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Stop littering persuasive essay

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Stop littering persuasive essay

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Ms Mactas s Class: Persuasive Essay: Litering by Mia Van Doren

Boston University Arts Sciences Writing Program. Oscar Wilde prefaces his novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray, with a reflection on stop littering essay, art, the artist, and cv writing, the utility of both. After careful scrutiny, he concludes: “All art is quite useless” (Wilde 4). In this one sentence, Wilde encapsulates the complete principles of the Aesthetic Movement popular in Victorian England. That is to say, real art takes no part in molding the social or moral identities of society, nor should it. Art should be beautiful and pleasure its observer, but to imply further-reaching influence would be a mistake. Essay. The explosion of aesthetic philosophy in fin-de-siecle English society, as exemplified by Oscar Wilde, was not confined to merely art, however. Rather, the thesis financial reporting, proponents of this philosophy extended it to life itself.

Here, aestheticism advocated whatever behavior was likely to maximize the beauty and happiness in one’s life, in the tradition of hedonism. To the stop essay, aesthete, the ideal life mimics art; it is beautiful, but quite useless beyond its beauty, concerned only with the individual living it. Harvard Edu Research Wpaper 011. Influences on others, if existent, are trivial at best. Many have read The Picture of Dorian Gray as a novelized sponsor for just this sort of aesthetic lifestyle. However, this story of the rise and fall of Dorian Gray might instead represent an stop littering essay allegory about morality meant to critique, rather than endorse, the obeying of one’s impulses as thoughtlessly and dutifully as aestheticism dictates.

In the novel, Lord Henry Wotton trumpets the aesthetic philosophy with an elegance and bravado that persuade Dorian to trust in the principles he espouses; the reader is often similarly captivated. It would be a mistake, however, to review and selection analysis interpret the stop littering persuasive, novel as a patent recommendation of aestheticism. To the aesthete, there is no distinction between moral and immoral acts, only between those that increase or decrease one’s happiness; yet, Dorian Gray refutes this idea, presenting a strong case for the inherent immorality of purely aesthetic lives. Dorian Gray personifies the aesthetic lifestyle in action, pursuing personal gratification with abandon. Cv Writing Hints. Yet, while he enjoys these indulgences, his behavior ultimately kills him and others, and he dies unhappier than ever. Rather than an advocate for pure aestheticism, then, Dorian Gray is a cautionary tale in which Wilde illustrates the dangers of the aesthetic philosophy when not practiced with prudence. Aestheticism, argues Wilde, too often aligns itself with immorality, resulting in persuasive essay a precarious philosophy that must be practiced deliberately. Is Life. Dorian Gray is often read as an explicit proclamation of the worthiness of living life in accordance with aesthetic values. This is due in part to the flourishing Aesthetic Movement of Victorian England at the time of the novel’s publication, as well as Oscar Wilde’s association with the movement itself (Becker 660).

The Aesthetic Movement, which coincided with the Industrial Revolution at the end of the nineteenth century, emphasized the artistic aspect of a man’s work in producing a variety of goods, from furniture to machines to literature (Becker 660). Oscar Wilde, however, proposed that the stop littering persuasive, principles of the Aesthetic Movement extend beyond the production of mere commodities. In Joseph Pearce’s biography, The Unmasking of Oscar Wilde , Pearce recalls Wilde’s own perspective on the popular movement. Speaking of aestheticism, Wilde is quoted: It is indeed to become a part of the people’s life . . . Cv Writing Hints. I mean a man who works with his hands; and not with his hands merely, but with his head and his heart. The evil that machinery is doing is essay, not merely in the consequence of its work but in the fact that it makes men themselves machines also. Whereas, we wish them to essay be artists, that is to say men. (qtd. in Pearce 144) In his exposition of aestheticism, Wilde applies the philosophy in a more universal sense, stressing the positive influences of aestheticism in one’s life beyond mere craftsmanship.

Just as the machines that mass-produce materials with the intervention of stop essay human thought are labeled “evil,” Wilde similarly condemns men who act as metaphorical machines, programmed to behave in accordance with society’s ideas of propriety rather than allowing themselves to act freely and achieve the greatest amount of happiness. Wilde’s eloquent advocacy of an aesthetic lifestyle is paralleled in his depiction of there is life on mars Lord Henry in Dorian Gray . Lord Henry lectured to stop littering essay the impressionable Dorian, “We are punished for english essays outline our refusals. Every impulse that we strive to strangle broods in the mind, and poisons us. . . . Persuasive. Resist it, and your soul grows sick with longing for the things it has forbidden itself” (Wilde 9). Wilde, through Lord Henry, laments the stifling nature of his contemporary Victorian society and how the english essays, supposed morality it boasts necessitates self-denial and rejection of life’s most beautiful aspects. Lord Henry warns that without an littering essay enthusiastic embrace of aestheticism, one will perpetually anguish with the desire of precisely what he must deny himself, all for the sake of propriety. This philosophy espoused by Wilde and Lord Henry often leads, not surprisingly, to the conclusion that Dorian Gray is a declaration of Wilde’s, promoting the pablo picasso, adoption of stop purely aesthetic lives without qualification. This, however, is too shallow of an interpretation. Opponents of a purely aesthetic lifestyle will certainly cite what they consider an essay inevitability: one’s desires and littering persuasive, impulses, though when acted upon result in a more pleasurable life, will at times be undeniably immoral. English Outline. It is at these times that the virtues of the littering persuasive essay, wholly aesthetic life become questionable.

The ruination of Dorian Gray, the embodiment of unbridled aestheticism, illustrates the immorality of such a lifestyle and gravely demonstrates its consequences. Wilde uses Dorian Gray not as an english essays outline advertisement for stop littering persuasive essay aestheticism, but rather, he uses Dorian’s life to warn against aestheticism’s hostility toward morality when uncontrolled. Wilde himself admits, in a letter to hints the St. James’s Gazette, that Dorian Gray “is a story with a moral. And the moral is this: All excess, as well as all renunciation, brings its own punishment” (Wilde 248).

Aestheticism does well to condemn the renunciation of stop persuasive essay desires, but it is an excessive obedience to english essays outline these desires that is subversively dangerous. Therefore, in persuasive essay the practice of Wilde’s aestheticism, forethought and english outline, constraint are necessities, yet too often lacking, and without them, one is doomed to suffer the same fate as Dorian Gray. The character of Dorian Gray and the story of his profound degeneration provide a case study examining the viability of purely aesthetic lives. Dorian lives according to what Lord Henry professes without hesitation, and what Lord Henry inspires Dorian, through persuasive rhetoric, is an essay attitude indifferent to consequence and altogether amoral. As Wilde writes, Dorian’s newfound position is “never to accept any theory or system that would involve the nsf rwp 011, sacrifice of any mode of littering persuasive essay passionate experience. Its aim, indeed was to be experience itself, and not the fruits of literature on recruitment and selection experience, sweet or bitter as they may be” (Wilde 125). Under Lord Henry’s mentorship, Dorian, once the epitome of wide-eyed youth, behaves with no regard for the ramifications of his actions, diligently pursuing instant gratification without thought of its implications, whether they be “sweet or bitter.” Dorian’s relationship with the actress Sibyl Vane plainly illustrates this marked change in personality. Dorian pursues Sibyl from first sights, intent on acquiring her before he ever attempts to truly know her. Indeed, Dorian’s love for Sibyl is overtly superficial, as evidenced by Dorian’s own description of his infatuation with Sibyl: “I loved you because you were marvelous, because you had genius and stop littering persuasive, intellect, because you realized the dreams of great poets and essays outline, gave shape and substance to stop the shadows of art” (Wilde 101).

Dorian is not attracted to Sibyl’s character of personality, but rather her acting talent and enthralling performances; this is what enchants the aesthetically inclined Dorian. Financial Reporting. When Sibyl leaves the stage, then, she no longer serves a purpose in Dorian’s aesthetic life, and thus, Dorian abandons her unceremoniously. Littering. Dorian does not regret informing Sybil that, “Without your art, you are nothing” (Wilde 101). Review On Recruitment And Selection Analysis. The tragedy of Sybil’s later suicide, brought about by utter despair at her desertion, is lost on littering, Dorian, who instead enjoys the dramatic intrigue of the occasion. For Dorian, whose uncontrolled aestheticism rejects the concept of morality, the immorality of his actions goes unrecognized. In fact, Dorian declares excitedly, “It seems to me to english be simply like a wonderful ending to a wonderful play. It has all the stop littering essay, terrible beauty of a Greek tragedy, a tragedy in essay on if there is life which I took a great part, but by which I have not been wounded” (Wilde 114). Here, the adverse consequences of aestheticism surface in Dorian’s life. In his pursuit of his own pleasures, a distinctly narcissistic attitude emerges, and the incompatibility of littering persuasive morality and unconditional aestheticism becomes all the more apparent. The emergence of narcissism in Dorian and essays, its correlation with his newly adopted aesthetic philosophy is integral to Wilde’s novel as it emphasizes the frequent hostility between aestheticism and morality that Wilde cautions against.

Dorian Gray exposes the immorality of self-absorption, as Dorian’s portrait becomes more disfigured with each one of Dorian’s selfish acts. This self-absorption, then, appears to persuasive essay be an inevitable consequence of aestheticism. Only a more deliberate practice of aestheticism may harness this egotism and avoid the immorality Dorian embodies. Interestingly, in his essay “Come See About Me: Enchantment of the Double in The Picture of essays Dorian Gray ,” Christopher Craft recognizes a mirroring of the Greek myth of Narcissus in the life of Dorian Gray. According to mythology, Narcissus, upon catching a glimpse of his reflection in a pool, becomes so enraptured by it that he stood and admired it endlessly, unmoving for the rest of his life. As Craft notes, this self-absorption “is a commitment that, like Dorian’s, graduates fully until death” (Craft 113). Stop Persuasive. Narcissus becomes so infatuated with himself that the rest of world effectively ceases to on recruitment and selection exist or affect him and, as Craft argues, “it is into precisely this silent delirium that Dorian unwittingly steps” when he allows Lord Henry’s aesthetic philosophy to so dominate him (Craft 113). Dorian enjoys a life of eternal youth, with only his portrait aging in parallel with Dorian’s immorality; so, as Dorian sinks into the depths of narcissism, he maintains his external beauty, and his portrait degenerates instead. Eventually, as in the myth of Narcissus, such egotism has its consequences. When Dorian, disgusted with the decrepit picture of the supposedly “real” him, destroys it in a fit of anger, Dorian too is destroyed. Wilde writes that after Dorian’s death, “it was not till they had examined the rings that they recognized who it was” (Wilde 220).

In the end, as a testament to the purely aesthetic life, the only legacy Dorian leaves behind—everything that identifies him as who he was—is his superficial jewelry. Stop Littering Persuasive Essay. There is an pablo argument, then, made by Wilde for a new aestheticism, approached with more constraint than Dorian employs. This argument is persuasive essay, based not only in the moral obligation of the individual, but with the betterment of all of society in mind. Literature On Recruitment And Selection. Matthew Arnold, in his essay “Culture and Anarchy,” provides reasoning against the ethos of Lord Henry’s aestheticism and an unconditional application of stop persuasive essay it. Arnold focuses on its detrimental effects on society and the possibility for societal improvement when aesthetic tendencies are properly controlled. There appears to be agreement, then, between Wilde and Arnold; Wilde’ novel provides a failed example of the purely aesthetic life, and when scaled to a larger society, a similar result is understandably expected. Essays. As Arnold views his contemporary society, it is stop littering persuasive essay, arranged hierarchically, dividing the aristocrats, the middle-class, and the working-class, all of which, Arnold laments, are inclined to live hedonistically, pursuing pleasure and only what is comfortable and easy. Dorian Gray embodies just his defect in Arnold’s society.

Arnold argues, however, that “there are born a certain number of natures with a curiosity about their best self with a bend for seeing things as they are . . . for simply concerning themselves with reason and the will of God, and doing their best to make these prevail;—for the pursuit, in a word, of perfection” (Arnold 277). Arnold is optimistic that some may pursue beyond the immediately pleasurable and act to perfect themselves both morally and intellectually. This pursuit of perfection, however, is likely an arduous and uncomfortable task, and is therefore incompatible with pure aestheticism. Some concessions must be made for the absolute aesthete, then, for such transcendence occur. Dorian Gray, for thesis much of Wilde’s novel, fails to embody Arnold’s ideal, as in his hedonistic life he is seen “creeping at dawn out of dreadful houses and slinking in disguise in essay the foulest dens in London,” despite being once too honorable for such debauchery (Wilde 118).

Dorian exemplifies a regression in social intellect from his beginnings rather than the kind of transcendence hoped for by Arnold. Literature. Dorian displays no such pursuit of intellectual perfection as he is slowly corrupted and in turn corrupts others, luring them with him into the slums and opium dens of London. Arnold refers to those able to transcend social classes in society as “aliens,” hinting at their rarity to the point of foreignness and to stop essay their almost mythical quality (277). The mere existence of these aliens, however, provides hope that the utter hedonists of society may learn to harness their damaging tendencies, and in doing so, better the intellectual and moral state of humankind. Wilde, too, recognizes this ability to control the hedonistic temptations associated with aestheticism, as demonstrated by the last stages of Dorian’s life. Mitsuharu Matsuoka, in his essay “Aestheticism and Social Anxiety in thesis reporting The Picture of Dorian Gray ,” notes that, as Dorian’s death approaches, “Dorian ultimately reacts against littering persuasive his lifestyle, choking on financial, his New Hedonism,” at which point “a great sense of doom hangs over Dorian” (Matsuoka 78).

Indeed, Dorian appears to realize the consequences of his unbridled aestheticism; however, he is much too far gone to salvage. Dorian reveals his epiphany to Lord Henry: “The soul is a terrible reality. It can be bought, and stop essay, sold, and bartered away. English Essays Outline. It can be poisoned or made perfect. There is a soul in stop littering persuasive each one of us. I know it” (Wilde 211). Unfortunately for Dorian, this realization comes too late to pablo picasso save his soul from its degradation, long-nurtured by a purely aesthetic life, and he is destroyed.

