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Use And Abuse Of Science Essay
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Use And Abuse Of Science Essay
resume system sales Master eRsum Tutorial. You can view the and abuses, sample resume as you work through this tutorial. The sample will open in a separate browser window; resize both of class essay your browsers so that they are positioned side by side on your computer screen. This way you can view both simultaneously. Please follow this tutorial exactly; it is the basis for identifying and organizing key chunks of information.
Not only is chunking an important component of and abuses of science essay eResumes, but it is mortgage underwriter cover letter, also important for uses of science online reading of that information. This tutorial is designed to page scroll down as a single page on your screen without having to uses and abuses of science essay link to a separate Web page for each step . From an online learning advantage, you can access this tutorial from mary frankenstein, anywhere with Internet access, presenting you with just enough chunks of information per browser window. And Abuses Of Science. You can click on the Top links to navigate back to frankenstein the list of steps, and click on a particular step in the list to take you there. This tutorial consists of the following 11 steps : STEP 2 : List each of your job/position titles in chronological order. STEP 3 : List your responsibilities for each job held. STEP 4 : List the uses and abuses essay, skills you used for essay of the stranger camus each job. STEP 5 : List your accomplishments that illustrate each skill used.
STEP 6 : Write specific statements that qualify/quantify your accomplishments. STEP 7 : List your specialized training and education. STEP 8 : Choose the and abuses of science, appropriate rsum style format. STEP 10 : Summarize your qualifications relevant to stranger by albert camus your career goal. Each of the following steps provide you with a brief description, an uses essay example taken from the essay stranger by albert camus, sample Master eRsum, and a summary of the steps so far to illustrate your progression in relationship to uses and abuses of science each completed step. Step 1: Clarify your career goal. In your final keyword rsum may or may not contain a goal statement. However, it#146;s important to develop your rsum with a clear goal in mind, so that you know how to organize and shelley's frankenstein essay prioritize your rsum's content.
The term objective implies action steps used to uses and abuses of science essay achieve goals; rsums do not list action steps. You want to focus your resume on a single goal, or desired outcome, that is broad enough to be flexible in a dynamic job market, but focused enough to give your rsum some direction. An easy way to get a grip on this is to apply a systematic brainstorming approach as follows: First , make a list of nurse resume maker all of the job titles you can think of that describe the kinds of work you want to do in essay your next job (e.g., Client/Server Architect; Systems Integrator; Systems Engineer; Network Administrator; and Software Engineer, etc.) Second , make a list of all of the workplaces you can think of that might hire people for those kinds of essay jobs. For example, list specific employers (e.g., Microsoft Corporation; Sun Microsystems; Oracle; etc.) or general descriptions of work places (e.g., major high technology firm; small start-up company; etc.) Third , organize your job title list and workplaces list into three groups each: 1) first priority now; 2) second priority later; and uses and abuses of science 3) third priority maybe later.
Finally , match up the first priority job titles with the mary essay, first priority workplaces, and you have the uses essay, beginning of an camus objective statement. For example, let#146;s say Client/Server Architect and Systems Integrator are your first priority job titles, and and abuses of science a major high technology firm is your first priority workplace. Your objective statement would then read three ways: Position as a Client/Server Systems Architect for a major high technology firm Position as a Client/Server Architect for mary a major high technology firm that specializes in systems integration Position as a Client/Server Architect for Sun Microsystems
With these objective statements, you can prioritize/organize the uses of science, information you need to include in your rsum that supports this objective: e.g., your technical computer skills; educational background in computer science; systems integration experience; technical consulting skills; etc. Position as a Client Server Systems Architect for a major high technology firm Step 2: List each of on writing a 10 page paper your job/position titles in uses and abuses of science chronological order. Make a list of class each position or job title you have had, whether it was paid or non-paid. And Abuses Of Science. For each listed item, include the following information: Company/Organization Name Department/Division Location (City and State) Dates Employed Position or Job Title. Current Job Title: Systems Engineer. Employment Data: Company/Organization Name: Computer Engineering Corporation Department/Division: Systems Integration Division Location: Los Angeles, California Dates Employed: 1993 - Present. 1. Career Goal: Client Server Systems Architect for a major high technology firm.
2. Current Job Title and Employment Data : Position or Job Title: Systems Engineer Company/Organization Name: Computer Engineering Corporation Department/Division: Systems Integration Division Location: Los Angeles, California Dates Employed: 1993 - Present. Step 3: List your responsibilities for each job held. Your job responsibilities are synonymous with a job description. Shelley's Essay. A good source of example job descriptions are from the jobs advertised online by individual employers. They are unique identifiers that define the nature of your work relative your accountability to accomplish specific work tasks. Provide systems engineering, software engineering, technical consulting, and marketing services as a member of the Systems Integration Dvision of a software consulting company. 1. Career Goal: Client Server Systems Architect for a major high technology firm. 2. Uses And Abuses. Current Job Title and Employment Data: Position or Job Title: Systems Engineer Company/Organization Name: Computer Engineering Corporation Department/Division: Systems Integration Division Location: Los Angeles, California Dates Employed: 1993 - Present.
3. Job Responsibilities : Provide systems and software engineering Provide technical consulting Provide marketing services. Step 4: List the skills your used for each job. Skills highlight your abilities, expertise, proficiency, and understanding of key areas that you develop as a result of your work experience and frankenstein education. List the uses and abuses of science essay, specific skills that are unique to your work experience, profession, and career goals. Of The By Albert. Review the section of this tutorial How To Recognize the Keyword Elements in Your Rsum for Examples of Skill Keywords by Job Category. This list of skills will serve two purposes: to generate a list of accomplishments from in uses and abuses essay using these skills, and to resume maker develop your keyword summary.
Job Skills Used as a Systems Engineer: Knowledge of uses and abuses client/server architecture, Windows for Workgroups, Windows NT Advanced Server, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle7 and UNIX; knowledge of class SMP, RDBMS, and uses and abuses RAID technology; Project Management and Development skills; Software and Systems Planning and resume maker Design skills; Technical specification and presentation skills; interpersonal skills, troubleshooting skills; consulting skills; Technology analysis and integration skills; business management skills; marketing skills. 1. Career Goal: Client Server Systems Architect for a major high technology firm. 2. Current Job Title and Employment Data: Position or Job Title: Systems Engineer Company/Organization Name: Computer Engineering Corporation Department/Division: Systems Integration Division Location: Los Angeles, California Dates Employed: 1993 - Present. 3. Job Responsibilities: Provide systems and uses software engineering Provide technical consulting Provide marketing services. 4. In Write. Job Skills : Knowledge of client/server architecture, Windows for Workgroups, Windows NT Advanced Server, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle7 and UNIX; knowledge of SMP, RDBMS, and RAID technology; Project Management and Development skills; Software and Systems Planning and Design skills; Technical specification and uses of science presentation skills; interpersonal skills, troubleshooting skills; consulting skills; Technology analysis and shelley's frankenstein essay integration skills; business management skills; marketing skills. Step 5: List your accomplishments that illustrate each skill used.
Accomplishments are tasks that you successfully completed as a result of using a particular set of skills that were required for a particular job. A better way to think of this is something you completed that you did for the benefit of your employer that answer's the and abuses, question so what? These accomplishments should support the skills that you identified in STEP 3 above. Describe an accomplishment for underwriter resume cover each responsibility. Successfully completed tasks as a Systems Engineer: Developed an enterprise-level client/server automated auditing application Prepared and presented preliminary designs to corporate project managers Conducted trade studies of uses of science leading-edge technologies consistent with internal performance standards. 1. Career Goal: Client Server Systems Architect for a major high technology firm. 2. Current Job Title and Employment Data: Position or Job Title: Systems Engineer Company/Organization Name: Computer Engineering Corporation Department/Division: Systems Integration Division Location: Los Angeles, California Dates Employed: 1993 - Present. 3. Job Responsibilities: Provide systems and software engineering Provide technical consulting Provide marketing services. 4. Job Skills: Knowledge of client/server architecture, Windows for Workgroups, Windows NT Advanced Server, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle7 and essay by albert UNIX; knowledge of SMP, RDBMS, and RAID technology; Project Management and Development skills; Software and Systems Planning and uses Design skills; Technical specification and tips on writing a 10 page research presentation skills; interpersonal skills, troubleshooting skills; consulting skills; Technology analysis and integration skills; business management skills; marketing skills. 5. And Abuses. Job Accomplishments : Developed an enterprise-level client/server automated auditing application Prepared and presented preliminary designs to on christmas blessings corporate project managers Conducted trade studies of leading-edge technologies consistent with internal performance standards. Step 6: Write specific statements that qualify/quantify your accomplishments.
Qualifying or quantifying your accomplishments indicates to WHAT DEGREE a task was completed successfully that you identified in uses essay STEP 4 above. These statements should address: how much, how efficiently, etc. Specific statements that qualify/quantify accomplishments as a Systems Engineer: Successfully migrated a financial management company from nurse resume, a mainframe computer system to a client/server system Recommended specific steps to implement client/server systems to clients new to the technology Identified and recommended proven low-risk implementation of SMP and and abuses essay RDBMS systems. 1. Career Goal: Client Server Systems Architect for a major high technology firm. 2. Current Job Title and Employment Data: Position or Job Title: Systems Engineer Company/Organization Name: Computer Engineering Corporation Department/Division: Systems Integration Division Location: Los Angeles, California Dates Employed: 1993 - Present. 3. Job Responsibilities: Provide systems and software engineering Provide technical consulting Provide marketing services. 4. Job Skills: Knowledge of client/server architecture, Windows for essay Workgroups, Windows NT Advanced Server, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle7 and UNIX; knowledge of and abuses essay SMP, RDBMS, and RAID technology; Project Management and Development skills; Software and Systems Planning and Design skills; Technical specification and presentation skills; interpersonal skills, troubleshooting skills; consulting skills; Technology analysis and integration skills; business management skills; marketing skills. 5. Job Accomplishments: Developed an tips on writing a 10 page research enterprise-level client/server automated auditing application Prepared and presented preliminary designs to corporate project managers Conducted trade studies of leading-edge technologies consistent with internal performance standards. 6. Job Accomplishments Qualified/Quantified : Successfully migrated a financial management company from uses of science, a mainframe computer system to a client/server system Recommended specific steps to on christmas implement client/server systems to clients new to the technology Identified and recommended proven low-risk implementation of and abuses SMP and RDBMS systems. (SEE NOTE 4 BELOW FOR ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF THIS)
Step 7: List your specialized training and education. Your specialized training includes other relevant work experience or training such as on-the-job that illustrates your professional development in related or non-related areas that support your job objective, and formal education. When listing your formal education, you should include the following information in your list: Degree or Certificate earned Name of institution Location of institution (city and state) Major area of in write study; credits earned if incomplete Date of essay completion. When listing your specialized training, you should include the tips, following information in your list: Name of uses training received Name of organization or department that provided the training Date of completion. Formal Education: BS, Mathematics/Computer Science, University of tips a 10 California, Los Angeles; GPA: 3.57.
Specialized Training: Database Administration, Performance Tuning, and Benchmarking with Oracle7; Oracle Corporation Software Requirements Engineering and Management Course; Computer Applications International Corporation. 1. Career Goal: Client Server Systems Architect for uses and abuses a major high technology firm. 2. Resume Maker. Current Job Title and uses and abuses of science essay Employment Data: Position or Job Title: Systems Engineer Company/Organization Name: Computer Engineering Corporation Department/Division: Systems Integration Division Location: Los Angeles, California Dates Employed: 1993 - Present. 3. Job Responsibilities: Provide systems and software engineering Provide technical consulting Provide marketing services. 4. Job Skills: Knowledge of client/server architecture, Windows for mortgage cover letter Workgroups, Windows NT Advanced Server, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle7 and UNIX; knowledge of SMP, RDBMS, and RAID technology; Project Management and Development skills; Software and Systems Planning and Design skills; Technical specification and presentation skills; interpersonal skills, troubleshooting skills; consulting skills; Technology analysis and integration skills; business management skills; marketing skills. 5. Job Accomplishments: Developed an uses and abuses of science enterprise-level client/server automated auditing application Prepared and presented preliminary designs to corporate project managers Conducted trade studies of leading-edge technologies consistent with internal performance standards. 6. Job Accomplishments Qualified/Quantified: Successfully migrated a financial management company from a mainframe computer system to on writing paper a client/server system Recommended specific steps to implement client/server systems to clients new to and abuses essay the technology Identified and recommended proven low-risk implementation of SMP and RDBMS systems. 7. Education Specialized Training : BS, Mathematics/Computer Science, University of California, Los Angeles; GPA: 3.57 Database Administration, Performance Tuning, and Benchmarking with Oracle7; Oracle Corporation Software Requirements Engineering and mortgage underwriter resume cover Management Course; Computer Applications International Corporation. Step 8: Choose the appropriate rsum style format. Remember, there are three basic categories of traditional rsum styles: 1) chronological; 2) functional; and 3) combination.
The CHRONOLOGICAL rsum style organizes information by uses of science essay job titles presented in chronological order, usually listing the mary, most current job first. The emphasis is on positions held and uses and abuses essay the companies where you worked. CAREER GOAL HIGHLIGHTS WORK EXPERIENCE EDUCATION. The FUNCTIONAL rsum style organizes information by skills or job functions, usually highlighting those skills and functions of the job being sought. CAREER GOAL QUALIFICATIONS SUMMARY RELEVANT SKILLS EDUCATION. The COMBINATION rsum style where work history and essay on christmas job functions are interwoven with a list of uses and abuses career achievements. CAREER GOAL QUALIFICATION SUMMARY RELEVANT SKILLS EMPLOYMENT HISTORY EDUCATION.
The KEYWORD element is mary, incorporated into either the uses and abuses of science, chronological, functional, or combination résumé style formats. For the purpose of this tutorial, the combination style was chosen. Mortgage Underwriter. (Refer to A Quick Refresher About Résumé Style Formats for the advantages and disadvantages of each.) Content organization for Thomas B. Seeker's keyword rsum: CAREER GOAL KEYWORD SUMMARY QUALIFICATIONS SUMMARY TECHNICAL SKILLS PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE OTHER WORK EXPERIENCE EDUCATION SPECIALIZED TRAINING SPECIAL HONORS PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS. 1. Uses And Abuses Of Science. Career Goal: Client Server Systems Architect for a major high technology firm. 2. Current Job Title and Employment Data: Position or Job Title: Systems Engineer Company/Organization Name: Computer Engineering Corporation Department/Division: Systems Integration Division Location: Los Angeles, California Dates Employed: 1993 - Present. 3. Job Responsibilities: Provide systems and software engineering Provide technical consulting Provide marketing services. 4. Resume Maker. Job Skills: Knowledge of client/server architecture, Windows for Workgroups, Windows NT Advanced Server, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle7 and and abuses of science UNIX; knowledge of SMP, RDBMS, and mary essay RAID technology; Project Management and Development skills; Software and Systems Planning and uses and abuses of science essay Design skills; Technical specification and mortgage resume cover letter presentation skills; interpersonal skills, troubleshooting skills; consulting skills; Technology analysis and integration skills; business management skills; marketing skills.
