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Original college admission essays

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bilingual essay THE DILEMMA OF MODERN BILINGUAL POETRY - VIRTUES AND INDISCRETIONS. Bilingualism/multilingualism in written and admission essays performed poetry is a fascinating and drinking driving essay complicated topic, encompassing many questions, including what type(s) and level(s) of writing does one assign one's varying language capabilities, when and how one uses a translator or editor efficiently, questions regarding research of historical, cultural, socio-economic and geographical events when making references in poetry, politico-social sensitivities across cultural boundaries etc. Not to mention the appropriateness of using one language instead of another, and questions regarding market demands and specifications from publishers. The fact is that many poets are currently writing in original college admission, languages other than their native tongues - for a variety of reasons, and driving with varied success. I have been reading and hearing much bilingual poetry written and published by people from all over the world the admission essays past few years. Poetry writing is not a static process. Even excellent bilingual writers often work quite hard to find the right balance between artistic license, spontaneity, grammatical perfection, spelling, etc.; all the while retaining the special qualities that make poetry literature and universal while still achieving a personal form of ex-pression. My premise is that: a) all writers face the same challenges, b) bilingual ex-pression makes these challenges (and successes and failures) even more poignant, and that c) some authors have learned how to achieve a balance which works - both for themselves, and for their readers .. while others have not.

What strikes me about my own disposition towards bilingual literature is that it affords me an extra set of wings on which to soar .. high above the limitations that both I and others set for myself. I love to experience languages and foreign cultures, and find that multilingual writing gives me the opportunity to reach out to drinking driving essay persons from original essays, many cultures on their turf - whether by way of publishing poetry in different languages, or by performing my poetry in hamlet, different countries .. in Spanish in Buenos Aires; in English in Kathmandu (including reciting my poetry based upon local culture, with references to indigenous vernacular and customs); and at original college essays, home in Norway: to expose the small Norwegian literary community to the larger world by hamlet, reciting poetry in college admission essays, Norwegian, English and Spanish - all in one reading. That being said, there is (in all honesty) an element of extreme sport in it for me - as exemplified by my most recent poetry collection (Three-legged Waltz) which includes poems in best opening cover, Spanish, English and Norwegian - this because I enjoy testing out my interests and skills where other languages are concerned against the appropriate level/form of ex-pression; thus the act of college, multilingual writing becomes a statement and a form of drinking driving, ex-pression in college admission essays, itself. Essay Papers! And yet, there are certain experiences that simply ache to be expressed in French or Spanish, or Norwegian .. and no Greek epic poem is college essays really Greece-inspired in my mind if it does not contain some Greek words or phrases. Latin and Arabic and other languages are also subject to falling victim to my poetic palette. Of course, there is an enormous responsibility connected with such sport. Not only to try to best opening salutation cover get the grammatical and contextual elements correct, but also to college admission essays firmly grasp and communicate across different cultures with sensitivity and just the right amount of foreignness to incite and provoke a stretching of minds and opening salutation hearts within the readers and/or listeners. Poetry is not a precise discipline for most of us - it is full of abandonment, liberties and artistic license .. and at times error and foolhardiness.

My own experiences to date with bilingualism in writing have generally been quite positive. That is perhaps only original admission, because I have learned to soar as an international poet, rather than to continuously knock at the door of national and local arts institutions whose mandate and focus are often more nationalistic and transcultural rather than international. I have also gone my own way in terms of publishing - seeking out or being sought out by cover letter, publishers who are culture-blind and truly international in scope, practice and philosophy. Such institutions are generally quite open artistically, but sometimes place much of the responsibility for bilingual/multilingual proof reading (regarding both language and cultural knowledge) in the hands of the college admission essays artist - at least when one is writing in a tongue which is different than the salutation cover mother tongue of the college admission country where the publisher is physically situated. This is understandable in courses, that many of these publishers are small press enterprises, with limited resources.

Personally, I rather like having their trust, and being responsible for my own artistic ex-pression. Am I sometimes unsure? You bet! Especially when I write about politics or religion, or when I wonder if some socio-political themes acceptable in the Western world will be accepted in Asia or Africa . Poetry may be universal, but ideas and values are often culture-specific. It is college admission that tension that makes bilingual poetry writing and performance a breathtaking sport for essay planning, me, I suppose. I do not speak, write or understand any language anywhere near perfectly. However, desiring to get it right - both linguistically and original college admission essays culturally - and essays crime in canada writing with intent (and on a level commensurate with my linguistic skills and college essays cultural understanding), is always a goal; if not an hamlet essay obsession when writing in any language.

In spite of admission, much research and proof reading, I admit that I do not always get everything perfect. Planning! It happens that I do misunderstand grammatical rules and indigenous nuances in foreign languages, or quite simply use the wrong word in the intended context. Free automatic internet translation services are rarely 100% reliable, and original college admission there exist inaccuracies in many internet articles. I have also experienced that proof readers and translators have sometimes disagreed upon how something is best expressed, creating even more insecurity on my part. And cultural references in poetry can also be problematic, since different persons observe and experience things through different eyes.

Yes, I do react sometimes when I read particularly and consistently faulty English which perhaps could have been avoided by asking (or paying) someone to drinking driving essay papers proof read. This goes for native-born English-speaking poets as well as poets who do not have English as their first language. So much is lost for both the college essays author and the reader in best opening letter, such cases - and quite unnecessarily so. But then again, not all speakers of English speak the Queen's English, and if English may be prone to being used or interpreted differently from culture to culture then the same is certainly true for other languages. Here one must also differentiate between creative play with language and idiom, and plain oversight. Sometimes a poet is truly ahead of his/her time, and sometimes just blind to one's own limitations. Learning to discern between oversight/inaccuracy, poetic doodling and literary genius is not always so simple (neither for poet nor audience) in a discipline where most every type of essays, ex-pression is accepted - from planning, poetic and rapturous prose to closely designed feminine rhyme. Admission Essays! Creative doodling and oversight can - in fact - open up for new forms of ex-pression, understanding and linguistic permutations in best, literature, and inaccuracies can sometimes provide valuable learning about original college essays writing and one's own levels of tolerance/intolerance. So in summary, I encourage bilingualism/multilingualism with personal responsibility and growth. Expect that you will make mistakes sometimes, and that you may later discover that you have misinterpreted another culture's idiom or sensibility in your writing. Essays On Organized Crime! When reading the poetry of others try to evaluate some of the admission questions and challenges posed in this essay and the following interview against your own levels of essay on family planning, curiosity and essays personal tolerances.

Writing/art is about exploration, ex-pression and the criss-crossing of perceptions, and is - therefore - never a static process. And perhaps most importantly: don't worry about becoming world-famous. Fame will find you if that is your destiny and disposition - no matter what language you employ. To explore these issues a bit further, I have devised 10 sets of rather pointed questions; and I have asked five excellent international writers to resume ru comment on them, giving their international perspectives. Their varied comments and experiences are - of course - their own, and not necessarily those of the original college admission interviewer. The interviewees include: Jan Oskar Hansen, Fernando Rodríguez, Albert Russo, Victoria Valentine and Diane Oatley. 1) In an age of increasing bilingualism/multilingualism in written, performed and published poetry one might wonder what the drive or impetus is. Would you say it is: a) a need/desire to essay on family reach a global market; b) a need/desire to stand out from poets who are only writing in their mother tongue; c) a personal ego-trip or a form of literary extreme sport; d) an awareness that many things simply must be expressed in a foreign language; or e) all four of the/some of the preceding; or f) something else? J O H: A sense of college essays, not getting anywhere in my own language. (A feeling of inadequacy, memories of failures and so on). And yes, reaching a bigger audience too. Best Opening Salutation Letter! F R: It is very candid to project an original image, according to on organized crime one's original intention, in original, another language, where also, perhaps, a point of contact exists.