The realization itself, however, is littering persuasive essay, indicative of Wilde’s argument woven throughout Dorian Gray . Essay Picasso. Despite Wilde’s publicly advocating the principles of aestheticism, Dorian’s demise illustrates Wilde’s recognition that aestheticism needs to persuasive be properly controlled. Reporting. While the pursuit of beauty and persuasive essay, happiness in ksgnotes1 harvard edu research wpaper nsf rwp rwp06 011 life is always Wilde’s ideal, he also implies that the consequences of one’s actions must be thought out and the impact of one’s decisions, beyond oneself, must also be carefully considered before acting on any impulse. The Aesthetic Movement in fin-de-siecle England, as interpreted by Oscar Wilde, revolved around the ideal that the utility of one’s actions should be to create the maximal amount of littering essay beauty and pleasure in one’s life, and nothing more. Wilde’s Dorian Gray appears, at first glance, to promote this philosophy unequivocally. On If Is Life. Indeed, a lifestyle based on this aestheticism is espoused in Wilde’s opening preface as well as throughout Lord Henry’s professorial lectures. Upon closer inspection, however, Wilde’s novel is not as wholly embracing of aestheticism as this implies. Wilde realized and depicted in the life of Dorian Gray, a need for a more controlled and deliberate approach to aestheticism, without which morality will inevitably be elusive. The adoption of unrestrained aestheticism, as exhibited by Dorian, results in a lack of remorse, self-absorption, and intellectual regression.

For the sake of persuasive essay preserving morality, a concept proven incompatible with pure aestheticism, more deliberation is necessary from the aesthete in ksgnotes1 harvard 011 deciding upon action. If, in the pursuit of one’s desires and of the beautiful aspects of stop persuasive life, the condition of others’ or of one’s own intellect is literature on recruitment and selection analysis, jeopardized, the enjoyment garnered must sometimes be sacrificed for the greater good. As Wilde makes clear, it is only through a more restrained philosophy that aestheticism and morality may eventually align. Littering Persuasive Essay. Arnold, Matthew. “Culture and Anarchy.” The Picture of Dorian Gray . Thesis On International Financial Reporting Standards. Ed. Littering. Andrew Elfenbein. NY: Pearson Longman, 2007.

276–279. Becker-Leckrone, Megan. “Oscar Wilde (1854–1900): Aesthetic and Criticism.” The Continuum Encyclopedia of Modern Criticism and cv writing hints, Theory 20 (2002): 658–665. Craft, Christopher. Persuasive Essay. “Come See About Me: Enchantment of the Double in The Picture of Dorian Gray .” Representations 91 (2005): 109–136. Cv Writing. Matsuoka, Mitsuharu. “Aestheticism and Social Anxiety in The Picture of Dorian Gray. Essay. ” Journal of Aesthetic Education 29 (2003): 77–100. Pearce, Joseph.

The Unmasking of Oscar Wilde . NY: Ignatius Press, 2004. Thesis Reporting Standards. Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray . Ed. Andrew Elfenbein. NY: Pearson Longman, 2007. Writing Consultants are available for all CAS WR classes. Appointments can be booked online. Stop Essay. The Writing Program recently announced its competition for Fall 2018 Graduate Writing Fellowships. The Fall 2017 course catalog is available to view on cv writing, the Curriculum page.

Boston University Arts Sciences Writing Program.

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Ms Mactas s Class: Persuasive Essay: Litering by Mia Van Doren

Qualitative Research Methods Methodology. Although one important feature in ATLAS.ti is the coding function, also at ATLAS.ti we hole-heartedly support the statement that “Analysis is more than coding”. Littering? Software is simply a tool that supports the data analysis process by helping you to find what you are looking for, to retrieve data in all kinds of essay is life on mars ways, to help you think and to work with your data. What ATLAS.ti cannot help you with is to decide on the overall approach that you want to use for your analysis. Should it be an inductive approach, a deductive approach, or a mixture of both?

Do you want to littering essay combine elements of qualitative and quantitative data analysis? According to the academic literature, it should be your research question that is guiding this decision. On If Is Life? In theory this is and should be so. In practice, choices are often more pragmatic and not everyone is educated in the application of the whole range of methodologies that are out littering essay there. Furthermore, not everyone who has the need for analyzing qualitative data is on international financial reporting conducting an academic research project that requires more thorough thinking regarding knowledge generation. Stop Persuasive? A simple analysis of themes and quick access to the data by english essays outline, themes is littering persuasive all that is needed. The question which theoretical research tradition one should follow, and subsequently which methodology and method to choose is not so important.

Some researchers just want to apply methods, i.e. certain techniques and procedures that guide them in gathering and analyzing data related to their research questions and essay on if is life on mars hypothesis. Methodology as compared to the term ‘methods’ refers to the strategy, the plan and action, the persuasive process or design lying behind the essay pablo picasso choice and use of a particular method. Furthermore, there is a theoretical perspective, a philosophical stance that informs a methodology grounding its logic and criteria (cf.Crotty, 1998). Littering? Given this definition, positivism, symbolic interactionism, phenomenology, hermeneutics, interpretivismor critical theory, are theoretical perspectives. Survey research, ethnography, Grounded Theory (GT) and discourse analysis are methodologies. Analysis methods derived from pablo these various frameworks are statistical procedures, theme identification, constant comparison, document analysis, content analysis, or cognitive mapping. GT may also be classified as method, if understood and used as a series of procedures. If you may wonder what type of persuasive techniques and procedures for analyzing qualitative data have been described, here are a few: close reading of a text, becoming immersed in the data, reading and re-reading a text, taking notes, reflecting on the data and writing down interpretations sequential text interpretation, taking a closer look at only a few text or data passages, engaging in thought experiments and developing possible story lines considering different contexts, discussing possible data interpretations with a group of other researchers and coming to an agreement after intense discussions. Conclusions are reached through discursive validation An analysis of embodied lived experience before empirical data are collected via self-inspection and reflection of own experience.

This is considered necessary as all empirical data are regarded as being reductions and essay picasso objectifications Coding: Coding in qualitative research means to assign a word or a phrase that summarizes a section of language-based or visual data. Stop Persuasive? It can capture whatever is salient, the essence of what is in the section or it can be an evocative attribute. Coding has become a popular method with the spread of thesis on international Grounded Theory methodology. It is however also used as a method to structure and organize data outside the Grounded Theory framework. Persuasive Essay? See for example the cv writing hints Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers by stop littering persuasive essay, Saldana (2009) What can be derived from the above is that they are many different methods to analyze qualitative data and pablo picasso coding is only one of them.

This is related to littering persuasive essay the variousphilosophical traditions and methodological frameworksbehind. The analysis of embodied lived experience for instance is rooted in phenomenology and phenomenologists forego coding of data all together. Researchers following the interpretivist paradigm where the above listed sequential analyses techniques belong to even perceive coding as an abhorrent incompatible act for on if is life, data analysis. Thus, properly informedproponents of these traditions would even state: ‘analysis is not coding’. And for them CAQDAS packages like ATLAS.ti do not help them in pursuing their particular form of stop littering persuasive analysis. Literature And Selection? What we will however see later, researchers from these traditions still use ATLAS.ti as a tool for data management.

It helps them to manage, sort through and organize their data corpus. If you decide that coding is an appropriate method to approach the analysis of your data, there is still a lot to learn. If you never cooked a meal before, being provided with all the pots and pans necessary and the ingredients like meat, vegetable, eggs, cheese, spices etc., your first meal very likely will not receive three stars – even if you took a class in how to operate the stove and other electrical appliances; how to prepare a sauce and stop persuasive theoretically know how to prepare a tender steak. Embarking on your first journey of picasso analyzing data with the support of CAQDAS is very similar. Technically speaking, coding means to attach a label to a selected data segment. This is something you learn very quickly like operating a stove. But when is a code just a descriptive label, a category, a sub code, a dimension or a theoretical code? Software is not able to tell you or makes such decisions for stop persuasive essay, you. Hints? You either have a good teacher at your side, with whom you can discuss your ongoing analysis, or you learn yourself via experience and with time through a process of trial and error what works and what does not work – like finally managing to prepare your first perfect steak. In both cases, you will learn to appreciate the software features that allow you to retrieve and to stop persuasive essay review data, to modify boundaries of hints coded segments, to rename, to merge or to split codes, to provide spaces forwriting, spaces for you to reflect on the data, spaces to stop persuasive “play” with the data, to rearrange it in different ways, to visualize them – these are all features that support the analysis process and thesis on international financial standards that help the user to immerse in the data, trying to grasps its meaning.

The process of stop littering essay developing a good code system is already more than coding in the technical sense of just attaching a label to a data segment. Furthermore, having coded the data is not the end of the analysis process. After coding, the data is prepared for further analysisand exploration. ATLAS.ti for instance offers 14 different operators (Boolean, semantic and proximity operators) to query the data. Frequently used tools are the code-cooccurence explorer and the codes-PD table for the purpose of cross-case comparisons. Results can be saved in various forms as a basis for new queries, for instance supporting researchers in identifying types and hints typologies in the data. Thus, analysis is stop more than coding and and selection still largely dependent on the person sitting in front of the computer using thesoftware tool.Let me end this section with a quote from the ATLAS.ti manual: When Iasked Anselm Strauss back in 1996 to contribute a foreword to the manual of the first version of ATLAS.ti, I was extremely happy heagreed.

As I have no idea how his attitude and stop persuasive his decision would betoday, I decided not to include the literature review and selection original foreword, except for thefollowing quotation which, I promise, will remain true for some time tocome: “… the program author makes no claims whatever to havingproduced a program that will perform miracles for your research –you still have to have the ideas and the gifts to do exceptionalresearch.” Thomas Muhr, Scientific Software Development, Berlin: C. Analysis approaches and the suitability for persuasive essay, CAQDAS based analysis. In the next section an english essays outline, overview of various analysis approaches is provided. Your will find pointers whether CAQDAS is a useful choice and where researchers have used it for data organization and management only. References to persuasive essay studies that employed ATLAS.ti are also included. The list is adapted from online QDA ( http://onlineqda.hud.ac.uk/methodologies.php) and sorted in thesis reporting alphabetical order. Action research consists of a family of research methodologies.

The focus is a social problem, rather than the theoretical interests of a scientist. It is stop persuasive essay a reflective process of progressive problem solving led by individuals working with others in teams, as part of a “community of practice”. The aim is to promote change by engaging participants in a process of sharing knowledge.It contains among other elements also components of field research. Types of data include interviews, focus groups, observation, participant observation, participant-written cases and cv writing hints accounts. CAQDAS is persuasive essay used as a tool for harvard edu research rwp06 011, organizing and littering persuasive essay sorting data through coding. ATLAS.ti was for example used by Stratton (2008) in a project on improving communication between the Civil Justice System in Canada and the Public.

Dick, B. (2000) A beginner’s guide to action research [On line]. Available at. Schwandt, A. Thomas (1997). Qualitative Inquiry: A dictionary of terms. Essay? London: Sage. Schon, David (1983). The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. Basic Books. Torbert, William.

R. (2001). The practice of action inquiry, in P. Reason and H. Bradbury (eds), Handbook of Action Research: Participative Inquiry and Practice. London: Sage, pp. 250-260. Studies where ATLAS.ti was employed as a tool:

Billingsley, Barbara, Lowe, Diana and Stratton, Mary (2006).Civil Justice System and the Public Learning from Experiences to find Practices that Work. May 2006. CJSP Report. Available online: http://cfcj-fcjc.org/docs/2006/cjsp-learning-en.pdf. Stratton, Mary (2008). Action Research: Teaching and Learning in Motion.

CUEXPO 2008 Paper. http://cfcj-fcjc.org/docs/2008/cjsp-cuexpo-en.pdf. 2. Biographical Research / Life History Research. Biographical research is an approach to littering essay research which elicits and analyses a person’s biography or life history. It consists of an extended, written account or narrative of a person’s life. Life History and biographical research is today often used interchangeably. Data are collected in form of narrative interviews.Of interest is the entire life story in terms of essay pablo its genesis and how it is constructed in the present.

The steps of data analysis involve thematic analysis, the reconstruction of the life history, a microanalysis of individual text segments, contrastive comparisons and the development of types and contrasting comparison of several cases. Rosenthal (2004) proposes a combination of stop persuasive essay methods to analyze biographical data. These are: objective hermeneutics (Oevermann et al. (1979, 1987), narrative analysis (Schutze, 1983) and themantic field analysis (Fischer and Kohli, 1987). Pablo? ATLAS.ti was for example used by persuasive essay, Patrizi (2005) in a biographical study on on if is life on mars Domestic Violence, Dictatorship and Democracy in Chile. Also Unger (2009), a student of stop persuasive essay Schutze, works with ATLAS.ti to support particular parts of the analysis process. Another example is the study by Gouthro (2009). Roberts, Brian (2001).

Biographical Research.Open University Press. Rosenthal, Gabriele (2004) ‘Biographical Research’, in cv writing hints C. Seale, G. Gobo, J. F. Gubrium and D. Silverman (eds), Qualitative Research Practice. London: Sage. pp. 48–64. Oevermann, Ulrich; Allert, Tilman, Konau, Elisabeth and Jurgen Krambeck (1987). Stop Littering Persuasive? Structures of meaning and ksgnotes1 011 objective Hermeneutics. Stop Littering Persuasive? In: Volker Meja, Dieter Misgeld and MicoStehr (eds.) Modern German sociology. (European Perspectives: a Series in pablo Social Thought and littering persuasive Cultural Ctiticism). New York: Columbia University Press, S. 436–447. Oevermann, Ulrich et al. (1979).

Die Methodologie einer objektiven Hermeneutik und ihre allgemeine forschungslogische Bedeutung in den Sozialwissenschaften, in Hans-Georg Soeffner (ed.), Interpretative Verfahren in den Sozial- und Textwissenschaften. Stuttgart: Metzler, pp. 352 – 434. Schutze, Fritz (1983). Biographieforschung und narrative Interviews, Neue Praxis, 3: 283-93. Fischer, Wolfram and Kohli, Martin (1987). Biographieforschung, in W. Voges (ed.) Methoden der Biographie- und Lebenslaufforschung.Opladen: Lekse + Budrich, pp. 25 – 50. Studies where ATLAS.ti was employed as a tool: Gouthro, P.A. (2009) Life Histories of Canadian Women as Active Citizens: Implications for Policies and reporting Practices in Adult Education.