5. Job Accomplishments: Developed an enterprise-level client/server automated auditing application Prepared and presented preliminary designs to of science corporate project managers Conducted trade studies of leading-edge technologies consistent with internal performance standards. 6. Job Accomplishments Qualified/Quantified: Successfully migrated a financial management company from a mainframe computer system to a client/server system Recommended specific steps to implement client/server systems to clients new to the technology Identified and recommended proven low-risk implementation of SMP and essay in write RDBMS systems. 7. Education Specialized Training: BS, Mathematics/Computer Science, University of California, Los Angeles; GPA: 3.57 Database Administration, Performance Tuning, and uses and abuses of science Benchmarking with Oracle7; Oracle Corporation Software Requirements Engineering and Management Course; Computer Applications International Corporation. 8. Keyword Combination Rsum Style : CAREER GOAL KEYWORD SUMMARY QUALIFICATIONS SUMMARY TECHNICAL SKILLS PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE OTHER WORK EXPERIENCE EDUCATION SPECIALIZED TRAINING SPECIAL HONORS PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS. Step 9: Create your keyword summary. Take a look at the keywords generated so far in STEPS 1-6, and highlight those nouns you think the computer might use as keywords in essay by albert a search. Ask yourself whether or not those keywords adequately describe your work experience and supports your job objectives. Keyword summaries are also useful when developing an HTML and traditional paper rsum. They not only attract search engines that index by essay keywords, but also provide a human viewer the opportunity to assess your skills and qualifications at a glance . Keyword Summary: Job title : Systems Engineer.
Job responsibilities : Systems Analysis. Systems Integration. Technical Consulting. Mary. Marketing. Job accomplishments : Enterprise-level client/server applications. Preliminary design. Of Science Essay. Trade studies. Mainframe to stranger client/server system migration. New technology integration.
Job skills : Knowledge of client/server architecture, Windows for Workgroups, Windows NT Advanced Server, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle7 and UNIX; knowledge of SMP, RDBMS, and RAID technology; Project Management and Development skills; Software and uses and abuses of science essay Systems Planning and Design skills; Technical specification and presentation skills; interpersonal skills, troubleshooting skills; consulting skills; Technology analysis and integration skills; business management skills; marketing skills. Industry-related jargon, buzzwords, acronyms, etc. : SMP; RDBMS; UNIX; TCP/IP; BETA Tester; Windows NT; Troubleshooting; Client/Server Architecture. Keyword summary : Systems Engineer. Tips On Writing A 10 Paper. Systems Analysis. Systems Integration. Enterprise-level Client/Server Applications.
Preliminary Design. Trade Studies. Mainframe to Client/Server System Migration. New Technology Integration. Windows for Workgroups Windows NT Advanced Server; Project Management and Development skills; Software and Systems Planning and uses essay Design skills; Technology Analysis and essay on christmas Integration skills; Business Management and Marketing skills.
1. And Abuses Of Science. Career Goal: Client Server Systems Architect for a major high technology firm. 2. Current Job Title and Employment Data: Position or Job Title: Systems Engineer Company/Organization Name: Computer Engineering Corporation Department/Division: Systems Integration Division Location: Los Angeles, California Dates Employed: 1993 - Present. 3. Job Responsibilities: Provide systems and software engineering Provide technical consulting Provide marketing services. 4. Job Skills: Knowledge of essay client/server architecture, Windows for Workgroups, Windows NT Advanced Server, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle7 and UNIX; knowledge of and abuses SMP, RDBMS, and RAID technology; Project Management and underwriter Development skills; Software and Systems Planning and and abuses of science essay Design skills; Technical specification and presentation skills; interpersonal skills, troubleshooting skills; consulting skills; Technology analysis and integration skills; business management skills; marketing skills. 5. Resume Letter. Job Accomplishments: Developed an enterprise-level client/server automated auditing application Prepared and presented preliminary designs to corporate project managers Conducted trade studies of leading-edge technologies consistent with internal performance standards. 6. Job Accomplishments Qualified/Quantified: Successfully migrated a financial management company from a mainframe computer system to a client/server system Recommended specific steps to implement client/server systems to uses clients new to frankenstein the technology Identified and recommended proven low-risk implementation of uses of science SMP and mary frankenstein RDBMS systems. 7. Education Specialized Training: BS, Mathematics/Computer Science, University of California, Los Angeles; GPA: 3.57 Database Administration, Performance Tuning, and uses of science essay Benchmarking with Oracle7; Oracle Corporation Software Requirements Engineering and Management Course; Computer Applications International Corporation. 8. Keyword Combination Rsum Style: CAREER GOAL KEYWORD SUMMARY QUALIFICATIONS SUMMARY TECHNICAL SKILLS PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE OTHER WORK EXPERIENCE EDUCATION SPECIALIZED TRAINING SPECIAL HONORS PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS. 9. Keyword Summary for essay blessings a Systems Engineer : Systems Engineer. Systems Analysis.
Systems Integration. Enterprise-level Client/Server Applications. Preliminary Design. Trade Studies. Mainframe to Client/Server System Migration. New Technology Integration. And Abuses. Windows for by albert Workgroups Windows NT Advanced Server; Project Management and and abuses essay Development skills; Software and Systems Planning and Design skills; Technology Analysis and Integration skills; Business Management and Marketing skills. Step 10: Summarize your qualifications relevant to your career goal. This summary should be a short, concise statement highlighting three to on writing a 10 page paper five of and abuses of science your achievements regarding your work experience, areas of page research paper expertise, qualifications, technical or professional skills, and any other distinctive qualifications.
It is best completed after outlining your skills profile, employment history and education. And Abuses Essay. It is essay of the camus, designed to grab the reader#146;s attention within the first 30 seconds of reading your rsum. Summary of qualifications as an experienced Systems Engineer: Number of years in this position : Three years. Of Science. Relevant credentials, training, and/or education : B.S. in Computer Science; Performance Tuning with Oracle7; Software Engineering Management Training. A specific accomplishment that relates to your objective : Developed an enterprise-level client/server automated auditing application. A quality or personal trait that supports your objective : Successfully migrated a financial management company from a mainframe computer system to a client/server system Another accomplishment or trait that supports your objective : Technical consulting, business management, and marketing skills. 1. Class Essay In Write. Career Goal: Client Server Systems Architect for a major high technology firm. 2. Current Job Title and Employment Data: Position or Job Title: Systems Engineer Company/Organization Name: Computer Engineering Corporation Department/Division: Systems Integration Division Location: Los Angeles, California Dates Employed: 1993 - Present. 3. Uses Of Science. Job Responsibilities: Provide systems and underwriter letter software engineering Provide technical consulting Provide marketing services. 4. Job Skills: Knowledge of uses client/server architecture, Windows for Workgroups, Windows NT Advanced Server, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle7 and essay by albert UNIX; knowledge of SMP, RDBMS, and RAID technology; Project Management and Development skills; Software and uses and abuses Systems Planning and a 10 page research Design skills; Technical specification and presentation skills; interpersonal skills, troubleshooting skills; consulting skills; Technology analysis and integration skills; business management skills; marketing skills. 5. Job Accomplishments: Developed an enterprise-level client/server automated auditing application Prepared and presented preliminary designs to corporate project managers Conducted trade studies of and abuses of science essay leading-edge technologies consistent with internal performance standards.
6. Job Accomplishments Qualified/Quantified: Successfully migrated a financial management company from essay in write, a mainframe computer system to a client/server system Recommended specific steps to and abuses of science essay implement client/server systems to clients new to the technology Identified and recommended proven low-risk implementation of essay by albert SMP and RDBMS systems. 7. Uses Of Science Essay. Education Specialized Training: BS, Mathematics/Computer Science, University of California, Los Angeles; GPA: 3.57 Database Administration, Performance Tuning, and Benchmarking with Oracle7; Oracle Corporation Software Requirements Engineering and Management Course; Computer Applications International Corporation. 8. Keyword Combination Rsum Style: CAREER GOAL KEYWORD SUMMARY QUALIFICATIONS SUMMARY TECHNICAL SKILLS PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE OTHER WORK EXPERIENCE EDUCATION SPECIALIZED TRAINING SPECIAL HONORS PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS. 9. Essay By Albert Camus. Keyword Summary for a Systems Engineer: Systems Engineer. Systems Analysis. And Abuses Of Science Essay. Systems Integration. Enterprise-level Client/Server Applications. Preliminary Design. Class In Write. Trade Studies.
Mainframe to Client/Server System Migration. New Technology Integration. Windows for Workgroups Windows NT Advanced Server; Project Management and Development skills; Software and Systems Planning and Design skills; Technology Analysis and Integration skills; Business Management and Marketing skills. 10. Qualifications Summary as a Systems Engineer : Three years of experience in developing and and abuses implementing enterprise-level client/server applications; a proven track record in nurse maker successful migration from mainframe systems to client/server systems. NOTE 1: Combining the information obtained from Steps 1-10, the actual written rsum text for the Systems Engineer position would looks as follows: Provide systems engineering, software engineering, technical consulting, and marketing services as a member of the Systems Integration Division of uses and abuses a software engineering consulting company. (primary job responsibilities) Designed and managed the development of an essay enterprise-level client/server automated auditing application for a major financial management company migrating from and abuses essay, mainframe computers, db2, and FOCUS to on christmas blessings a workgroup oriented, client/server architecture involving Windows for Workgroups, Windows NT Advanced Server, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle7, and UNIX. Uses. (key job skills and supporting accomplishments) Designed an enterprise level, high performance, mission-critical, client/server database system incorporating symmetric multiprocessing computers (SMP), Oracle7#146;s Parallel Server, Tuxedo#146;s on-line transaction processing (OLTP) monitor, and underwriter resume redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID) technology. (key job skills and supporting accomplishments) Conducted extensive trade studies of a large number of vendors that offer leading-edge technologies; these studies identified proven (low-risk) implementations of SMP and RDBMS systems that met stringent performance and availability criteria. And Abuses. (key job skills and supporting accomplishments)
NOTE 2: The master keyword summary will consolidate those keywords that overlap for each of your jobs, and prioritize those keywords that are applicable to the job that you are applying for. It is the master keyword summary that will ultimately be placed at in write the beginning of and abuses of science your rsum, and will include relevant education, specialized training, and personal data relating to the position you are applying for. After completing steps 1-10 for each job position you have held, the master keyword summary would appear as follows: Systems Engineer. Client Server System Architect. Systems Analysis.
Systems Integration. Network Administration. Database Administration. Systems Administration. Software Engineering. Troubleshooting Computing Systems. C++. Visual Basic. SQL. Class In Write. UNIX Shell Script. Windows.
MS DOS. Windows NT. TCP/IP. OSI. Microsoft LAN Manager. Novell Netware. Uses Of Science. Project Management. On Writing A 10 Page. Trade Studies. Consulting. BETA Tester. Uses And Abuses Of Science. Technical Presentations. Sales Presentations. Instructor. BS Degree.
Mathematics and Computer Science. UCLA. MS Degree. Computer Engineering. NOTE 3: The Keyword Summary can be integrated into the Qualifications Summary; they were separated in nurse this tutorial for illustration purposes in identifying key blocks of information that can be later manipulated to suit a specific need. You can even substitute your traditional Objective statement with the uses of science essay, Qualifications Summary.
NOTE 4: A representative from PursuitNet, an online resource specializing in recruiting professionals in the $30,000 to $300,000 salary range, offers these comments when qualifying/quantifying your accomplishments: Most of on writing a 10 those with whom I interact are quite interested in uses of science essay seeing the ultimate results such as: Successfully migrated a financial management company from nurse resume, a mainframe computer system to a client/server system on uses of science essay, time and essay blessings under budget. Recommended specific steps to and abuses of science implement client/server systems to clients new to tips on writing page research the technology, nearly all of which were implemented with significantly improved results. Identified and of science essay recommended proven low-risk implementation of SMP and RDBMS systems which reduced implementation time by 20% and cost by 25%. Now that's what a hiring manager really likes to essay stranger camus see!
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Uses and abuses of science essay
95 theses rap yale In late August 2015, two pastors and uses essay, five elders from the of the, Early Rain Reformed Church 1 in Chengdu, Sichuan, signed a document entitled #x201C;Reaffirming our Stance on the House Churches: 95 theses,#x201D; an article that was accessed over uses of science thirty-eight thousand times in the first six months of its posting online [ 1 ]. The resemblance to Martin Luther#x2019;s act of five hundred years earlier is not incidental, and while the hubris might bemuse, the document can be seen as a milestone of house church belief, broadcasting its challenge to underwriter letter, the state and to the state-registered Protestant church in China. Luther#x2019;s first posting of theses in mid-1517 had very little effect. It is too early to judge the significance of this new statement in church history, but the fiery, authoritative language, the standing of its lead author within the house church movement and the growing import of the Reformed (Calvinist) sector of the uses and abuses essay, Chinese church, mean it would be impolitic to dismiss this as a stunt of mimicry. Where Luther set out to dispute the nature of repentance and shelley's, salvation, and of science essay, question the Pope#x2019;s authority to issue indulgences to remit wrong, the Chengdu theses address a series of topics around sovereignty and essay of the stranger by albert camus, authority as these pertain to God, the church, the uses and abuses essay, government and the individual. There has been much written on government relations with religious bodies in China, and others have considered the nature of the newly resurgent Calvinist churches in essay China as political or socio-cultural entities, but there has been little study of uses and abuses of science essay, their theology. 2 This article examines three of the most controversial aspects of the 2015 document: its analysis of essay blessings, church#x2013;state relations, its rejection of the #x201C;sinicization#x201D; of Christianity, and the excoriation of the state-registered church. These three are intricately linked, and derive from of science essay, a particular reading of the bible, church tradition, and the role of conscience. The article focuses on church#x2013;state relations, showing how perspectives on the state church and sinicization stem from the same argument, and how #x201C;Reaffirming our Stance on the House Churches: 95 theses#x201D; develops out of mortgage resume cover letter, pastor Wang Yi#x2019;s earlier writings and uses and abuses of science, his reading of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Reformed thought. We begin, however, with Luther. 2. Essay. From Wittenberg to West China. Why would a Calvinist pastor emulate Luther in posting 95 theses on an internet portal?
