu application think of it, it might be a world without great newspapers (a prospect which some pundits no doubt have uncomfortably in resume mind). Irritating as media grizzles about the esu application, failings of mediation may be (and the write ascript, locution ‘face time' bears witness to their sentimentality; what happened to the rest of the body?), I do not save these articles in order to disagree with them. For one thing, they're not that rational. Strong affect sprays about when older media attack new media that threaten their markets, and in particular when Murdoch newspapers wage culturally high-toned war on esu application just those social networking sites that have been thumping MySpace, the site belonging to their proprietor (see Knight). A couple of weeks before the SCMP stooped to conquer Facebook (and a month before the use of Twitter to get news out in Tehran became a global story), the on-line Australian gloated, ‘Time is Up for ascript Twitter'.
Hooking to esu application essay a story that 60 per cent of new users give up tweeting within a month, this spiteful piece compared ‘transitory technologies' to swine influenza; people ‘build up resistance' to ‘diseases that must mutate to infect ever most hosts' before ‘spluttering out'. Print, in contrast, is a ‘robust and portable' technology, ‘information rich and never crashes—the platform for the online information age [sic] that you are reading now'. If the part about how to ascript, robustness and portability is true enough (while bringing to mind old jokes about the excellence of esu application, newsprint for wrapping fish and chips), the platform punch-line makes no sense except as a syntactically mangled blur of techno-clichés. There was a time—in another economy and resume before Mr. Murdoch himself took the esu application, lead in reducing jobs in print news production—when any half-way decent sub-editor would have killed such a clause stone dead. What really interests me is the stories that older media (including television and the on-line versions of print media) tell about social networking, and how to the slightly nutty fervour that so often drives the telling.
Given the now mainstream success of social networking sites, with people friending and following their Nannas and esu application essay with Barack Obama's 2008 election campaign symbolically marking a new era of global-popular participation on-line, the commentariat are, in part, caught up in child essay no an apocalyptic moment of their own rhetorical making; in journalistic as in policy spruiking usage, new media talk has long proclaimed that one set of innovations will displace another—‘death' of print, ‘end' of the essay, book. As anyone who works with media should know, reality is more complex. With technological change, old media find new uses or are reinvented interactively with new ones; arguably the most influential medium for politics in as a country essay Australia at the end of the twentieth century was a telephone-radio hybrid, ‘talk-back radio'. This is not to dismiss the sense of esu application, crisis engulfing the profession of journalism, especially investigative reporting (Davies; Nichols and McChesney). 1 However, at the user's end their relative cheapness and behind essay no accessibility to ordinary people continues to give old media a key role in narrating the advent of social changes related to new technology, and in esu application essay shaping at least some of the initial popular understanding of new technologies themselves: once upon a time, people acquired their first ‘memories' of how to, cyberspace from a novel, William Gibson's Neuromancer (1984). I am by no means a new media scholar and my participation in on-line culture is enthusiastic only esu application essay, within a very limited zone. Essay. I love Facebook and YouTube, enjoy msn with a couple of close friends, barely tolerate Skype, quickly feel nauseous surfing the web and loathe email with a passion. However, since all media are mixed in their cultural make-up and social uses, it behoves me as a student of history in popular culture to observe how the tales being told of new media at any given time draw on essay familiar generic and rhetorical reserves that help render change intelligible to left no us as a mode of continuity. An example of this and one of my favourite Facebook put-downs is the outburst quoted above from Riley, the undercover girl from the esu application essay, future in how to write ascript the second season of the Fox network TV series, Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles.
Cracking under the strain of esu application, impersonating an alienated, pre-Judgment Day American teenager, Riley wheels on as a country essay her bemused foster family in the kitchen one day and, with four viciously delivered metonyms (‘just sit here', ‘cosy little house', ‘cold sodas', ‘Facebook pages'), pours scorn all over their lives. Essay. In this moment, Facebook is child absorbed into esu application, the store of belittling stereotypes of mindless suburban complacency that print media, film and, superbly, television (the suburban medium par excellence), have been producing—and donating to critical culture—for more than fifty years. A swelling number of Facebook stories is available on-line. When I drafted this paper in early November 2008, Google recorded 747 million Web-wide mentions of MySpace (with 5,050,000 in Australia); 580 million for Facebook (5,060,000); and 104 million for the more specialised Second Life (but only 648,000 from Australia). I didn't think then of checking Twitter. By 19 May 2009, the respective figures were 858 million for MySpace (22 million in Australia); one and ser dissertation workshop quarter billion for Facebook (37,500,000 in essay Australia); 177 million for Second Life (25,700,000 in Australia, a significant increase); and essay left no 511 million for esu application essay Twitter (15,100,000 in Australia). Value Education Need Of The Hour Essay. There is no way of interpreting what the relative changes mean, or how many finger-wagging Murdoch editorials the essay, Facebook numbers include, but the size of the overall increase in just a few months is impressive. At the same time, it has become rare for a day to ser dissertation go by without the essay, major Australian newspapers featuring on-line at least one Facebook or Twitter story. Sporadic checks while I was writing pulled up stories including a ‘teen' saved from suicide by a Facebook friend, Facebook and cyber-bullying in girls' schools, Facebook and sexual ‘recruitment' for child left NRL players, Facebook as a tool for Arab militants recruiting spies against Israel, the uses and pitfalls of Facebook for small business, and Facebook as a haven for Holocaust deniers. While forming a very small part of the on-line discussion of social networking sites, these stories arise from news media efforts not only to catch a wave of popular interest while reporting actual incidents but also to shape collective perceptions of essay, a wider phenomenon.
In the process, journalists often draw on essay writing their rich professional reserves of reductively metonymic realism (‘setting the esu application essay, scene', the ‘character sketch') to cast social network users as types whose ways of acting are symptomatic or productive of diverse social ills: alongside terrorists and sexual predators there are always students uploading their mobile pics of boorishly drunken parties, ‘stupid girls' sharing every detail of their vapid daily routines, and workers who boast about bludging but forget that they've friended their boss. As in as a essay folklore, each of these figures is sustained by a dense field of concrete examples both stellar (Hugh Grant and Bono for Facebook party uploads, MySpace's Paris Hilton or Twitter's Ashton Kutcher for cosmic triviality) and ‘it-could-be-you' mundane (Kyle Doyle's ‘SICKIE WOO' Facebook status update). 2 Simultaneously grounded in and abstracted from the real history of on-line culture, such figures ‘stick' in media memory, powerfully eliciting recognition (the party animal, the princess, the slack worker) while drawing attention away from a myriad other practices thriving on the sites. Stereotypes are forms of apprehension rather than bad representations, and their force is to essay mobilize familiar knowledge to explain and absorb unfamiliar experience (Morris, Identity 143-44). While the limitations of a morphological critique of popular culture have been argued many times (Morris, Too Soon ; Morse), formal typing is a generative principle in popular culture itself. Media editorializing thrives on it and, as hard news-gathering receded as a journalistic practice during the Howard era, the readily available technique of consensus assertion through type (‘the' ethnic lobby, ‘the' Aboriginal industry, ‘the' politically correct) organized columns of education hour, what became in those years a major genre of Australian social debate: grizzling, or ‘fretful complaint'.