The Canadian Journal for the Study of Adult Education , 21 (2) , 19-36. Patrizi, Patrizia (2005). Deviant Action and Self-Narration: A Qualitative Survey through ATLAS.ti. Stop Persuasive Essay? Journal of the Theory of Social Behaviour, Vol 25 (2), 171 -188. Unger, Tim (2009). Anschluss verpasst? Pladoyer fur eine berufsbildungstheoretische Aufarbeitung der biografieorientierten Bildungsforschung, in Karin Buchter, Jens Klusmeyerand Martin Kipp (eds.), Selbstverstandnis der Disziplin Berufs- und Wirtschaftspadagogik, [email protected] Ausgabe Nr. Edu Research Nsf Rwp 011? 16 | Juni 2009 Available online: http://www.bwpat.de/ausgabe16/unger_bwpat16.pdf. A case study is based on an in-depth investigation of a single individual, group, or event to stop essay explore causation. in order to find underlying principles. It may involve the collection of both qualitative and quantitative like documents, archival records, interviews, direct observation, participant-observation, physical artifacts. Several analytic strategies for case studies have been described like placing the evidence in a matrix of cv writing categories, pattern matching, statistical procedures, and also coding has been proposed as a way to approach analysis.

An example where ATLAS.ti is used to store, organize and analyze case study data is the stop essay CPLS DATABASE. It is a collection of cv writing hints ethnographic case studies of literacy practice in various marginalized cultural communities. The kinds of data assigned to an ATLAS.ti project file include the researchers’ field notes, interview transcripts, interview protocols, photos of environmental texts found in the communities under study (e.g., signs, books, advertisements, magazines, etc.), scanned artifacts collected during the conduct of the field work (e.g., newspapers, flyers, memos), official documents, and all other collected data such as the demographic information of stop littering essay participants and video recordings. Cv Writing Hints? See: http://www.cpls.educ.ubc.ca/content/db.html. Another example where ATLAS.ti has been employed for case study research is the thesis by stop essay, Isabelle Kern (2004). Miles, M., Huberman, M. Saldana, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: A methods source book . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Runkel, P. (1990). Casting nets and testing specimens: Two grand methods of psychology.

New York: Praeger. .Stake, R. (1995). The art of case research . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Yin, Robert K. (2009). Case Study Research: Design and Methods . Fourth Edition.SAGE Publications.

Studies where ATLAS.ti was employed as a tool: CPLS DATABASE: http://www.cpls.educ.ubc.ca/content/db.html. Conversational Analysis or CA is the study of pablo picasso naturally occurring talk-in-interaction, both verbal and non-verbal, in littering persuasive essay order to english essays discover how we produce an orderly social world. It does not refer to stop littering essay context or motive unless they are explicitly deployed in the talk itself. The method was inspired bythe ethnomethodology of Harold Garfinkel and review on recruitment further developed in the late 1960s and stop early 1970s by thesis on international financial reporting, the sociologist Harvey Sacks. Today CA is an established method used in sociology, anthropology, linguistics, speech-communication and psychology. Typically data are subjected to afine-grained sequential analysis based on a sophisticated form of littering persuasive transcription. English Essays? In addition to sequential analysis, coding approaches have also been used in recent years for identifying recurrent themes. The use of coding in conversational analysis however is questioned as an appropriate form of persuasive essay analysis by some.

Thus, ATLAS.ti would not be a natural choice when embarking on a fine grained CA analysis of score transcripts. I can become a useful additional tool if you look beyond the code-and-retrieve features of ATLAS.ti (see for example Konopasek (2008). Sacks, Harvey (1992).Lectures on Conversation. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Ten Have, Paul (1999): Doing Conversation Analysis. On If There Is Life On Mars? A Practical Guide , Thousand Oaks: Sage. Studies where ATLAS.ti was employed as a tool: Konopasek, Zdenek (2008). Making Thinking Visible with Atlas.ti: Computer Assisted Qualitative Analysis as Textual Practices [62 paragraphs]. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 9(2), Art.

12, http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802124. 5. Discourse Analysis / Critical Discourse Analysis. Discourse Analysis (DA) and Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) both encompass a number of approaches to study the world, society, events and stop essay psyche as they are produced in the use of language, discourse, writing, talk, conversation or communicative events. English Essays? It is generally agreed upon that any explicit method in discourse studies, the humanities and social sciences may be used in CDA research, as long as it is able to adequately and littering essay relevantly produce insights into the way discourse reproduces (or resists) social and standards political inequality. Thus, the data collection can be comprised of a number of littering different data formats. A coding approach and the use of CAQDAS is a possible analysis choice. An example is provided by Graffigna and Bosio (2006). They used ATLAS.ti for thesis financial reporting, an analysis of online focus groups within a discourse analytical approach. Fairglough, Norman (2003). Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research . Stop? (2003). London: Routledge.

Fairclough, Norman; Clive Holes (1995). Critical Discourse Analysis: The Critical Study of Language . Longman. Studies where ATLAS.ti was employed as a tool: Graffigna, Guendalina and Bosio, A. C. (2006). The Influence of Setting on Findings Produced in Qualitative Health Research: A Comparison between Face-to-Face and Online Discussion Groups about HIV/AIDS. International Journal of Qualitative Methods 5 (3), article 5. http://www.ualberta.ca/

Ethnography is a multi-method qualitative approachthat studies people in their naturally occurring settings. The purpose is to provide a detailed, in-depth description of everyday life and practice.An ethnographic understanding is developed through close exploration of several sources like participant observation, observation, interviews, documents, newspapers, magazine articles or artifacts. The results of an wpaper rwp06, ethnographic study are summaries of observed activities, typifications or the identification of patterns and regularities. An example where ATLAS.ti was used for analysis is a study by Hernandez and Rene (2009) and the online ethnography of Greschke (2007). ATLAS.ti and other CAQDA packages are also mentioned as appropriate tools for analysing ethnographic data by Fielding (2007). Brewer, John d. (2001).Ethnography. Buckingham.

Open University Press. Fielding, Nigel (2007). Computer applications in qualitative research. In: Handbook of Ethnography. Atkinson, Paul; Coffey, Amanda, Delamont, Sara, Lofland, John and Lofland, Lyn (eds.). London: Sage. Studies where ATLAS.ti was employed as a tool: Greschke, Heike Monika (2007). Bin ich drin? – Methodologische Reflektionen zur ethnografischen Forschung in einem plurilokalen, computervermittelten Feld [45 Absatze]. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 8(3), Art. 32, http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0703321.

Hernandez, Luna and Rene, Jesus (2009). Photo-ethnography by People Living in Poverty Near the Northern Border of Mexico [35 paragraphs]. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 10(2), Art. 35, http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902353. Weil, Joyce (2014).

ATLAS.ti Blog. Littering Persuasive? Using ATLAS.ti for Coding Ethnographic and Policy Data. Available online: https://atlastiblog.wordpress.com/2014/09/26/using-atlas-ti-for-coding-ethnographic-and-policy-data/ The founder of Ethnomethodology Harold Garfinkel (1967, 2002) developed this methodto better understand the standards social order people use in making sense of the stop persuasive essay world through. As data sources he uses accounts and descriptions of day-to-day experiences.

The aim is to on international financial reporting discover the littering persuasive essay methods and rules of social action that people use in their everyday life. The focus is on how-question, rather than why-question as underlying motives are not of interest. Ethnomethodologists conduct their studies in a variety of ways focusing on naturally occurring data. Central is the immersion in the situation being studied. They reject anything that looks like interview data. Important for an ethnomethodological analysis is self-reflection and the inspectability of harvard edu research nsf rwp rwp06 data, thus the reader of an ethnomethodological study should be able to inspect the original data as means to evaluate any claim made by the analyst.

Steps in littering persuasive essay the process of data analysis include coding by wpaper nsf rwp 011, type of discourse, counting frequencies of types of discourses, selecting the main types and checking for stop persuasive, deviant cases. According to harvard rwp06 Fielding (2001), CAQDAS is well suited to support the ethnomethodologist in conducting all of these tasks can. Coulon, Alain (1995). Ethnomethodology. London: Sage. Francis, David and Stephen Hester. (2004). An invitation to Ethnomethodology. Persuasive Essay? Language, Society and Interaction.

London: Sage. Garfinkel, Harold (2002). Ethnomethodology’s Program. New York: Rowman and pablo picasso Littlefield. Ten Have, Paul (2004). Understanding qualitative research and ethnomethodology. London: Sage. Studies where ATLAS.ti was employed as a tool: Fielding, Nigel (2001).

Computer Applications in Qualitative Research, in persuasive Paul A. Atkinson, Paul A.; Coffey, Amanda Jane, Delamont, Sara, Lofland, Johnk, Lofland, Lyn (eds), Handbook for there on mars, Ethnography. London: Sage. Field Research examines the personal meanings of individuals’ experiences and stop littering actions in the context of their social and cultural environment. Essays Outline? Its methodological roots are in phenomenology, social interactionism and ethnographyadapted by business studies and marketing research, but also used in other disciplines like medical research. The investigation is stop persuasive carried out in the naturalistic environment where the phenomenon occurs. Methods of pablo data collection include participant observation, depth interviews, group interviews and projective techniques. Analysis procedures consist of description, ordering or coding of data and displaying summaries of the data. Nia Parson (2005) for stop persuasive, example used field research methodology and cv writing ATLAS.ti in her dissertation study: Gendered Suffering and Social Transformations: Domestic Violence, Dictatorship and Democracy in Chile. Bailay, Carol A. (2006, 2ed).A guide to qualitative field research.Pine FrogePress. Studies where ATLAS.ti was employed as a tool: Parson, Nia (2005).

Gendered Suffering and Social Transformations: Domestic Violence, Dictatorship and Democracy in Chile, 2005, Unpublished. http://smu.edu/anthro/smu_anthro/FacultyPages/Parson_Page.htm. A focus group is a form of group interviewmainly used in marketing research. The aim is to inquire about stop littering, people’s perceptions, opinions, beliefs and attitudes towards a product, a service, a concept, an ksgnotes1 harvard wpaper rwp06 011, advertisement or packaging idea. The interview form is called focus group because the participants are‘focused’ on a given topic and stop littering are selected based on whether they have something to say about the topic. Essay On If Is Life? Krueger Casey (2000) describe the analysis cutting, pasting, sorting, arranging and rearranging data through comparing and contrasting the relevant information; thus a classical code retrieve approach and they recommend the use of CAQDAS for essay, the analysis process. An example where ATLAS.ti was used for an analysis of focus group is the study by Walsh et al (2008). Krueger R. A. and Casey, M. A. (2000) Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for english, Applied Research, 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Merton, Robert K. (1987).

The focused interview and stop littering the focus group – continuities and discontinuities.Public Opinions Quarterly, 51, 550 -556. Merton, Robert K., Fiske, M. and P. L. Kendall (1956).The focused interview.A manual of problems and procedures. Glencoe, III.: The Free Press. Studies where ATLAS.ti was employed as a tool: Walsh, Tasanee R., Irwin, Debra E., Meier, AnderaVarni W., James, and DeWalt, Darren A. (2008). Literature Review And Selection? The use of focus groups in the development of the PROMIS Pediatrics Item Bank.Qual Life Res.

2008 June; 17(5): 725–735. Available online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2424212/ Frame Analysis has generally been attributed to the work of Erving Goffman and his 1974 book: Frame analysis: An essay on the organization of stop persuasive essay experience . This approach tries to picasso explain social phenomena in terms of the everyday use of schemes or frames like beliefs, images or symbols. Littering Persuasive? The number of essay there is life such frames available to people in making sense of their environment is limited by the particular society they live in. Frame Analysis is largely used in littering persuasive social movement theory, policy studies and health research. When it comes to analyzing the data, a quantitative and a qualitative approach has been suggested. In quantitative studies the keyword approach is used extracting frames by means of cv writing hints hierarchical cluster or factor analysis. Stop Essay? The software VBPro for example has especificallybeen developed for such procedures. Frames may however also be discovered via a qualitative coding approach. Goffmann, Erving (1986). Ksgnotes1 Edu Research Wpaper Nsf Rwp Rwp06? Frame Analysis: Propaganda Plays of the Woman Suffrage Movement: An Essay on the Organization of Experience.

Northeastern Univ Press. Koenig, Thomas (2004). Routinizing Frame Analysis through the stop persuasive Use of harvard edu research CAQDAS. Available online: http://www.restore.ac.uk/lboro/research/methods/routinizing_frame_analysis_RC33.pdf. Studies where ATLAS.ti was employed as a tool: Trenz, Hans-Jorg. Essay? 2004. Media Coverage on European Governance: Exploring the European Public Sphere in National Quality Newspapers.

European Journal of Communication 19 (3) 291-319. Grounded Theory (GT) is an inductive form of qualitative research that was first introduced by Glaser and Strauss(1967). It is a research approach in on international financial standards which the theory is developed from the data, rather than the other way around.Data collection and analysis are consciously combined, and littering persuasive initial data analysis is used to shape continuing data collection. Strauss in disagreement with Glaser developed the approach further providing a more pragmatic and systematic descriptions of analytic steps, like the four different phases of coding: open, axial, selective and theoretical coding. Sociological research has been greatly influenced by Grounded Theory and the method of coding based constant comparison and the theoretical sampling strategy is widely accepted. In recent years, further variations of the grounded theory methodology have emerged. For example Kathy Charmaz introduced a constructivist version and Clarke discusses GT after the review postmodern turn. As coding is central for a grounded theory analysis, CAQDAS is well suited to support such an analytic approach, apart maybe for the Glaser version of GT. Glaser rubbish the use of stop tape recording and transcription as he considers it a superfluous activity not aiding the process of conceptualizing. Consequently he advises against the use of software. There are plenty of studies where ATLAS.ti has been used for a Grounded Theory analysis.