The point of contact being between two languages; through language from the drinking driving essay papers experience of the author who sails daily between these two languages. For me, actually, it is a way to original college essays sail strange waters in as much as sailing them has become a part of my homo poeticum, an important part of my writing identity. Sometimes I feel in Spanish and I write it thinking about on family Norwegian. For that reason my texts translated into Norwegian are an interactive work of original essays, cooperation and experiences, on best opening cover a concrete linguistic existential level -- between the author and his translator. To live in original college admission, Norway , a small country where nevertheless so many languages co-exist, causes me to prioritize Norwegian, instead of English or French, for this same reason; not to speak of other romance languages, that in the text are nearer Spanish, my maternal language. A R: I have indeed a strong desire to reach out to a global market; in my case it is not a sport and best opening salutation letter least of all an college admission ego-trip but rather an existential need, for English and salutation French are part and parcel of original essays, my mental (and I should add 'emotional') structure, and if I don't write in one language for a period of time, I feel like an orphan; for I consider both languages as my native tongues (my mother being British, and I have been educated in these two languages from the very start). Then comes Italian, my 'paternal' tongue (my father was Italian), and since I love languages, I also speak Spanish and German, and have a vernacular knowledge of Dutch, Swahili and Portuguese (which I can only read, but not speak). To stress my point, I would go so far as to claim that we, language speakers, are underprivileged, confronted with musicians, painters and sculptors, for they possess a universal language, which even the all-encompassing polyglot could never dream of hamlet essay by eliot, achieving. V V: I believe the driving force combines the desire to express and share one's native tongue - a poet's emotional fulfillment of delivering enrichment of original college admission, their culture to another country (shout it to the world so to speak) - and of course, the accomplishment and pride of acceptance by other cultures. 2) Much modern-day poetry is self-published or published by altruistic small press enterprises, many of which do not have the resources or capacity for hamlet, multilingual editing.

This puts quite a bit of responsibility on the author himself/herself. What are the most common indiscretions or literary problems you have observed in poetry written in another language other than one's mother tongue, and original admission essays how might they be solved by the author/publisher? Are editors/proof readers/translators usually sensitive enough to the intended artistry of poetry, or do they sometimes tend to suggest changes which flatten out the opening salutation cover letter intended meanings? J O H: I rely on editors to take time to help correct my work; even if I self-published I would still need, if not an editor, a proof reader. But if my work is translated I would prefer that a poet do the work. F R: The problem, if we can call it a problem - it is perhaps better to call it the requirements of the original college essays publishers - is on organized crime in canada one of referential order. When the language sometimes pronounces in that no-man's land and of all which is essays multilingualism, the reading of the essay text is often, if not always, interpreted by college essays, the referring premises; either national references or those of a strictly personal nature; they also respond to on organized an intention limited for reasons of market, ideology and, more rarely mentioned, religion. Even though a translator identifies himself entirely in his soul, or in the worst case, with an original essays author who represents the contemporary ex-pression of the day, or as I said before, ideologically, the result is spurious for drinking driving essay, the simple reason that the contexts and the experiences are different. Consider, for example, the Argentine translations of the beat poets, or those passionate translations of the French symbolists to the Argentinean dialect. Still the remarkable translations of Borges to Spanish, are recreations of authors who he possibly considered translatable, but always from his own perspective of the literary world exemplified by Borges (known to the common reader as Borgiano).

In my case, my translations into Norwegian are the consequence of a permanent dialogue between two languages where the original admission essays referring ones are not so distant, for essays on organized in canada, the simple reason that I have lived in this country for 22 years. A R: Since bilingual, not to essays speak of best salutation, multilingual editions, are not considered commercial ventures, they belong to college a tiny, almost negligent niche in literature; and I admire the rare publishers and essay editors who devote their time, expertise and energy to producing such books or reviews. College Admission Essays! Small presses are usually very careful and do a good job editing, although, with the proliferation of Internet literary sites, there is a slackening tendency. A poet who writes in a language which is not his/her mother tongue should insist on having his/her work proof read and edited, and the more so if the work is self-published. V V: Grammar, sentence structure and verb tense are issues I've encountered when considering bilingual/multicultural poetry for on family, publication in my magazines and original admission essays digests. Resume! I do receive a good share of 'poorly written' bilingual work (as well as 'poorly written' work in English). If any piece falls below Skyline Magazine standards, I would have to college admission reject it. As an independent small press publisher, I do not have the resources to translate or critique. I never alter or correct any poet's work, or dampen their ex-pression or enthusiasm.

If I like a piece, and find a serious error, I would then consult the writer, but I must admit, I find 'poetic accent' charming and acceptable. My readers appreciate the talent and ambition of the ru multilingual poet. We would not disparage a poet for a misplaced preposition or for an improper tense. We are forgiving of the poet who is unable to original college admission essays afford an editor and/or translator. We herald the efforts of multilingual poets for their amazing ability to create texts in hamlet by eliot, other languages and to persevere in a highly challenging venue.

3) It must be quite a sensational achievement to publish poetry in a language other than one's mother tongue, or to have the original freedom and dexterity to choose which language a poem or part of a poem or an entire collection of technical writing, poetry will be in -- without having to employ a translator. Can you comment on this virtue, and the exhilaration experienced when one succeeds? J O H: When I sent a poem to an English magazine for original college, the very first time, it was rejected; but the rejection was followed by best opening cover letter, a letter urging me to go on, telling me that I was on the right track and THAT was exhilarating. If I had not been so rudely rejected by Norwegian editors, I might not have undertaken some efforts which have, at times, been too absorbing. F R: My poems which are written directly in Norwegian or English normally have been inspired by alcohol or by a woman; both agents of another euphoria which is more transitory than indelible; the result which normally has been rather more anecdotal than literary. Original College Admission! I write in essay, Spanish with translations to Norwegian and that is sufficient for me, so far. My first translated poems were motivated by the curiosity of my Norwegian friends, not so much in order to become acquainted with my poems in their own language, but perhaps to verify that I really am a poet, or to verify that my poetry was a serious talent or endeavour. I am equally thankful for the translations by two friends, Eivind and Lasse (whose last names I will not mention here), which I eventually added to a handful of college essays, poems that I later published under my own publishing seal, Círculo de Oslo Forlag (a bilingual edition, published in hamlet essay by eliot, Spanish and Norwegian).

Once published, I could verify that a large group of poetry readers exist in this corner of the original admission world, and in spite of best opening salutation cover letter, these rather modest publications, I received good commentaries and I sold out the complete edition. Now, that which for me is an original college admission essays apparent paradox, is that the most avid readers of these poems, have been those readers whose native language is drinking driving essay papers Norwegian. A R: Yes, there is a 'freedom' and college admission essays an exhilaration in writing in essay, another language which is different from the feeling one has, writing in admission essays, one's mother tongue. Having taught languages for several decades to adults, I observed a recurring attitude in the learner: as he/she progressed and got more fluent, he/she began to technical writing express him/herself in a manner which he/she could not in his/her mother tongue. There was a sense of freedom never before attained. Of course, writing is a much more serious enterprise, and the responsibility on the creator is proportionate to the endeavour. V V: I can only imagine the gratification a multilingual poet experiences, who possesses the original college admission ability to compose expertly in more than one language without the use of a translator, and has been accepted into other cultures. It's an admirable feat not easily achieved.

4) What are the literary career risks if one fails miserably -- how forgiving and how understanding is the literary community (other writers, readers of poetry, editors and critics)? Is it perhaps acceptable to write some bad bilingual poetry, inevitable to essay by eliot perform some bilingual poetry badly but unforgivable to publish bad bilingual poetry? J O H: To write second-rate bilingual poetry is not acceptable. A proper editor would not be influenced by that. College! I used to make that very clear in the beginning (my first wife used to say; You write well for best opening cover, a foreigner) and it never failed to send me into a deep depression. Failure! What can I say? Try, try again if you believe in yourself. College Admission Essays! F R: In Norway I am considered a bilingual author, and technical writing courses I am treated as such in that my texts are published or read in both languages.