Was it a clarion call to revolution, or something more akin to Luther#x2019;s set of and abuses essay, propositions for mary essay debate? A brief comparison of the two acts and their authors serves as an introduction to the context and theology of the Chinese document. The lead pastor of the Early Rain church, Wang Yi (b. Of Science Essay. 1973), is a prolific author and well-known spokesperson and commentator on the house churches in China, with strong connections to Chinese churches in North America. A former law professor, Wang has been a pastor in on writing a 10 research Sichuan since 2011, and has a robust media presence through his film reviews and writings in the secular press, as well as web pages and micro-blog. These latter host theological discussion threads as well as sermons and articles, and his published volumes (with mainland and essay, Taiwanese presses, as well as self-published works beyond the purview of the censor) include an examination of constitutionalism, a study of the house church movement, essays on Christian faith and volumes of poetry, film reviews, edited interviews and sermons. 3 The #x201C;new urban house-churches#x201D; that Wang represents are characterized by intellectual discourse and a mission for creating an open, #x201C;above ground#x201D; church that interacts with society. Stranger By Albert Camus. Their demographic, stance and outlook are quite different to the predominantly rural house church of the late twentieth century. Congregations are well-educated, young, and media-aware ([ 7 ], pp.
189#x2013;90). Conversion data speaks not of healing miracles as in rural church surveys of the 1980s and 1990s, but of a quest for meaning among young elites whose spiritual need is of science, understood as a release from individualism and essay of the, the vacuity of rampant consumerism. For such believers, Wang Yi holds out a message bridging intellectual thought and political action, charity work and justice ([ 4 ], p. 109). Wang Yi has framed much of and abuses of science, his theological thought over by albert camus the past decade within Calvin#x2019;s (or Calvinist) categories of discussion, although the overlap with Lutheran ideas is uses of science, evident, whether in the language of two kingdoms or an blessings Augustinian anthropology. Uses And Abuses. The questions why emulate Luther? And why now? Invoke a wider context, and mortgage underwriter resume cover, parallels between the two eras and authors are worth pondering. Wang Yi shares a good degree of common cause with Martin Luther as a person and a thinker, which sits alongside a general reformed heritage of Lutheran insight (Wang takes sola scriptura and justification by faith as axiomatic). And Abuses Of Science. If the Holy Roman Empire of the sixteenth century experienced significant political and ecclesial tension, with contorted relations between imperial and local politics, church and culture, as well as serious questions over resume maker ecclesial funding, papal prerogatives and of science essay, cultic revivals, the church in China is currently facing a similar array of tensions, fueling its charged thinking.
The Holy Roman Empire and the limitations of papal authority#x2014;spiritual and regnant#x2014;are met, for Wang, in the party-state and the Three-Self Patriotic Movement. Like Martin Luther, Wang writes across a range of genres for essay an avid audience of partisan readers. The writings of both Luther and uses and abuses of science essay, Wang received immediate national and international scrutiny, and both are able popularizers, writing in an intelligible vernacular and utilizing popular media (whether wood block images or magazines 4 ) to on christmas blessings, disseminate views. At the and abuses of science, time of their thesis writing, each led the busy life of the nurse resume maker, early middle-aged: teaching, writing, defending contested views, acting as pastor/priest. Uses And Abuses Essay. Both have scholarly and practical interests in history and the law: mining church history extensively and taking recourse in the law when challenged (canon law for Luther; the Chinese constitution for Wang). Just as Martin Luther#x2019;s theology developed across lecture series, Wang#x2019;s theology has evolved over time. Many of Luther#x2019;s ideas resonate in Wang#x2019;s faith: from resume maker, beliefs on church and uses of science, state, to grace, to the need for discipline and obedience in churches. In his thinking on authority, Wang follows Luther in holding that no ruler enjoys power unless God wills it, and echoes the careful thought linking nation and church politics seen in on writing research the revolutionary manifestoes of 1520 [ 9 ]. Wang emulates Luther in prizing the of science essay, keys to Heaven as the true treasure of the mary frankenstein, church (Luther thesis #60; Chengdu theses #55, 62, 67), and takes from Luther and his heirs an abhorrence towards any confusion of the Kingdom of God with the Kingdom of the World, and a firm belief in ecclesial things for the ecclesial. At the heart of Luther#x2019;s writing was a critique of the church that was deeply pastoral in implication: what happens when the apostolic successors betray their evangelical vocation? ([ 10 ], p. 49)#x2014;this is a core question for Wang of the state church, and argued in equally passionate terms. Romans 13 was a crucial text for Luther (and Calvin), and is a passage to which Wang returns repeatedly over the course of his writings [ 11 ]. In method, the two sets of and abuses essay, theses differ.
Luther#x2019;s #x201C;95 Theses on mary frankenstein, the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences#x201D; cohere around one central theme, which proceeds logically from step to step, creating in sum a sketch of the world at the time and pinpointing its wrongs and falsities. Luther#x2019;s disputation is an invitation to argument, a gauntlet, and not a definitive statement of belief; it provoked an of science essay actual disputation of the gathered learned. By contrast, although the Early Rain church document invites response, it reads more credally, and Wang#x2019;s trial has been virtual. There are significant differences too in nurse approach: despite his attacks on the Roman Catholic church and the #x201C;far-fetched decrees#x201D; of the pontiff, Luther held that #x201C;by schism and contempt nothing can be mended#x201D; ([ 10 ], p. 32) and chose reform from within for as long as was possible, unlike Wang#x2019;s position on the state-registered church. It is reasonable to infer, however, that detailed comparison with Luther#x2019;s theology was not the intention of the Chinese church leaders. It is the symbolism of Luther#x2019;s life and action at a time of great turbulence in church life that inspires. Luther#x2019;s steadfastness and self-belief, even to martyrdom, is the uses of science, model being held up to the Chinese house church. In God#x2019;s war, as Luther wrote, we need #x201C;beware of thinking Christ will achieve things in the earth quietly and softly, when He fought with his own blood#x201D; ([ 10 ], p. Essay On Christmas. 81). Wang#x2019;s rhetoric and uses essay, life experience shadow Luther#x2019;s: in class in write believing adamantly that the fight is uses of science, of God, in determination and stance for #x201C;truth,#x201D; in willingness to a 10 page research paper, face trial or prison, and in cleaving to the Word of God as the source for action and uses and abuses essay, knowledge. The great symbolic and spiritual truth of protest against church and worldly powers is captured in the theses, whether protesting the degradation of temporal power in the ruling acts of the Chinese Party State or of spiritual power in the papacy. Essay In Write. It is notable that the and abuses of science essay, language of both men against detractors hardens over time, whether in Luther#x2019;s lament questioning whether the essay of the stranger by albert, Pope was the Antichrist ([ 12 ], p. 170) or in the Early Rain church#x2019;s denunciation of the Three-Self Patriotic Movement as an uses and abuses essay #x201C;Antichrist movement#x201D; (#76).
Luther brought significant change to the theology of the sector of the church catholic that chose to on christmas, follow him: from a reduction in the number of sacraments to a new understanding on transubstantiation to the assertion that church Councils may err#x2014;but has Reformed house church theology in China lived up to uses and abuses, the promise signified by its posting of resume, 95 theses? Church leaders have for some time regarded the new urban house church as a prophetic development. Wang Yi and of science, Liu Tongsu see it as forming a new stage in house church history, taking over from the rural house church as the center of Chinese mission, in what they characterize as the Chinese church#x2019;s own #x201C;post-apostolic#x201D; age, as the church moves from an era of of the camus, personal experience to and abuses, one of theorization and forming structures ([ 7 ], p. 112). The strategic importance of the urban church is, moreover, national: God wants, Liu and Wang boldly argue, to renew the whole of resume maker, mainstream Chinese culture through the urban house church ([ 7 ], p. Uses Of Science Essay. 206). If the development of the urban house church thus represents a turning point in Chinese church history, does the class, publication of the 95 theses represent a new, bolder claim? This article suggests that the document both continues the prophetic understanding of the church (it is, after all, entitled #x201C; Reaffirming our Stance on the house Churches: 95 Theses#x201D;), but also expands it to essay, a new horizon. The handing over mortgage resume cover letter of the baton to the urban churches represented a transfer of uses of science essay, energy within the broader house church, while the 95 theses stake a claim regarding the entirety of the Chinese Protestant church. As the attack on class essay, the legitimacy of the #x201C;state#x201D; church and the exposing of the and abuses, ills of the authorities recall Luther#x2019;s claims against the Roman church, and as the impassioned language, the strength of the assertions and the form of the theses evoke the symbol of Luther within that movement#x2014;and create a resonance between the figure of mary shelley's, Luther and a leader such as Wang#x2014;it is difficult to read the document as anything other than a call to a new Reformation. 3. Parsing the Theses.
In structure, #x201C;Reaffirming our Stance on the House Churches: 95 theses,#x201D; begins with initial clauses affirming God#x2019;s sovereignty as creator and authority over human beings and structures, acknowledging God as governor of the essay, human conscience (#9) and the bible as the rule for human life and inerrant word of God (#12). The second section of theses (#18#x2013;31) presents a concise summation of the gospel message through the lens of covenant, law and redemption. The core of the gospel is not just the renewal of individual human relationships with God through the sacrificial offering of Christ, but also signifies #x201C;the coming of the Kingdom of mary essay, God, and that all rulers, countries and peoples on of science, earth have been commanded to a 10 page paper, heed this gospel#x2014;and that includes China#x201D; (#30). 5 The following section (#32#x2013;39) addresses the uses essay, question of the #x201C;Sinicization#x201D; of Christianity in China, adamantly refuting the possibility of shelley's, any redemption via Chinese culture or love outside of Christ, and and abuses of science essay, presenting an (Romans-heavy) analysis of the state of China#x2019;s relation to God and the limits of natural law. Tips A 10 Research Paper. The fourth and fifth sections discuss the authority of uses of science essay, Christ given to the church, and the relation between the church and the state as that between two kingdoms.
The church submits to the authority of the #x201C;sword#x201D; of government, while defending its right to protect its own work of preaching the gospel. The nature of the kingdoms and nurse resume maker, the ideal of absolute separation between church and state comprise the greatest number of clauses (#45#x2013;72), while the final part of the document attacks the uses of science, stance of the Three-Self Principles Movement and its #x201C;satanic#x201D; relationship with the government. Two things are immediately apparent in reading the ninety-five theses: the research, recurrent emphasis on China and China#x2019;s place in God#x2019;s world, and the marked drawing on a framework of covenants and a language of depravity, which are usually identified as Calvinist in China. Uses And Abuses Of Science Essay. 6 The coherence and indurate strength of the declarations derive from combining basic theological propositions taken from Calvin#x2019;s Institutes and the Westminster Confession#x2014;expressed in essay blessings the document in terms of scriptural references#x2014;with extensive application to a mainland Chinese environment. A central theological datum for Wang, for example, is freedom of conscience, which is uses and abuses, linked to the church#x2019;s freedom and so to church#x2013;state relations, to questions of mortgage underwriter letter, what is legal and illegal, to who has ultimate authority over the conscience, and to the bible in its role as #x201C;the constitution of the church.#x201D; The premise often guides the argument: forcing a non-biblical standard onto a Christian, for example, is #x201C;to destroy humanity#x2019;s conscience and rationality, and to attack God#x2019;s rule over a person#x2019;s conscience#x201D; (#16). 3.1. Church and and abuses essay, State. Church#x2013;state relations form the greater part of the theses. On Writing A 10 Research. The introduction to #x201C;Reaffirming our Stance on the House Churches: 95 theses,#x201D; offers the uses and abuses, theses as the basis for dialogue with the mary frankenstein essay, government, and invites comment and debate from believers in other churches who can affirm the document and uses and abuses of science essay, who want to join the dialogue. The final clause, #95, notes that the statement was timed to coincide with the 60th anniversary of the imprisonment of house church leader Wang Mingdao and of the government attack on the #x201C;Wang Mingdao Anti-Revolutionary Clique#x201D; in 1955, and so to mark sixty years of oppression of the house church and to stranger, #x201C;defend the church before government and society.#x201D; The house church proclaims its willingness to meet with representatives of the state, whether local or national government, at any time and place they wish#x2014;but the dialogue is to be based on these theses and on the church#x2019;s theological standpoint.
This is an acknowledgement of a certain stalemate in relations: the Chinese government has accepted that the #x201C;extra-legal#x201D; situation of the house churches cannot continue indefinitely, but expected announcements on their regularization have been continuously postponed, and indeed, the latest revisions to the Regulations on Religious Affairs seem to propel house churches back towards an illegal position. 7 The church, meanwhile#x2014;and especially the rights#x2019; defense faction of which Wang Yi is a lead proponent#x2014;wants to be open and legal, but not at the cost of suppressing the uses of science essay, memory of its martyrs. Authority is religious, argues the church document. All humans are governed by God (#5), and on writing a 10 page, all authority comes from God (#6): the only legitimate reason we obey laws, is because they are instituted by God (#7). All have freedom of conscience (#10), but God is Lord over every conscience, and no human laws can exculpate from moral responsibility before God (#9): the choice for all is and abuses essay, between obedience to God and enslavement to human authorities. The means that knowing God#x2019;s will is the bible, and once we jettison the bible and follow any external standards or authorities, our conscience remains neither moral nor secure (#14, which quotes Luther directly to this effect). To submit to non-biblical demands is to betray freedom, and no-one can demand this of another human. Clauses 20 and 21 encapsulate both the cover, basis of resistance to the government and the perceived perfidy of the registered church: 21. This means that when anyone wants to become the ruler of our life, and wants to replace the will of God with their own will, or demands our unconditional submission, worship and praise#x2014;no matter whether our wife, our parents, or children, or the government or ruling party; no matter whether they come in tears or bearing a sword#x2014;this type of will, these demands, are all in essence religious in nature. These demands become the #x2018;god#x2019; of a family, a company, or a state; they demand the loyalty and compliance of people#x2019;s consciences. 22.
Morally, this type of will and and abuses essay, these demands are evil. They are in of the by albert opposition to God, and to humanity. Submitting to this type of will and these demands is likewise evil, idolatrous action. Having established the basis for authority, and reiterating that Chinese society remains under the sovereignty of Christ whoever is in power, and that in spiritual reality it is Christ who governs and manages history and human hearts (#43), the authors set out their understanding of church#x2013;state relations. The church, the body of Christ endowed with the of science essay, authority of Christ, is #x201C;a kingdom that no eye can see#x201D; (#44), and nurse resume, relations between church and state are therefore those of two #x201C;kingdoms/countries#x201D; (#x56FD;#x5EA6;) and not those between a state and a subordinate religious authority, as the Chinese government might hold. In church history, claims the document somewhat magisterially, these have been understood as the relations between the #x201C;City of God#x201D; and #x201C;City on Earth,#x201D; or between the spiritual and secular kingdoms, or the uses of science, #x201C;already but not yet#x201D; of the eternal kingdom versus the #x201C;doomed to destruction#x201D; present world (#45). When the church in China is asked, therefore, whether its faith is antagonistic to the government, it responds by asserting that God#x2019;s kingdom has already come to China, and no sword may stand against it (#49); that while the class essay in write, church is obedient to authorities, it has never belonged to any given state or political power (#50, although this does not mean individuals may not oppose it, when their rights are abrogated); and that, just as the uses, state has been given the authority of the #x201C;sabre#x201D; to manage social order; the church has been given the mission of the gospel, to witness to the truth (#53). Essay. The critical balance of power between the sword of state and and abuses essay, the #x201C;keys of the Kingdom of Heaven#x201D; that the church possesses, or the principal of #x201C;the separation of church and state#x201D; (#62), imposes responsibilities and restraints on each: for the church to oppose the sword would be to oppose God (#54), while the government cannot oppose God in refusing the church the right to preach. Since the freedom to preach the gospel comes from Christ, no country on earth has the power to prevent preachers from travelling across territories and organizing worship (#57).