See a few examples below. Charmaz, Kathy (2006). Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide Through Qualitative Analysis. Hints? London: Sage. Clarke, Adele E. Stop Littering? (2005). Situational Analysis: Grounded Theory After the Postmodern Turn. London: Sage. Glaser, Barney G. und Strauss, Anselm L. (1967). Essay Is Life On Mars? Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. Glaser, Barney G. (1998). Doing GroundedTheory.Issues and Discussions.

Mill Valley, Ca.: Sociology Press. Glaser, Barney G. (1992). Basics of Grounded Theory Analysis: Emerging vs. Forcing. Sociology Press. Strauss, Anselm L. Stop Littering? (1987). Qualitative Analysis for Social Scientists.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (dt. 1991, Grundlagen qualitativer Sozialforschung.

Munchen: Fink). Strauss, Anselm L. and Corbin, Juliet (1998, 2ed). Basics of english Qualitative Research: Techniques and stop littering Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. London: Sage. Strubing, Jorg und Bernt Schmettler (2004, Eds.). English? Methodologien interpretative Sozialforschung. Klassische Grundlagentexte. UTB. Studies where ATLAS.ti was employed as a tool:

Burden, Johann and Roodt, Gert (2007).Grounded theory and its application in a recent study on organizational redesign.Some reflections and guidelines. Journal of Human Resource Management, 5 (3), 11 – 18. Cisneros Puebla, Cesar A. (2000).Qualitative Sozialforschung in Mexiko [33 Absatze]. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 1(1), Art. 2, Available online: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs000128. Fernandez, Walter D. S. The grounded theory method and case study data in IS research: issues and littering persuasive essay design.

Available online: http://press.anu.edu.au//info_systems/part-ch05.pdf. Pandit, Naresh R. (1996). The Creation of Theory: A Recent Application of the harvard wpaper nsf rwp Grounded Theory Method. The Qualitative Report, Volume 2, Number 4, December, 1996. Available online: http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR2-4/pandit.html. As a theory of interpretation, the hermeneutic tradition stretches all the persuasive way back to ancient Greek philosophy. In the middle ages and the Renaissance, hermeneutics emerges as a method to identify the meaning and intent of Biblical scripture. Today hermeneutics is also used as a strategy to address a broad range of english essays outline research questions like interpreting human practices,events, and situations . Stop Littering Essay? The analytic aim is to understand „the other“.

Researchers bring their personal conviction to the analysis, but they need to be open for english essays outline, revision. Essay? In the literature on recruitment and selection analysis process of collecting data, a tentative understanding is developed which is then tested against reality. Further understanding is gained if discrepancies between the current interpretation and the new data are recognized. Thus, the process of understanding is characterized by constant revisions. The researcher’s concept of the whole is corrected as each interpretation is compared against the parts of the text. This is referred to as the hermeneutic cycle. Flick (1994) demonstrates how this can be implemented when working with ATLAS.ti. McNaab, David E. (2004).

Research Methods for Political Science: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods. M.E. Sharpe. Ramberg, Bjorn and Gjesdal, Kristin (2009). In Edward N. Zalta (ed.): The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Summer 2009 Edition. http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2009/entries/hermeneutics/ vonZweck, Claudia, Paterson, Margo and stop littering persuasive essay Wendy Pentland (2008). Cv Writing Hints? The Use of stop littering persuasive Hermeneutics in a Mixed Methods Design. The Qualitative Report Volume 13 Number 1 March 2008 116-134. http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR13-1/vonzweck.pdf. Wallach, Harald (2009, 2. ed). Psychologie – Wissenschaftstheorie, philosophische Grundlagen und Geschichte: Ein Lehrbuch. Kohlhammer.

Studies where ATLAS.ti was employed as a tool: Flick, Uwe (1994). Hints? Hermeneuten-Zirkel am PC – Erfahrungen mit ATLAS/ti aus einem Lehr-Forschungsprojekt, in Boehm, Andreas, Mengel, Andreas, Muhr, Thomas (eds), Texte verstehen : Konzepte, Methoden, Werkzeuge. S. 349-358. Gesellschaft fur Angewandte Informationswissenschaft (GAIK) e.V.; Konstanz: Univ.-Verl. Konstanz, 1994. Available online: http://www.ssoar.info/ssoar/View/?resid=1450.

The term originally comes from phenomenological sociology, where it refers to the familiar world of everyday life.In analyzing lifeworlds, one attempts to draw out the individual structures within it. A lifeworld can be understood as a physical environment even though the various inhabitants do not necessarily attribute the same meaning to stop persuasive essay the same space.Cats and people for example may inhabit the literature and selection analysis same physical environment but live in different lifeworlds as cupboards, window sills, and spaces underneath chairs have different significances for both of them. The aim is the stop persuasive essay reconstruction of the various subjective perspectives. In order to achieve this, a number of data typesare employed like document analysis, interviews, standardized surveys or observant participation. The latter means that the researcher goes into the social “field” and tries to get as close as possible to the linguistic and habitual customs of the people examined. Harvard Edu Research Wpaper Nsf Rwp Rwp06 011? Not surprisingly, a hermeneutic approach of persuasive essay analysis is chosen.

When the need arises, this is cv writing hints combined with codification procedures and littering persuasive thus, CAQDAS is a possible choice to support the process of data analysis. Eberle, Thomas S. (2010). Essay Pablo Picasso? The The Phenomenological Life-World Analysis and the Methodology of the Social Sciences. Human Studies, Volume 33, Issue 2-3, pp 123-139. Eberle, Thomas S. (2014). Stop Essay? Methodological Implicationsof Phenomenological Life-World Analysis. Available online: https://www.alexandria.unisg.ch/export/DL/228892.pdf. Hitzler, Roland und Eberle , Thomas S. (2000):Phanomenologische Lebensweltanalyse. http://www.hitzler-soziologie.de/pdf/hitzler_2000b.pdf. Pfadenhauer, Michaela (2005). Ethnography of Scenes.Towards a Sociological Life-world Analysis of (Post-traditional) Community-building [31 paragraphs].Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 6(3), Art. 43, http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503430.

Studies where ATLAS.ti was employed as a tool: Oberkircher, Lisa and Hornidge, Anna-Katharina (2011).“Water Is Life”—Farmer Rationales and Water Saving in Khorezm, Uzbekistan: A Lifeworld Analysis. Rural Sociology 76(3), 2011, pp. Essay Pablo? 394–421. Available online: http://crossroads-asia.de/fileadmin/user_upload/publications/Pub_Netzwerkmitglieder/Oberkircher_Hornidge2011_Water_is_life.pdf. Narrative research is about stories of stop littering persuasive life experiences. Study participants are asked in essay pablo picasso long interviews to give a detailed account of littering persuasive essay them and their story rather than to answer a predetermined list of questions.

Other forms of essays outline data include life histories, journals, diaries, memoirs, autobiographies and biographies. The aim of the analysis is to gain insights into a person’s understanding of the meaning ofevents in their lives.After transcription, narratives may be coded according to categories deemed theoretically important by persuasive essay, the researcher (Riesman, 1993). On Recruitment? Another approach is a formal sequential analysis with the purpose of identifying recurrent and regular forms which are then related to specific modes of biographical experiences. This however is sometimes also combined with a coding approach (for example Bamberg, 2007; Pohl, 1998). An example where ATLAs.ti is used is the research by De Gregorio (2009) on narrating crime. Narrative analysis can however also be conducted using quantitative methods (QNA). The aim of QNA is to turn words into numbers.

This is achieved via coding the “story grammar” made up of coding categories – the littering objects of the grammar. By computing word frequencies of coding categories, words are then turned intonumbers (cf. Franzosi, 2010). Boje, David M. (2001). Narrative Methods for and selection, Organizational and Communication Research (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2001), 83, 98. Franzosi, Roberto (2010).Quantitative Narrative Analysis.Sage Publications.

Mitchell, M. and stop essay M Egudo, M. (2003).A Review of Narrative Methodology.DSTO Systems Sciences Laboratory , Edinburgh South Australia. Available online: http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/css506/506%20readings/review%20of%20narritive%20methodology%20australian%20gov.pdf. Polkinghorne, Donald E. (1995). Essays? Narrative Configuration in Qualitative Analysis. Qualitative Studies in Education, Vol. 8, Issue 2. Riessman, C. K., 1993. “Narrative Analysis” (Newbury Park: Sage Publications). Schutze, Fritz (1983). Biographieforschung und narrative Interviews, Neue Praxis, 3: 283-93.

Schutze, Fritz (1981). Prozessstrukturen des Lebensablaufs. In Joachim Matthes, Arno Pfeifenberger, Manfred Stosberg (Eds.), Biographie in stop littering essay handlungswissenschaftlicher Perspektive (pp.67-156). Nurnberg: Verlag der Nurnberger Forschungsvereinigung e. V. Studies where ATLAS.ti was employed as a tool: De Gregorio, Eugenio (2009).

Narrating a crime: Contexts and accounts on deviant actions. Standards? International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, Vol. 3 (2), 191-202. Franzosi, Roberto; Doyle, Sophie; MeClelland, Laura; Putnam, Caddie and Civari, Stefanie (2013).Quantitative Narrative Analysis Software Options Compared: PC-ACE andCAQDAS(ATLAS.ti, MAXqda, and NVivo). Available online: https://www.academia.edu/1505378/Quantitative_Narrative_Analysis._Software_Options_Compared_PC-ACE_and_CAQDAS_ATLAS.ti_MAXqda_and_NVIVO_. Objective Hermeneutics was developed by Oeverman, a German scholar and former student of Habermas. It is a method of interpreting textual dataproviding an littering persuasive essay, explicit, rule-governed procedure. The aim is to go beyond subjective meanings detecting the objective connotation, the so called latent sense structure behind the data. Similar as in ethnomethodology, personal motives and english intentions are not important.

The analysis follows a strict sequential pattern and stop littering persuasive essay is usually conducted by on recruitment, a group of researchers, the “interpretation circle”. Beginning with a first sequence, e.g. the opening sentence, different story lines are developed and discussed by the team of researchers. The story lines can beviewed as preliminary hypotheses that in the process of analysiscan be falsified when inspecting more of the empirical data.The method is essay very time-consuming and essay pablo picasso thus only feasible with small amounts of text. Coding procedures are explicitly banned. Proponents of this tradition argue that the development of a coding system cannot represent social reality appropriately.

The process of littering persuasive essay coding would even deplete the theoretical appraisal of empirical phenomena. Thus, objective hermeneutics is clearly not a methodological approach that can or should be supported by ATLAS.ti. Oevermann, Ulrich; Allert, Tilman, Konau, Elisabeth and Jurgen Krambeck (1987). Structures of meaning and objective Hermeneutics. In: Volker Meja, Dieter Misgeld and MicoStehr (eds.) Modern German sociology. (European Perspectives: a Series in Social Thought and Cultural Ctiticism). New York: Columbia University Press, S. 436–447.

Oevermann, Ulrich et al. Cv Writing Hints? (1979). Die Methodologie einer objektiven Hermeneutik und ihre allgemeine forschungslogische Bedeutung in den Sozialwissenschaften, in Hans-Georg Soeffner (ed.), Interpretative Verfahren in den Sozial- und Textwissenschaften. Stuttgart: Metzler, pp. 352 – 434. Reichertz, Jo (2004) ‘Objective Hermeneutics and Hermeneutic Sociology of littering persuasive Knowledge’, in U. Flick, E. Harvard Nsf Rwp? v. Kardorff and stop I. Steinke (eds), A Companion to Qualitative Research . London: Sage. pp. 290-295. Wernet, Andreas (2000). Einfuhrung in die Interpretationstechnik der Objektiven Hermeneutik. On International Financial Reporting Standards? Opladen: Leske + Budrich. Wernet, Andreas (2014). Hermeneutics and Objective Hermeneutics.

In: Flick, Uwe (ed.). The SAGE Handbook of stop littering essay Qualitative Data Analysis, pp. 234-246. Phenomenology is cv writing hints a research methodology which has its roots in philosophy focusing on the lived experience of individuals. Stop? Phenomenological researchersare interested in the nature or meaning of on international financial reporting something, their questions are about stop littering persuasive, essence and on mars not about appearance.Comparable to hermeneutical analysis, the researcher tries to enter into the other person’s perspective and experience. In addition there is strong emphasis on stop persuasive essay the researcher’s personal experience ofthe research process itself. A constant question is: How does this affect me as researcher? Data are collected through a variety of means: observation, interviews, focus groups, diaries, videotape and written descriptions by subjects.

During the cv writing process of analysis, the researcher reflects upon his or her own preconceptions about the stop persuasive data grasping the experiential world of the research participant. Transcripts are coded in considerable detail, with the focus shifting back and forth from the point of views of the participant to the researcher’s interpretation of the meaning of these. Analysis is largely inductive and ‘bottom-up’ andnot guided by a priori formulated hypotheses. Pablo? A discussion on the use of ATLAS.ti for descriptive phenomenological research can be found here: What’s your experience been with qualitative descriptive phenomenological research when coding and stop littering sorting with ATLAS.ti: Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Newbury Park, California: Sage. Reid, K., Flowers, P. Larkin, M. (2005) Exploring lived experience: An introduction to Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis.

The Psychologist, 18:1, 20-23. vanManen, M. (Ed.). (2002). Writing in the dark: Phenomenological studies in interpretive inquiry. Edu Research Wpaper Nsf Rwp? London, ON.:Althouse Press. vanManen, M. (2004). Phenomenology of Practice.Phenomenology Practice, Volume 1 (2007), No. 1, pp. 11 – 30. Available online: http://www.maxvanmanen.com/files/2011/04/2007-Phenomenology-of-Practice.pdf. Studies where ATLAS.ti was employed as a tool:

Burg, Carol. “Phenomenological Data Analysis” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the littering persuasive essay Seventh International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champain Illini Union, Urbana, IL. Abstract: http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/4/9/2/2/6/p492266_index.html?phpsessid=10f4e1dc2a5c7cc0e73dd70e7b994aff. Cheng, Fung Kei (2014).Utilising Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software in Buddhist Canonical Analysis.ATLAS.ti blog. Available online: http://atlastiblog.wordpress.com/2014/06/13/utilising-computer-assisted-qualitative-data-analysis-software-in-buddhist-canonical-analysis/ Rosedale, Mary, Lisanby, Sarah H. and Malaspina, Dolores (2009).The Structure of the Lived Experience for Persons Having Undergone rTMS for Depression Treatment. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, Vol. 15, No. 5, 333-337. Phenomenography is a fairly new qualitative research method developed in the mid to late 1970s. It has primarily been a tool for educational research.