As a bilingual poet, I am fascinated by the interplay between my original and the translated versions, and I enjoy seeing how the original becomes transformed through the translation process. As far as giving a specific answer to your question: if poetry is a form to exert freedom through language, this in one or another way is manifested -- simply by the fact that the existence of the text is in itself a belligerent act. How then can we speak of good and bad poetry? A R: It is always unforgivable to college admission essays write poorly in on family, whatever language one chooses to write. College! If one wants to start writing in another language, one has to be as precise and as scrupulous as possible, and never submit work for publication that hasn't been reviewed by a native editor. I love the example of essay papers, Joseph Conrad who started learning English in his adult years, and who eventually became one the original great authors of the English language. V V: I do not accept any form of poetry that I feel is below par for Skyline Magazine, regardless of who has written it. We have high standards for resume, publication.

I do feel however, that I allow more freedom of composition and poetic license to multilingual poets. As a publisher, I find no particular risk in doing so, as my readers appreciate the efforts of writers who undertake this difficult task. They are energetic and courageous, poetic pioneers, and should be rewarded for their extraordinary efforts. We must give them every opportunity to sharpen their multicultural writing skills and encourage them. Even in the face of original college essays, failure, writing is driving papers a learning experience for essays, all of ru, us, in original college essays, all cultures. There is always room for hamlet by eliot, improvement and growth. 5) How important is admission it to publish in English today? What advice do you have for a poet who is writing bilingually, or who is considering writing bilingually? J O H: Don't do it unless you have a deep emotional understanding of the language, its hidden poetry and mystique.

F R: Very important, considering the legacy of the English language in literature; especially in poetry, where the references are unavoidable for any serious poet, not to drinking essay papers mention that English is the first transactional language of the original college essays world, followed by Spanish. I believe that, under the hamlet essay eaves of Shakespeare and Cervantes, our foundation is very solid. I think about original essays Isaac B. Singer who wrote his books in Yiddish with translation into English, where he worked quite closely with his translators. On the other hand, poetry translations done by poets usually are quite good - that is, as soon as one settles upon a species of dialogue between two poetic beings through language. Even so, the driving essay result is usually a transubstantiation of the original admission essays poet, translated to the language of the poet who translates it. On the other hand, the perfect translator does not exist; to think the opposite is simply a projection of best opening cover, your own narcissism. A R: The importance of writing in English depends on one's ambition. There are other international languages, albeit not as global as English, through which one can reach a vast readership, such as Spanish, Chinese, French or Portuguese. That being said, I'm all for writing in one's mother tongue, be it Urdu, Tagalog or Finnish, for diversity is original admission what makes our world interesting and rich. Then, if you wish to use another more international language, in essay by eliot, order to reach a wider audience, you have to face up to original the responsibility of doing it in the best and most efficient manner. V V: It is important to publish English today.

It is important to driving papers publish all languages today, as nations are merging with more frequency. Original Admission Essays! We must learn about each other, accept one another, for the advancement of all talents and cultures. Essays In Canada! Skyline's motto and firm belief, from admission, day one: Bringing The World Together Thru The Arts. We can help promote greater understanding and tolerance through literature and arts. I would encourage a multilingual writer to drinking essay papers read the college essays original texts and planning translations of college admission, other writers. Submerge themselves in all styles and cultures.

As with any literature, study your market and submit accordingly. Multilingual writers should seek out publications that are familiar with and publish multicultural writing. 6) How do you react to rabota ru poetry written in poor English, poor Spanish or poor French -- are there certain limits as to what you can accept as a reader and professional, and how much artistic license should be permissible from a bilingual/multilingual poet? J O H: Bad poetry is bad in any language. It must said that I used to be dismissive of some Indian poetry until I understood that they use the English language somewhat differently. One of original college admission essays, my favourite poets is Pradip Choudhuri. I sometimes invent words if I can't find the right one, and editors think it is I who gets the essay languages mixed up. But what is bad poetry? No one sits down and original says: I'm going to write a really bad poem. Essays In Canada! Personally I dislike sentimental poems/dishonest poems/me alone against the whole world poems, and poems that contain filthy words when it's not needed.and if I read another poem about the fucking moon, I'll scream. F R: Bad poets exist in all literature, but bad poetry is quite another thing.

The challenging thing in reading so-called bad poetry, is to recognize the intention of the admission essays author and to identify its referential linguistics. One more reading, more even-tempered than critical, of that which is by eliot fixedly called bad poetry, can sometimes prompt us to play at original college admission essays, reconstructing the original intention. Technical Courses! A R: I react badly, for as I said earlier, if one is not proficient enough, one has to do everything to college improve his/her skills and consult an on family expert, and not submit anything for publication that is not near perfect. V V: Although I am a perfectionist with my own written work, as a reader, I do not especially look for perfection, per say. I don't dissect. This does not mean that I would publish 'anything', but rather that I find interest and beauty in words . and in admission, a broad variety of material. As a reader and publisher, I look for essays on organized in canada, meaningful, engaging literature-poetry of all genre that moves me emotionally, in all directions. I want to feel what the writer is expressing. I want to experience their words-to visualize their ex-pression. I can overlook minor bilingual/multilingual flaws, but I would reject anything hollow or barren, regardless of the college essays writer's nationality.

Fine poetry must be intelligent, have a consistent flow and deliver a specific message, regardless of its origin. I think I would be less tolerant of poor English than poor multilingual writing. I'm sure this is because I deal more with American poets. I want to offer the rabota resume ru benefit of doubt to original essays the writer who is learning and struggling. They deserve it. It's the 'message' I am seeking, and technical writing will give leeway on how it's delivered, as long as the passion and talent are brilliantly engaged.

7) What do you think established large press enterprises think of and look for in bilingual poetry? Are they and/or most literary magazines in your country of residence open to publishing bilingual poetry, or poetry written by persons who have another mother tongue? J O H: I live in college, Portugal . I sent an English-written manuscript to a publisher here in essay, Portugal , but unless you're very famous . (To be dead is helpful too.) No one wants to know. I don't really blame them. I have made attempts to write in Portuguese, but find the grammar too restraining. F R: In Norway , as I also suppose is the case in other countries, there exists a cultural policy that in principle and aim protects its cultural values based on its historical and political traditions. Original! Thus it is so that, according to these parameters, I believe that commercial publication of bilingual editions of poetry generally requires government support and mandates; and in canada current national policy leaves little room for such at the present time. College Admission! In Norway officially approved books are subsidized by the state with the drinking driving essay papers purchase of a considerable number of each book to be distributed to various institutions of the Kingdom, such as libraries etc. As the press (as much as the college magazines) has a certain influence in this country, they accordingly in one way or another respond to these directives most faithfully.

A R: In France , bilingual publishers are almost non-existent -- save for school books. V V: Although I cannot speak for other publishers, especially for the motivations of large publishing houses, I would assume they look for intellectual texts that are expertly translated and well written; employing the same standards they would use for English texts. I doubt they give much latitude to any writers. I would think they seek perfection. Technical Courses! Publishing wonderfully-composed multicultural texts is an original college admission enriching experience for any publication, and large houses would strive for the very finest. I believe there is a flourishing market for multicultural texts in the USA , as for English writing in essays crime in canada, other countries. 8) Who are your favourite contemporary bilingual/multilingual poets, and why?

J O H: Fernando Pessoa was bilingual, (English) but I prefer his Portuguese poems. College Admission Essays! F R: Kevin Johansen, because he is on family a not in actuality a poet, but rather a modern-day troubadour who moves between two worlds and two languages where he nicely shapes his condition for being and not being poetic - non-poetic I would say, with humour and distance. A distance which is signified by original admission, his Nordic origin, transplanted to hamlet by eliot the USA and Argentina . A sort of continual refugee - sometimes singing in English and sometimes in Castilian - constantly playing with questions about identity: 'To be or not to be'. Do you happen to admission essays know his work? A R: One of them is Adam Donaldson Powell, for he has the rabota resume ru sensitivity and breadth which I find quite exceptional.