Moreover, just as the shelley's, church cannot divest itself of this mission on uses and abuses, the pretext of complying with extra-biblical or secular laws, nor can it place its glorious mission concerning the eternal soul of humanity under the control or examination of governments or other organizations: to do so would be to #x201C;sell God#x201D; (#58, 61, 72). While the things of God and the things of Caesar co-exist, God#x2019;s are internal (#65) and do not come under the sphere of Caesar (#64); no secular power can manage or judge conscience or faith (#68). It is Christ who has distinguished the two powers (#66), and the church cannot offer its power to transient government or economic powers, or unite its structures with those of the stranger by albert, ruling powers, thereby confusing what is of God and of Caesar. The absolute nature of the language on church and state is clear. The statement is also clear on its intended outcome: as soon as the state gives up its attempts to control church doctrine, personnel and evangelization work, the church will willingly comply with external administrative requirements in the name of public order, such as registration with the civil affairs department (#91).
8 Elsewhere, Wang Yi has written at length on church and state, codifying the of science essay, house church demands and expanding on the theological and legal ramifications of upholding the central tenets of nurse resume, freedom of conscience, the bible as the church#x2019;s constitution, and religion as a non-political entity. His own views are, if anything, more polemic than the 95 theses. However, Wang#x2019;s language suggests a subtle balance between gospel and uses and abuses, constitution, and his strategy is to address these in tandem. Wang#x2019;s starting point is that the mortgage resume, house church#x2019;s demands are the demands of the uses and abuses of science essay, gospel#x2014;and ought to be respected within the scope of the Chinese Constitution and China#x2019;s position as a signatory to various international treaties. The church is not fighting for new rights, but #x201C;asking the state to on christmas blessings, acknowledge and respect the freedom we already have#x2026;#x201D; ([ 14 ], p. 367). Nor is the church, Wang iterates, demanding democracy or the rule of law; the church can and will exist under many forms of government. The only uses and abuses essay thing it demands, he notes echoing Barth, is the mary, freedom to worship and to spread the gospel. Apart from the state#x2019;s role in guaranteeing the constitutional right to freedom of religion (a clause he suggests #x201C;exists in name only#x201D;), #x201C;the mission of the gospel has nothing to do with state power.#x201D; ([ 14 ], pp. 364, 362). On the question of legality#x2014;and where human laws clash with divine ones#x2014;Wang#x2019;s rhetoric is frank, and combines an appeal to Christian conscience with a defense of the Christian moral and legal position.
Over the last sixty years, he admits, the house church has #x201C;continuously violated the uses and abuses essay, law#x201D; in worship, doctrine, theological education, children#x2019;s Sunday school, charitable work, and so forth ([ 14 ], p. 360). By #x201C;non-violent non-cooperation#x201D; the church has comprehensively violated China#x2019;s administrative regulations and laws: but the more pertinent question, he argues, is whether the state itself has violated them. The state, Wang insists, has #x201C;continuously trampled on its own constitution and laws#x201D; in an #x201C;illegal, autocratic and barbarian fashion,#x201D; as he gives example after example to mary shelley's, substantiate the claim of uses and abuses essay, #x201C;mistaken application of the law#x201D; in authorities#x2019; implementation of the various documents pertaining to religious activities from the a 10, 1950s through to the 2000s ([ 14 ], pp. 360, 365; [ 15 ]). In various essays, Wang (the former lawyer and constitutional historian) discusses the different types of regulation in force in China, and, like others, challenges the decision to channel religious #x201C;law#x201D; within administrative regulations, overseen by the party-state and not judicial bodies [ 16 ]. A growing literature by scholars and activists attests to contradictions in current legislation, with Christian believers among the most active in calling for the government to implement its own stated ideal of rule by law [ 17 ]. 9. The internal question for the church, suggests Wang, is whether it has violated that #x201C;higher, more worthy law#x201D; ([ 14 ], p. 360). Wang triangulates between Augustine, Luther and Calvin in his thinking on conscience, authority, and the nature of the church, with substantial reference to Samuel Rutherford, and figures such as the Scottish #x201C;puritan#x201D; Robert Murray McCheyne. Of Science Essay. In discussing three stages of conscience that Wang discerns in St Paul, for example (from natural, to religious, to gospel, based on Romans 1 and 2), Wang frequently cites Rutherford, one of the Scottish Commissioners to the Westminster Assembly and author of Lex, Rex [ 18 ]. Rutherford is noted for his early reasoning on violent resistance to political sovereignty, constructing on essay, the basis of Romans 13 a conceptual apparatus able #x201C;to appropriate Paul#x2019;s exhortation to obedience in the service of a justification of resistance#x201D; ([ 19 ], p. 140). In tracing Wang#x2019;s mentors, we can see doctrinal, political and uses and abuses of science, personal inspiration: Rutherford not only set out in write ideas of limited government and constitutionalism, but a divine mandate for Presbyterian forms of church government, and endured banishment and the burning of his books. While Rutherford was strongly opposed to the deification of conscience and its absolute liberty, we can find in his work the and abuses, source for two central features of Wang#x2019;s thinking as embedded in the 95 theses: the conscience as #x201C;an understanding power#x201D; according to which we will have to essay, give an and abuses of science essay account of ourselves, and the Word of God as #x201C;the rule of Conscience#x201D; ([ 20 ], pp.
4, 10). The question of obeying conscience or state authorities has not been a merely intellectual exercise for Wang and the Early Rain church. Experiences such as the resume maker, shutting down of the church in 2009 by local authorities, at first on #x201C;fire safety#x201D; grounds and subsequently as an #x201C;unregistered public organization,#x201D; have been the essay, basis for a more developed theological and of the stranger by albert, practical stance on church#x2013;state relations [ 21 ]. At the same time as being willing to suffer inconvenience/detention and call for a prayerful response, the church has defended itself vigorously to the local authorities, arguing that the and abuses, use of the church name on law enforcement documents enabled it to essay, be a legal plaintiff, that the enforcement procedure itself was illegal, and and abuses of science, that the resume maker, act denied church members their constitutional right of association. As Wang Yi notes, switching the law enforcement of churches from Public Security, to the Religious Affairs Bureau, to the Civil Affairs Bureau was potentially good for house churches#x2014;but denying them the right to register as civil organizations left no legal space for their existence ([ 15 ], p. 26). For Wang, the legal process brought two insights: that the question of freedom of belief was now a broader one of free assembly and the church needed to engage in consensus building with other intellectuals over such freedoms, and that the church needed to question administrative definitions of #x201C;church,#x201D; and wrest this back as a theological concept, #x201C;a group of people called out by God#x201D; ([ 22 ], p. 41). A perhaps more remarkable example, and parallel case of Wang combining doctrinal and legal argument, concerns church schooling. In discussing the #x201C;Reformed School#x201D; instituted by his church and responding to the question of whether it was then legal to run a church school, Wang sets up a dichotomy.
It is clear that at one level, setting up a school was an illegal act contravening Article 8 of the Education Law (based on Article 36 of the Constitution) which enshrines #x201C;the separation of education and religion.#x201D; Under a system of #x201C;unified state and religion#x201D; (#x653F;#x6559;#x5408;#x4E00;), with stipulation for uses and abuses essay education to be #x201C;nationalist, collective, internationalist and communist,#x201D; it is inevitable that Christianity will clash with the mary shelley's frankenstein, constitution [ 23 ]. While Wang argues for the absolute separation of church and state, he and his church elders will, he vows, single-mindedly oppose the separation of education and religion. His legal argument turns on the right of citizens to religious belief, a right denied to children in this instance. Here a more militant aspect comes into play: the church of the Lord has no other option, argues Wang, than to refuse to separate education and religion, as he advocates the recovery of Christian education and the rebuilding of church schools. And Abuses Of Science. The dialectic tension between the two kingdoms is evident: for the Christian, whose constitution is the nurse resume maker, bible, this is what #x201C;accords with the law.#x201D; Wang cites scriptural warrant, arguing (from Proverbs 22: 6 and and abuses essay, 2 Chron. 7: 5) that educating children is an offering to mortgage underwriter letter, God, and not a right that parents can give away. When the possibility of Christian education exists, to uses, deny this is tips on writing research paper, #x201C;testing God with children#x2019;s fate.#x201D; Having established the essay, breach between state and church worldviews, Wang proceeds to outline a legal space between the bible and the Chinese constitution which provides for tips page research a medium-term reconciliation. Again, this works via recourse to international treaties, which, argues Wang, give parents priority in determining the type of essay, education, and children the freedom to religious and moral education. As he also notes, China#x2019;s own Education Law has provision for religious schools (under State Council regulations), setting precedent for their acceptance as legitimate legal entitles [ 23 ]. 10. In Wang#x2019;s thinking, a stance for freedom of conscience and for essay on christmas the achievement of constitutional rights is both a continuation of the work for the gospel of house church martyrs such as Wang Mingdao, and a gift to wider society in opening up civic space (this latter is why Alexander Chow wants to discuss Wang et al. Uses Of Science. as #x201C;public theologians#x201D; rather than #x201C;Calvinist#x201D; ones [ 6 ]).
It is mary essay, also the only way to understand the history of church#x2013;state relations in the second half of the twentieth century, since the uses of science essay, oppression of the church, Wang argues, has been political not legal, and the church#x2013;state clash a matter of politics not law. From the church#x2019;s point of view, he notes, questions of worship, doctrine etc., are all matters of faith not politics: the government has politicized faith through its sixty years of on christmas blessings, persecution, turning the of science essay, house church question into a political question ([ 14 ], pp. Class In Write. 362#x2013;63). This line of argument speaks to fears both in the house churches that the Reformed sector has been #x201C;politicizing#x201D; faith (which Wang defends robustly, pointing out that the premise for not registering through the uses and abuses, TSPM is not wanting to politicize church), and fears in society more generally that the church is meddling in politics. (As Liu Tongsu notes, when the church is criticized for #x201C;playing politics,#x201D; this is class in write, usually because #x201C;politics#x201D; is widely regarded as meaning #x201C;power games,#x201D; rather than public affairs or public policies [ 24 ].) For Wang, the only way to depoliticize the question is for the state to end oppression and guarantee religious freedom. If Wang insists on a transcendental source for secular values such as liberty or constitutionalism, 11 in writing for Christian audiences, he offers a nuanced version of freedom of of science, conscience. In a letter to essay in write, #x201C;Brothers and Sisters who have dedicated themselves to serve the uses, Reformed Presbyterian Church,#x201D; he notes that the freedom the church has is #x201C;the freedom of conscience brought by the gospel,#x201D; and offers an anecdote to resume, show the nature of this freedom and how it is linked to the church#x2019;s simultaneous existence in two states/kingdoms. An outsider had commented to Wang on how the Early Rain church lived in of science truth #x201C;as if you weren#x2019;t living under the CCP#x201D; [ 25 ]. Although he was not a believer, the speaker continued, he could see that the church was the freest group in all China, and that no other collective spread the faith or discussed Chinese society with such a lack of class, scruples. This, for Wang, was important affirmation that living in fearless freedom really did equate to living outside of party-state control, embodying in community the truth that #x201C;the church is another kingdom/country.#x201D; The transformation that the of science essay, cross brings is manifest, he explains, in #x201C;a counter-cultural culture, a counter-governmental government,#x201D; where money is for essay in write distribution and power is for uses of science serving others, and where members can speak in a bounded freedom. Church life is qualitatively different from essay of the stranger camus, life in the secular world, since the church is #x201C;the community of those who enter the Most Holy Place,#x201D; a sacred place of truth and protection. 12 In contrast to uses, an older generation of so-called #x201C;cultural Christians#x201D; who have eschewed church community, the generation of the Reformed Church under its young leaders has put a premium on community and especially small-group life.
Wang#x2019;s views on church#x2013;state relations are internally consistent and he is widely viewed as a prophetic voice in the house church movement. However, as may be clear from the description above, they also raise significant questions. The 95 theses document arrogates to the church the essay blessings, right to define relations with the state, based on a biblical view and on a particular reading of theological history, leaving little room for dialogue. Wang might argue that the theses are based on the Westminster Confession [ 26 ], but on such key points as the balancing function of the civil magistrate in uses and abuses essay its judicial and deliberative functions#x2014;the authority of the stranger, magistrate regarding not just orderly worship but also doctrine and the right to call synods (see [ 27 ], Ch. XXX.3)#x2014;he eschews the original (and the view of Calvin) and follows the later revisions and exclusion clauses of uses of science, various Presbyterian bodies. 13 More critically for in write ecumenical relations and relations with the and abuses of science, state, Wang#x2019;s views disregard other (non-Calvinist) theological constructs of essay blessings, church#x2013;state relations, and do not allow for the possibility of their legitimacy, or for uses and abuses of science development within Protestant churches on the matter. 14 The tendency to on christmas blessings, use Calvinist theology as a proxy for Christian theology vis-#xE0;-vis the state is compounded by a tendency to speak for the entire house church, and to regard Reformed doctrine as unquestionably normative for this disparate body, a move problematic both for the house churches and for uses essay the post-denominational emphasis of the (state) church nationally. 15. While the church proclaims its Calvinist heritage, the theological basis and scope of Wang#x2019;s pronouncements merit further discussion.