The fretfulness is esu application important. Most of the grizzling that made it to essay no press or to air in Howard's day was majoritarian complaint about the perduring cultural power of social minorities (Morris, Too Soon 219-33), and the Macquarie Dictionary reminds us that the esu application, first meaning of ‘grizzle' is ‘to become grey', a metonym of ageing and thus (in this social logic) of fading power. When I call you a grizzler, or when we ‘have a good grizzle' together, more is involved than naming the act of complaint. The idea of child no, grizzling includes an esu application evaluation of the act itself as ineffective except at essay writing, the level of emotional release. The release itself may be strong: grizzling is more aggressive than the also annoying but more pathetic acts of esu application essay, whingeing and whining. Grizzlers may have a bit of right on their side: when my Nanna said, ‘stop whingeing', she meant, ‘don't be a sook', while ‘stop grizzling' meant, ‘all right, now shut up and get on with it'. But the child essay left, release is devalued as inadequate to the real or imagined provocation; to call a speech act ‘grizzling' suggests a helpless as well as reiterative mode of criticism. ‘Facebook no substitute for essay real world contact' is a grizzle in how to this sense. What on earth is esu application essay supposed to follow from resume, a declaration like that? If parents are being incited to pull the plug on their children, or to esu application essay seize their mobile phones, will millions of adults also rush off-line to chat in a neighbouring office or across the back fence? What would happen in the ‘real world' of our working lives if we did so?
Old-school editorials have a transitive mode of authority; seeking to sway public opinion or nudge policy action, the writer has an objective which could one day be achieved. When an upscale paper like the SCMP— read by educated, over-employed, middle to upper class expats and locals working 15-hour days and more in a city that runs on financial services and transport logistics—makes a wildly inoperative call for its readers to abandon on-line socializing for workshop more ‘face time', a curiously sub-cultural mode of address conflicts with the mode of authority. This editorial networks with technophobes, concerned relatives or loved ones of ‘teenagers' (and other types) who voluntarily spend too much time on-line, and people who just don't like Facebook; it predicates a real world in which people can choose how they spend how much of their time. Essay. Yet overwhelmingly in Hong Kong, as in many cities today, middle class people have borderless working lives and we spend most of our time, wherever we are, with computers. Facebook for me is real world contact. It's not the only kind I have but ( pace Riley) it matters. In a day consumed by memos, reference-writing, refereeing tasks, managerial compliance chores and a never-ending stream of email, Facebook is my bit of heaven, a haven of warmth, silly fun and friendliness I can enter in an instant from my screen; contact there is workshop real because it is esu application essay diverse and unpredictable (unlike much of h1n1 writing, my work). To argue that another site is better for this purpose could make good critical sense, and to propose a legally enforceable maximum 40 hour week for ‘knowledge workers' would be even better. However, to essay urge me to spend more time off-line (‘making new friends and workshop maintaining old friendships') for the sheer good of esu application essay, my soul is essay a grizzle from esu application, those fairies at the bottom of the garden.
I certainly do not mean to suggest that all criticism of india developing essay, Facebook is grizzling. Serious legal, ethical and political issues are arising from or being intensified by the ‘Facebook' phenomenon (to use a typifying metonym myself), in the process sharpening some of the challenging debates of esu application essay, our time; free speech and its limits, censorship, the right to privacy, the negotiation of social protocols for resume a transnational economy that thrives on difference as well as inequality, the essay, relations between semiotic and other modes of violence, tensions between legal, communal and performative models of identity, the how to write ascript, foundations of community, the power of corporations in our personal lives, and the technological transformation of work are just a few of these. Anyone who doubts their political import in many parts of the world might consider the essay, case of Fouad Mourtada, a 26 year old IT engineer beaten and jailed for 3 years in Morocco for placing a spoof profile of behind left, Prince Moulay Rachid on Facebook, 3 or, on a different scale, China's disabling of esu application essay, Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, Blogspot, Tumblr, Live Journal, Hotmail and india developing country essay Bing in the lead-up to the twentieth anniversary on 4 June, 2009, of the essay, massacre in Tiananmen Square (Flumenbaum). Essay Writing. Given this range of weighty issues to esu application essay address, grizzling is of interest for its capacity to foreground unsettling worries and questions that trail along in the mix unresolvably, like an insistent and recurring malaise. For example, one familiar set of worries concerns the sociable personality and what it ought to be doing in left no the writer's world; does Facebook impair our ability to enjoy life and care for others off-line? Extensively debated in relation to manifest sub-cultures such as Hikikomori (see Jodice and Karmen) and Otaku (Lamarre) in Japan, anxiety about what it should mean to esu application be human on an average day is behind child essay left no hard to formulate plausibly now for larger populations. Esu Application. Thus an early grizzle by education need of the hour essay Bugeja about the esu application essay, implications of Facebook for university life (distraction in class, unwitting self-disclosure, inappropriate pictures, surveillance, commercial data gathering and identity theft) 4 suggests in the course of a generally moderate discussion that there is a direct link between the size of the university IT budget, a corresponding loss of faculty jobs, and a Facebook-driven proliferation of distracted, ‘egocasting' student personalities: ‘unless we reassess our high-tech priorities, issues associated with insensitivity, indiscretion, bias, and india developing country fabrication will consume us in higher education' (‘Heads Up'). The night of the living dead is esu application essay close at hand. A related anxiety cluster invokes ‘real' friendship in an effort to achieve an impossible norming of how to ascript, intimacy. Brusquely handled by the British judge who ruled in a 2008 harassment case that Facebook friends do not have to be friends ‘in the traditional sense' (Emerson), concern about the authenticity of Facebook friendship is not only esu application, circulated in essay the press but relayed by esu application essay ambivalent users of the site itself—like the sad case from how to write, Toronto with 700 Facebook friends who ended up drinking alone when he tried to organize a party (Niedzviecki). While this confession may simply tell us something about Toronto, or the author (I don't know that I'd drink with him either), narcissistic, instrumental or desperate friend-accumulation is also the subject of widely posted YouTube clips and esu application a recurring discussion topic across the hundreds of resume, ‘Addicted to Facebook' groups on the site 5 —eliciting on essay one of these a well-turned, 14 stanza ballad, ‘Can I be your Facebook Friend?':
Can I be your Facebook Friend? Friendship's new reality. And we'll celebrate our union. For all cyberspace to see. Cause this friendship is resume unique. We can hold a conversation. And we never have to speak. I'll accept of course, and then. I will sit here on esu application your profile. You won't hear from me again.
This poem nicely catches the nuances of the ‘Facebook addict' type: an anti-social, agoraphobic, ‘low maintenance' lurker who is also a passive-aggressive and h1n1 essay voyeuristic stalker accumulating useless social capital. Were this to esu application be taken literally as a realistic portrait of the average Facebook user, human community as we know it might really be at risk. As I write, Facebook claims more than 200 million users (averaging 120 friends each), of whom more than 100 million log on at least once a day, spending more than four billion minutes daily on as a developing essay the site worldwide. 6 As one of esu application, those users (need I say?), I recognize neither myself nor my 370-odd Facebook friends in the poem's anomic persona. True, after the powerbuilder, initial contact I rarely hear directly from the large number who are my ex-students or professional acquaintances, but I am sporadically aware of essay, their lives and we are there for each other if the resume, need or desire arises. This casual awareness is typical of large families (how often do we interact with all of our relatives?) and also of small communities; I spent my first twelve years of life in a town of 2,000 souls where absolutely nobody, not even the newsagent, was on regular speaking terms with everyone else. Esu Application. Of course, the poem is witty rather than grizzling because it personifies shameful little behaviours that most of us have indulged in, with or without Facebook (although they can be accentuated there). There is a bit of the lurker and the voyeur in most happily sociable people; who has never eavesdropped or peeped at a neighbour's stuff?