His Weltanshauung is college admission combined with an intelligence of the heart - in short, empathy. Great writers and poets cannot only be talented cynics, they have to show compassion, at least that is how I value great literature. And Adam Donaldson Powell has all of this combined in his poetic work - he is also an artist and a musician, which makes him a renaissance man. Opening! V V: I can't say that I have favourites, as I have had the pleasure of reading the work of so very many wonderful writers, but I would say that I am partial to those who create flowing, free verse. Original Admission! Amitabh Mitra writes wonderful poetry in hamlet by eliot, English, his poems a strong reflection of his Indian heritage. I find his writing sensual and intriguing. So if I were to have favourites, Amitabh would be at the top of my list. Original Admission! I also admire the vision and work of Sheema Kalbasi, who is a human rights activist, poet and resume ru translator. Original College! Besides being multilingual, she is essay by eliot multi-talented!

There are too many fine talents in this world to select just a few. 9) Do you feel that most contemporary literary critics and original college editors are well-enough equipped to properly judge your bilingualism? J O H: Yes I think so. Hamlet! When I once wrote THAT instead of WHO about people my editor wanted to keep it in, but I refused. Original College Essays! But there are magazine editors who reject my work point blank because it sounds foreign. But that's okay. F R: Surely there exist one -- and perhaps several, who want(s) to believe, that he/they read(s) poetry in the secret catacombs of true knowledge -- hidden to the public eye.

These persons will always exist. They are the essays true critics of the future, those that read and write their critical commentaries in their own languages, including some languages and dialects which are in danger of extinction. But they will eventually appear upon the great stage, and they will re-take into their hands the pens which were snatched from them. A R: No, they are indeed a rarity and we, bilingual/multilingual writers are often considered as mavericks, especially here in France. V V: Unfortunately I am not bilingual, but have had two of my own short stories translated by the French editor Eric Tessier, and college admission essays published in the esteemed French Magazine, Place au[x] sens. I am unable to offer an opinion as to whether or not other publishers and critics are well-equipped to properly judge bilingualism. However, I have found the editors and translators I have worked with to be competent, fair-minded and best salutation extremely dedicated. 10) Do you have other comments you would like to add to original admission this discussion?

J O H: You have given me many things to think about. Both my collections Letters from on organized in canada, Portugal and La Strada had an editor. I'm lousy as a proof reader of my own work. The reason is that it is right in my head. I self-published a collection of poetry Lunch in Denmark and college admission only when the book was printed did I see the myriads of grammatical and spelling flaws. As an autodidact I'm feeling the language more than actually knowing it; that's because I think in English sentences.

The drawback is when I read Norwegian. Crime In Canada! I'm too critical of my own language when I read the news on the internet (for example Norwegian tabloids). They seem to original college admission be written to suit the lowest nominator; the best salutation letter language has been flattened. But having been away from Norway for so long my views could be old-fashioned. When writing in English there are moments when I don't find the original college right word, but I don't think about what it is called in Norwegian. I sort of work around and find an essays on organized ex-pression that fits. College Essays! English is an elastic language, but I still make so many mistakes.

It always embarrasses me because I can see them when they are pointed out to me, and I spend much time kicking myself. I'm therefore glad when an editor takes the time (and indiscretions). But there are times when an editor proposes to change the planning ending of a poem, and that's bloody annoying. F R: Yes, I am done except for the following question: Which Norwegian poet, really fulfills the conditions of being both a catalyst and bridge for admission essays, dialogue between two or more languages? I mean, a poetic catalyst that can create a multilingual arena in the Norway of today? Perhaps Erling Kittelsen, a true advocate for bilingual literature -- both in Norway and in other countries. A R: This discussion could never end, but I shall stop here. V V: As the publisher and salutation cover editor of Skyline Literary Magazine and A Hudson View International Poetry Digest, I am constantly reading stories and college admission poetry. You would think that after a while, all would blend together and I would become desensitized. However, I'm still like a kid in a toy store when I read submissions - and best opening cover letter a perfect description is that I become 'overtaken' by certain pieces - even 'awed'.

I am very emotional and crave the satisfaction of 'words.' I seek intense and intelligent-thought provoking, unique and intellectual writing. I find multicultural poetry to fulfill these requirements, more often than not. Essays! But again, I am a lover of the written word. As they say, beauty is in the eye of the beholder, in on organized in canada, my humble opinion; the wonder of words is original admission essays a perceptual gift for both author and reader. Thank you for essays on organized in canada, the opportunity and honour of participating in your interview and discussion concerning multilingual poetry. A D P: One thing is certain: this discussion could not (and perhaps should not) ever end.

I am truly impressed by the enthusiasm of the interviewees, their candidness and the many different perspectives and opinions given. I am also quite pleased to original essays sense the high degree of dedication to the art of poetry expressed, given that poetry is perhaps not the rabota resume ru most lucrative form for writing in this day and age. And finally, I am overjoyed to see that several international poets can affirm that poetry is still a vital art form in contemporary literature, and an important mechanism for original admission essays, communication and understanding between persons from diverse cultures. Well, someone always gets to have the last word. The person I have chosen to rabota ru conclude this discussion with her remarks is the esteemed international poet/essayist/translator Ms. Diane Oatley. Her commentary follows: Concluding remarks by Diane Oatley. For me it is a very simple matter of original, actually achieving proficiency in more than one language and where it becomes an artistic challenge to explore the experience of writing in both. I have also been interested in combining two (or more) different languages in salutation, a performance or written context as a means of exploring the essays resonances that arise between the different languages. It goes without saying however that in a globalised environment that more languages equals greater connection with a larger readership. For me it is not about ego.

Poetry writing has never been something I have consciously chosen: I began writing poetry in Norwegian (my second language) simply because the poetry began coming to writing courses me also in Norwegian. Always for me the artistic considerations and the context are key - who is the admission audience you are trying to hamlet essay reach, what are you trying to express and how can you best achieve both. I agree with AR. This is college a given: the author needs to be at all times aware of his/her own limitations and it surprises me as well that anyone submits anything to a publisher/editor without having shared it with at least one other writer. There comes a point in the writing process where even when one is writing in one's own native language that one needs input from others, simply because one lacks the necessary distance. What one does with the input is up to the writer but resistance only aids the driving essay papers creative process - being put in a position to reconsider and defend one's artistic choices is very healthy and can only improve one's work. The minute I read anything on essays the Internet or otherwise in on organized crime in canada, English that is peppered with spelling mistakes and missing punctuation or worse just poor language I lose any interest in the content (I stop reading in other words). We are language professionals - this is our craft and it goes without saying that if one has any respect whatsoever for the art of poetry one also understands the complexity of poetic language and how fragile is the structure of a truly successful poem.

A single syllable out of place can deconstruct a poem in its entirety. The work I have done where I have used two languages has always been in connection with performances and original admission the feedback has always been extremely positive. Essays! This has meaning for college, me only to the extent that I feel that I have realised my own artistic objectives with the project at hand. Define bad. Again, I don't understand how any poet would be willing to out themselves by presenting sub-standard work. For me it comes back to a sincere interest in the craft of writing in in canada, itself: why are you doing it?

For attention? Then I guess you deserve what ever fall-out comes your way. Writing in essays, a second language does not in my mind imply a lowering of standards in any sense. I am interested in reading good literature. Period. I don't think it is important to write in English, but then I am a native English speaker so perhaps there are issues here that don't effect me and of which I am unaware. Hamlet Essay By Eliot! Personally I am witnessing the Norwegian language slowly deteriorating due to the incorporation of anglicisms and this is sad. I like Spain /the Spanish because they are so perversely obstinate about doing everything in their own language.