Certain elements are explicit: a Calvinist political community under the lordship of Christ, with both state and church accountable to God; the church as a restored community; a neo-Calvinist belief in the limited role of government and civil protection for religious freedom; a Lutheran call to take up a (metaphorical) sword when the state transgresses into the spiritual realm. Other elements are less clear, such as the anticipated relation of the two kingdoms to the Kingdom of God, as well as to each other#x2014;along the lines of a Kuyperian refining of spheres of mary essay, sovereignty and the function of government itself. Does the stress on imago dei in the 95 theses imply that governance is good and fundamental to human life? A more positive Calvinist view of the role of the uses of science essay, state in God#x2019;s overall economy and in transforming society seems tempered by the experience of the Chinese state, but it is unclear how this experience filters back into doctrinal statements. Under-theorized questions include how life outside of the church, that part under state authority, is connected to God (especially given that the Communist view of of the by albert, all life under its purview parallels the church one), and how the and abuses essay, church conceptualizes participation in mortgage underwriter letter secular life as individuals and communities, in light of and abuses essay, Wang#x2019;s #x201C;Christian first, citizen second#x201D; formula. The document is silent on such questions as the dangers inhering in elevating individual conscience above legal systems (thesis #10)#x2014;whilst holding to equal separate spheres#x2014;and of the consequences in a country where legislation gives primacy to the state over individual autonomy ([ 5 ], p. 158). One could argue that the positive engagement with society, especially over questions of public or civil space, by Wang and the rights-proclaiming Chinese churches, is actually aimed at enabling a separate space, a Lutheran-type sphere for on writing page paper the church to of science essay, be church, in a model more akin to the older house-church version of separation than its Calvinist-leaning leaders might suppose. Despite the nurse resume, much publicized work of select Christian lawyers and rights activists, the social reform, or kingdom building element of house church work is still relatively inchoate#x2014;although it may be premature to expect answers and action when some house churches are still fighting for the basic right to of science, exist. A 10 Page Research. 3.2. The Sinicization of Christianity and Denunciation of the TSPM.
If explaining a house church ecclesiology forms a major concern of #x201C;Reaffirming our Stance on the House Churches: 95 theses,#x201D; the church#x2019;s position on two other significant issues derives naturally from the premises and arguments above. Uses Of Science. The nature of #x201C;Chinese Christianity#x201D; has been contested since the earliest days of the Protestant mission, and has been a focal question for two recent constituencies, the academic study of Christianity in China, often termed Sino-Christian theology, and theologians in state-approved seminaries, particularly within the #x201C;Theological Reconstruction#x201D; movement. The second issue, a trenchant critique of the role the state church has taken vis-#xE0;-vis the authorities, is already implicit in the account of church and state. The remainder of this article offers some brief pointers towards reading these two questions and their subsurface debates. Essay Of The Camus. The house church#x2019;s stance in uses the 95 theses on both issues is unequivocal: anyone advocating, for example, the #x201C;sinicization#x201D; of Christianity is #x201C;denying Christ#x201D; and #x201C;will fall under God#x2019;s righteous curse and judgement#x201D; (#36). Essay. The list denoting what #x201C;sinicization#x201D; might mean appears comprehensive: 37. This kind of advocacy or demand for a #x201C;sinicization of Christianity#x201D; includes claims for the worship of the unique God revealed in Scripture within traditional Chinese culture and religion, or for a means of saving grace akin to or identical with that of the and abuses of science essay, atonement of Jesus Christ; advocating that in traditional Chinese culture or religion there is revelation of salvation outside of the unique God of the bible; advocating that the basic doctrines of the church catholic must, or need, be adapted to Chinese cultural traditions or contemporary society or political system; advocating getting rid of the historic Christ for some #x201C;cosmic Christ#x201D; theory and holding that Chinese traditions contain the mary shelley's frankenstein, way of salvation of Christ; diluting or denying the substitutionary atonement of Christ on essay, the cross by underwriter cover letter means of #x201C;justification by love#x201D; or other such tenets consonant with traditional Chinese moral thinking. Uses And Abuses Of Science. 38. The church must oppose the #x201C;sinicization of Christianity,#x201D; that is, oppose the twisting of the gospel by culture, or the use of mortgage resume cover, politics to uses essay, bind faith, or using Chinese traditions that are not faithful to God to sever from the essay, traditions of the universal church that are faithful to God. The referents are unstated, but it is uses of science, possible to tease out three types of thinking implicated in the critique in #37. The first is the least well-defined: those claiming that the Jewish/Christian God can be found in classical Chinese texts, and that these texts may have a Christian redemptive function.
Debates over whether the #x201C;Shangdi#x201D; of early canonical texts is the same God as referred to in Hebrew and Christian scriptures have occupied Protestant scholars since the nineteenth century, and provided cause for much acrimonious debate and division, but there are very few in the church who have advocated an alternative route to salvation from these, especially in the present, and nurse resume maker, most contemporary work on Christian#x2013;Confucian etc., dialogue is academic rather than confessional. 16 The timeline gives a clue to the grounds for the objection: thesis #32 explains that God used Chinese culture and wisdom in the past to reveal God to China, but the new covenant of Christ (#40) supersedes any earlier stages of revelation through nature or conscience. The second set of those #x201C;twisting the gospel through culture#x201D; seems potentially to encompass all engaged in any form of indigenization or in culturation work adapting doctrine to Chinese culture or society#x2014;that is, much of the history of uses and abuses of science essay, Chinese Christian theology#x2014;and appears predicated on belief in a supra-cultural gospel, separated from the linguistic forms and cultural meanings through which it is transmitted. This may be an over-reading of what is intended in the Early Rain document (indigenization is only sometimes a matter of transmuting core doctrines), but the text might be read as an undifferentiated attack on everything from the work of liberal, church theologians in the bensehua #x672C;#x8272;#x5316; or bentuhua #x672C;#x571F;#x5316; (#x201C;indigenization#x201D;) movements of the early twentieth century through to the writings of a thinker such as He Guanghu in the 2000s arguing that Christianity should start out from essay on christmas blessings, social reality. Reference to the cosmic Christ and #x201C;justification by love#x201D; are more straightforward to delineate: both address the theology of the former head of the TSPM, Bishop Ding Guangxun. Ding#x2019;s work drawing on Teilhard de Chardin is essay, well-known, as is his foregrounding of a God of love#x2014;alongside a widespread (mis)belief that Ding denied the resume cover letter, core Protestant doctrine of justification by faith (see e.g., [ 31 ], p. 7).
A discussion of contextualization in Chinese Christianity is beyond the scope of uses and abuses of science essay, this paper, but it is tips on writing research, a little ironic that a church with such a strong denominational and transplanted historical context shaping the parameters of its theology should be so readily dismissive of others#x2019; attempts to engage their cultural setting. The danger of damning cultural adaptation of core doctrine is that of tainting all indigenization moves, and uses of science essay, of discouraging engagement with liberals by anathematizing their extreme manifestation. Zhao Zichen, revered theologian and, presumably, epitome of those targeted, wrote in 1947, #x201C;to the Chinese, God speaks as if He were a Chinese,#x201D; and yet for nurse resume all, #x201C;the Word goes out over against their particular existing environments#x201D; ([ 32 ], p. 482). This same Zhao who saw in Confucius #x201C;a clear revelation of God, though only in certain particulars#x201D; and uses essay, the indigenous church as #x201C;one which conserves and unified all truths contained in the Christian religion and in China#x2019;s ancient civilization,#x201D; also did his utmost to evangelize China and to #x201C;follow Jesus#x201D; personally, as did many of the frankenstein, academic theologians of the uses of science essay, day [ 33 , 34 ]. The potential for misrepresentation of #x201C;Sinicizing#x201D; attempts among liberal theologians is clear, but the thesis gives no context: one of the most active periods of conceptualizing a #x201C;Chinese church,#x201D; for example, was the 1920s, in of the by albert the midst of national crisis about what it meant to be Chinese, when not to engage with the question would have been negligent. A set of theses is necessarily concise, but the omission of specificity threatens to blur the argument. Ding Guangxun did not deny justification by and abuses essay faith, arguing only that Christians erred when they paid attention to this to the exclusion of works, yet the tendency to repeat this statement unexamined has extended well beyond Chinese evangelical scholarship.
17 In place of #x201C;sinicization,#x201D; house church voices have called for the #x201C;evangelization of China, the kingdomization of the church, the Christianization of culture#x201D; (#x4E2D;#x56FD;#x798F;#x97F3;#x5316;, #x6559;#x4F1A;#x56FD;#x5EA6;#x5316;, #x6587;#x5316;#x57FA;#x7763;#x5316;). It remains to be seen how the #x201C;Christianization#x201D; of Chinese culture may proceed without the evisceration of the Chinese or imposition of foreign cultural forms. A notable trait among urban house church writers is to acknowledge United States church partners for material help, training, and as a dialogue partner#x2014;and yet to seem to mary frankenstein essay, see this as a neutral, culture-free Christianity. While the anti-sinicization theses are aimed at a spectrum of academics and theologians and a range of beliefs on Christ and culture, the attack on the state church (#73#x2013;#95) is directed at one facet: its betrayal of the uses of science, keys of Heaven entrusted to it, through collusion with the tips on writing a 10 page research, ruling authorities. There is a clear link between the extremely rigid separation of spheres of church and state described above and the rejection in totality of the and abuses of science, TSPM, which relates back to the church#x2013;state split of the 1950s (alluded to in #95) and the sense that the essay of the by albert camus, church #x201C;sold out#x201D; on the faith in the decisions made. The house church, the document states, will not accept any censorship or monitoring by uses and abuses the government, any training or registration or interference in a 10 research appointments, any financial controls or limitation on of science, worship (place, age of participants, content); any slander against nurse or persecution of of science, missionaries in China; any church officers who also work for the government or in political parties; any notion of #x201C;religious affairs#x201D; as part of a 10 paper, government business (#74, 86, 87). To do so betrays the authority entrusted to the church and #x201C;joins in the oppression of the true church#x201D; (#75); it is the sign of a corrupt and idolatrous church, a whore not the bride of Christ (#83), a #x201C;false church#x201D; that has given itself over to political power (#79), a #x201C;scheme of Satan#x201D; that denies the kingdom of Christ is uses essay, higher than nations on earth (#76). The house church must #x201C;fight to death#x201D; for the invisible keys to the kingdom and power of the gospel (#82), and uphold its three core principles of the (inerrant) Bible as its guide; Christ as the only head of the church, and in write, the separation of church and state, with the church submitting to government power in uses of science essay the sphere of governance and holding to freedom of conscience in class matters spiritual (#78). Uses Essay. The passion is evident, as is the combination of essay of the stranger by albert camus, loyalty and theological absolutism, based on a certain reading of scripture and of Reformed theology. Making #x201C;two kingdoms#x201D; theology and of science essay, the separation of church and state the class essay, central dogma of faith has had a clear concomitant effect on the scope and of science essay, direction of theological debate for the Early Rain church. While one can understand why the frankenstein, current assault of government advice to registered pastors as to what local and national issues merit attention, and and abuses essay, indeed what they might like to focus on in their preaching, might repel pastors such as Wang Yi, such language#x2014;which echoes nothing so much as the tone of the research, Vatican on and abuses of science, communists in the 1950s#x2014;makes reconciliation between the registered and unregistered churches almost impossible to tips page paper, conceive.
It also represents a partial reading of both Chinese church history and uses and abuses of science essay, Reformed tradition, as suggested above. On the debates of the 1950s, others within the house church movement have taken a more conciliatory approach regarding the decisions that the fledging unified church took to maintain its existence, including Wang Yi#x2019;s co-author Liu Tongsu; a careful re-reading of the debates and of the historical situation of the Chinese church in the Republic and the early years of the PRC is imperative to any progress on this question ([ 35 ], p. 207). Wang Yi#x2019;s particular reading of Calvinist tradition on church autonomy (versus independence) and his heavy dependence on American interpretations and experience over, say, European modes of essay by albert camus, church#x2013;state relations, have channeled the course of debate, a debate which will continue to have ramifications within the house church movement and nationally. South African theologian Denise Ackermann notes that #x201C;We say God is and abuses essay, love; we do not often say that God is freedom,#x201D; and recounts how the essay of the stranger by albert camus, neo-Calvinism that dominated Reformed South African theology almost deterred her from finding the uses and abuses of science essay, #x201C;stunning depth#x201D; in Calvin#x2019;s writing on freedom, that freedom which enables consciences to rise above the law and resist tyranny, whose embrace permits true service of others ([ 36 ], pp. 150#x2013;55).
In contrast, freedom of conscience is tips, a cardinal tenet of Wang Yi#x2019;s theology (whereas God as love is more problematic because of the association of that theme with TSPM theologies). It is uses and abuses essay, easy to see why a Chinese lawyer and constitutional expert would be drawn to Calvinist thought and to tips a 10 page research paper, the central question of church#x2013;state relations. The exponential growth in academic interest in Calvinism in China attests to broader interest in such thought ([ 5 ], pp. 156#x2013;57), 18 while Wang Yi himself invested considerable time in translating into and abuses of science Chinese Douglas F. Kelly#x2019;s volume The Emergence of Liberty in research the Modern World: The Influence of Calvin on Five Governments from the Sixteenth through Eighteenth Centuries [ 37 ]. If anything, one might argue that Wang Yi has spent too much time reading sixteenth- and seventeenth-century theology, seen in hyperbolic language and in the revivifying of debates in contemporary China soaked in the 1584 Black Acts, monarchical tyranny and National Covenant. We can hold in tension two conclusions. The first is the courageous, and timely stance on the gospel and on such questions as the rule of and abuses, law and role of stranger, a constitution that the Early Rain church document represents. The cost to uses and abuses of science, the house church of its beliefs has been very great over the last sixty years, and the sacrifice has given the church a strong moral voice in debate, a voice and confidence that it is now deploying to nurse, good effect in the interests of other citizens. Given China#x2019;s contradictory relations with its judiciary and constitution as well as with international legal bodies, and set against a background of the state strengthening its control over and abuses of science essay churches, it is both timely and dangerous to dissect the constitution, or to write openly of mortgage resume letter, teaching school children about the Tiananmen massacre. Grounding legal activism in theology has provided the same impetus and strength that drove an older generation of house church activists. In an era when the of science essay, Chinese government is dealing with global aspirations to theocracy on its north-west borders, a propulsion to mary shelley's essay, absolute division between state and religion also provides much food for political thought.
This tendency towards the absolute, however, furnishes the second conclusion. Wang Yi and the Early Rain church 95 theses have avoided much of the more nationalistic aspects of Calvinist thought and of other sectors of the Chinese church in their analysis of and abuses essay, church#x2013;state relations, and two kingdoms theology may contribute to a way beyond recent advocacy of Chinese exceptionalism, or insoluble debate on nationalism versus patriotism. The zealous and uncompromising interpretation of two kingdoms theology, however, brings its own problems. One is resume, a potential inflexibility in dealing with the state, both at a practical level (and so potentially engendering unnecessary oppression or control, limiting the reach of church work 19 ) and uses essay, also metaphysically, in inhibiting theological thinking on how to integrate life in the civil and church worlds#x2014;even under an oppressive, atheist regime, or on how to mortgage underwriter resume letter, serve vocationally in the civic sphere, or even be a Christian leader and politician. Another is in representing Christianity truthfully, to Christians and to uses of science essay, the state.
As suggested above, the tendency to speak for all of the #x201C;house church#x201D; has been compounded by tips page narrow views of Christian history and biblical mandate, especially on the contentious question of church#x2013;state relations. While Wang Yi has championed thinkers such as the Scottish reformers, he has not always followed through the natural inference: in the Scottish case, that kirk#x2013;state relations have been much more complex and interrelated than allowed for in his parsing, or that various European Presbyterian churches have followed very different trajectories than the US model and its outworking in church and society#x2014;or even that Luther himself entertained a much greater acceptance of state authority over uses church affairs than Wang#x2019;s absolutist line.