Its roots are in Sweden at the University of Gothenburg. Today there are also strong communities in Britain and on if there is life Australia. Stop? The focus is on essay pablo picasso the experience of a phenomenon rather than on the phenomenon per se. The aim is to investigate the differing ways in which people experience, perceive, apprehend, understand, and conceptualize various phenomena. A phenomenographic analysis seeks a “description, analysis, and littering understanding of literature review on recruitment … experiences” (Marton, 1981, p. Stop Persuasive? 180). The focus is on variation in both the perceptions of the essay is life on mars phenomenon as experienced by the actor and in the “ways of seeing something”, as experienced and described by the researcher. The various perceptions which emerge from the data are collected and sorted into ‘categories ofdescription’ . Thus, the use of CAQDAS appears to be a feasible tool for phenomenographic analysis as well as put into practice by Boon, Johnston and Webber (2007). They used ATLAS.ti to stop littering persuasive essay analyze faculty’s conceptions of information literacy within a phenomenographical research framework. Akerlind, G. (2005). On If On Mars? Variation and commonality in essay phenomenographic research methods.

Higher Education Research Development , 24(4), 321-334. Marton, F. (1981).Phenomenography – describing conceptions of the world around us. Instructional Science , 10(1981), 177-200. Marton, F. (1986).Phenomenography – A research approach investigating different understandings of thesis financial reporting reality. Journal of Thought , 21(2), 28-49. Uljens, M. (1996).On the philosophical foundation of phenomenography. In G. Littering? Dall’Alba B. Hasselgren (Ed.), Reflections on Phenomenography (pp.

105–130). Goteborg: ActaUniversitatisGothenburgensis.

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Ms Mactas s Class: Persuasive Essay: Litering by Mia Van Doren

Perception vs. Reality: 10 Truths About The Generation Y Workforce. by Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D. Advice for both employers and Gen Y workers and stop, job-seekers on dealing with negative perceptions and misconceptions about Generation Y, the Millennials. It’s important to preface this article by stating that people are individuals and that while it is sometimes efficient for experts to english outline, place people into stop persuasive, generational groups for analysis, in the end, even with certain common traits and wpaper nsf rwp 011, behaviors, individuals must be judged on their own merits. That said, as a new crop of college graduates hits the workforce, it’s important — both for the job-seekers and for prospective employers — to read this article. For the college grads, it’s helpful to stop persuasive, understand how hiring managers and future co-workers may perceive them. For hiring managers, it’s useful to on international reporting, cut through stereotypes and misconceptions about this generation. Generation Y. The Millennials. Stop Persuasive! The Tech/Net/Digital Generation.

Boomlets. Echo Boomers. We’ve given this generation of people — roughly those born between the late 1970’s and the late 1990’s and harvard edu research wpaper 011, 72 million or so strong — many names, but none so hurtful as the persuasive Entitlement Generation. They’ve also been called arrogant, self-centered, and reporting, possessing a short attention span. This article, playing off the infamous Rolling Stone campaign, discusses 10 perceptions of stop persuasive Generation Y workers — and essays, then corrects or adjusts those perceptions with the reality behind each. Also included in each of the 10 misconceptions is advice for both employers and for stop essay Gen Y workers and job-seekers. Generation Y Perception: Spoiled/Entitled.

Reality: To an literature on recruitment and selection analysis, extent, the folks in this generation do have a sense of entitlement, but it’s not an stop persuasive essay, entirely inherent personality flaw but partly the fault of Baby Boomer parents who coddled their children, constantly telling them how special they were and that anything they sought was possible, and rewarding them for every little thing, providing trophies and prizes simply for participating. These parents stunted their children’s growth by proactively removing all obstacles and potentially negative experiences. So, yes, on the surface Generation Y workers appear entitled. The key for employers is harvard edu research nsf rwp, approaching younger workers differently, providing constructive criticism that reflects confidence in them. Generation Y workers must realize that their bosses are not going to be like theirr parents, and that part of growing as an employee is learning from past mistakes and accepting constructive criticism. Reality: Technology has allowed this generation to multitask and find shortcuts in achieving tasks.

Texting, instant messaging, social networking, and Web surfing have all made Generation Y workers more competent, efficient, and productive (if not sometimes overwhelmed). The key for employers is to stop essay, accept that there may be multiple ways for workers to accomplish their tasks. Generation Y workers may need to demonstrate that they are working just as hard as everyone else, but perhaps simply performing the on recruitment and selection job more efficiently. Generation Y Perception: Poor Work Ethic. Reality: Generation Y is the first generation to expect — from day one — employers to realize there is more to stop littering persuasive, life than work. Just as many Baby Boomers are now discovering later in their careers, Generation Y sees work as a means to enjoy life — and cv writing hints, life comes first. They have a strong work ethic — just not in a 9-5 sort of way. Persuasive! Generation Y wants work to be fun and flexible because the line between work and life is seamless. (In other words, there is no such thing as work-life balance because it’s all just one thing.) Generation Y also follows a mantra of working smarter, not harder. The key for employers is ksgnotes1 edu research wpaper, offering flexible work schedules, adjusting the belief that workers need to “put in stop littering, the hours at english outline, the desk” to be effective, and developing a work culture that is stop littering essay, pleasant and positive. Generation Y workers may need to review on recruitment analysis, readjust some attitudes about work, especially for entry-level positions in essay, which workers have traditionally been expect to work long hours to earn their due. Generation Y Perception: Little Respect for Authority.

Reality: While some people refer to this cohort of harvard edu research wpaper nsf rwp 011 people as Generation Why for a reason, it is littering persuasive, not so much an issue of a lack of respect for authority as much as it is cv writing hints, that this group has been raised by their parents to littering persuasive, question everything and raise questions when they don’t understand something. This generation is very independent and not afraid to challenge the status-quo. Many in essay pablo, Generation Y want a relationship with their boss like the ones they have with their parents. Littering! It’s not that these folks have little respect for authority; on financial reporting, the contrary, they feel employers do not respect them. The key for stop littering essay employers is realizing that asking questions can often lead to answers and solutions that are actually more efficient and effective. Unlike with any other set of workers in the past, employers must also provide more autonomy — and trust Gen Y workers to complete the work. Generation Y workers should learn to choose battles carefully, not question every single decision made, and give employers a chance to adapt to their style of analysis work.

Generation Y Perception: Too Self-Centered and Individualistic. Reality: This iPod Generation (named such because iPod commercials focus on individuality while selling the product to every Gen Y) works well in groups and littering persuasive essay, teams — especially with people their own age — but they also have been taught the english outline value of littering individuality and independent thinking. They see themselves as unique individuals — not tied to any specific labels. And unlike any previous generation, these workers do not plan to let their jobs define who they are. The key for employers is finding the right mix of individual and team projects that allow these workers to grow professionally. Generation Y workers need to realize that almost all work will be some combination of individual assignments and essay, teamwork with people of all backgrounds and ages. Generation Y Perception: Overinflated/Unrealistic Expectations.

Reality: While this generation may be more anxious than others to littering persuasive essay, rise quickly to the top, it’s less about unrealistic expectations than it is hints, about being better prepared for work than previous generations — with perhaps a touch of the need for instant gratification thrown in. This generation also has no interest whatsoever in working in a cubicle — not because it is beneath them, but because they feel advances in technology should let them be able to choose to work from home, Starbucks, or anywhere there is stop, a Wi-Fi connection. The key for employers is to redesign and rebuild some of the old career ladders that were destroyed with the flattening of organizations and greatly expand telecommuting and remote working arrangements. Gen Y workers need to see a progressive promotion path or they will move on to the ksgnotes1 edu research rwp06 011 next employer. Generation Y workers should learn to pace themselves and gain the necessary experience and skills before expecting a promotion to the next level. Generation Y Perception: Not Committed to stop persuasive, Work. Reality: This generation is the most educated workforce ever, and partly because of essays outline this level of education, Generation Y workers believe their work should have meaning. Stop Littering Persuasive Essay! These folks quote from Office Space and have a mistrust of management. More than ever, these workers are seeking greater fulfillment and are only willing to work hard at essay picasso, jobs that provide it. The key for employers is changing the way they view work and employees — and it may also mean that to keep Gen Y workers, they may need to not only develop better jobs, but also consider strong corporate values and corporate volunteering programs. Employers also need to clearly show how the work Gen Ys complete directly impacts the organization’s success.

Generation Y workers should conduct more research on essay, prospective employers to find organizations that not only have meaningful career paths, but also share some of the same values. Generation Y Perception: No Loyalty to hints, Employers. Reality: Because of more work experiences and greater education, Gen Y workers are simply more mobile, making it easier to move from one employer to another if they are unhappy with the work. They were also raised during a period of great downsizing and littering persuasive, rightsizing, and many witnessed the grief and frustration their parents felt when being laid off — and they do not want to experience that emotion. Essay On If Is Life On Mars! These are also some of the persuasive essay reasons why many Gen Y workers are diligently planning to start their own businesses. The key for employers is to cv writing hints, develop a stronger commitment to keeping employees — even in stop littering essay, bad economic times — and also to do a better job in training and retaining workers, possibly including such benefits as sabbaticals, professional development opportunities, and other options for Gen Y workers seeking deeper fulfillment.

Generation Y workers should try to not be so skeptical about the motives of on if there on mars employers and learn to trust them more while continuing their professional development as a hedge against any downturns. Generation Y Perception: Lacking in Social Skills. Reality: Generation Y are some of the most social of any generational cohort; it’s just that they communicate and socialize much differently from the rest of us. The key for employers is to realize and accept that people communicate differently and to embrace the new techniques while also teaching the Gen Y workers that business sometimes still needs to stop, use traditional methods of essay pablo picasso communication. Generation Y workers need to use those excellent communications and littering persuasive essay, diversity skills to learn to socialize and communicate with people of all ages and backgrounds. Reality: Okay. The reality here is that Millennials are indeed pretty needy. Again, though, it’s not really their fault as their parents basically trained them that mom or dad is just a phone call away. In fact, there are stories of hints Generation Y job-seekers taking a parent along for the job interview or to help negotiate the job offer. The key for employers is to littering, realize that this generation — at least when they are new to there on mars, the workforce — need a bit of special care and handling.

There’s no way they can go months without a review; they need constant (and not too critical) feedback. Generation Y workers need to realize that the reality of the workplace is that it’s not like home or college — and that they are expected to stop essay, do an excellent job without always wanting praise and being told that how good their work is. English Essays Outline! Finally, Generation Y workers need to tell mom or dad that it’s time to stay home so they can learn to fight their own battles. Final Thoughts About Gen Y Workers. In the end, of stop course, every person — every worker — is judged on english outline, his or her merits, not on generalities or misconceptions. Still, based on the research and stop littering persuasive, anecdotal evidence, it may be a bumpy ride for both employers and Generation Y workers in the years ahead. Finally, for employers seeking greater understanding and more ideas related to hiring and ksgnotes1 nsf rwp, retaining Generation Y job-seekers, read: How to Recruit, Hire, and Retain the Best of Generation Y: 10 Workplace Issues Most Important to Gen Y.

Questions about persuasive essay some of the terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by going to our Job-Seeker’s Glossary of ksgnotes1 nsf rwp Job-Hunting Terms. Maximize your career and job-search knowledge and skills! Take advantage of The Quintessential Careers Content Index, which enables site visitors to locate articles, tutorials, quizzes, and worksheets in littering, 35 career, college, job-search topic areas. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and literature review on recruitment analysis, writing guides and stop littering essay, our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Ksgnotes1 Harvard Edu Research Nsf Rwp Rwp06 011! Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com.

He is also founder of stop persuasive MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of essay pablo picasso Quintessential Careers Press, including the littering persuasive essay Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. He’s often quoted in essay pablo picasso, the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr.

Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by littering persuasive essay email at [email protected] Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You’ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and literature, Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and persuasive essay, scoops for thesis financial job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!!

These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job [] The Quintessential Directory of stop littering essay Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of financial reporting standards Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer’s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the []

Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer’s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST.

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20 Classic Case Studies Every Business Student Should Know. Although almost every business is unique in its own way, there are some universal lessons that apply to just about any kind of business. In these case studies, we#39;ll take a look at employee performance and retention, supply chain management, growth, ad spending, and more. Although the following are focused on specific businesses, all business students can learn lessons from their triumphs and mistakes. Read on, and you#39;ll find 20 classic case studies you#39;d do well to know as a business student. Managers hope they#39;ll never have to deal with employee drug abuse, but the fact is stop essay, that it does happen. In this case, Amber, an administrative assistant started out well, but began to adopt strange and inconsistent behavior.

Her work was maintained pretty well, but she began arriving late and calling in sick often, especially right around the time she got paid. Hints. She began borrowing and failing to repay money, and then started showing a short temper on the phone with customers. After being found in the ladies room sniffing white powder, she was confronted about a cocaine problem, and reacted by quitting immediately, leaving a hole in the organization for months before a replacement could be found and replaced. Experts believe the stop littering persuasive, employer#39;s actions were wrong, waiting too long to literature confront Amber, and focusing on accusations instead of criticizing behavior directly related to stop persuasive work, such as lateness and rudeness to clients. They also point out that Amber should have been sent in for essay, a drug test before being outright accused of using cocaine, opening up the opportunity for rehabilitation instead of a severed tie. Sometimes, doing the right thing is more important than profits, a lesson that Malden Mills learned firsthand. When the factory burned down in 1995 just two weeks before Christmas, production halted and employees assumed they#39;d be out of work until the factory was rebuilt. But CEO Aaron Feuerstein extended the employees 90 days at full pay, as well as 180 days with benefits at a cost of $25 million to Malden Mills. After the factory was rebuilt and all of the littering persuasive, displaced workers were rehired, cooperation and productivity reached a new high, with 40% more business, 95% customer and essay employee retention, and a production increase from persuasive 130,000 to 200,000 yards per week. Ksgnotes1 Wpaper Nsf Rwp Rwp06 011. However, since then, Malden Mills has been to bankruptcy court three times, with much of the debt tied to the rebuild of the factory. Feuerstein made employees happy, to be sure, but business students should study this case to littering essay consider whether bold philanthropic actions will pay off in the end.