And my advice for bilingual poets is to follow the urge but if your urge is based on a desire to make a lot of money you are deluded. See my response to question 4. There is an enormous potential here, in the sense of a non-native language poet being able to essays enrich and make contributions to the second language through their work. Rabota Ru! This however is only possible to the extent that they master the second language sufficiently to college essays actually write poetry. First we walk, then we dance. Technical Courses! First learn to write a decent sentence. Then you can think about writing poetry. Faulkner maintained that poetry is in fact the most difficult form of writing and I tend to agree. But then I guess it depends on original admission your definition of poetry: I am so not interested in resume ru, sentiment or political statements broken down into lines on a page.

For me this is not poetry. For me poetry always functions at the level of admission essays, language, the driving papers poet seeks to transgress and original college bend the rules and conventions of language at many levels (semantically, in terms of syntax and rhythm). As such it goes without saying that you must first know the rabota resume ru rules in order to college admission essays break or bend them or even play with them in drinking papers, a meaningful manner. Admission! Bilingual editions are like exotic flowers. There is very little money to be made on essays in canada them and if poets are smart they will understand this.

As difficult as it is to college essays publish poetry in general, bilingual editions are that much more impossible. I think poets need to think outside of the box here too, and be willing to explore other alternatives (self-publishing, performance works, visual presentation). I am also interested in simply creating beautiful books - a bilingual edition holds a unique potential here and it is up to the poet to drinking driving essay explain and promote that potentiality and not least have fun with it! I think as well that for poets there is an enormous potential here for creating meaningful and political constellations among ourselves − an international forum whereby we can enhance, experiment, discuss and original college essays support one another in our work. Technical! I would love to collaborate for example, with a poet working in original admission essays, a language that I don't master − do readings together, or create texts using two different languages. I think the results could be interesting and that above all, unexpected things will happen, openings will arise.

Beckett. I also want to say the French writer Hélène Cixous but she has actually only published one bilingual edition that I know of - and she was not personally responsible for the English language text (someone translated from the rabota ru original French). It was however, a beautiful book/translation and I loved reading the two texts side by side in the respective (French/English) languages − I think I will never finish with that text (To Live the original college admission Orange , Vivre L'Orange). Drinking Driving! No, I don't think so and mainly because it is a rarity and an innovation also. There remains an enormous conservatism within the literary community and poets suffer from original, this. Again, we need to take responsibility for this and technical writing courses surely the original college essays work will speak for itself? If there is an drinking audience, we will reach it. I think there is a need for a discussion regarding why in original college, fact bilingual editions are even interesting. Given that the world is getting smaller, certainly there are more and more writers functioning in more than one language. What are the potentialities here in best opening cover, terms of original college admission, artistic ex-pression? That is the by eliot interesting question for me.

The book I had published through AIM Chapbooks in 2003 was an attempt to explore this - as I did not create a two language edition per se, but wrote two different poetic texts that spoke with one another and where one could also read each individual language text as a poem in its own right. This for original college essays, me is an essay interesting point of departure, more so than a two language edition which essentially is only meaningful in two senses: 1. Original Admission! It makes the work available to a larger readership. 2. It opens for a discussion regarding the translation of poetry. I am more interested in seeing the two respective languages in action, as it were, at the same time. How do they resonate against one another in interaction? Ideally I feel also that there is an affect that arises here which inevitably enhances the spatiality of a poetic ex-pression, a dimension which I feel is increasingly lost in much of the poetry I read. And actually, in writing, Norway this type of (bilingual) ex-pression is possible because most Norwegians who read poetry have a good working knowledge of English (which is my mother tongue) and are able to understand enough to get something out of the admission essays experience. Proofreaders charge by the hour.

They are not expensive. Use one. It will take a proofreader two hours to get through a 100-page poetry manuscript. For me it is completely irresponsible even self-destructive not to recognize that A WRITER CANNOT AND SHOULD NOT DO EVERYTHING! Any good editor knows this.

You create the art; get a second or third opinion from someone qualified on the content and/or language. Resume Ru! Keep editing (are you in a hurry? Take the time with your craft. Admission! ). And then hire a proofreader. If you are broke, trade proofreading favours with a colleague. Let's focus on creating good work, on being innovators with responsibility for and a deep commitment to our art.

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Socrates And Glaucon Essays and Research Papers. Glaucon vs. Original? Socrates In Book Two of The Republic, Glaucon tests Socrates view of justice. On Family? . Socrates believes that “injustice is never more profitable than justice” (31). With this, he describes how the original essays, good life is determined by driving whether you are just or unjust. College Admission? Socrates explains how justice is observed through the genuine acts of human character; justice is evaluated by how morally right one is. Glaucon however challenges this idea, as he wishes to be shown why being just is desirable. He trusts. Ethics , Human , Morality 1004 Words | 3 Pages.

In Plato's Republic, Glaucon is introduced to drinking essay papers the reader as a man who loves honor, sex, and luxury. As The Republic progresses through books . and Socrates ' arguments of how and why these flaws make the soul unhappy began to piece together, Glaucon relates some of original college admission these cases to his own life, and begins to see how Socrates ' line of reasoning makes more sense than his own. Best Opening Cover? Once Glaucon comes to this realization, he embarks on original college, a path of change on his outlook of what happiness is, and hamlet essay by eliot, this change is. Ethics , Happiness , Justice 1047 Words | 3 Pages. In the book, Plato Republic, Socrates had a discussion with Thrasymachus and Glaucon about justice and unjustice. In this essay, . I shall argue that Plato’s solution of the temptation of the ring is successful in a few ways. I will describe Thrasymachus and original essays, Glaucon’s idea about justice, and how Socrates discuss with them in terms of the justice of the city, justice of individual soul, his theory of forms and the importance of the knowledge of the essay on family, good, and the sun analogy and the allegory of the college admission essays, cave. Form of the Good , Justice , Mind 1916 Words | 5 Pages. Jennifer Conklin Question Three September 20, 2011 Socrates predominately values the state of the soul, therefore his decision to remain in . prison, contrary to Crito’s wishes, condemning himself to death is the on organized crime, only plausible option. Admission Essays? Socrates values focus on the soul, and the ways the state of the soul can remain in its best condition (Phil.

100 notes, 15 September). Support for this statement is readily visible when Socrates addresses the best salutation, Athenian citizens: “For I go around doing nothing. Ethics , Immortality , Life 1153 Words | 4 Pages. state from the people who apply them. Socrates poses the question: should the individual obey the state every time the state asks . something of original essays him or her? Socrates ’ believes that an individual of the state has an obligation to that state and its laws. Planning? However, in return, the state cannot ask its citizens to do anything unjust. Socrates is willing to disobey the laws of original college state because he is afraid to do anything unjust. When Socrates is sentenced to the death penalty he replies. Capital punishment , Death penalty , Ethics 456 Words | 3 Pages. Plato introduces several arguments that Socrates makes on whether or not it would be just for him to escape from prison when the rabota resume, Athenians have . not acquitted him.

Socrates begins by arguing that one must never do wrong. One of the most compelling arguments that he goes on original college essays, to make is on family planning, that doing harm to someone is wrong and therefore one must never engage in retaliatory harm. Under certain circumstances, such as self-defense, retaliatory harm is necessary. Original College? Socrates also argues that whenever you violate. Argument , Crito , Crito of Alopece 1537 Words | 4 Pages. Humanities Prof. Smith SOCRATES Socrates was a man of essay by eliot many words, with more thoughts and questions than any man of original admission essays his time. . Socrates wrote nothing himself, leaving much of his life a mystery.

As mysterious as he was, today we look at him as the Father of Philosophy. Driving Essay Papers? Most of what we know about him was depicted through works that Plato, his pupil, had written about him. These works were Crito, Phaedo, Lysis, Symposium, Euthyphyro and Apology, and with them being written Socrates was remembered as being. Aristotle , Logic , Philosophy 1594 Words | 4 Pages. The most noticeable comparison between Jesus Christ and college, Socrates was that the charges against them. They were both seen as an “evil” influence . to the townspeople because of their different ways to rabota ru see life and for their beliefs on religion. Jesus was considered a heretic because he preached monotheism in college essays a polytheistic world. He called himself the best opening cover letter, messiah, a divine being and admission essays, the son of God and the Jews saw that as a major offence.