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conclusion chapter Education in England: a brief history. Towards a state system. The wind of change. Recession and disenchantment. John Major: more of the same. The Blair decade. Brown and Balls: mixed messages. What future for education in England? Gove v The Blob. this is a draft of a chapter which will form part of the revised version currently in preparation.
Organisation of this chapter. The local authorities. 1979 Education Act. 1980 Education Act. 1981 Education Act. 1983 Education (Fees and uses and abuses of science, Awards) Act. 1984 Education (Grants and Awards) Act.
1986 Education (Amendment) Act. 1986 Education Act. 1986 Education (No. 2) Act. 1988 Local Government Act. 1988 Education Reform Act. Summary of the Act. Commentary on the Act. 1990 Education (Student Loans) Act.
1977-82 Matters for essay on christmas blessings, Discussion. 1978-85 HMI surveys. 1981 Rampton - West Indians. 1982 Cockcroft - maths. 1985 Swann - ethnic minorities. 1988 Kingman - English. 1988 Higginson - A Levels. 1989 Cox - English.
1989 Elton - descipline. 1990 Rumbold - early years. Education in England: a brief history. © copyright Derek Gillard 2011. Education in England: a brief history is uses of science my copyright. You are welcome to download it and print it for your own personal use, or for use in a school or other educational establishment, provided my name as the author is attached. But you may not publish it, upload it onto any other website, or sell it, without my permission. You are welcome to cite this piece.
If you do so, please acknowledge it thus: Gillard D (2011) Education in England: a brief history www.educationengland.org.uk/history. In accordance with the essay blessings, conventions set out by the Society of Authors and the Publishers Association , you should seek my permission to and abuses of science, reproduce any extract of more than 400 words; a series of extracts totalling more than 800 words, of resume which any one extract has more than 300 words; and an extract or series of extracts constituting a quarter or more of the original work. For shorter extracts you do not need my permission, provided the source is acknowledged as shown above. In references in uses and abuses of science, the text, the number after the colon is always the essay, page number (even where a document has numbered paragraphs or sections). Where a document is shown as a link, the full text is and abuses available online. © Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland. Note The 1980 document A framework for the school curriculum was previously ascribed to HMI. In fact, it was a DES/Welsh Office document. This has been corrected in the chapter below and in the Timeline; and the full text of the document is now available online.
My apologies for the error. Chapter 8 : 1979-1990. Thatcherism: the marketisation of by albert camus education. Neo-liberalism became the uses of science essay, dominant force in British politics with the election in 1979 of the Conservative administration led by Margaret Thatcher ( pictured ). Her government's policies 'accelerated the blessings, closing down of unprofitable industries and promoted a profound social and economic restructuring' (Jones 2003:107). By 1982 the Thatcher government was highly unpopular. Soaring inflation and a massive increase in unemployment made it seem unlikely that she would win a second term. She needed a miracle. Fortunately for her, Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands and she was able to play the part of heroic war leader in the Falklands War between March and June 1982. Uses? The result was a landslide in the 1983 general election.
With a vastly increased Commons majority (up from essay of the by albert camus, 44 to uses and abuses essay, 144), she felt emboldened to mortgage underwriter letter, take her reforms further. She won a third term in office at the general election in 1987. Uses Of Science? Her majority of 101, though reduced, was nevertheless substantial, and the 'iron lady' felt powerful enough to push ahead with some unpopular polices, most notably the introduction of a form of poll tax. It proved to be her undoing and she was ousted from office in November 1990. Thatcher's neo-liberal policies affected not only industry and commerce but also public services.
Conservative legislation sought to resume maker, drive neo-liberal principles into the heart of public policy. An emphasis on cost reduction, privatisation and deregulation was accompanied by vigorous measures against the institutional bases of Conservatism's opponents, and the promotion of new forms of public management. The outcome of and abuses essay these processes was a form of governance in nurse, which market principles were advanced at the same time as central authority was strengthened. And Abuses? (Jones 2003:107) Thus the twin aims of Margaret Thatcher's education policies in the 1980s were to convert the essay, nation's schools system from a public service into a market, and to transfer power from local authorities to central government. The origins of this policy can be traced back to and abuses essay, the establishment in 1955 of the Institute of Economic Affairs (lEA), a right-wing think-tank which, during the 1970s, had 'worked tirelessly to persuade the of the by albert camus, Conservative Party to abandon the and abuses essay, post-war welfare consensus and embrace social and educational policies based on nineteenth-century free-market anti-statism' (Chitty 2004:47). It had been given added impetus in Evolution by choice , Stuart Sexton's contribution to the Black Paper of 1977. Essay In Write? (For more on the Black Papers see the previous chapter). He set out to 'sketch a new system for secondary education' based on 'absolute freedom of choice by application'. Local authorities would no longer allocate children to schools. Where a school was oversubscribed it would select its students on the basis of 'ability and aptitude'. If it was undersubscribed it would face the possibility of uses of science essay closure.
The educational market would not be entirely unregulated. There would be an class essay in write, 'effective and independent inspectorate', a government-defined 'minimum curriculum' and uses essay, specified 'minimum standards' (Sexton 1977, quoted in mary frankenstein, Jones 2003:106). Sexton's theme was taken up by an 'ever-growing number of right-wing think-tanks with small but interlocking memberships' which 'bombarded' ministers with policy ideas 'ideologically driven by uses and abuses of science essay commitment to the market and to in write, privatisation' (Benn and Chitty 1996:12). Despite their claims to uses and abuses of science essay, be radical and essay, modernising, Thatcher's Tories - and the 'New Right' which supported them - couldn't bring themselves to ditch the and abuses, elitist policies of the past. The most obvious of these was selection for secondary education. Thus the 1979 Education Act - Thatcher's first - gave back to LEAs the right to select pupils for secondary education at 11. The move backfired, however. The Tories had underestimated the popularity of comprehensive schools, and attempts to mortgage underwriter cover letter, reintroduce or extend selection in Berkshire, Wiltshire, Redbridge and Solihull all failed as a result of strong local opposition.
But the Tories weren't going to uses and abuses of science essay, give up. 'Such defeats served to encourage Conservative Ministers to essay blessings, opt for rather more subtle policy initiatives aimed at establishing a wider variety of uses secondary schools and providing for greater parental choice' (Chitty and Dunford 1999:25). They began work on a series of radical changes characterised by the absence of blessings any popular demand for and abuses of science essay, them from any section of the stranger by albert, education community nationally or locally, nor even from the populist media. One by one all had to be imposed by and abuses of science means of a parliamentary majority against continuing opposition from nurse maker, all other political parties and from much of the educational establishment. (Benn and Chitty 1996:13) Preparing the uses and abuses essay, ground. When she took office in May 1979 Thatcher appointed Mark Carlisle as her first education secretary. He was 'moderate and essentially pragmatic' (Chitty 2004:48) and essay, freely admitted that 'I had no direct knowledge of the state sector either as a pupil or as a parent' (Ribbins and and abuses of science, Sherratt 1997:55 quoted in Chitty and essay, Dunford 1999:1).
This suited Thatcher because at first reform of and abuses of science essay education was not her priority: she was more concerned with bringing down the essay in write, rate of inflation (causing very high levels of uses of science essay unemployment in a 10 paper, the process) and with curbing the power and influence of the of science, trade unions. But Carlisle was replaced in September 1981 by underwriter resume the very different Keith Joseph ( pictured ), a long-time advocate of free market ideas (especially parental choice and education vouchers). In 1974 he had been a co-founder of the right-wing Centre for Policy Studies, a think-tank which wanted schools to uses and abuses, be autonomous with a minimum of state interference. His appointment was a signal that school reform was moving up the nurse resume, government's agenda. Ironically, as secretary of state for education Joseph found himself commanding an uses essay, apparatus that was now increasingly involved in specifying the everyday practice of essay schools. . Joseph, like the ministers who succeeded him, organised in the name of and abuses of science essay 'effective education' a vast new complex of regulations and regulators that would measure and direct the a 10 research paper, processes and outcomes of schooling. (Jones 2003:115) With Joseph leading the education department, Thatcher set about preparing to take control. Of Science Essay? This meant confronting the 'education establishment' - the teachers and their unions, the training institutions and national and local inspectors and advisors. There would be action on three fronts: the nurse, curriculum - traditionally seen as the 'secret garden' which government ministers were not supposed to enter; the teachers - controlling their training and development and restricting their role in essay, curriculum development; and the local education authorities (LEAs) - many of which (especially the Labour-controlled ones) Thatcher saw as her enemy. In 1976 Labour prime minister Jim Callaghan had begun the mary, 'Great Debate' on the nature and purposes of education. Under the Thatcher administration, the debate became increasingly one-sided. The opening shot was the and abuses of science, publication in 1979 of LEA Arrangements for the School Curriculum which required local authorities to publish their curriculum policies. This was followed, two years later, by in write The School Curriculum (25 March 1981), in which the secretaries of state (for Education and Wales) said they had decided to 'set out in some detail the approach to the school curriculum which they consider should now be followed in the years ahead'.
Every local education authority was expected to frame policies for the school curriculum consistent with the government's 'recommended approach' (DES 1981a:5). On 1 October 1981 the uses and abuses essay, DES issued Circular 6/81 which requested that, in mary shelley's, the light of the uses and abuses essay, advice contained in The School Curriculum , each local education authority should (a) review its policy for the school curriculum in its area, and nurse, its arrangements for making that policy known to all concerned; (b) review the extent to which current provision in uses essay, the schools is consistent with that policy; and. (c) plan future developments accordingly, within the resources available. In taking these actions, local education authorities should consult governors of class essay schools, teachers and others concerned (DES 1981b para.5). Two years later, on 8 December 1983, Circular 8/83 requested each LEA to provide: (a) a report on the progress which has been made in drawing up a policy for the curriculum in its primary and secondary schools . (b) a description of the roles played in the processes of uses of science essay drawing up the policy by class essay in write heads and other teachers, governors, parents and other interested parties in the local community; (c) a brief statement of the ways in which the policy is being given or will be given practical effect in the schools . (d) a summary, giving examples where appropriate, of the steps being taken and planned by the authority to seek to ensure that the curriculum is planned as a whole . (e) a summary of the steps being taken and planned by the authority to ensure that the curriculum is uses and abuses of science essay appropriately related to what happens outside school, and includes sufficient applied and practical work, particularly in mathematics . and science; (f) a statement of how far the resources available to the authority . are enabling it to in write, give effect to its policy for the curriculum. (DES 1983 para.5) To support schools and LEAs in formulating curriculum policies, the DES issued A framework for the school curriculum in uses of science, 1980; and HMI produced a number of essay publications, including: A View of the Curriculum (HMI Series: Matters for Discussion No. 11 1980); The Curriculum from 5 to 16 (HMI Curriculum Matters 2 1985). Uses And Abuses Of Science? The HMI documents were progressive in outlook. Maker? The Curriculum from 5 to 16 , for example, argued that the school curriculum should be thought of in terms of 'areas of learning and and abuses of science essay, experience' and mortgage underwriter, that it included not only the formal programme of lessons, but also the 'informal' programme of so-called extracurricular activities as well as all those features which produce the school's 'ethos', such as the quality of relationships, the concern for equality of opportunity, the values exemplified in the way the school sets about its task and the way in which it is organised and uses essay, managed. (HMI 1985:7) It was not an approach that would commend itself to government ministers.
In July 1987 the government published The National Curriculum 5-16 . This consultation document set out plans for the introduction of a national curriculum and associated assessment procedures. Its 40 A4-size pages appear to have been produced in haste: the cover was printed but the contents were typed - presumably on an electric typewriter or perhaps on an early Amstrad word processor (which had been launched the on writing a 10 research paper, previous year). Central government also sought greater control over teachers. In 1984 the uses of science essay, Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (CATE) was established to set standards for initial teacher training courses. In a move designed to essay on christmas, reduce the influence of teachers in curriculum development, the Schools Council, in which teachers had played a significant role, was abolished in 1984. Its work was shared between the School Examinations Council (SEC), whose members were nominated by the secretary of state, and the School Curriculum Development Council (SCDC), which was specifically instructed not to 'concern itself with policy'. And in 1985 Keith Joseph proposed linking teacher appraisal and and abuses, performance-related pay. The result was a year of industrial action by essay by albert teachers. The local authorities. For Thatcher, the local authorities - many of them run by Labour - were an irritant, blocking central government's ability to affect what was going on uses of science essay, in the schools.
Her government therefore set about weakening the role of the LEAs by dismantling the triangular framework of responsibility - central government, local authorities and the schools - which had been established by the 1944 Education Act, and by offering parents a greater role in the running of essay stranger schools. The LEAs were already in a difficult position. Local government had been reorganised in 1974, when the number of LEAs was reduced from 146 to 104. Many of the reorganised authorities had embraced corporate management policies which led to some widely publicised resignations of Chief Education Officers (CEOs) who felt they no longer had control over uses and abuses of science essay the service. Furthermore, after the 1974 reorganisation there was 'a tendency for local politics to consolidate along national party lines' (Shipman 1984:49). On Christmas? Now, in the 1980s, public spending was being cut and the differences between the spending of different LEAs widened. As contraction replaced expansion, power tended to ebb back to central government. Thatcher enlisted the right-wing tabloid press in her campaign against the LEAs. Papers like The Sun and the Daily Mail ran endless stories about the absurdities perpetrated - often in and abuses essay, the name of underwriter letter equal opportunities - by 'the loony left'. Ealing, for example, was supposed to have banned any mention of the nursery rhyme 'Baa baa black sheep' in its schools. It wasn't true, of course (I know - I was there!), but the endless repetition of such stories damaged the image of local authorities in the eyes of the public - which is precisely what it was intended to of science essay, do.
The government took another swipe at the local authorities in tips a 10 research paper, 1982, when it launched the Technical and uses of science essay, Vocational Education Initiative (TVEI), aimed at 14-18 year olds. Essay On Christmas Blessings? LEAs were not allowed to participate. Instead, it was administered by the Department of Employment's Manpower Services Commission (MSC). It was not exactly a success. 'From 1977 to 1989 change was breathtaking in this area and so was expenditure: £89 billion spent on introducing 25 training schemes, of uses which 22 were subsequently cancelled, some after only a year or two in existence' (Benn and Chitty 1996:16). The National Council for Vocational Qualifications (NCVQ) was set up in 1986 to of the stranger, promote National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs). In 1989 the government announced that schools would in future be allowed to offer vocational courses like those from the Business and Technology Education Council (BTEC). It also made an effort to rationalise 'Britain's renowned jungle of vocational qualifications' (Benn and uses of science essay, Chitty 1996:17) in an attempt to create a single new system of vocational qualifications: GNVQ for educational qualifications and nurse resume, NVQ for qualifications gained through work. Uses? For a brief moment it looked as if at stranger by albert last a British government was going to catapult the country into uses essay, a position where it could compete with other industrialised countries which had already made all these changes through comprehensive education reform and cover, an integration of vocational and academic education. (Benn and Chitty 1996:17) But it was not to be.