In 2008, Starbucks announced that they would be closing 600 US stores. And Selection Analysis. Up to that point, Starbucks stores had added new offerings, including wi-fi and music for stop persuasive essay, sale, but started to lose its warm neighborhood store feeling in favor of a chain store persona. Harvard Business Review points out that in this situation, Starbucks is english, a mass brand attempting to command a premium price for an experience that is no longer special. Meaning, in littering persuasive, order to keep up, Starbucks would either have to cut prices, or cut down on stores to restore its brand exclusivity. HBR#39;s case study shares three problems with the growth of Starbucks: alienating early adopters, too broad of an appeal, and literature review on recruitment and selection analysis superficial growth through new stores and products. Harvard recommends that Starbucks should have stayed private, growing at a controlled pace to maintain its status as a premium brand.

Big business is littering persuasive, attractive, with huge profits for thesis on international reporting, some. Essay. But there#39;s something to be said about small business as well, with lower risk and outline the potential for creativity. Darren Robbins of Big D Custom Screen Printing in stop littering persuasive essay, Austin, TX found success in ksgnotes1 harvard edu research nsf rwp rwp06, his business by pursuing customers with orders both large and small. Littering Persuasive Essay. Although Big D started out pablo picasso catering only to stop littering large orders, the shop sat idle in between orders, and through effective scheduling and transparent pricing, was able to fill in dead times with smaller orders. Picasso. Big D found a profit in a market segment that other local screen printers weren#39;t clamoring to fill. Experts believe this was a smart strategy, allowing Big D to spread out risk in stop littering persuasive essay, their business and offer customized products. But at english, least one person is littering persuasive, critical of the offering, pointing out that the niche has little upside potential, and literature review on recruitment and selection analysis may hurt the company#39;s efficiency. Family businesses typically have the luxury of passing the torch down to stop littering children after parents retire, but in financial, some cases, there are no candidates, or the candidates may not be right for the role. This presents a challenge when it#39;s time to find a successor, especially if existing employees have assumed that top level promotions would come from within the family. So the Carlson companies had to put in great effort to find a replacement, looking both internally and outside of the company, ultimately finding an internal candidate who would work well with the family but also offered plenty of experience as an executive in different industries.

According to Beverly Behan of Hay#39;s Group, Carlson should be commended for not only making the right decision in not hiring the heir apparent, but for handling the job search in a calm, effective way. Retiring Employees, Lost Knowledge. Another important retirement issue is stop essay, one of lost knowledge. What happens when retirees leave the office, taking years of experience and know-how right along with them? Businesses lose all of essay pablo picasso, that knowledge, but according to American Express, it doesn#39;t have to be that way. Through a pilot program, AMEX created a workforce transformation group that would allow retiring participants to gradually give up some of their day to day responsibilities.

In return, the employees would spend some of this time mentoring and littering essay teaching classes to successors. This resulted in english, a phased retirement, allowing employees to leave gradually and enjoy more time while still enjoying a portion of their previous salary, and stop essay regular benefits. This also meant that some employees stayed a year or more past traditional retirement age. AMEX believes this program is a success, allowing senior employees to enjoy their last years of work in a reduced capacity, as well as educating the existing workforce for future success. English Essays Outline. Consultant David DeLong agrees, citing this program as an example of how job handoffs should really work. Advertising costs money, which many businesses find themselves short of these days. But forgoing ad spending in favor of better profits can be a mistake.

Experts say that in a slump, one of the best things you can do is adopt or increase your advertising strategy to attract customers. During a recession, this is especially true, as other businesses may be cutting back on their ad spending, making your voice even more prominent to stop persuasive customers. After seven years of growth, buliding from 30 to 300 locations, Firehouse Subs#39; growth fizzled, and company leaders realized they had to do something about it. So they returned local advertising fees collected from essays franchisees, not to put in their pockets, but to take hold of persuasive, their own local marketing. Thesis On International Financial Reporting. Sales fell even more, revealing that this was not a good strategy at the time. Instead, Firehouse reclaimed their local marketing fee, and then gave franchisees the option to stop persuasive take part in a new marketing campaign, requiring them to pay double for local marketing, but in return, becoming part of an $8 million advertising campaign poised for success. Experts commend Firehouse for having the thesis financial standards, courage to ask franchisees for more money where it was needed, even when times were tough.

In 1982, seven people in stop littering, Chicago died after taking Tylenol due to outline an unknown suspect lacing the capsules with cyanide after the products reached the shelves. In the immediate aftermath, Tylenol#39;s commanding 37% market share dropped to just 7% nationwide, despite the problem being contained to stop littering essay the Chicago area. Edu Research Wpaper Nsf Rwp Rwp06. Tylenol was not responsible for the tampering of the product, but to maintain the product#39;s reputation, Johnson Johnson pulled all of the Tylenol from the shelves, absorbing a loss of more than $100 million dollars. Stop Littering Persuasive. Tylenol was successfully reintroduced with tamper resistant packaging, discounts, and sales presentations to the medical community. The brand survived due to nsf rwp rwp06 swift action and effective public relations from Johnson Johnson. It#39;s tough to stop littering persuasive essay be the little guy, especially when one of the big guys becomes your direct competition.

But at Hangers Cleaners, an offbeat image and financial good customer service helped them pull through when PG opened an eco-friendly dry cleaners in the same town. Hangers differentiated itself through van delivery service, funny t-shirts and stop littering hangers, as well as social networking. Standards. The company also spent time connecting with the community by littering persuasive essay partnering with local businesses and charities. Instead of out-pricing or out-spending PG, Hangers embraced its personality and adopted a culture of excellent service that customers found value in. As a result, Hangers has experienced growth while other local dry cleaners have reported flat or declining revenues. Market Expansion Through Partnership. To support new growth, businesses have to edu research wpaper 011 expand past their initial customer base, an persuasive, often daunting task for small businesses. However, partnering with another successful company can help businesses reach a new level. Diagnostic Hybrids, specializing in medical diagnostics, did just that, partnering with Quidel, a market leader in financial reporting, rapid diagnostic tests.

This partnership allowed Diagnostic Hybrids to enjoy a larger market presence, as well as take advantage of better research and development resources. Although Diagnostic Hybrids was acquired by Quidel, key elements of the organization remain, with the same company president, and operation as a separate subsidiary. Tesco#39;s move into Korea offers a classic case study of building market share internationally. The company made some smart moves in their Korean expansion, most notably partnering with Samsung, the leading Korean conglomerate, and embracing the Korean way of life by operating stores as local businesses and community centers. Tesco also made a smart move by stop employing nearly 100% Koreans on thesis reporting standards, staff, with only 4 British employees out of 23,000. Reports indicate that Tesco#39;s intelligent strategy has won over shoppers in Seoul, with 25% of Koreans signed up for loyalty cards and sales in the billions, finding success in crack[ing] the Asian tiger, where competitors such as Carrefour and Wal-Mart have failed. Another excellent international case study comes from bike manufacturer Triumph, which lost steam in littering, its British home base three decades ago, but found new life by heading overseas. In 2010, Triumph sold just 7,562 bikes in the UK, but 50,000 worldwide, indicating that an essay there, international interest paid off for the company. Stop Littering. Triumph#39;s famous factory in Warwickshire closed up shop in 1983, but the Indian factory remained, and these days, the motorcycles have become the country#39;s Harley Davidson. Pablo Picasso. The company struggles to meet demand in India, with a six month waiting list and a new factory being built.

India#39;s middle class has embraced the vehicle as an affordable commodity, even giving them as dowries in stop essay, weddings. Harvard Edu Research 011. Background Checks for Job Candidates. Background checks are an issue faced by many companies, as sensitive information is now more public than ever. Essay. OfficeDrop is no exception, as the company scans paper into digital files, including patient records and minister sermons, most of which require trustworthy employees who can handle documents discreetly. On International Reporting. Many companies offer quick, superficial checks, but for OfficeDrop owner Prasad Thammineni, more information was required. He found a company that would allow research to delve into a number of different sources and perform a more comprehensive search. Other business owners offered somewhat critical opinions of Thammineni#39;s choice, pointing out that instead of Googling to find a background check company, he should have asked his business network who they were using. They also recommended that he take advantage of free resources, including online searches and checking out social media sites to learn more about job candidates. Employee Engagement in Tough Times. When Gamal Aziz stepped in as president of the MGM Grand Hotel Casino, he didn#39;t just take on a $400 million spruce up of the hotel, he worked on the employees as well.

He asked rank and littering persuasive file employees to share their insight through a hotel, discovering that there was a disconnect between what was going on hints, at the persuasive, hotel and the knowledge of essay pablo picasso, staff. Littering. He implemented an easy fix, creating short meetings at english outline, the start of every shift to inform employees of daily happenings so that staff could offer more to guests, improving customer loyalty, return visits, and spending. Experts laud Aziz for differentiating the MGM grand with top quality service from the persuasive, employees. Social Media Serves Up Creme Brulee. Harvard Nsf Rwp 011. Marketing is stop persuasive essay, key, whether you#39;re a multibillion dollar company, or just a guy with a cart full of there on mars, creme brulee. But just doing it isn#39;t enough: you have to market effectively.

Curtis Kimball, the persuasive, man behind the cv writing hints, Creme Brulee Cart, put Twitter to work for persuasive essay, him amassing thousands of followers and growing his business by allowing people to follow the cart through the online service. Kimball engages with customers and english develops a personal relationship with followers online, asking for suggestions on stop, flavors and cart locations. Perhaps the most impressive part of picasso, this story is the fact that Kimball has no marketing budget (Twitter is a free service), yet enjoys an incredibly popular status and high ratings on Yelp. Overreaching Products, Suffering Sales. You can#39;t be everything to everyone, as Hickory Farms found out. Persuasive. A company that started out with holiday gift baskets including sausage, ham, and cheese at one point had an offering of cv writing hints, 2,500 different products, sprawling the company and resulting in stop essay, a loss of favor with customers.

Recognizing this issue, Hickory Farms streamlined itself, slashing their number of products from 2,500 to 300 with more modern visuals, descriptions, and nsf rwp rwp06 other features, including less packaging and more recycled content. The company also overhauled their website, making it easier to stop persuasive essay shop online. All of this streamlining resulted in a price reduction of 13% that Hickory Farms was able to pass on to their customers. Essay On If Is Life On Mars. Brand strategist Jennifer Woodbery believes that this was a smart move, making the most of Hickory Farms#39; trusted name and image with an effective rebranding of offerings. Essay. Maintaining Consistently Good Employees. Harvard Edu Research Wpaper Rwp06. It happens all the time: good employees get a promotion, and littering essay suddenly, they#39;re not so good anymore. Cv Writing. Such is the case for cat shelter Paws Need Families, as Della, a cleaner turned assistant manager, then manager started arriving late, letting applications sit, and slipped on inoculations, all serious offenses.

Instead of confronting Della directly, general meetings were held, and an assistant manager was hired to compensate for Della#39;s shortcomings. Ultimately, Della never cleaned up her act, and was fired. Ken Blanchard, co-author of The One Minute Manager believes this situation could have been avoided with frequent meetings and support with a system of review, both of which can identify issues before they become real problems. Stop. In 2009, Maclaren issued a recall for every stroller it had sold in the US for a decade, which came to essays 1 million units. The strollers were recalled so that a cover could be installed to prevent amputation of a baby#39;s fingers, which could happen if the baby were to be in the stroller in the wrong spot. As a luxury brand, this incident was damaging even though it was a misuse of the product and not a defect. Experts believe that Maclaren did the right thing in the aftermath of the stop littering, recall, asking for a fast track recall from the review on recruitment and selection, Consumer Product Safety Commission, and got out in front of the stop littering persuasive essay, recall as it started spreading through the press, saving face and further embracing a mission of child safety. We all hope that clients will pay on harvard edu research rwp06, time, but the fact is that most businesses have to stop littering persuasive essay deal with lateness at some point or another. How you deal with it can make all the difference, and this case study reveals a smart strategy. When a client wrote to check in on the progress of work, a web developer replied that she was hesitant to work quickly for that client because she was still waiting on payments for month-old work.

This immediately got the attention of the clients, who contacted her and discovered that their checks were not going to the right address. The problem was solved almost instantaneously, enforcing both leverage and rewarding positive behavior. However, it was risky, and the client criticized her for pablo picasso, not sharing a warning before coming to a difficult point. In 2000, a fire at the Philips microchip plant affected phone manufacturers Nokia And Ericsson. The companies reacted in different ways, and ultimately, Ericsson did not do well, quitting the mobile phone business and allowing Nokia to win over the European market. While Ericsson had tied up all of its key components in a single source and planned to wait out the problem with the fire, Nokia worked to snatch up spare chips from littering persuasive essay other plants and thesis on international financial reporting suppliers, as well as re-engineered some of their phones to adapt to different chips from new suppliers.

It#39;s not hard to imagine what happened after that. Nokia kept trucking along, while Ericsson suffered from months of lost production and sales, allowing the market to be dominated by Nokia. Essay. This incident and fallout is a classic lesson in supply chain risk management. Cv Writing Hints. Copyright Online Colleges 2017. All rights reserved.

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Cursive Handwriting and Other Education Myths. A recent newcomer at one of the home-education groups my family attends explained that one of the frustrations that led her to take her son out of the school system was that he wasn’t being allowed to write stories. It’s something he loves to persuasive do, and it seems strange that a school should obstruct that enthusiasm. But the teachers declared he wasn’t ready because he can’t yet write in english outline cursive. To me this symbolizes all that is wrong with the strange obsession shared in many countries about how children learn to write. Often we teach them how to form letters based on the ones they see in their earliest reading books. And then we tell them that they must learn this hard-won skill all over again, using “joined-up” script. Yet there is no evidence that cursive has any benefits over stop, other handwriting styles, such as manuscript, where the letters aren’t joined, for the majority of children with normal development. I should make it clear I’m not referring to handwriting itself, often seen as synonymous with cursive.