The Roman Government did not like that Jesus questioned the oppressiveness. God , God in Christianity , Jesus 1594 Words | 4 Pages. knowledge C abandons philosphy and planning, develops the original college, rhetoric (technique) of deception 1 How to play to peoples emotions (not reason) 2 How to driving employ the . powers of original college suggestion D Gorgias' position is on family, called ontological and ethical nihilism SOCRATES 4 major concepts, picked up and college admission, developed by platon 1 Soul psyche 2 DIALECTIC - phaedo 88-91 3 Irony 4 Eidos(form) Dia- through logos- word language, throught language we can understand what something is if we talk about it long enough. Dialectic , Mind , Perception 1725 Words | 6 Pages. 399 BC a very well-known argument took place in Piraeus. The mentioned years are the time period that Socrates lived, the argument evolves . mainly on the concept of justice and the goal is to come to an operational account for it. Throughout this argument lots of essay planning accounts are given by different participants, which all get opposed by Socrates . Two of these contributors are Thrasymachus and Glaucon . The former argues that justice is the original college admission, advantage of the stronger while the latter argues that justice. Aristotle , Ethics , Human 1380 Words | 4 Pages. Justice versus Injustice: An Interpretation of Socrates Dialogues. ? 2710 Words Justice versus Injustice: An Interpretation of Socrates Dialogues The dialogical philosophy of Socrates , the . extensity to which Socrates used dialogues and questions in the search for truth is well explicated in on family planning Plato’s book the original college admission essays, republic, a compilation of what is widely acknowledged as Socrates ’ contribution in the realm of knowledge.

The republic, which comprises of book I to book X, exonerates a variety of Socrates dialogues in the endeavor to address problems of on family philosophy related. City , Ethics , Human 2753 Words | 7 Pages. Disnerys Molina Wisdom means being wise, intellectual, or all-knowing. It is essays, associated with a certain calmness, and a willingness to look at all . the facts and make a well-informed decision. In Oedipus the technical courses, King by original essays Sophocles and Apology by Socrates we see how wisdom isn’t in crime in canada all entirety a positive thing to have. ‘’alas how terrible is wisdom when it brings no profit to admission essays the man that’s wise ‘’ – Oedipus, in this quote we see how Oedipus feels as if he has this wonderful wisdom but doesn’t know. Creon , Epistemology , Oedipus 965 Words | 3 Pages. The Republic: Socrate vs. Thrasymachus. is not in accord with Socrates ', who refutes it with much discontent by Thrasymachus.

He is accused of being a sycophant in addition to not . Writing? being capable of answering anything but only to provide refutations to any opinion mentioned before him (336c). College Admission? Thrasymachus is begged not to essay planning leave the original college admission essays, conversation and to stay and discuss what he has just revealed to come to essay papers conclusion as to what justice really entails. To discuss what Thrasymachus first defines justice as, Socrates points out admission that rulers. Arts , Ethics , Justice 1368 Words | 4 Pages. What according to Socrates is best, a just city. According to original admission essays Socrates a just city where most of the on organized crime, population is virtuous, because a just city is based on the virtues of wisdom, moderation, . and courage. The reason the college essays, city came into existence was for justice, not pleasure and rabota ru, happiness. Wisdom and good judgment are based upon knowledge.

Also, Socrates examines the college essays, effect of wealth on craftsmen, and states that if a potter gets rich, he will not be concerned for his craft and will become lazy and a bad potter; unless he remains poor, then he wont. Ethics , Justice , Philosophy 1333 Words | 4 Pages. The Defintion of Justice by Socrates. examines many different aspects of the human condition. Plato reveals his opinions of Socrates by essays showing how other humans function and . interact with one another. Socrates looks very closely at morality and the most important values people choose to college hold. One value Socrates and his colleagues spend a lot of time looking at essay is the principle of justice. Admission? Multiple definitions of hamlet justice are laid out while Socrates analyzes and questions the validity of college admission them.

As each definition begins to form it shows. Definition , Ethics , Extensional definition 1276 Words | 4 Pages. ******** ****** * *** ** **** Socrates , the Philosopher Socrates was a Greek Philosopher who was particularly . “interesting.” What made him interesting was that he was very unique compared to all the other Athens during 469 B.C. . This ranged from looks, the way he thought, and his actions. Back then, looking good was the measured through the standards of the gods. Socrates , who didn’t really care for appearance, looked very “ugly” compared to the others. Socrates had wide eyes that darted sideways. Ethics , Human , Philosophy 850 Words | 3 Pages. Aristophanes Making Fun of Socrates in His Plays: An Analysis. Republic, in essay the piece there are conversations between characters Socrates and Glaucon , Aristophanes, Adeimantus where they try . and explain ideas and original admission essays, views of justice and what a truly just man and/or just state would appear How we come to the decisions as human beings that would be for the greater good of a man and/or state. One conversation between the essay planning, parties was that of how a truly just state would look like and Socrates answers by declaring that a state might find justice when the overall.

Aristophanes , Aristotle , Philosophy 1033 Words | 3 Pages. Defense on Socrates There are times in every mans life where our actions and beliefs collide?these collisions are known as contradictions. . There are endless instances in which we are so determined to make a point that we resort to using absurd overstatements, demeaning language, and false accusations in our arguments. This tendency to contradict ourselves often questions our character and morals. Similarly, in college admission essays The Trial of Socrates (Plato's Apology), Meletus' fallacies in essay reason and his eventual. Apology , Argument , Corruption 1610 Words | 4 Pages. The topic of my paper is the philosophy of original admission essays Socrates . Specifically I will discuss Socratic irony and technical courses, the Socratic method of inquiry. The main . points I will cover are; what was Socratic irony, and why did he use the method he did to seek the truth? My paper consists of three main parts. Original Essays? First a description of the more important books by Plato, about Socrates ; sines Plato is the main source for best salutation cover, information about Socrates . The second part is an analysis of the texts, focusing on the above stated topics. Dialogue , Euthyphro , Philosophy 1575 Words | 5 Pages. In the original essays, trial of Socrates , I juror number 307, Ryan Callahan vote the rabota ru, defendant is Not Guilty on college admission, the first charge of Corrupting the drinking driving essay, youth.

My . justifications for this vote are as follows. Socrates didn't corrupt the youth, he just shared his ideas with them and they in turn chose the path to college take these ideas. Part of understanding this case is understand the time in which the resume, case was held. This time being 399 B.C., a time in which Athens was a free democratic city, a town which prided itself. Apology , Democracy , Jury 1555 Words | 4 Pages. whole of the dialogue takes place at Socrates ’ prison cell, where he awaits his execution just days away. It started with . Socrates waking up and finding his friend and loyal disciple Crito there. When Socrates asked how Crito got inside the prison at that early an hour, Crito told him that he simply knows the guard and has done the guard some favor.

Crito then informed Socrates that the original, ship from Delos has already come in resume ru and tomorrow will be his execution. Original Admission Essays? Socrates then told Crito about a dream he had. Argument , Crito , Crito of Alopece 2666 Words | 6 Pages. ? Socrates and papers, Achilles: the Martyr Heroes Madelyn Vogel ILS 205 By comparing himself to original admission essays the Greek hero Achilles before the jury in Plato’s . Essays Crime? Apology, Socrates attempts to portray himself as a hero of equal merit to Achilles and others of original college essays similar standing. By selecting the greatest of the Classical Greeks to compare and ru, contrast himself to in his argument, Socrates surreptitiously urges his audience to view him as being of the same caliber as Achilles. This not only authenticates Socrates ’ claims.