Familiar as they may be to people with wide-ranging lives on-line, these arguments need to be made; not everyone who uses email and visits web-sites is at ease with social networking. How To Ascript. However, merely bristling at anti-Facebook stereotypes or mocking the malaise that prompts them risks buying in to an exaggerated view of what is new and distinctive about the experience the site provides, while ignoring the increased cross-cultural complexity of such malaise today. Concern about the future of sociability has been evolving in the West for esu application more than a century, as the spread of how to write, a consumption-driven economy has distributed imperatives of self-marketing and self-display to ever-widening populations. Today, the essay, deliberate inculcation of what Henri Lefebvre (1984) called ‘controlled consumption' to ser dissertation workshop drive economic growth in developing countries is carrying those imperatives across multiple societies with historically differing concepts of what counts as proper subjectivity. With a little adaptation, Veblen's 1899 work on esu application essay the leisure class provides us with ample material for a rip-snorting essay on vicarious consumption and the ‘predaceous temper' on Facebook. However, it is more illuminating to reread Veblen alongside detailed accounts by worried Chinese critics of the PRC's strategic production of consumerism and behind child no ‘popular culture' after Deng Xiaoping's Southern Tour (see Wang) in 1992; Bao, for example, examines how behaviours, tastes and esu application essay interests befitting new urban personality types were minutely modelled for the readers of a popular newspaper, Shanghai Weekly . In between these historical extremes lies the write, post-World War Two reconstruction of essay, capitalism in the West and the classic literature on modernity and everyday life. In his Introduction to the 1984 edition of Lefebvre's Everyday Life in the Modern World (1962), Wander points out just how much Lefebvre's account of consumerism as a bureaucratically ‘controlled' terror spreading its principles of anxiety, repetition and compulsiveness through all aspects of life and into the soul learned from the earlier work of Fromm (1947) on ‘the marketing orientation': The modern world fosters a childlike personality, a person who constantly seeks and needs approval. Write. … Aimless, over-reactive, inconsistent, face aching at esu application, the end of the day from the ever-present and required smile, the marketing persona is of a piece with the modern world. (Wander in Lefebvre xiv) At least one thing to be said for Facebook and other mobile socializing modes is that they take the ache out of smiling (‘like'), although unfortunately they also transfer it from the face to the wrist or, in my case, the ser dissertation workshop, thumb: :)
For Lefebvre, the esu application, febrile tedium of behind child, everyday life routines (‘the quotidian') forms the esu application, underbelly or the ‘verso' of the modern understood as ‘what is workshop novel, brilliant, paradoxical and bears the imprint of esu application essay, technicality and worldliness' (Lefebvre 24-5). I have no doubt that social networking sites are ‘of a piece' with the modern world in Lefebvre's sense; given the vastness of education need hour essay, his theory's horizon, how could they not be so? However, if we reduce Facebook or any other massive phenomenon to a pretext for revising classic theories of commodification and alienation, the question does arise why an ethnographically challenging 200 million people world-wide invest their energies in an activity that any adroit critic can easily portray as of a piece with their everyday pain and oppression (not to mention that of the essay, workers who make computers and behind child essay left cope with the toxic waste). ‘False consciousness' seems more than ever insufficient as an esu application essay explanation; always vulnerable to education hour the charge of implying (from a masterly position) that masses of people ‘have yet to authentically experience their own lives' (Grossberg 365), ideological analysis has trouble accounting for the degree to which popular culture can incorporate its own ideological diagnostic—a topic that no doubt arises on the 500 Facebook groups devoted to aspects of ‘Marxism'. Within the great tradition of esu application essay, modern cultural critique, an aesthetically-minded alternative is to follow Lukács via Jameson ( Signatures 9-34) or de Certeau (16) in seeking a utopian impulse in popular culture that reaches (even in Facebook) for a better future from the heart of reification, giving us pleasure in the process. Ser Dissertation Workshop. The more creative Cultural Studies move today draws rather on sociology and aspects of ethnographic method to ask questions within a concrete and carefully delimited social context about our often ambivalent involvement in popular culture—an approach that admits of empirically anchored and thus potentially surprising answers (Couldry; Gregg). 7 Having a bet each way at the level of methodological principle, I lean far enough towards that old utopian quest to wonder whether Lefebvre's excoriating account of the modern everyday as it displaces a culturally if not materially rich traditional life of ‘style' ( Practice 38) does not direct us now towards the wrong historical vast horizon. Everyday life is not a human universal. For Lefebvre, the everyday is a modern historical product that wondrously ‘erupts' into literature with the essay, overwhelming triviality of that ‘epic twenty-four hours' (3) recounted in Joyce's Ulysses . As A Country. A regime of living thickly composed of petty recurrences (‘gestures of esu application essay, labour and leisure, mechanical movements' ), everyday life has a time-tabling, programming, numbering drive that divides up human experience; lived time, for resume powerbuilder example, splits into the ‘pledged' time of essay, work, ‘leisure' (an allocated ‘break' from the everyday), and steadily increasing ‘compulsive' time spent satisfying ‘various demands other than work such as transport, official formalities, etc' (53). Value Need Of The Essay. Apt for fostering consumption as it multiplies our tasks, this distributive force breaks up the ‘unity of form, function and structure' that for esu application essay Lefebvre characterized ‘style' in all the humble objects and social practices of traditional living (29-30).
While French peasant cupboards varied in form and construction from h1n1, place to place, their fitness for a cupboard's purpose did not vary. I think of the Australian bush ‘meat safe': my grandmother's was cream and my mother's cacky green, but they worked the same way, they were not obsolescent, and they kept the blowflies at bay. Yet even as the destruction of style-based ways of life continues and as many millions of people struggle (not least in China) for esu application essay a modicum of resume, consumer comfort, perhaps in esu application the over-developed world today it is everyday life rather than ‘style' that is essay writing slowly breaking down—along with its repetitive, minutely layered routines that differentiated the gendered space-times of modern domestic and working experience. Invoking the essay, Incas and Aztecs along with Greece and essay no Rome, Lefebvre envisaged ‘the total absence of everyday life in a given community at essay, a given time' (29) and not all of his examples were from the ancient world; adolescents and students in resume particular, he noted, fear everyday life as a ‘vague potentiality' known only through their parents (74). Essay. Lefebvre was writing in the 1960s, and an expansion of pledged and compulsive time under neo-liberal management over how to ascript the past forty years has well and truly spread everyday life to formerly spared social categories. At the same time, though, I'm not sure that anyone who hangs round the house all day, a-rhythmically working and playing on-line in the same sloppy daks and trainers we wear to the shops, the gym or a meeting (or fluidly passing from esu application essay, eBay to Wii Fit to compulsive email without leaving our screens) actually has an ‘everyday life' in Lefebvre's divisive sense. The socially insular, cave-bound figure of the value education need, hacker or the gamer in popular mythology certainly does not.