There is ample evidence that writing by ksgnotes1 wpaper, hand aids cognition in ways that typing does not: It’s well worth teaching. Stop Persuasive Essay! And I confess I’m old-fashioned enough to think that, regardless of proven cognitive benefits, a good handwriting style is an important and ksgnotes1 valuable skill, not only when your laptop batteries run out but as an expression of personality and character. Stop Persuasive Essay! I should also say that cursive is a perfectly respectable, and occasionally lovely, style of writing, and children should have the opportunity to learn it if they have the cv writing hints time and inclination. My eldest child loves cursive and has the most elegant handwriting, in which I take great pride. And I love a good Victorian copperplate as much as anyone. But imposing cursive from an early age is another matter. There should be a sound reason for it, as there should be reasons for teaching anything to children.

Yet the grip that cursive exerts on much of teaching practice is stop essay, sustained only by a disturbing blend of traditionalism, institutional inertia, folklore, prejudice, and bribery. It suggests that what teachers “know” about how children learn is sometimes more a product of the culture in which they’re immersed than a result of hints research and stop persuasive data. It seems unlikely, in this regard, that teaching cursive is unique in educational practice. Which forces us to literature review on recruitment and selection wonder: What happened to evidence? Why Virtual Classes Can Be Better Than Real Ones. By Barbara Oakley. I teach one of the world’s most popular MOOCs (massive online open courses), “Learning How to littering essay Learn,” with neuroscientist Terrence J. Sejnowski, the Francis Crick Professor at outline the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. The course draws on neuroscience, cognitive psychology. READ MORE.

S omething like modern cursive emerged from Renaissance Italy, perhaps partly because lifting a delicate quill off and on the paper was apt to damage it and spatter ink. By the 19th century cursive handwriting was considered a mark of good education and character. Teaching of manuscript lettering (not joined up) only began in the United States in the 1920s, to some controversy. In many countries today, including the U.S. and Canada, children are generally taught to write in manuscript in the first grade and are then taught cursive from second or third grade. In France, children are expected to stop persuasive essay use it as soon as they start to write in kindergarten, but in Mexico only manuscript is taught.

The U.S. and United Kingdom leave some discretion for when cursive is hints, taught, but there is the assumption that it will become the pupil’s normal mode of writing. Littering Essay! When cursive is taught, it may become compulsory, so children may be marked down if they don’t write this way. In France, the cursive form is virtually universal and highly standardized, and children are discouraged from developing their own handwriting style. Despite this diversity, the teaching of cursive is often accompanied by a strong sense of propriety. It’s simply the on if on mars right thing to stop littering persuasive do. Essay Is Life! If you ask teachers why (I’ve tried), they’ll probably look at stop you oddly before offering a variety of answers, which will probably include these: • It helps with spelling. • It helps with dyslexia. What does research say on these issues?

It has consistently failed to find any real advantage of cursive over other forms of handwriting. “There is no conclusive evidence that there is essay picasso, a benefit for littering persuasive, learning cursive for ksgnotes1 harvard wpaper nsf rwp rwp06, a child’s cognitive development,” says Karin Harman James, an associate professor in the Department of essay Psychological and Brain Sciences at Indiana University, who studies early brain development as a function of standards learning experiences. James cautions that the stop littering issue is difficult to study because it’s hard to find children whose educational situation differs only in the style of handwriting. Review On Recruitment And Selection Analysis! What’s more, a lot of the “evidence” that does get quoted is rather old and of questionable quality, and some of the findings are contradictory. Simply put, our real understanding of how children respond to different writing styles is surprisingly patchy and littering woefully inadequate. The grip that cursive has on teaching is sustained by folklore and prejudice.

Let’s take a closer look, though, at what we do know. Many people (including teachers) swear that cursive is reporting, faster, and cite not only the stop littering essay fact that there is less lifting of pen from paper but also their own experience. Cv Writing! Needless to say, the latter point is like me saying that English is a faster language than French because I can speak and stop littering persuasive read it more quickly. Of course that’s true for something you’ve done all your life. Tests on writing speed have been fairly inconclusive in the past. But one of the best and most recent was conducted in essay pablo picasso 2013 by Florence Bara, now at the University of Toulouse in France, and Marie-France Morin of the University of Sherbrooke in Canada. Stop Littering Essay! They compared writing speeds for review, French-speaking primary pupils in stop their respective countries. Hints! While cursive is quite rigidly enforced in France, teachers in Canada are more free to decide which style to teach, and when.

Some Canadians teach manuscript first and cursive later; some introduce cursive straight away in first grade. So was cursive faster than manuscript? No, it was slower. But fastest of all was a personalized mixture of cursive and manuscript developed spontaneously by pupils around the fourth to fifth grade. Even in France, a quarter of the French pupils who were taught cursive exclusively and were still mostly using it in the fourth grade, had largely abandoned it for a mixed style by the fifth grade. They had apparently imbibed manuscript style from littering persuasive, their reading experience (it more closely resembles print), even without being taught it explicitly. While pupils writing in cursive were slower on financial reporting standards, average, their handwriting was also typically more legible than that of pupils taught only manuscript. But the mixed style allowed for greater speed with barely any deficit in legibility. HANDWRITING MATTERS: Nobody questions the value of a handwritten love letter, like this one in French from WWII.

The problem is that evidence for stop essay, cursive’s value over essay, other forms of littering persuasive essay handwriting is financial reporting, missing in action. Corey Amaro / Willows95988.Typepad.Com. On the strength of these findings, Bara and stop littering Morin hesitated to make any recommendation for teaching a particular style except to say that it’s unwise to demand strict adherence to any of them—contrary to the French tradition. That idea is supported by Virginia Berninger, a professor of on if there is life education psychology at the University of Washington. Littering Persuasive Essay! “Evidence supports teaching both formats of english essays outline handwriting and then letting each student choose which works best for him or her,” she writes in littering a 2012 paper. Does cursive help with writing and reading disorders such as dyslexia? There’s some evidence that it might. “Some children who have trouble printing letters do benefit from learning cursive because they do not have to take their pencil off of the paper as much,” says James. But, she adds, “these children are the ksgnotes1 harvard nsf rwp 011 exception, and the results cannot be generalized to all children learning to write.” In fact, for typical children, there’s some reason to think manuscript has advantages. Because cursive writing is more challenging for motor coordination and for stop essay, sheer complexity of the letters, some early research from the 1930s to the 1960s indicated that children develop their writing skills sooner and more legibly with manuscript. Because they have to lift pen from paper between each letter, children prepare better for the next letter.

Some recent studies suggest that freeing up cognitive resources that are otherwise devoted to on if on mars the challenge of simply making the more elaborate cursive forms on paper will leave children more articulate and accurate in what they write. There’s also some suggestion that the difference in appearance between cursive and manuscript could inhibit the acquisition of reading skills, making it harder for essay, children to transfer skills between learning to read and learning to write because they simply don’t see cursive in books. Reading and literacy expert Randall Wallace, of literature on recruitment analysis Missouri State University, says “it seems odd and perhaps distracting that early readers, just getting used to decoding manuscript, would be asked to learn another writing style.” How many of us have great-grandmother’s letters in stop littering persuasive essay the attic, written in beautiful cursive? It’s not clear, however, how much such difficulties truly show up. In a 2009 study in Quebec, Bara and Morin found no reading difficulties in primary-school children that correlated with learning cursive.

Yet a more recent study by the pair and their colleagues, comparing Canadian and French primary schoolers, showed that those who learned only cursive handwriting performed more poorly than those who learned manuscript, or both styles, in recognizing and identifying the sound and name of individual letters. Regardless of how significant or lasting these differences are, it makes sense that they should exist. There’s good evidence, both behavioral and neurological, that a “haptic” (touch-related) sense of essay pablo picasso letter shapes can aid early reading skills, indicating a cognitive interaction between motor production and stop persuasive essay visual recognition of letters. That’s one reason, incidentally, why it’s valuable to train children to essay write by hand at all, not just to use a keyboard. But whether it makes any difference, in this regard, which form of handwriting is taught is less clear. In a brain-imaging study on older children, James says that she observed “no brain differences between the two styles of writing.” The type of handwriting doesn’t matter to such haptic feedback and reinforcement, she says, as long as children are creating the letter by hand and not tracing it. In short, the jury is out over whether it is better to learn manuscript, cursive, or both forms of handwriting.

There may be pros and stop littering cons in all cases. And even if being taught both styles might have some advantages, it’s not clear that those cognitive resources and classroom hours couldn’t be better deployed in outline other ways. W hy then do some educational systems place such importance on learning cursive? How, if not by consulting the evidence, are educational policy and teaching practices formed? “My impression is that cursive is still taught primarily because of parental demand and tradition, rather than because there is any scientific basis for stop persuasive essay, its superiority in learning,” says Wallace. What’s particularly troubling, though, is how inertia and preconceptions seem to distort perception and policy at the expense of the scientific evidence. In 2011, Bara and Morin decided to take a close look at why teachers do what they do. They and their coworkers interviewed 45 primary-school teachers in Quebec and France about hints, how and why they teach handwriting.

The results were sobering. Teachers had only sketchy knowledge, at best, of stop littering persuasive essay what research showed on essay there is life on mars, the subject, especially when it came to the motor-function aspects of forming letters. Their views were, it seemed, formed primarily by the culture and institutional setting in which they worked. While Canadian teachers were fairly mixed in their opinions about whether cursive was harder to learn than manuscript, and which should be taught when, French teachers were fairly unanimous. Four-fifths of them insisted that cursive was no more complex than manuscript, and three-quarters said that cursive is faster—a belief contradicted by Bara and Morin’s studies. More than half of the Quebec teachers thought that learning manuscript first assists learning to persuasive read, while only 10 percent of ksgnotes1 nsf rwp rwp06 French teachers thought so. In other words, teachers who are recommended by their education ministry to teach cursive, as in France, seem to become convinced that there are sound reasons for doing so, despite the lack of evidence. And teachers in stop littering persuasive essay Canada who decide for themselves to introduce cursive as soon as possible seem likewise to believe that there are advantages that justify this decision. How much else in education is determined by what’s “right,” rather than what’s supported by evidence? Just because the essay is life on mars French situation is stop persuasive, probably one of the least sinister or harmful examples of state brainwashing doesn’t mean we should shy away from calling it by its real name. Even in the more relaxed teaching practices in essay picasso Quebec there’s a clear sign of the well attested psychological phenomenon in which we “find” evidence to littering persuasive support the decision we have already made anyway, and essay apply less rigorous judgment when our preconceptions are apparently confirmed.

Indeed, the way rational argument on the question of littering persuasive essay cursive handwriting so often evaporates suggests that there’s some kind of english deep emotional investment at stake. When I wrote previously for a British magazine challenging the hegemony of cursive, it received one of the biggest responses the magazine had experienced. Littering Essay! Here are just a couple of the popular defenses offered for cursive: Imagine the literature analysis frustration your kids will feel when they discover great-grandmother’s letters in the attic and stop persuasive can’t read them! Without cursive, you’re divorcing them from the past.

Cursive is beautiful, whereas manuscript looks childish. But cursive is not another language. If you need to learn to read it, that takes an hour at most. Besides, how many of us have great-grandmother’s letters in the attic, written in beautiful cursive? (In the U.S. And Selection Analysis! there are even suggestions that learning cursive is somehow patriotic and stop persuasive that without it people would not be able to read the Declaration of Independence.) And while I relish the elegance of Jane Austen’s original manuscripts, it’s plain that many people’s cursive is rather far from lovely, or indeed from legible. Manuscript, meanwhile, is only as childish as you decree it to be. Beliefs about thesis on international reporting standards, cursive are something of a hydra: You cut off one head, and littering essay another sprouts.

These beliefs propagate through both the popular and the scientific literature, in a strange mixture of uncritical reporting and outright invention, which depends on on international standards, myths often impossible to track to a reliable source. Take a 2014 article in The New York Times about the stop littering persuasive essay pros and hints cons of handwriting. This alluded to a 2012 study allegedly demonstrating that cursive may benefit children with developmental dysgraphia—motor-control difficulties in forming letters—and that it may aid in preventing the reversal and inversion of letters. It’s a common claim, and so I began to stop essay delve into it. I was taken to a paper by education researcher Diane Montgomery, describing a study that used an approach called the review on recruitment Cognitive Process Strategies for Spelling (CPSS) to try to help pupils with spelling difficulties, generally diagnosed as dyslexic. This method involves teaching these children cursive, with no comparison to stop littering other handwriting styles.

Cursive was chosen for use with CPSS, says Montgomery, because “experiments in hints teaching cursive … have proved highly successful in stop littering achieving writing targets earlier and for a larger number of children.” In support of literature review on recruitment that claim she cites two studies in journals from the early 1990s so obscure that even the British Library doesn’t stock them, but which were in any case conducted on littering, non-dyslexic cohorts and so say nothing about benefits for dyslexics. Montgomery writes that other dyslexia remediation projects have used cursive too, but cites only one “proven” advantage: a 1998 study allegedly reporting that “cursive script appeared to facilitate writing speed.” Not only is this claim contradicted by pablo, Bara and Morin’s work, but the 1998 paper doesn’t even make it. It simply reports how, for children taught a new cursive style in Australian schools, faster writing slightly decreases legibility. Montgomery also cites a 1976 paper that allegedly advocates “the exclusive use of cursive from the beginning.” Except that it doesn’t do that at all. It describes a study comparing letter reversals and transpositions for 21 children at one school, taught cursive from the littering persuasive outset, with 27 from another taught first manuscript and then cursive. The first set showed slightly fewer of these mistakes, but the author acknowledged that, given the tiny sample size, “we in no way wish to offer the present data as documenting proof of the superiority of cursive over manuscript writing.” So there we have it. Thesis On International! But how many people will now be convinced that the benefits of cursive have been affirmed by The New York Times , based on stop essay, the findings of academic research? No wonder teachers are confused. I s there, then, any scientific case for making cursive writing a standard component of the primary curriculum? Wallace thinks not.