Achilles , Greek mythology , Hector 1452 Words | 6 Pages. best sources of information about Socrates ' philosophical views are the early dialogues of his student Plato, who tried to provide a faithful . picture of the original essays, methods and teachings of the great master. The Apology is one of the many-recorded dialogues about Socrates . It is about how Socrates was arrested and charged with corrupting the youth, believing in no god(s) (Atheism) and for being a Sophist. He attended his trial and essay, put up a good argument. Original Essays? I believe that Socrates was wrongfully accused and should. Crime , Mind , Philosophy 1136 Words | 3 Pages. Apology: Defence Of Socrates By: Gregory Klima Apology Defense Of Socrates Plato's The Apology is an account of the essay, speech . Socrates makes at the trial in which he is charged with the original college admission, following 1) Not recognizing the gods recognized by essay the state 2) Corrupting the youth of admission Athens For the most part, Socrates spoke in a very plain, conversational manner, as one would speak to a friend or lecture a child. Technical Writing? He explained that he has no experience with courts and original college admission essays, demeanor that comes with , he states. Apology , Delphi , Meletus 1903 Words | 5 Pages. Esther Rodulfa PHL-1010H-LD01 09/18/12 Socrates as eros?

Truly, love takes on many different forms. Love, for many centuries, has been . given many different names. It also serves different functions. To distinguish a specific type of love, one of them is called eros. Planning? How love as eros can be defined is based upon the utilization of a specific writer’s perspective. Numerous published written works may account for the definition of eros. In this Essay, Plato’s perception of love as eros will be. 175 , Apology , Athenian democracy 1805 Words | 5 Pages.

by Plato, a close disciple of Socrates , this text is set along the Illissus river where Phaedrus and Socrates meet for a day of . Original Essays? speech, debate, rhetoric and okay flirting. Phaedrus leads of the best salutation letter, day and recites a speech by his close friend Lysias, who Phaedrus considers to be a top speechmaker. Socrates then, after chiding by Phaedrus unleashes two speeches of original college admission his own that overshadow and refute Lysias claim so boldly that Phaedrus is so taken by the power of Socrates , that Phaedrus I think misses. Critical thinking , Immortality , Logic 2309 Words | 6 Pages. In Socrates ’ apology, he defends himself against all three accusations that have been put in front of him in the court of law; as he stands . there accused, attempting to essay planning convince the jury of college admission his innocence, Socrates uses his more than capable abilities to drinking explain, step by step, that his is not guilty of any of these charges. Original Admission Essays? In my opinion, Socrates accurately explains to drinking driving essay papers the jury that he is not only innocent of these charges but a victim of his accuser for even bringing him into court.

One of Socrates’. Accusation , Apology , Corruption 1192 Words | 3 Pages. something very special to say about that. Socrates and essays, Rene Descartes spent their life looking for the truth. They looked for the perfect . answer to every question because both of essay them wanted the answers no one could have an answer too. Although these men were alive at very different times, they had the same ideas about life. Socrates spent his life looking for original college essays, the truth. He was looked at as being a crazy old man, but that was something he was far from. Technical Writing Courses? Socrates looked for a certain answer he would. Answer , Interrogative word , Mind 920 Words | 3 Pages. Euthyphro – Plato Explain how the concept of holiness emerges in the dialogue and why it takes a prominent position in the conversation . between Socrates and Euthyphro. “Euthyphro answers that there is no difference of opinion, either among gods or men, as to the propriety of punishing a murderer.

Yes, rejoins Socrates , when they know him to be a murderer; but you are assuming the point at issue. If all the circumstances of the case are considered, are you able to show that. Aristotle , Epistemology , Euthyphro 928 Words | 3 Pages. McGrath February 11, 2013 Euthyphro – Plato The Euthyphro is admission essays, a tale of Socrates and Euthyphro. They meet by chance and end up . discussing what is holy and what is piety. Socrates tries to get answers from Euthyphro but because of his unwillingness to ru learn, they end back at college essays the beginning of their discussion. In Euthyphro, we see the crime, three distinct definitions of piety and holiness that is admission essays, given by Euthyphro and how Socrates refutes them. Drinking Driving Papers? This paper will give those definitions and my own argument. Ethics , Euthyphro , Interrogative word 1157 Words | 4 Pages. Socrates Worldview Origin This question focuses on why there is something rather than nothing. Socrates uses the theory of . recollection as evidence to prove his theory of original college admission creation.

This theory of resume creation introduces that our souls have an existence before this earthly life. Socrates believes that, “…the living have come from the college, dead no less than the dead from the living” (72a Phaedo). He then takes the on family, previous statement and concludes, “…that if this was so, it was a sufficient proof that. Death , Good and evil , Immortality 1830 Words | 5 Pages. Socrates believed the most important task, in life, was to care for ones soul. Socrates argues that the soul is immortal and that . we must rise above our physical nature in order to gain true knowledge. He believed the soul was our very essence, and college essays, our bodies the instrument utilized in courses dealing with the physical world. Original College Essays? Socrates seemed confidant that human beings survive physical death, therefore possessing an immortal soul. He felt a philosophers concern was not with the body but with the planning, soul and.

Afterlife , Death , Immortality 1105 Words | 3 Pages. In my opinion I think Socrates ’ teachings have been beneficial for Athenian democracy and he should not be on original college admission, trial let alone convicted of . anything. Socrates only taught things that only helped further democracy and pointing out the falls of democracy can help Athens. Socrates helped the youth learn about their specific roles in technical society and how it makes society function properly and admission essays, is something that democracy does not have. The falls should not be something to hate him for, but something to learn.

5th century BC , Ancient Greece , Aristotle 1339 Words | 4 Pages. In Plato’s “Apology of Socrates ,” Socrates is defending himself before the Athenian jury. In addition, you can consider the . By Eliot? Phaedo (the very end), where you have an account of Socrates ’ conduct at original college admission the very end of his life, in the moments before his execution. Further, in “The Allegory of the Cave,” in Plato’s The Republic, Socrates describes his views about the essay on family, nature of Truth and knowledge. In these texts, Socrates reveals a number of college things about himself and his beliefs: how he makes a living;.

Apology , Life , Paragraph 591 Words | 3 Pages. An Apology From Socrates ' The Apology is Socrates ' defense at his trial. As the dialogue begins, Socrates notes . that his accusers have cautioned the jury against hamlet essay by eliot Socrates'eloquence, according to Socrates , the difference between him and his accusers is that Socrates speaks the truth. Socrates distinguished two groups of accusers: the earlier and the later accusers. The earlier group is the college essays, hardest to defend against, since they do not appear in court.

He is rabota ru, all so accused of being a Sophist: that he. Apology , Belief , Corruption 1720 Words | 4 Pages. Socrates and Zen The differences between Eastern and Western philosophies are very pronounced. Western mentality is generally based upon a . rational, ordered system of categories that encourage the continual search for truth and knowledge through science or religion. Conversely, Eastern mentality maintains that life is a journey towards self-discovery of oneself and the unexplainable universe. Original Admission Essays? However the technical writing, drastic divide between Eastern and Western thoughts may not have always been so dramatic. Buddhism , Epistemology , Philosophy 1592 Words | 5 Pages. ? What did Socrates Stand for?

1. What are the needs of the political community? What must all political communities do to insure their . survival? What about Philosophy? What does philosophy seek? How does it go about this process?

Before we get into what are the needs of a political community, lets define politics. What comes to your mind when you think of politics? For the purpose of this class, politics is the identification, maintenance, and transfer of the communities’ core values that are. Apology , Aristophanes , Philosophy 1149 Words | 5 Pages. Socrates , in his conviction from the Athenian jury, was both innocent and guilty as charged. In Plato's Five Dialogues, accounts of events . ranging from just prior to Socrates ' entry into the courthouse up until his mouthful of hemlock, both points are represented. Socrates ' in dealing with moral law was not guilty of the crimes he was accused of by Meletus. Socrates was only essays, guilty as charged because his peers had concluded him as such. Drinking Driving Papers? The laws didn't find Socrates guilty; Socrates was guilty. Crito , Dialogues of Plato , Euthyphro 1676 Words | 4 Pages.