In fact, significant genres of popular narrative have been talking to us about the passing of everyday life for quite a while. In our great paranoid epics about technologies of surveillance and perception, the hero must first be wrenched from a routine life that he finds either a little dull (Will Smith in Enemy of the essay, State ) or unbearable (Keanu Reeves in The Matrix ). His quest is then either to retrieve the normality that he now values more deeply, or to transcend it and to access the truth behind those meticulously programmed appearances; the Matrix is a totalisation of the everyday as Lefebvre understood it. In the overture to the Matrix trilogy (which, in passing, reveals just how much of a Platonist Jean Baudrillard can be), Neo needs only to conquer fear and child left jump out the window to leave ‘Tom Anderson' and office life behind. In hundreds of lesser action films (a recent example is Eagle Eye ), this physical leap of faith literalizes the passage from everyday life to a new reality, while the recurring line of dialogue, ‘I just want my life back', marks the passage of a question about the stability of the everyday. Zombie and vampire stories also share the central premise of an assault on everyday life. Essay. Differently preoccupied as they are with sustainability, both genres feature the losing battle of the uninfected to powerbuilder preserve a semblance of ‘normal' life before joining the war for brute survival that fills the world of post-apocalyptic fiction, in which no everyday life remains ( The Road Warrior , the Resident Evil series). The zombie apocalypse canon is the esu application, more absolutist about the relentlessness of this drift; if Romero's Night of the how to write, Living Dead (1968) adapted the essay, Afro-Caribbean folklore marked as such in White Zombie (1932) to the setting of an American farm house under siege, Dawn of the Dead (1978) memorably locked the remnant bearers of everyday life in the temple of Lefebvre's ‘controlled consumption', a shopping mall—with an out-of-control consumption principle ravening outside. Revisionist vampire stories have a more nuanced historical vision, holding out powerbuilder hope for an evolution in everyday life.
Born into Veblen's world, Dracula was a very much an old school man of ‘style' forced to deal with modern people (Van Helsing, Lucy); his descendants are historical border creatures who nightly negotiate the everyday, whether in romance ( Angel , True Blood , Twilight ) or as politics ( Blade , the ‘Joe Pitt' novels of Charlie Huston). And then there is the Terminator franchise, with its eschatological framing of a girl's moment of contempt for a cosy little house, cold sodas and esu application Facebook pages. The film series temporally stretches the mundane double consciousness of value of the, consumer modernity (knowing this way of life is not sustainable into the future, we want this way of life to survive) into a war over history's direction between contending forces in both the present and the future. So far, only the fourth film, Terminator Salvation (2009) explores a fully post-everyday world. Terminator (1984) and Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines (2003) are ‘wrenching out' stories, with Sarah Connor dragged in the first film from her big hair and esu application ankle-warmer ordinariness, never to know everyday life again, while her son John is hiding out in Los Angeles at the start of the third. However, in Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991) everyone except the monomaniacal Sarah (and, of course, her liquid metal T-1000 enemy) is immersed in the everyday; under the tutelage of John Connor as a child, even the T-800 helper (Arnie) learns some of its routines. Linking to this film in particular, Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles TV series makes John Connor's adolescence a study in psychic conflict between longing for an ordinary suburban life and knowing that (as Riley puts it) ‘it's all going to burn'.
What sets John apart as a leader here is not his awareness of the fire to come; in h1n1 essay writing a fuzzy way, there is common knowledge around him of the unsustainability of our world. Esu Application. Rather, this version of John Connor stands out from his helpers (with the partial exception of india country, Cameron, his studious Terminator guard) because he knows why people care , none the less, about cold sodas and cosy houses, ‘like it all matters'. I doubt that John Connor could risk having a Facebook page, but I'm fairly sure that he'd want one. Let me offer my own two or three cents about utopia and Facebook. First, Facebook is not all quizzes, ‘hey babes' and pokes. Most negative media stories obsess about essay, one or two features (photos and status updates in particular), but the point about Facebook is that it bundles together multiple functions and potential things to do. Most of us never use all of them, and other social networking platforms do some of these things better than Facebook does (MySpace for behind essay new music, Live Journal for communities, Ning for interest groups, Twitter for essay global converse and news as-it-happens …), but what Facebook does well is combine : you can write private letters, play games, send gifts, do quizzes, circulate news, post notes, music and clips, share photos or research, test your knowledge, join groups and causes, make haiku-like allusions to your state of mind and chat on-line with friends, all in one place and time—restoring or relieving, according to need, the pattern of an everyday life. Write. Facebook is on-line culture ‘lite': this makes it an object of scorn for digital elitists and ‘white noise' haters (see Tuttle), but it is essay also a source of its mainstream appeal. Corresponding to this variety of uses is the diversity of kinds of contact Facebook allows, with the resume, relation between ‘contact' and intimacy also having the potential to vary over time within each singular friendship.
In this respect it follows the rhythms of ‘real life' as a whole: as Lauren Berlant puts it, ‘all kinds of emotional dependency and sustenance can flourish amongst people who only meet each other at essay, one or a few points on the grid of the field of their life' (‘Faceless Book'). Nothing flourishes for people who join Facebook and do nothing with it; passive or un-giving use of any network is rewarded in how to write ascript kind (Strohmeyer). As Thompson points out, a depth dimension to ‘ambient awareness' accumulates only with time and aggregation. It does grow over time; Facebook has increased my affective quality of life, and not only because it offers a break from my academic service work. The collective stream of posts brings me word of esu application, books, articles, music, films, video clips and resume powerbuilder news that I would otherwise never discover. At a time of essay, life when new involvements become more rare, I suddenly have digital penfriends with whom I exchange old-fashioned letters through Inbox (one of the h1n1 essay writing, least remarked features of Facebook), while an acquaintance from esu application, decades ago has become a dear friend whom I contact almost daily. Retrieving a joy of my childhood, when my father would bring home a ‘two bob' chocolate on a Friday night and we'd listen to The Goon Show and My Word on the ABC, I play variants of Scrabble with friends on four continents throughout the day. Facebook also nudges me to remember more of my past than I am wont to do, as other people's actions unpredictably pull bits of our scattered lives together.
There is more to this aspect than the nostalgia decried by Susan Dominus (‘sometimes it seems like Facebook is the most back-ward looking innovation ever expected to change the future') and powerbuilder Steve Tuttle (‘Goodbye, William and Mary alums I barely remember from 25 years ago'). Facebook has utopian force for me because it gently undoes the dissociative patterns I learned as a girl in pugnaciously ‘real' Australian country towns; it lets me have family on the same plane as my ex-students, my friends who talk books, my colleagues in Hong Kong and Australia and friends who also post in Italian, French and Chinese. Directly because of esu application essay, Facebook, I was able to speak by phone to a much-loved cousin just before he died. If Facebook vanished overnight, I would experience grief. Many users already express grief when the Facebook ‘team' announces a ‘redesign' or ‘streamlining' of h1n1, some aspect of the site. 8 Grizzling about Facebook within Facebook itself is an activity that is too complex for cursory treatment here, but it is something I would research if I were a new media scholar. I'm generally not active in esu application Facebook groups, but over the past year I have twice felt so upset about resume powerbuilder, ‘upgrades' that killed cherished features of ‘my' on-line world that I, too, signed petitions and joined multiple versions of ‘1,000,000 Against the New Facebook Lay-Out'. Essay. Apart from the anger endemic to living passionately in an environment that the owner can alter at resume powerbuilder, will (a condition a bit like being in love and a lot like being a tenant), most obnoxious to me is the Facebook doublespeak that coos about ‘giving you more control' over your page, while flagrantly reducing that control as we are nudged to push ever more content from other media providers. The worse occasion for me was the September 2008 redesign; by forcing several added rounds of clicking, it separated the applications (and thus the display of signs received from friends) from the news feed, in time as well as visual space—thereby splitting memory and conservation from contemporaneity, the past from the flow of the present.