Given the unproven benefits and the demands it places on time and effort, he feels that “the reasons to reject cursive handwriting as a formal part of the curriculum far outweigh the reasons to keep it.” Others, like Bara, Berninger, and James, are more ambivalent, but find no evidence that cursive is english essays, best. Some feel that in certain respects it is worse than manuscript—it is slower, and time is wasted in learning (or sometimes relearning) this difficult skill. On the other hand, pupils differ, and there’s some potential value in giving them the option of stop littering persuasive finding what style suits them best, as well as exposure to different fonts so that they might generalize their letter-recognition skills. Or perhaps we should trust that children will find their own “hand” naturally, developing shortcuts for speed and ksgnotes1 edu research wpaper nsf rwp rwp06 011 so forth without having to stop essay be taught these in some rigid, formal, and standardized fashion. There’s certainly a debate to be had. Literature On Recruitment And Selection! But it’s not one that seems to be taking place in schools or education ministries. Stop Persuasive! And every time I hear of hints a young child turned off writing because he lacks the fine motor skills needed to master cursive, or prohibited from expressing herself freely because she’s not using the persuasive essay approved script, I see that our groundless obsession with cursive is not only pointless but can be destructive. This must surely lead us to ksgnotes1 harvard edu research nsf rwp rwp06 011 wonder how much else in persuasive education is edu research wpaper rwp06, determined by a belief in what is “right,” unsupported by evidence.

Education and littering essay learning are difficult to pin down by research. Teaching practices vary, it’s often impossible to identify control groups, and outline socioeconomic factors play a role. But it’s often the stop persuasive case that the very lack of hard, objective evidence about an financial issue, especially in the social sciences, encourages a reliance on stop, dogma instead. The danger is greater in education, which, like any issue connected to english child rearing and development, is prone to emotive views. All the same, there is some evidence. But it seems little heeded either by teachers or, more significantly, the policymakers who guide their practice. Too often, education is instead a political football.

In 2013 in the U.K., the former Secretary of State for Education, conservative politician Michael Gove, became loathed by teachers for instituting changes to the national curriculum based on his own preconceptions about stop littering persuasive, how and what children should learn. Cv Writing Hints! Gove’s notoriously dismissive attitude to specialist advice was made explicit in a recent interview, where he said that “people in this country have had enough of experts.” Such blithe disregard of research is stop littering essay, not, needless to say, confined to the political right; education and learning are vulnerable to ideologies of all persuasions. There needs to be wider examination of the on if is life on mars extent to which evidence informs education. Do we heed it enough? Or is what children learn determined more by stop essay, precedent and cultural or institutional norms? To judge from how children learn handwriting, the signs aren’t good. Philip Ball is a writer based in London.

His latest book is The Water Kingdom: A Secret History of China. He is a left-hander who does not use cursive. As for what that does to his handwriting, he will let you be the english essays judge: Education:Machine learning is teaching us the stop littering secret to teaching. Please sign in to Nautilus Prime or turn your cookies on and selection analysis, to continue viewing this site. Nautilus is a different kind of science magazine.

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How to Write Your Resume Work Experience Section Right. If the persuasive, professional summary is the appetizer, your work experience is the main course of your resume. Recruiters and outline, HR managers read the work history on your resume to check if you have the experience required for the vacant position. They also use this record to compare you with other candidates, and see who is best fitted for their company. Your work history shows potential employers what kind of employee you’ll be. It shows them whether you’ll be an asset to their team, a job hopper, or simply a wrong fit. Are you ready to write a great resume work history section? (graphic source) In this tutorial, I’ll show you how to write your work experience in essay a resume without exaggerating, and repeating your job description. On International? You'll learn how to best format your resume and the strategic advice you need to stand out stop essay, as a great candidate at each stage of literature on recruitment and selection analysis your career.

What to Include in Your Resume Work Experience Section. How to approach your work experience in your resume varies according to littering persuasive essay, how long you've been in the workforce. We'll address advice for english outline fresh graduates first, then young professionals, and touch on stop littering persuasive, executives work experience sections as well. 1. Fresh Graduates - Resume Work Experience. Figuring out english essays, how to persuasive, write the harvard rwp06 011, experience section of their resume is the second-biggest hurdle new graduates face, next only to finding a new job. Entry-level candidates don’t want to appear inexperienced, that’s why it’s so tempting to stretch the truth about stop summer jobs. The most recommended approach for new graduates is to focus on your transferable skills. Review Analysis? Another is to leverage your internship experience.

Connect all of these experiences with the job description of your target position. For example, if you met weekly deadlines as the stop littering persuasive essay, Sports Editor for your community newspaper, your time management skills are invaluable for pablo picasso many entry-level jobs. Persuasive Essay? You should also emphasize your attention to detail, research, and communication skills. Another thing you can do is play up your job titles—within reason. Frame previous babysitting jobs where you took care of kids from different families in your neighborhood as a child care management business. You can write Child Care Manager as your job title, and then write about your achievements in providing educational and recreational activities. You might be tempted to write about your coursework and class projects in english essays your employment history. Don’t waste this space.

Employers look for well-rounded candidates who can do well outside of the stop persuasive, classroom, not just test-takers. Internship experience, volunteer experience, and temporary positions, however, wouldn’t be out of place in your work history, as long as you can link the experience with your career goal. 2. Young Professionals - Experience Section of ksgnotes1 edu research nsf rwp rwp06 011 Resume. Delete information about littering your coursework, GPA and Internship, now that you’ve had at least one paid full-time job related to your undergraduate course. Separate volunteer work and other side gigs in a separate section with its own heading, such as “Other Work” or “Volunteer Work” . Literature Review? From here on you should only include relevant work history on your resume. Write your work experience up to the last 10 years, five years if you were in an IT job. If you were promoted in the same company, write your last position as the littering essay, job title, then list the previous position you’ve held in the bullet points. 3. Managers and Executives - Resume Work History. Donna Svei, Executive Resume Writer and on mars, Recruiter, says: “Recruiters want to see more experience for executive candidates, three to seven years—sometimes more—depending on the job level.”

At the management level, employers look for candidates who can add value to the organization with little training. What matters to them isn’t the stop littering persuasive, time you spent on literature review on recruitment and selection, your previous jobs, but the contributions you made while in office. How Far Back in Your Work History Should You Go? There’s no right and wrong answer here. You can base it on stop persuasive essay, how much job experience is required on the job ad. But what if there’s no work tenure requirement listed? I talked to some recruitment experts to hear what they have to say. Matthew Burr, HR expert and Founder of Burr Consulting says: “Generally, your employment history should have your last three positions.

But if you change jobs every one or two years, you might want to add a few more job entries.” Karen Bender, HR Consultant at Stony Acres Consulting, didn’t mention time duration. She says: “Employers want to see enough history to ksgnotes1 nsf rwp, understand the depth of a candidate’s experience. For experienced candidates, this doesn’t mean you need to detail the early parts of your career, unless they are relevant and unique for some reason.” Some recruiters think removing the stop persuasive, oldest five to ten years of cv writing hints your employment history might raise a red flag. To avoid this, you can include earlier positions in a separate heading titled “Earlier Career,” and stop littering persuasive, fill it out with the job titles, company name, and employment duration. No need to elaborate about your achievements and duties. What Work History Resume Format is essay pablo, Best: Functional, Chronological, or Hybrid?

Each resume format can be useful, depending on your personal circumstances. A chronological resume lists your employment history with the most recent position at the top. It’s the most popular resume format because it shows a clear career progression. Use this format only if you’ve had a few years professional experience and persuasive essay, a solid work history. Your achievements and employment details are separated. Essay Picasso? All achievements and skills are categorized according to persuasive, the main requirements of your target job, while your employment history only harvard nsf rwp rwp06 shows the company name and duration. Because this format focuses on stop persuasive, your skills instead of your previous job titles, it works well for fresh graduates with limited experience or anyone with significant employment gaps. The combination resume format is flexible, so you can re-arrange it in hints a way that suits your strengths.

In this layout, your professional summary is followed by your list of skills and achievements, instead of your work history. It's often used for management and persuasive, executive-level resumes. What’s to literature and selection, Include in Your Work History Section. Here are the different components you should include in each job history entry: Job Title: Use the industry-accepted and un-abbreviated version of your job title to persuasive essay, avoid confusion. Write “American Sign Language Interpreter” instead of “ASL interpreter” and “ Assistant District Attorney” instead of “ ADA ” Location: Include the city and pablo, state where you worked, especially for jobs where licensure information and state laws affect your occupation. Company Name: Like the stop littering persuasive, job title, you should write your employer’s complete company name, and reporting standards, not an abbreviated version. Employment Duration: Month and year. Brief Job Description (Optional): Include a one-sentence description of what you do, and how that adds value to your employer. How to stop littering persuasive essay, Write Resume Work Experience Bullet Points (With Examples) Choose Accomplishments to Include.

Write achievements you can tie up with the skills listed on the job description. Jill Gugino Pante M.Ed, Director of Alfred Lerner College Career Center at the University of Delaware also suggests: “Look at the company website and social media sites to essay pablo picasso, get a feel of littering persuasive their values, mission, and goals. For example, if a company values impeccable customer service, some of your bullet points should include examples of thesis standards when you exceeded customer expectations.” Susan Ranford of littering persuasive essay New York Jobs thinks accomplishments that show your enterprise and initiative work best. Standards? She adds: “Include bullet accomplishments that show you developed a new stream of income for your company, or found a way to stop persuasive, streamline a process. Recruiters want candidates with a history of being creative and pragmatic.” “Chaired a committee in the Human Resources department that centralized job functions and eliminated unnecessary tasks, yielding over review, 7,000 saved man hours per year.” Showing initiative isn’t limited to stop persuasive, saving time or making more money for the company.

Running your own freelance business or taking on additional tasks outside of your job description also shows initiative. Use Objective and Clear Descriptions. Imagine a bullet point that reads: “Several years of creative and resourceful Art teaching at Calaveras Hills School.” While the bullet point includes the employer’s name, it’s sorely lacking in financial details. “ Creative ” and “ resourceful ” are subjective and tells nothing about the applicant’s teaching methods or classroom achievements. This bullet point shows a clearer example of the applicant’s teaching skills and methodology. It also includes an accomplishment, “ gained students’ attention.” Write About What You Did, Not Just Your Years of Experience. The years you worked for a particular company are already listed at the top of each job entry, so there’s no need to reiterate it in a bullet point. Littering Persuasive? Write about what you contributed to your employer's business during those years instead.

That's what employers want to know. For Example: “Four years of experience selling various computer chips and hardware parts, with proven ability to increase sales in my territory” Writing about your ability to improve the sales in the town you work is useless, because every sales person is expected to do that. You should instead write about other specifics of your job, such as the products you sold, or the essay pablo picasso, quote you exceeded. For example: “Spearheaded a guerrilla marketing strategy that increased SaaS subscription sales by $357,000 in one year” The example above shows the candidate’s creativity, initiative, sales specialty, and essay, a verifiable achievement.

Always Include Skills Used, Action Taken, and the Results. Murtaza Bambot, Co-Founder of internship search site InternBlitz, says, “I always tell candidates to hints, emphasize what they did, why it was important, and stop persuasive essay, the skills they used. Harvard Wpaper 011? This combination tells your story and sells your resume at the same time.” Here’s a Standout Example From Bambot. “Generated $600,000+ in pipeline over two months through 350+ cold calls a week and 15+ email campaigns to about 2500 prospects” You can also use any of the stop persuasive, two combinations: An example from Bambot: “ Managed governance document to log status updates of hints 25+ projects spanning 5 departments by collaborating with 13 project leaders ” From Alissa Carpenter, Owner of Everything’s Not OK and stop, That’s OK: “ Designed and implemented key account strategies with retailers that resulted in an average 6% incremental year-over-year sales increase, and pablo, reduced the stop persuasive, marketing budget by essay on if there, 13 %”

Tips on stop littering persuasive, Writing a Better Resume Experience Section. Know the Difference Between Good Bullets and Bad Bullets. Would you be impressed if you read the literature on recruitment analysis, following bullet points? “Juggled multiple deadlines for stop three different design projects” “Encouraged collaboration between account executives and designers” I know I wouldn’t be. Multitasking and cv writing, teamwork are soft skills expected in almost every job, so there’s nothing inherently wrong with including bullet points that emphasize those skills.

Unfortunately, the littering essay, way these bullets are written make them sound like dull responsibilities. If you want to include soft skills in on mars your bullet points, always brainstorm noteworthy situations where you used those skills. Littering Persuasive Essay? Here are a couple better examples: Never exaggerate a past job title, but you can always use an improved or clearer version that better illustrates your role. For example: “Customer Service Specialist” is better written as “Credit Card Billing and Customer Service Specialist” I wrote a detailed guide about power words to use in effective resumes. It includes a list of essay on if 100+ strong power words you can use for almost any skill or achievement imaginable. Check out the guide here: “Revamped Sykes Customer Service quality assurance checklist to improve customer satisfaction” What’s missing in littering essay this bullet point?

The bullet point mentions an improvement but it doesn’t specify by how much customer satisfaction went up. Here’s a better version: “Revamped the quality assurance checklist of Sykes Customer Service team to improve customer satisfaction ratings by 15%” Your job title may have specific industry keywords, such as licensure information, software, or tasks. Including this information in your bullet points is the harvard nsf rwp rwp06, easiest way to tailor your resume for every job. Here are specific examples: “Top 10% in the Dental Hygienists Licensure Exam in Texas” “Improved cost-per-click of littering essay Facebook Ads for online gaming client” Grab a professional resume template from GraphicRiver or browse through our curated list below: We also have plenty of tutorial resources to help you make a great resume: Remember: With the Right Words, There’s No Need to Lie on Your Resume.

Do you sometimes feel like your resume work experience is inadequate compared to there is life on mars, others? Could that be the persuasive, reason you’re not getting called back? There’s a huge chance your resume is just lacking the right details. Use power words, numbers that illustrate successful projects, and spend a little more time curating the job titles and bullet points in your work history. Do frame your work experience in a way that highlights your accomplishments and on mars, best qualities as a candidate. But, avoid stretching the truth, as that won't end up helping you land that job come interview time.

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