The Major administration (see the next chapter) chose not to pursue the uses, integration of academic and vocational education. 1979 Education Act. The 1979 Education Act (26 July 1979) - Thatcher's first - was very short (just two pages). It repealed Labour's 1976 Act and gave back to LEAs the right to class, select pupils for uses of science, secondary education at 11. 1980 Education Act. This Act (3 April 1980) began the process of giving more power to parents. Its main provisions were: school governing bodies were to include at least two parents (Section 2(5)); parents were to have the right to resume, choose schools (6) and the right to appeal if they didn't get the schools they had chosen (7); there were new rules regarding school attendance orders (10 and 11), the creation of new schools and the closing of existing ones (12), and the number of school places (15); the Assisted Places Scheme would provide public money to pay for 30,000 children to go to private schools (17); the obligation on local authorities to provide free milk and meals was removed, except in uses and abuses, the case of children from families receiving Supplementary Benefit or Family Income Supplement (22); and local authorities could establish nursery schools (24).
Download the Education Act 1980 (pdf text 1mb). 1981 Education Act. The 1981 Education Act (30 October 1981) followed the on christmas blessings, publication of the 1978 Warnock Report Special Educational Needs . It gave parents new rights: LEAs were required to identify the needs of children with learning difficulties (Section 4); have assessment procedures for and abuses essay, ascertaining those needs (5-6); and produce 'statements' specifying how the needs would be met (7). Download the Education Act 1981 (pdf text 496kb). Parent power was pursued further in the 1984 Green Paper Parental Influence at School . 1983 Education (Fees and Awards) Act. This Act (13 May 1983) allowed the secretary of state to tips on writing a 10 page research paper, require higher education institutions to charge higher fees to students 'not having the requisite connection with the and abuses of science, United Kingdom, the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man' and to exclude such students from being eligible for certain discretionary awards. 1984 Education (Grants and Awards) Act.
This Act (12 April 1984) introduced Education Support Grants (ESGs), which were to be given to LEAs for government-specified purposes. It was thus another step in taking control of on writing a 10 page education policy away from the LEAs and giving it to central government - a move which was taken still further in 1987 when Specific Grants for INSET (In-Service Training) were introduced. 1986 Education (Amendment) Act. This short Act (17 February 1986) increased the essay, limit set in section 2(1) of the Education (Grants and Awards) Act 1984 on expenditure approved for education support grant purposes, and excluded remuneration for essay by albert camus, lunchtime supervision from the Remuneration of Teachers Act 1965. 1986 Education Act. In May 1986 Kenneth Baker replaced Keith Joseph as education secretary. He was kept busy: there were two education acts in his first year in the job. The first (and much the shorter - 5 pages) was the 1986 Education Act (18 July 1986), which concerned certain further education grants and the pooling of uses and abuses essay expenditure by local authorities. 1986 Education (No.
2) Act. The second Education Act of 1986 (7 November 1986) was not only underwriter resume, much longer than the first, it was also profoundly more important. Of Science? It implemented the blessings, proposals set out in the 1985 White Paper Better Schools which were summarised in the DES booklet Better Schools: A Summary . It further diminished the importance of the LEAs and put the focus on the Department and the schools. Governors were to be given much greater responsibility for the curriculum, discipline and staffing. The head was to have a pivotal role - s/he was singled out for uses and abuses essay, specific responsibilities including the 'determination and underwriter resume cover letter, organisation of the and abuses essay, secular curriculum' (though the Act said nothing about what what would happen if governors disagreed). The head (and only the head) had the mary shelley's essay, power to of science essay, exclude pupils. Equally significantly, the Act introduced the concept of educational law, so that lawyers became involved in mary shelley's frankenstein, education for the first time. It was very detailed but often ambiguous - it gave parents pegs on which to hang their disenchantments. The Act's main provisions were: every maintained school was required to have a governing body (Sections 1-2); the composition of and abuses essay governing bodies was changed - the number of parent governors was to be equal to the number of LEA governors and there were to be staff governors and others co-opted from business and industry (3-8). Mary Frankenstein? ( Better Schools had proposed a majority of parents but this was defeated); grouping of schools under one governing body was allowed in certain circumstances (9-10); every LEA must have a written statement of its curriculum policy (17-19); governors must have a sex education policy.
If taught (it didn't have to and abuses essay, be), sex education had to encourage pupils 'to have due regard to moral considerations and the value of family life' (46); governors must give parents information about the school's curriculum (20); discipline was the responsibility of the head, though the maker, principles underlying it were to be supplied by and abuses of science governors (22); there were new rules on pupil exclusions (23), reinstatement (24) and appeals (26); LEAs were to give governors financial information relating to the school (29); governors were to produce an annual report (30) and hold an annual parents' meeting (31); LEAs retained responsibility for the appointment and dismissal of staff but were to consult with governors (34-41); there was to be freedom of speech in universities and colleges (43); there was to be no political indoctrination in schools - this was an attack on subjects like 'peace studies' which had been introduced in a number of schools (44); corporal punishment was abolished in maintained schools (from August 1987). Independent schools were still permitted to beat their pupils, but not those whose fees were paid by the state (47); provision was made for the appraisal of teachers (49); governors were required to supply information to the secretary of state (56); LEAs were required to provide training for governors (57); and the secretary of resume letter state was no longer required to produce annual report (60). Download the Education (No. 2) Act 1986 (pdf text 1.6mb). 1988 Local Government Act. LEAs' equal opportunities policies were attacked in the 1988 Local Government Act (24 March 1988).
The infamous Section 28 of this act forbade local authorities from 'promoting teaching in any maintained school of the acceptability of homosexuality as a pretended family relationship'. (Section 28 was eventually repealed by New Labour in uses, November 2003). Download the Local Government Act 1988 (pdf text 856kb). 1988 Education Reform Act. The Education Reform Act (29 July 1988) was the most important education act since 1944. It is sometimes referred to mortgage resume cover, as 'The Baker Act' after secretary of state Kenneth Baker ( pictured ).
The Act was presented as giving power to the schools. Essay? In fact, it took power away from the LEAs and the schools and gave them all to the secretary of state - it gave him hundreds of new powers. Even more importantly, it took a public service and turned it into a market - something the Tories had been working towards for a decade. Chitty and Dunford (1999:25) argue that the class in write, 'meretricious agenda' of the 1988 Act was in many ways 'a tribute to the remarkable resilience of the comprehensive ideal'. Having failed to get selection reinstated in 1979, the Tories now used 'devices like opting out, open admission, city technology colleges and the introduction of local markets . Of Science Essay? as attempts to introduce selection by the back door.' The Act's major provisions concerned: the curriculum: - the National Curriculum. - new rules on religious education and collective worship. - the establishment of curriculum and assessment councils; admission of by albert camus pupils to county and voluntary schools; local management of schools (LMS); grant maintained (GM) schools; city technology colleges (CTCs); changes in further and higher education; and the abolition of ILEA.
Download the Education Reform Act 1988 (pdf text 4.1mb). Part I Chapter I: The Curriculum. The 1988 Act provided for a 'basic curriculum' to be taught in of science, all maintained schools, consisting of religious education and the National Curriculum (Section 2(1)). The National Curriculum would set out 'attainment targets' - the essay stranger by albert, knowledge, skills and understanding which children would be expected to have by and abuses of science the end of each key stage; the 'programmes of study' to be taught at each key stage; and the arrangements for assessing pupils at the end of each key stage (2(2)). The National Curriculum would consist of three 'core subjects' (mathematics, English and nurse resume, science); six foundation subjects (history, geography, technology, music, art and physical education); plus a modern foreign language at key stages 3 and 4 (3(1-2)). Schools in Welsh-speaking areas of and abuses of science Wales would also teach Welsh. The Act defined Key Stage 1 as ages 5-7, Key Stage 2: ages 8-11, Key Stage 3: 12-14, and Key Stage 4: 15-16 (3(3)). It set out new rules on religious education: every day was to begin with an 'act of collective worship' (6(1)), a majority of which were to be 'wholly or mainly of underwriter resume cover a broadly Christian character' (7(1)). Uses Essay? Every LEA was required to shelley's essay, set up a standing advisory council on religious education (SACRE) (11(1)) consisting of representatives of religious groups, the Church of of science England, teachers and the local authority (11(4)).
Agreed Syllabuses for Religious Education should 'reflect the fact that the religious traditions in Great Britain are in the main Christian whilst taking account of the frankenstein essay, teaching and practices of the other principal religions represented in Great Britain' (8(3)). Two new councils were to be established: the and abuses of science essay, National Curriculum Council (NCC) and the School Examinations and Assessment Council (SEAC). (Wales was to mary shelley's essay, have its own Curriculum Council for Wales). Uses Of Science? The members of the councils would be appointed by the secretary of state (14(1)). The NCC would be required to review all aspects of the curriculum and advise the secretary of state, carry out programmes of research and development, publish and disseminate information relating to the curriculum and perform 'such ancillary activities as the Secretary of State may direct' (14(3)). SEAC's functions were similar in respect of mary shelley's frankenstein examinations and assessment; it was also to make arrangements with appropriate bodies for the moderation of assessments made in pursuance of assessment arrangements (14(4)). Part I Chapter II: Admission of and abuses essay Pupils to County and Voluntary Schools. The Act introduced new rules governing the admission of pupils to maintained schools, in particular the conditions which were to class essay, be met if the authority responsible for admissions to a school wished to reduce the 'standard number' of places in a year group (28). Part I Chapter III: Finance and Staff.
Before 1988, schools had only had control over uses 'capitation' - that part of their budget relating to books and camus, materials. The staff were employed and the buildings maintained by the local authority. Under what became known as 'local management of and abuses of science essay schools' (LMS), the schools were to be given far greater control, managing almost the whole budget. 'It shall be the duty of the authority to put at the disposal of the governing body of the nurse, school in respect of uses that year a sum equal to the school's budget share for that year to be spent for the purposes of the school' (36(2)). School budgets would be determined on the basis of an 'allocation formula' based on the number and ages of the pupils in the school and the number of pupils with special needs (38(3)). Each local authority was required to submit a scheme for this financial delegation (39). Responsibility for the appointment and mary shelley's frankenstein essay, dismissal of staff would be transferred from the local authority to and abuses of science, schools' governing bodies (44-46). Part I Chapter IV Grant-Maintained Schools. The Act made provision for mary, the establishment of grant-maintained schools which would be independent of local authorities and funded directly by central government. It set out rules governing the membership of the schools' governing bodies (4-5); the articles of government (58); the conduct of parents' ballots to uses and abuses, decide whether schools should seek grant-maintained status (61); the transfer of property and staff to the governing bodies (74-5) and on christmas blessings, the grants (maintenance, special purpose and uses of science essay, capital) payable to the schools (79). It made clear that funds directed to tips a 10 page paper, grant-maintained schools would be deducted from the relevant local authority budget (81). Part I Chapter V Miscellaneous.
The Act provided for the establishment of City Technology Colleges (CTCs) and City Colleges for uses, the Technology of the Arts (CCTAs) (105) and laid down new rules governing what could, and what could not, be charged for in maintained schools (106-111). Part II Higher and shelley's frankenstein, Further Education. Part II of the Act made changes to the provision and uses essay, funding of higher and mortgage resume cover letter, further education and uses of science essay, provided for the establishment of two new funding bodies: the Universities Funding Council (UFC) and the Polytechnics and Colleges Funding Council (PCFC), whose members would be appointed by the secretary of stranger camus state. Local authorities which funded institutions would be required to produce a scheme for financial delegation similar to that required for the funding of schools. Part III Education in Inner London. Part III of the Act provided for the abolition of the uses and abuses of science, Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) and the transfer of its responsibilities, properties, rights and liabilities to stranger by albert camus, the inner London boroughs.
Part IV Miscellaneous and General. Part IV of the uses, Act covered a number of resume other matters: the establishment and functions of Education Assets Board; academic tenure; grants; unrecognised degrees etc. The National Curriculum which resulted from the Act was written by a government quango: teachers had virtually no say in its design or construction. It was almost entirely content-based. Dennis Lawton, of the University of and abuses essay London Institute of Education, described it as the reincarnation of the 1904 Secondary Regulations. It was huge and therefore unmanageable, especially at the primary level, and its introduction resulted in a significant drop in reading standards. Resume? It divided the curriculum up into discrete subjects, making integrated 'topic' and 'project' work difficult if not impossible. But perhaps the most damaging outcome of it was that it prevented teachers and schools from being curriculum innovators and demoted them to uses and abuses of science essay, curriculum 'deliverers'.
It was also constantly revised. Resume Maker? Right-wing think-tanks and uses and abuses essay, pressure groups were unhappy with aspects of the first version and campaigned for 'the simplification and Anglicisation of the national testing system, so as to emphasise basic skills and the English cultural heritage' (Jones 2003:141). The New Right gained control of the curriculum and assessment councils, where they provoked strong opposition from teachers, especially from teachers of English, leading to a widespread boycott of on christmas Standard Assessment Tests (SATs) in uses and abuses of science, 1993-4. As a result, the government was forced to redesign the national curriculum, reducing the amount of detail and removing 'the stronger signs of the traditionalist and ethnocentric enthusiasms of the New Right'. The 1995 revision of the essay of the stranger by albert camus, national curriculum thus 'marked the end of the New Right's curricular influence, at the same time as it helped embed the uses, curriculum, and its associated testing system, at the consensual centre of English schooling' (Jones 2003:141). The assessment arrangements for the National Curriculum were equally cumbersome. They were based on the 1988 report of the National Curriculum Task Group on Assessment and tips research, Testing (TGAT) led by Professor PJ Black (and therefore sometimes known as the Black Report).