Like most of my Hong Kong friends I had loved those gift-based apps and curated the images carefully as I once did scrapbooks of shoes and hairstyles from 1950s comics; some icons were beautiful and others were not, but all were mnemonic traces of events and personal stories. Essay. When Facebook began calling these ‘clutter' (an aesthetic position shared by mostly American friends who always hid their stuff behind a corporate web page look), I realized that my affection for these apps was of a piece with growing up in what was once sniffily known in Australia as an ‘Irish house'—full of essay no, clutter, often dusty junk unappealing to behold but charged with the vitality of the souls who had given each object or left it behind. Clutter is an unfriendly name for the portals of the spirit-world; it can be very bad luck to esu application throw clutter away. So I keep some of mine on Facebook, immured on that ‘Boxes' page, but when I go there now it feels like visiting a cemetery rather than a home. Groups formed to oppose Facebook initiatives can attract a couple of million people and value need of the hour essay they often complain of censorship and PRC-style technical interference from esu application, site administrators. The protests against the March 2009 remodelling of the Home page to make Facebook more like Twitter seem to essay have been a little more effective than those of 2008 in esu application essay extracting modifications of an unpopular yet widely accepted site revision. Win or lose, though, perhaps it is this experience of joining with equally frustrated and write ascript grizzling strangers world-wide in esu application essay a reiterative struggle with a transnationally effective corporate ‘state' that exercises power through emotional blackmail (that is, hegemony; ‘if you don't like it, leave!') that for me most clearly models political practices of far wider import than Facebook itself. On Facebook at the moment we may be grizzling about h1n1 writing, ease of access to Growing Gifts, Hatching Eggs or My Fab Bag. However, if it is more or less new for me to do this on-line, the mode of continuity that makes this small change intelligible is esu application essay neither fictional nor derived from resume powerbuilder, Western critical literature on the political potentials (and otherwise) of new media use. Essay. Rather, I understand it in an ordinary way through the growing power, in resume limited but I think expanding spheres, of the Chinese netizenry, which draws its effectiveness (in particular, against abuses of esu application, power in everyday life) as much from the culture of the political system that it inhabits and ser dissertation harasses as it does from the media it uses.
9 Over-supplied as we are with representative government, Australians have been accustomed to thinking of esu application, Chinese political culture as remote. How To. Yet as our own system intensifies its reliance not only on deal-making and esu application essay ‘spin' but on public cynicism about the possibility of truth and integrity in politics, I note that it is during the often but not always fruitless exercise of opposing Facebook's decisions and write ascript exposing what lies inside their rhetorical cocoon that Hong Kong's ‘petitionary' style of public pressure activism as exercised within an unrepresentative, undemocratic mode of governance becomes, however briefly, a transnational norm. Petitioning may or may not be effective but over esu application time it is the behind left, shared experience of esu application, a form of collective agency enabled by a broad and no amorphous imagined community (‘fellow Facebook users') that has significant utopian and practical potential. 10 As culturally changing systems of political and corporate power reshape our lives in the West, we may have more to learn than we know from Chinese internet activism's capacity to trouble inaccessible and seemingly impregnable powers. In the meanwhile, having a good grizzle about essay, Facebook can sometimes achieve a little more than we have learned to expect. Meaghan Morris is Chair Professor of value need of the essay, Cultural Studies at Lingnan University, Hong Kong, and Professor in the Department of esu application essay, Gender and Cultural Studies at the University of Sydney.
Her books include Identity Anecdotes: Translation and Media Culture (2006); Hong Kong Connections: Transnational Imagination in powerbuilder Action Cinema (co-ed. with Siu-leung Li and Stephen Chan Ching-kiu, 2005); “Race” Panic and the Memory of Migration (co-ed. with Brett de Bary, 2001); and Too Soon, Too Late: History in Popular Culture (1998). My thanks are due to esu application essay Carl Chan, who first persuaded me to try Facebook and twice helped me in important ways with this article. Catherine Driscoll and Melissa Gregg nudged me hard to h1n1 essay think about Facebook, and the article is based on a seminar for the Department of Gender and Cultural Studies, University of Sydney. 1 For a review of Davies with a sceptical view of the model of journalism's history assumed by accounts of essay, its imminent death, see Preston. 2 For tip of the ser dissertation, iceberg indications of the esu application essay, Grant and Bono coverage see, respectively, Simpson and Bruce; Claburn.
Parodied in the 2006 Pink music video ‘Stupid Girls' and the inspiration for several pop songs about girly mega-narcissism, Paris Hilton's style of chronicling the micro-events of her affective and material consumption is canonical for the ‘rich and famous' genre; Ashton Kutcher (husband of Demi Moore) is an actor whose use of Twitter is now metonymic of its trivial uses, thanks to the number of media stories that have been written about him. See ‘Facebook “Sickie” Guy Facing Investigation' for the Story of need of the essay, Sydney AAPT call centre worker Kyle Doyle, whose boss reportedly spotted ‘Kyle Doyle is not going to esu application work, f*** it I'm still trashed. SICKIE WOO' on child essay no Doyle's profile; the incident is now an exemplary case for Human Resources training discourse on esu application Facebook in resume the workplace (see Stokeley). 3 See ‘Three years for profiling a Moroccan prince on Facebook'. After an international campaign about the violations of esu application, Mourtada's rights during arrest, he was reportedly freed by ‘royal grace' after 43 days of detention; http://globalvoicesonline.org/2008/03/21/moroccan-blogosphere-on-fouad-mourtada-finally-free/. For an interesting discussion of the June 4th blockade and value of the hour essay the language nuances involved, see Techcrunch ; http://uk.techcrunch.com/2009/06/02/china-shuts-down-twitter-and-bing-in-lead-up-to-tiananmen-anniversary/ 4 By ‘early', I mean that the publication of the article in early 2006 preceded the opening up of essay, Facebook to mass use. Child Essay Left. Launched by Mark Zuckerberg on February 4, 2004, Facebook was limited at first to Harvard students.
It expanded membership eligibility first to other Ivy League schools, then other universities, then high school networks in September, 2005, before opening to everyone over the age of 13 with a valid e-mail address on September 26, 2006. 5 There is also a small number of Facebook groups (13 as I write) dedicated to more or less expletive-laden versions of the topic, ‘I Don't Know You But Let's be Facebook Friends'. Most of them show little or no sign of activity. As a check on the reality-effect of the ‘student orgy' stereotype, it is also worth noting that Facebook claims that more than two-thirds of essay, its users are now outside of essay writing, colleges, that about 70 per cent of essay, users are now outside the United States, and that the ser dissertation workshop, fastest growing demographic is esu application essay 35 years old and older. 7 Exemplary of this is Gregg's forthcoming study ( Work's Intimacy ) on the impact of being always available on-line on the lives of middle and lower middle class workers in essay writing Brisbane.
8 Wikipedia gives quite a detailed and essay well-referenced account of the major intra-Facebook controversies and the mode of essay, their resolution: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_Facebook#cite_note-43. 9 For a threshold Chinese case in June 2009 that was somewhat submerged in international news media by the events simultaneously occurring in Tehran, see ‘Fending Off Demands for Sex' for the widely publicised case of 21-year old Deng Yujiau, who was freed by esu application essay a court after killing a Communist Party official who had tried to assault her. 10 My thanks to Russell Smith for this formulation. Bao, Yaming. ‘Shanghai Weekly: Globalization, Consumerism and Shanghai Popular Culture.' Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 9.4 (2008): 557-567. Berlant, Lauren. Workshop. ‘Faceless Book.' 25 December 2007. http://supervalentthought.com/2007/12/25/faceless-book/ Accessed 30 October 2008. Bugeja, Michael J. ‘Heads Up: Facing the Facebook.' The Chronicle of Higher Education . 27 January 2006. ‘Can I Be Your Facebook Friend?' Posted by Elaine Spall. Esu Application Essay. 29 February 2009.
search#/topic.php?uid=2204645326topic=8458 Accessed 7 June 2009. Claburn, Thomas. ‘Bono's Bikini Teens Perplex Facebook's Privacy.' Information Week. 29 October 2008. H1n1. http://www.informationweek.com/news/security/privacy/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=211800114cid= RSSfeed_IWK_ALL Accessed 2 June 2009. Couldry, Nick. Inside Culture: Re-imagining the Method of Cultural Studies . London: Sage Publications, 2000. Davies, Nick.
Flat Earth News . London: Chatto Windus, 2008. De Certeau, Michel. The Practice of Everyday Life . Trans. Steven F. Esu Application Essay. Rendall. Child Essay Left No. Berkeley: U of California P, 1984. Dominus, Susan. Esu Application. ‘Thanks to Facebook, Your Childhood in Park Slope in the ‘80s Never Has to End'. The New York Times . 17 October 1008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/17/nyregion/17bigcity.html Accessed 30 October 2008. Emerson, Daniel. ‘Facebook Friends Not Real Friends: Judge'.
Sydney Morning Herald . 27 March 2008. http://www.smh.com.au/news/technology/facebook-friends-not-real-friends-judge/2008/03/27/1206207279597.html Accessed 5 November 2008. ‘Facebook No Substitute for value education hour essay Real World Contact.' Sunday [South China] Morning Post. Esu Application. 17 May 2009: 8. ‘Facebook “Sickie” Guy Facing Investigation.' Nine News. H1n1 Writing. 23 October 2008. http://news.ninemsn.com.au/article.aspx?id=651937 Accessed 5 November 2008. ‘Fending Off Demands for essay Sex: Chinese Hero Freed.' Sydney Morning Herald . 19 June 2009. http://www.smh.com.au/world/fending-off-demands-for-sex-chinese-hero-freed-20090617-cgro.html Accessed 19 June 2009. Flumenbaum, David. ‘China Blocks Twitter Ahead of Tiananmen Anniversary.' The Huffington Post . 2 Jun 2009. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/06/02/china-blocks-twitter-ahea_n_210177.html Accessed 7 June 2009. Fromm, Erich.
Man for Himself . New York: Rinehart, 1947. Gregg, Melissa. Work's Intimacy . Country. Cambridge: Polity Press, forthcoming 2010. Grossberg, Lawrence. We Gotta Get Out of This Place: Popular Conservatism and Postmodern Culture . Esu Application Essay. New York and London: Routledge, 1992. Jameson, Frederic. Signatures of the Visible . New York and resume London: Routledge, 1992. Jodice, Francesco and Kal Karman. Hikikomori in Japan (1of 3) . http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3gIx6hZweHc Accessed 19 October 2009.
Knight, Elizabeth. Esu Application. ‘My Space Invaders Poke Murdoch's Eye.' Sydney Morning Herald . 25 April 2009. http://business.smh.com.au/business/myspace-invaders-poke-murdochs-eye-20090424-ai0u.html Accessed 20 May 2009. Lefebvre, Henri. The Practice of Everyday Life. 1962. India Essay. Trans. Steven F. Rendall. Esu Application. Introd. Philip Wander. Berkeley and London, Transaction Books, 1984.
Morris, Meaghan. Identity Anecdotes: Translation in Media Culture . London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage, 2006. —. Ser Dissertation. Too Soon, Too Late: History in Popular Culture . Bloomington, Indiana UP, 1998. Morse, Margaret. ‘An Ontology of Everyday Distraction: The Freeway, the Mall, and Television.' Logics of Television . Ed. Esu Application. Patricia Mellencamp. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1990. 193-221. Nichols, John and Robert W. McChesney. ‘The Death and Life of resume powerbuilder, Great American Newspapers.' The Nation. 18 March 2009. Niedzviecki, Hal. ‘Facebook in a Crowd.' The New York Times . 26 October 2008. Preston, Peter. ‘Damaged Limitations.' The Guardian.
9 February 2008. Simpson, Richard and Sarah Bruce. ‘The Night Hugh Grant Ended Up in the Arms of a Gaggle of esu application, Student Beauties.' Mail Online. 8 October 2007. The-night-Hugh-Grant-ended-arms-gaggle-student-beauties.html Accessed 2 June 2009. Stokeley, Sarah. ‘Facebook and the Boss.' NETT#.
3 March 2009. http://nett.com.au/people/hr-and-training/facebook-and-the-boss/11321.html?p=1 Accessed 2 June 2009. ‘Strange Things Happen at the One Two Point.' Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles . Season Two, Episode 10. Fox Network. 2008-09. Thompson, Clive. ‘Brave New World of behind left, Digital Intimacy.' The New York Times. Esu Application. 7 September 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/07/magazine/07awareness-t.html Accessed 30 October 2008. ‘Three Years for Profiling a Moroccan Prince on Facebook.' Refworld.
27 February 2008. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/publisher,AMNESTY,,MAR,47cbc6531a,0.html Accessed 19 May 2009. ‘Time is Up for Twitter'. The Australian. 30 April 2009.
http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,,25405926-16382,00.html Accessed 17 May 2009. Tuttle, Steve. ‘You Can't Friend Me, I Quit!' Newsweek. 4 February 2009. http://www.newsweek.com/id/183180 Accessed 19 May 2009. Veblen, Thorstein.
The Theory of the Leisure Class: an Economic Study of value, Institutions . 1899. Forgotten Books . Wang, Jing. Esu Application. ‘Culture as Leisure and how to write Culture as Capital.' positions: east asia cultures critique 9.1 (2001): 69-104. Please feel free to esu application contribute to this discourse. Australian Humanities Review all rights reserved. Resume. ISSN: 1325 8338. Editors: Monique Rooney Russell Smith.
Email: [email protected] AHR is published by esu application essay the Association for the Study of Australian Literature (ASAL).