The report was sound on the purposes of assessment. It began by listing four criteria for of science, a national assessment scheme: the mary shelley's frankenstein, assessment results should give direct information about pupils' achievement in relation to objectives: they should be criterion-referenced ; the results should provide a basis for decisions about pupils' further learning needs: they should be formative ; the scales or grades should be capable of comparison across classes and schools, if teachers, pupils and parents are to share a common language and common standards: so the of science essay, assessments should be calibrated or moderated ; the ways in on writing paper, which criteria and scales are set up and uses essay, used should relate to class essay, expected routes of educational development, giving some continuity to a pupil's assessment at different ages: the assessments should relate to progression . (para.5) It also made clear that there were concerns to be addressed: the undesirable effects of and abuses of science essay testing on children (stress etc); the possible damage to relationships between parents and schools; the fear that external tests would 'impose arbitrary restrictions on tips on writing a 10 research paper, teachers' own work, and so limit and devalue their professional role' (para.16); anxiety that results would be published in league tables, 'leading to ill-informed and unfair comparisons between schools' (para.18); and the danger that teachers would 'teach to the test' (para.58). Unfortunately, the Report went on to propose a system of testing at ages 7, 11, 14 and uses and abuses essay, 16 (at the end of the Key Stages) in which each pupil was to be assessed on ten 'Levels' across hundreds of 'Attainment Targets' in the ten National Curriculum subjects. This was hugely complicated and never had a chance of working. Thatcher herself didn't like the proposals and favoured simpler external tests of children at 7, 11 and 14 ( The Guardian 10 March 1988). On Christmas? But that was no doubt because she wasn't interested in the educational validity of the assessment system, only in whether, coupled with LMS, it would promote the education market place she was so determined to create. So league tables of school results were published (despite Black's warning) and parents were given (theoretically at least) free choice as to where to send their children. Three inevitable - and uses and abuses essay, undesirable - effects quickly became apparent: schools became unwilling to take on stranger camus, pupils with learning difficulties, since they tended to depress overall test results; teachers were encouraged to concentrate their efforts on children who were on the borderline between one level and the next rather than on and abuses of science, those who needed attention most; and the curriculum became skewed by the need to practise for the tests.
On religious education and collective worship, it is interesting to compare the Act's stipulations that the majority of a school's 'acts of collective worship' must be 'wholly or mainly of a broadly Christian character' and that Christianity should be the predominant religion in nurse resume maker, religious education lessons with Sections 25-29 of the 1944 Education Act, where Christianity is of science essay never mentioned - because it was taken for granted. Essay On Christmas Blessings? For more on uses of science essay, religious education, see my article Agreed Syllabuses 1944-1988 (1991); and my dissertation Rewriting Oxfordshire's Agreed Syllabus post 1988 (1992). Local Management of Schools. Local Management of Schools dramatically changed the role of the head teacher and governors. The head was no longer an educationalist but an institutional manager. Mary Frankenstein? S/he now had to learn about essay, recruitment and selection procedures, employment law, health and safety legislation, buildings maintenance etc. The governors now had legal responsibilities in relation to the control of a school's budget and to the appointment and dismissal of staff. No one explained how you could hold unpaid volunteers legally accountable.
Inevitably, fewer people were prepared to take on the role. Because school budgets were to essay, be based largely on pupil numbers, schools had to attract as many pupils as possible in essay, order to survive. This led to resume, some bizarre cases of schools offering gifts to parents who enrolled their children. The freedom which LMS was supposed to offer schools was, in practice, largely illusory. Schools soon found that, as their staff costs amounted to around 85 per cent of the total budget, any scope for changing budget priorities was severely limited. For the government, LMS served three purposes: it was an important element in the creation of an 'education market'; it took financial control away from the local authorities; and it enabled the government to 'pass the buck' to the schools when budgets were cut - as they were from the second year of LMS onwards. Indeed, school budgets were cut in six of the eight years following 1988.
The grant-maintained schools policy was another clear attack on uses of science essay, the LEAs. Letter? It was also iniquitous because, to bribe schools into of science essay, opting out, they were offered substantial additional funding - at the expense of the remaining local authority schools . Grant-maintained schools were allowed to select a proportion of on christmas their pupils on the basis of ability or aptitude. Some secondary schools applied to of science, become grant-maintained in the first year or two, but when the maker, extra cash dried up, so did the applications. Ironically - but unsurprisingly - most of the schools that did opt out uses and abuses of science essay were in Conservative-controlled LEAs where spending on a 10 paper, education tended to be lower. A survey published in February 1992 showed that schools wishing to go grant-maintained were concentrated in just 12 of the 117 education authorities in England and Wales. Grant-maintained status was eventually abolished by New Labour. City Technology Colleges. Baker presented his City Technology Colleges as a 'half-way house' between the state and independent sectors. He told the TES : What we have at present is seven per cent or so in the independent sector, probably going to rise to ten per cent; and on the other side, a huge continent: 93 per cent in uses and abuses of science, the state-maintained sector. . What I think is striking in the British education system is that there is nothing in between . Now the City Technology Colleges I've already announced are a sort of half-way house. I would like to see many more half-way houses, a greater choice, a greater variety.
I think many parents would as well. ( TES 3 April 1987) In fact, the City Technology Colleges (CTCs) were just another attempt to destroy the power of the frankenstein, LEAs (and to reintroduce selection) by involving private enterprise in education. Uses And Abuses Of Science Essay? A hundred of the colleges were to be set up across the letter, country, each one funded - 'sponsored' - by a business, with spending per pupil far higher than in the neighbouring local authority schools. In the event, only a handful of CTCs were ever established because few businesses were prepared to take part and, as usual, the taxpayer was left to pick up the and abuses of science essay, bill. The last CTC to be authorised, in April 1991, was Kingswood in Bristol. A 10 Paper? The chair of Cable and and abuses, Wireless and former Tory Party chair Lord Young stumped up the required £2m; the government handed over the remaining £8m. Avon county council's deputy director of education, Edward Watson, bitterly contrasted that £8m for capital spending on the 900 children at Kingswood CTC with the £4.5m he had for capital spending on the county's other 150,000 children. With the extra money, he said, all secondary schools could have been fully repaired, all the improvements they wanted could have been done, every school could have had a new science laboratory, and there would still have been enough left over to essay stranger by albert, give all primary schools an extra nursery class for uses and abuses of science essay, a year ( The Guardian 3 October 2006). Thatcher had disliked the tips a 10 page research, Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) since the 1970s when, as education secretary, she had regarded it as bureaucratic and profligate. She also resented the fact that it was dominated by Labour politicians who were not afraid to comment on and abuses essay, central government policies. Tory MPs called for its abolition in research, 1980 but were overruled by education secretary Mark Carlisle. In 1986 Thatcher abolished the Greater London Council (GLC) - she had never forgiven Londoners for electing her bete noire Ken Livingstone as leader - and she would have liked to get rid of ILEA at the same time, but she was advised that the London boroughs were not yet ready to take on responsibility for education.
But ILEA's days were numbered. An amendment calling for uses of science essay, its abolition, tabled by Tory MPs Michael Heseltine and Norman Tebbit, was incorporated into the 1988 Act. It was finally abolished on 1 April 1990 and its responsibilities delegated to the London boroughs. The destruction of ILEA was a particularly noxious example of political spite and state vandalism: it had had a proud record of supporting schools in deprived areas and promoting curriculum development. It was 'founded on sound principles and committed to the wellbeing of London's citizens' (Mortimore 2008). Its Multi-ethnic education policy statement , published in essay on christmas blessings, 1977, had sought to uses essay, combat racism, sexism and class prejudice in blessings, schools and society.
And in 1980 HMI had described ILEA as 'a caring and generous authority with considerable analytical powers to identify problems, the scale of which is, in some cases, unique in this country.' (A form of overall local government for and abuses, London was reintroduced by underwriter resume New Labour in May 2000, when the first elections to the Greater London Assembly (GLA) were held. Essay? Ken Livingstone became the first elected Mayor of resume maker London). 1990 Education (Student Loans) Act. Thatcher's last education act was the Education (Student Loans) Act (26 April 1990) which introduced 'top-up' loans for HE students and so began the and abuses of science, diminution of student grants. 1977-82 HMI: Matters for Discussion.
As part of the 'Great Debate' called for mortgage resume cover, in 1976 by Prime Minister Jim Callaghan, HMI produced a series of 15 discussion documents under the series title Matters for Discussion : 1978-85 HMI surveys. The 1967 Plowden Report Children and their Primary Schools had recommended (in chapter 30, page 426, para. 1164) that surveys of the quality of primary schools should be conducted at least once every ten years. In response, HMI produced, between 1978 and 1985, five major surveys covering the whole school age range. They were: 1978 Primary education in England. 1981 Rampton Report. In March 1979 Jim Callaghan's Labour government had set up the Committee of uses and abuses of science essay Enquiry into the Education of Children from Ethnic Minority Groups, with priority being given to children of West Indian origin. The Committee continued its work under the Thatcher government and published its interim report, West Indian Children in our Schools , in 1981. The Rampton Report warned that 'West Indian children as a group are failing in our education system. Urgent action is needed to remedy this' (Rampton 1981:70).
It noted that in both primary and secondary schools the mortgage underwriter letter, curriculum, books and teaching materials were often inappropriate to and abuses, meet the needs and backgrounds of West Indian pupils and that this was 'a cause of their lack of class essay in write motivation and commitment to the work and their consequent underachievement' (Rampton 1981:71). However, the Committee said that there was 'no single cause for the underachievement of West Indian children but rather a network of widely differing attitudes and expectations on uses and abuses of science, the part of teachers and the education system as a whole, and on the part of underwriter resume cover letter West Indian parents' (Rampton 1981:72). They therefore recommended a range of specific, practical measures for the short-term together with some broader more general recommendations designed to uses, bring about fundamental changes in attitude and practice in the longer term. Mortgage Underwriter Letter? Taken together, these constitute a programme for action which will go a long way towards enabling West Indian pupils to and abuses of science, fulfil their true potential in our schools, as well as providing a more balanced education for mortgage underwriter resume cover, all our children. (Rampton 1981:72) The Committee published its final report in 1985 (see The Swann Report below). 1982 Cockcroft Report. Callaghan's Labour administration had also commissioned a report on the teaching of uses of science essay maths, in the light of concerns expressed by the Education, Arts and Home Office Sub-Committee of the Parliamentary Expenditure Committee in July 1977. These concerns related to the apparent lack of basic computation skills in many children, the increasing mathematical demands made on adults, the lack of qualified maths teachers, and the confusing multiplicity of maths syllabuses. The Cockcroft Committee began work in September 1978. Its terms of reference were: To consider the class essay, teaching of mathematics in primary and secondary schools in England and Wales, with particular regard to the mathematics required in further and higher education, employment and adult life generally, and to make recommendations. Uses And Abuses? The Committee submitted its report Mathematics counts in November 1981 and underwriter resume, it was published in January 1982. 1985 Swann Report.
The Committee of Enquiry into the Education of uses Children from Ethnic Minority Groups produced its final report Education for All in 1985. Its principle conclusions and recommendations were: there is no single cause of underachievement and class essay in write, therefore no single solution; education has a major role in uses of science, changing the attitudes of the white majority population; there is a need for greater sensitivity in the education of 'ethnic minorities' with more in-service training to paper, raise teachers' awareness; in initial training courses attention should be paid to the needs of an ethnically diverse society; statistics should be collected on the ethnicity of both teachers and pupils; the first priority should be the learning of English; school subjects should not be taught using mother tongue languages as a medium of instruction; and schools should not take on uses and abuses, responsibility for the teaching and maintenance of 'ethnic minority' languages. The report said: We believe that unless major efforts are made to reconcile the concerns and aspirations of both the majority and minority communities along more genuinely pluralistic lines, there is a real risk of the fragmentation of our society along ethnic lines which would seriously threaten the mortgage cover, stability and cohesion of society as a whole. (Swann 1985:7) The fundamental change that is necessary is the recognition that the problem facing the education system is and abuses of science essay not how to educate children of ethnic minorities, but how to nurse resume, educate all children. (Swann 1985:363) 1988 Kingman Report. The Teaching of English Language was produced by a Committee of Inquiry chaired by Sir John Kingman, Vice-Chancellor of University of Bristol. 1988 Higginson Report. A committee under Dr Gordon Higginson reviewed education for 16-18 year olds. It argued that the current A Level system was too narrow and that a 5 subject structure should be adopted. The government rejected the and abuses, recommendations.
1989 Cox Report. Chaired by class in write Professor Brian Cox, Pro-Vice Chancellor and John Edward Taylor Professor of English Literature at Manchester University, the National Curriculum English Working Group was commissioned by Secretary of State Kenneth Baker to make recommendations on attainment targets and programmes of study for the English component of the uses of science essay, new National Curriculum. The result was the Cox Report English for ages 5 to 16 . 1989 Elton Report. In March 1988 Kenneth Baker asked Lord Elton to lead an enquiry into discipline in schools in England and Wales. The Elton Committee's report Discipline in Schools was published in the spring of 1989. Its 138 recommendations made it clear that good discipline was the shared responsibility of pupils, teachers, heads, other staff, governors, parents, local authorities, teacher trainers, curriculum councils, central government, and frankenstein essay, the School Examinations and Assessment Council. 1990 Rumbold Report. Baker also commissioned a report on early years education. Produced by a committee chaired by Tory MP Angela Rumbold, Starting with Quality made recommendations about the education of 3 and 4 year olds.
It was published in November 1990 when John MacGregor had just taken over and abuses as education secretary. Tory attitudes to education - and to education professionals - during this period were well summed up by secretary of state Kenneth Baker. Speaking about the bill which was shortly to shelley's, become the 1986 (No. 2) Education Act, he told the uses and abuses of science essay, Tory Party Conference in resume cover, October 1986: It is crucial for uses and abuses, parents to understand where power in the education system lies. Mortgage Underwriter Cover Letter? Our Education Bill radically changes the composition of of science school governing bodies. It gives these bodies new powers and responsibilities. We will end the dominance of the mary essay, local authority and uses of science essay, its political appointees. There will be more parent governors elected by mortgage cover letter all the of science, parents. Control over on christmas blessings sex education will be removed from the uses, teachers and local authorities and given to the new-style governing bodies which will have more parents on them and be answerable to an annual parents' meeting.
But Thatcher had become increasingly unpopular and the last straw for many was her determination to introduce a form of poll tax. This led, in March 1990, to the worst riots London had seen for a century. She lost the confidence of her colleagues and in November 1990 she was replaced as Tory leader and prime minister by John Major. Benn C and Chitty C (1996) Thirty years on: is comprehensive education alive and well or struggling to survive? London: David Fulton Publishers. Chitty C (2004) Education policy in Britain Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Chitty C and essay, Dunford J (eds) (1999) State schools: New Labour and the Conservative legacy London: Woburn Press.
DES (1981b) Circular 6/81 The School Curriculum. DES (1983) Circular 8/83 The School Curriculum. Jones K (2003) Education in Britain: 1944 to the present Cambridge: Polity Press. Mortimore P (2008) 'In memoriam' The Guardian 3 June. Rampton (1981) West Indian Children in and abuses essay, our Schools Interim report of the Committee of Inquiry Cmnd 8273 London: HMSO. Ribbins P and Sherratt B (1997) Conservative Secretaries of State and Radical Educational Reform Since 1973 London: Cassell.
Sexton S (1977) 'Evolution by nurse resume maker choice' in CB Cox and R Boyson Black Paper 1977 London: Temple Smith. Shipman M (1984) Education as a public service London: Harper and Row. Swann (1985) Education for All Report of the Committee of Enquiry Cmnd 9453 London: HMSO.