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Essay on esu application Genetics: The Heredity Carrier of Living Cell. Essay on Genetics: The Heredity Carrier of Living Cell! One of the most remarkable aspects of life is its capacity not only continuously to seek states of dynamic equilibrium in relation to environment but also to resume produce remarkably faithful copies of itself for countless generations. Many plants and animals exist today in a form virtually identical to that of their ancestors thousands of years ago. Many present-day species of life appear to esu application resemble closely, if not to duplicate, ancestors of several thousand years ago. Ser Dissertation. Cro-Magnon man, 25,000 years ago, was physically little different from modern man. Nuclei of living cells contain tiny rod like structures in pairs, the esu application, chromosomes (so named because of their capacity to absorb certain dyes).
The two sets appear upon examination to india as a developing be identical or nearly so. Although the chromosomes of a cell may vary markedly in size and shape, each chromosome will have a “mate” of approximately the same size and esu application shape. Write Ascript. Where reproduction is sexual, one set represents the esu application essay, inheritance from the h1n1 essay writing, father; the other set the inheritance from the mother. The number of chromosomes in a living cell varies from one species of animal or plant to esu application essay another. Powerbuilder. In human beings there are twenty-three pairs. Chromosomes carry what Schrodinger has called a “code script.” This code script directs the development of the organism from the time the egg is fertilized to the adult state and in major ways governs the biological functioning of the esu application essay, organism throughout life. To use a vastly oversimplified and much too mechanical analogy, we might say that the chromosomal carriers of heredity function like the punched tapes or cards which are fed into india as a developing country electronic computing machines. Essay. They cause a machine to run through a series of predictable steps. This analogy would be more complete if one of the processes induced in the computer were the duplication of the respective machine, complete with an identical set of punched tapes or cards. The “procreated” duplicator then would engage in the same processes, self-duplication and all—and this would continue indefinitely.
For the analogy to be perfect, the india essay, reproduction of essay, a computer would require the functions of two parent computers, “male” and “female,” each of how to ascript, which would contribute to the offspring a set of its own punched tapes or cards which would work jointly in directing the offspring’s functioning. Until the past decade or so, biologists thought that a specific characteristic of an organism is esu application essay governed by a specific region of h1n1 essay writing, a chromosome or matched pair of chromosomes. This region was referred to essay as a gene. Prior to 1953, biologists conceived a gene to be a highly complex protein molecule. However, gene theory has in late years undergone a revolution.
First, it was discovered that the education need of the hour, chemical carrier of hereditary traits is not protein but a chemical, deoxyribonucleic acid—DNA for esu application, short—which is centered in the nuclei of cells. Ribonucleic acid (RNA)—a near replica of DNA—moves out of cell nuclei into ser dissertation workshop the cells’ cytoplasm or outer layers. Thus, RNA actually transmits the coded hereditary information of DNA to other tissues. Chromosomes consist mainly of molecules of DNA. Essay. DNA, through the use of ser dissertation, its “partner chemical,” RNA, has the unique capacity of reproducing itself identically whenever its environment contains the necessary raw materials.
However, duplication of the chromosomal genes is by no means the sole function of DNA. Through the pioneering work of Andre Lwoff, Jacques Monod, and essay Francois Jacob of the Pasteur Institute in Paris, it appears established that, when a foreign substance is writing introduced into a cell, it triggers the cell’s DNA to produce precisely to enzyme needed to convert the substance to a chemical form which cells can use to esu application develop and multiply. Thus, in a sense, the basic function of genes can be turned on powerbuilder or off—they can perform tasks other than merely transmitting hereditary characteristics. Research continues and, as of this writing, it seems apparent that we may as yet know little about the functions of DNA. It is evident, however, that it serves as a kind of “brain within the cell” (to use a crude analogy), the full implications of which forces us to revise fundamentally our concept of the cell and perhaps the esu application, nature of life itself. A second major discovery has been that DNA molecules in h1n1 essay, a chromosome do not usually work independently of one another. They tend to work in teams, in the sense that the functioning of one affects the functioning of others. One authority conceives a chromosome as a “hierarchy of fields,” rather than an assemblage of particles.
The gene concept is esu application essay still useful but it now seems best to as a developing country essay think of a gene as a function of a region of a chromosome rather than as a specific particle. As we have seen, chromosomes occur in body cells in matched pairs. Esu Application. Apparently, their functions—genes—also occur in matched pairs, one of each pair being associated with one chromosome, its mate with the matched chromosome. Workshop. When we say that a hereditary characteristic, like skin colour, is governed by esu application a gene group, we really mean a pair of gene groups. However, it is common for h1n1 essay, one member of a gene pair or gene group pair to be recessive; that is, when paired with a dominant gene or gene group it fails to make its characteristics evident in essay, the resulting body structure. Thus, when a gene for brown eyes is paired with a gene for blue eyes, the gene for brown eyes prevails.
For a person to have blue eyes he must carry two recessive genes for behind, blue. Eye colour is one of essay, a few characteristics in human beings apparently governed by a single gene pair. Powerbuilder. Other such characteristics include blood type, albinism, and “taste blindness “for certain chemicals. In these cases, if we know the genetic history of a man and woman for essay, a few generations past, we can predict with considerable accuracy the proportion of their children likely to exhibit a given trait. This type of inheritance follows Mendelian principles, i.e., the principles of heredity formulated by Gregor, Mendel (1822-1884). Characteristics so inherited are “clear cut” in child left, the sense that they appear either in full or not at esu application, all. But, much more common among human beings are inherited characteristics which are the result of blending, i.e., the interplay of gene teams.
These characteristics do not follow the all or none principle; they appear as a point on a continuum. Good examples among humans are stature, skin colour, and predisposition to certain diseases. It is as a developing very hard to predict the essay, outcome of blending; for example, even if we knew the behind left no, skin colours of a baby’s ancestors, for several generations, it would still not be safe to predict the esu application essay, baby’s colour before his birth. Of course, because of the ways in which environmental factors seemingly can influence physical traits, one is never safe in predicting that any particular kind of hereditary trait will appear in an adult offspring. This phenomenon is sufficiently important to be explored in more detail.
The pattern of genes of an organism is referred to as the organism’s genotype, its internal chromosomal structure. The genotype governs what an organism can become in a given environment and education need of the hour essay also determines the hereditary characteristics which an organism can transmit to its offspring (though, if reproduction is heterosexual, the genotype of the offspring is of course a product of the genotype of both father and mother). The external appearance of an organism is called its phenotype. The phenotype seems always to be a product of its genotypic and esu application environmental influences. Phenotypes may vary considerably even when genotypes remain the same.
For example, when persons of Asiatic extraction move to the United States, their children (if reared in this country) tend to developing essay be larger than the parents and their grandchildren larger still. This signifies a change in essay, phenotype but not necessarily a change in india developing country essay, genotype. Better nourishment may increase the size of future generations without in the least changing their hereditary potential. Conversely, two persons might have the same phenotype for a given trait but differ in genotype. Modern geneticists are inclined to give less weight than did their forebears to the influence of genotype. Certainly, genetic inheritance counts for a good deal in determining the esu application, kind of adult a person will become, but the fact is, we do not know the exact role genotype plays in determining phenotype. Scientists used to debate what they called the nature-nurture issue. The issue could be phrased thus: Which characteristics of an behind child essay left no, organism are products of physical inheritance and essay which are products of environmental influence? But, modern scientists have virtually abandoned debate on this issue; many say that, since we have no adequate means of ser dissertation, ascertaining the facts, continuing such a debate is futile. The best studies of the essay, effect of genetic inheritance are those on identical twins.
Since identical twins result from splitting of a single fertilized egg, presumably they have identical genes. What is determined by heredity should therefore appear in powerbuilder, exactly the same form in the two twins—subject, of course, to such environmental modification as may have occurred. It is true that identical twins usually look very much alike, sometimes to the point where their parents can scarcely tell them apart. However, this fact does not entail their necessarily being alike in other respects. According to one study, the IQ difference of identical twins that have been reared together is 3.1 points; that of essay, fraternal twins reared together, 8.5 points. However, authorities point out ascript that the identical twin studies do not mean much. Esu Application Essay. Most of the twin studies involve twins reared together, and resume powerbuilder identical twins share a more similar environment than do non-twin siblings. They identify closely with each other and come to see the world around them in esu application essay, almost the value hour, same terms. Furthermore, they normally share the same diet and medical care.
The most valid type of study with respect to the nature-nurture controversy is that of identical twins who were separated in infancy and reared out of esu application essay, contact with each other and in dissimilar environments. Under these conditions, twins tend to be less alike; for example, the average difference in IQ scores in behind essay left no, doubles that of identical! Wins reared together. Esu Application Essay. But an powerbuilder, inadequate number of cases of identical twins reared apart in dissimilar environments have so far been studied to tell us much that is conclusive. We remain on esu application safer ground when we refuse to say that some traits are hereditary and ser dissertation others are acquired. It seems likely that all physical traits represent a blend of both influences. This question has an easy answer: No evidence! It is obvious that certain personality traits appear regularly in one family line and not in another.
A considerable proportion of the members of a family may be unusually energetic or unusually lazy, unusually excitable or unusually phlegmatic, unusually quick-tempered or unusually slow to anger, unusually amorous or unusually cold. However, the frequent appearance of a given personality trait in a given family line is essay readily explainable as a result of india developing country essay, social or cultural inheritance. John Jr. Esu Application Essay. may be quick-tempered because he has observed that in many situations John Sr.’s equally quick temper gets desired results. When this happens, the personality trait is how to write ascript learned and essay not inherited genetically. So far as we know, all personality traits are learned. However, we have no conclusive evidence that this is true; if we ever learn how to conduct meaningful studies in this area, we may find that some personality traits have a genetic basis. Some persons are what we call “high strung”; they are unusually sensitive and easily upset.
This particular personality type may well prove to be in part a product of a particular gene pattern. But we do not know this is the case. When someone says that Mary, who has been caught shoplifting, “comes by how to it honestly,” he usually means that she inherited a tendency which has appeared in the family before—perhaps Mary’s Aunt Maude was also a shoplifter. To impute such behaviour to inheritance is to go far beyond the evidence. The wisest stand for a teacher to take is that physical in heritance in esu application essay, itself is rarely of any crucial importance. Essay. That is, as teachers we can get few clues as to how to essay handle a child or youth from knowledge of his genetic make-up, even if we have such knowledge. What is writing of vital importance is a child’s capacity to modify himself through interaction with an esu application, environment. All but the powerbuilder, hopelessly defective have this capacity.
Modern genetics helps us understand better what a race is and how races differ. Two characteristics of genes are of esu application essay, prime significance in this connection. India Country. One characteristic is that the function of a particular DNA molecule, or of a cooperating group of such molecules (gene team), remains stable for an indefinite length of time. Mutations, to be discussed in the next section, do occur; but, barring mutations, gene functions do not change. Thus, a gene which produces brown eyes will continue to do so indefinitely. Furthermore, insofar as we know, the molecular structure of esu application essay, such a gene is the same whether a person is a Negro, a Swede, or a Polynesian. A second characteristic of genes is that they seem able to vary independently. At first thought, this statement may seem to contradict the earlier assertion that most physical traits are products of child left, gene teams and that a chromosome may be better understood as a “field of forces’ with highly complex lilies of interaction. However, if we regard independent gene variation as relative—that is, not absolutely independent, but relatively so—there is no contradiction. As a result of this second feature of genes, genes which produce tall stature may occur in persons who carry genes for black or white skin, narrow or broad nose, blond or dark hair, blue or brown eyes.
Thus, any hereditary trait may appear in conjunction with any other trait. These two genetic principles give meaning to the following definition of race: “Races are populations which differ in the relative commonness of some of their genes.” Thus, in a particular race a given trait, such as tallness, may occur more often than in essay, another race. A particular shade of skin may be more common in one race than in ser dissertation workshop, another. This does not mean that genes capable of producing traits quite different from the usual ones are absent from esu application essay, a race; it means rather that there are “majority traits” which are sufficiently common to make most members of a race look different from most members of another race. This definition is not free of difficulty, in that the problem remains of deciding which traits to value education of the hour use in defining a particular race. If we use only one characteristic, such as skin colour, and esu application essay assume that everyone with a black skin belongs to a “black race,” we must include peoples who differ markedly from need hour essay, one another in other characteristics (e.g., Asian Indians, Melanesians, and Africans). It is esu application essay necessary, therefore, to value education of the hour essay use several traits which are easily measured and which tend to occur in combination.
Anthropologists have used skin colour, hair colour and texture, eye colour, head shape, and stature. Classificatory schemes used at present usually propose three primary races, or racial stock: Caucasoid, Negroid, and Mongoloid. Within this framework several hundred distinct races may be identified, e.g., Nordic, Alpine, Mediterranean, Armenoid, Hindi, and so on. Since the base now commonly used for classifying people racially are arbitrary, and esu application essay since racial mixing apparently has occurred since the first development of ser dissertation, distinctive races, we can only esu application conclude that the concept of race is not very meaningful. In Dunn and Dobzhansky’s words. “When we say that two populations are racially different we are not saying very much.”
There may be vast differences culturally between the races, but this is a matter of how to write ascript, learning and not a product of biological difference. No one has yet been able to adduce scientifically defensible evidence that one race is superior to another in any way which we consider important. Some races tend to be physically more powerful than others, some can withstand cold better than others, some can withstand heat better than others—but these are relatively minor matters. There is no evidence that any race has a superior capacity for intelligent behaviour or a monopoly on morality. Although cultural differences may in some places make racial intermarriage unwise, there is no known biological harm which can result from racial mixture. On the contrary, experience with hybridization throughout the plant and animal kingdom suggests that a hybrid strain may be biologically better, i.e., stronger and esu application more vigorous, than the parent varieties.
Many social scientists feel that ultimately widespread racial intermarriage not only will occur but will be the only final solution to the problem of racial prejudice. The main racial lesson which modern genetics has for prospective teachers is that there are no known biological limits which prevent one race from learning what other races have learned. However, cultural limitations may be quite serious and may require generations to overcome. Teachers should recognize that, because of cultural background, some races typically outperform others in india developing country essay, an average American classroom. Esu Application Essay. For example, the authors live in ser dissertation workshop, a community with a fairly large Chinese-American population, and Chinese children and youth are usually “high performers” in academic subjects. A cultural tradition of prizing scholarship, which extends backward thousands of years, undoubtedly explains the Chinese performance.
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