The First Advocate for Free Speech – Socrates The precise facts about how and why the great Greek philosopher Socrates was . Original? sentenced and executed remains one of the biggest puzzles in history, even to essay this day. Admission? Socrates lived and hamlet by eliot, philosophized in Athens, which is said to be the ancient model for a democracy. Yet, it seems like the Athenians sentenced to death a respected member of their society for speaking his mind and standing by his principles. Now how democratic is that? What makes the. Apology , Athens , Crito 2152 Words | 5 Pages. the use of the Socratic method by Socrates himself. The problem is two-fold. Speaking to college admission the first point, Socrates is not very . much of a teacher.

By that I mean that he is either unwilling or unable to lead his students (for sake of clarity I will refer to the various interlocutors in the dialogues as being “students” of Socrates , in so much as that is the way in which Plato seems to have framed the essay by eliot, discussions) toward any specific lesson or definition. Socrates himself makes a point to admit his. Euthyphro , Philosophy , Plato 2549 Words | 6 Pages. 150 Socrates Paper Socrates is believed to be one of the greatest philosophers of original all time and he is credited as being . the founder of western philosophy. This paper will explain some of on family his views to the most fundamental questions of today’s age. These questions will include topics about morality, the human condition, solution, and essays, death. After Socrates ’ views on these topics are explained, a critique will be done on his answers. I will start out by explaining exactly who Socrates is, and.

Human body , Immortality , Mind 1728 Words | 5 Pages. ? Socrates : Guilty or Not? Socrates is one of the founders of Western philosophy. The . dialogues, written by many of his students, such as Plato, represent a unique way of questioning how we should live our lives, and who do we aspire to become. He was a very intelligent man who was very concerned about ethics, being a good Athenian, and doing what is just. In Plato’s Apology the driving essay papers, reader experiences all of Socrates characteristics as if they where sitting right there. Apology , Athens , Corruption 1507 Words | 4 Pages. Owing the Government Our Obedience: Socrates ’ defense for Not Doing Injustice When Injustice is Done to You In the dialogue of “Crito” by . Original Admission Essays? Plato, a person by the name of Crito has come to try and persuade Socrates to escape from technical, jail as he feels he is being wrongfully accused. Socrates basically asks Crito to plead his case and original college essays, if he can come up with enough good reasons then Socrates will escape, if not he will stay. As Crito begins attempting to persuade him, Socrates ends up stating two main premises. Aristotle , Escape , Left-wing politics 2668 Words | 6 Pages.

? FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE THE PROBLEM OF SOCRATES 1 About life, the wisest men of all ages have come to the same conclusion: it is technical courses, . no good. Always and everywhere one has heard the same sound from their mouths — a sound full of doubt, full of melancholy, full of weariness of life, full of resistance to life. Even Socrates said, as he died: To live — that means to be sick a long time: I owe Asclepius the Savior a rooster. Even Socrates was tired of life. What does that prove? What does. Argument , Aristotle , Dialectic 1664 Words | 4 Pages.

?Euthyphro is a dialogue between Socrates and a traveling cleric. The two men meet at court, where the cleric, Euthyphro, claims to have a . clear definition of piety. Socrates exclaims that he wishes to know the original admission, definition of piety so that he may better defend himself in his upcoming trial. Euthyphro agrees to teach Socrates , and so they begin to discuss. Early on, Socrates makes clear his desire for a universal truth, or a definition of piety that will be true in every case. Euthyphro makes several. Aristotle , Definition , Euthyphro 1993 Words | 6 Pages. Socrates – An Ethics Philosopher In the world of business accounting, ethics plays a major role in the daily operations of a business. Not . only are businesses responsible for incorporating ethical standards into their operations, but accountants are also responsible for ensuring they perform in an ethical manner.

So often, there is drinking papers, a thin line between what is considered ethical and what is considered unethical, especially when a company is original college admission, considering profit over ethics. However, top level professionals. Aristotle , Business ethics , Ethics 1731 Words | 5 Pages. Socrates ’ death To begin with, we need to introduce Socrates . Socrates was and still regarded as one of the most . Technical Writing? influential philosophers. Socrates throughout his life showed a deep understanding of the human life, as well as an understanding of the world. He is considered one of the most important ethical philosophers of original admission essays all time.

Nothing much is known about his personal life, but his works were well preserved which revealed a lot about him as a great man. Socrates was sentenced to death and. Ethics , Immanuel Kant , Morality 1084 Words | 3 Pages. ? Like many philosophers, Socrates has been able to mold and opening salutation letter, enlighten his students and people well past his time. One of his most famous . quotes, “I only know that I know nothing,” Never fails to capture attention. Original College Admission Essays? As simple as the words are it never failed to essay planning spark a conversation that exceeds expectations. Origin: • Where did the original college essays, universe come from? Where did life/humanity come from? • Socrates does not clearly state an answer for Origin.

I do find that his Theory of Recollection to salutation letter contain. Good and evil , Immortality , Phaedo 1851 Words | 6 Pages. [email protected] SOCRATES THE PHILOSOPHER Socrates is a noteworthy and important historical figure as a philosopher, . because of original college his and his pupils' influence on the development of the best salutation cover letter, philosophical world. His teachings, famous arguments, and ideas began the outgrowth of all later western philosophies. Born in original college admission 469 BC just outside of Athens, Socrates was brought up properly, and thoroughly educated. Salutation Cover Letter? He was raised as most Athenians; developing both physical and mental strengths. Original College Admission Essays? Socrates then went on to. Belief , Ethics , Happiness 2081 Words | 5 Pages.

The Greatness of Socrates Socrates was born in essay planning Athens, Greece 322-399 before the Christian era and admission, was politically . indoctrinated under the cultural influences of Athena, Goddess of wisdom, skills, and warfare. (Loomis p. 5) He is hamlet, well known for his philosophy of the “good life” in which he believes involves the pursuit of intellect as well as morals. His theory in this is to not focus so much on choosing what is always necessarily right in a situation, but to original admission essays be the opening cover letter, kind of individual who refrains. Aristotle , Euthyphro , God 1693 Words | 5 Pages. Accusations made against Socrates : corrupting of youth, allowing them to question authority not respecting traditional gods introducing new . gods He was ugly so people thought he was evil Socrates Life: 469BC- 399BC Born: 469 B.C. Birthplace: Athens, Greece Died: 399 B.C. College Admission? (execution by poison) Best Known As: The great Greek philosopher who drank hemlock Socrates is the ancient Greek thinker who laid the early foundations for Western philosophical thought. His Socratic Method involved. Apollo , Athens , Delphi 2190 Words | 6 Pages.

Socrates on Democracy Socrates makes it very clear; he is not a fan of drinking driving Democracy. He is openly objected to college admission essays the type of . democracy that Athens was running during his adult life. In contrast he was against all forms of government at the time. Socrates believes in the connection between virtue and knowledge. The masses, being uneducated, were therefore not virtuous and not fit to rule. Democracy is the essay on family, rule of people, and as a group people are very indecisive so we end up trying to have everything.

Autocracy , Democracy , Government 968 Words | 3 Pages. On the Discrepancies in Socrates’ Argument of essays What Truly Is in Plato’s Republic. Polina Vulakh William Mullen First Year Seminar 09/29/2012 On the essay by eliot, Discrepancies in Socrates ’ Argument of original What Truly Is in Plato’s Republic . In Plato’s Republic, Socrates presents us with the notion that there exists an entire realm of what truly is: That someone who’s a lover of learning in writing courses his very being would be of original admission such a nature as to strive toward what is, and essay on family, wouldn’t linger with the many particular things that have a seeming of being, but would keep going and not blunt the edge of. Hearing , Human , Perception 2216 Words | 7 Pages. The Stoics and Socrates The question of the reality of the soul and its distinction from the body is among the most important problems of . philosophy, for with it is bound up the doctrine of a future life. The soul may be defined as the original college, ultimate internal principle by which we think, feel, and will, and by which our bodies are animated. The term mind usually denotes this principle as the subject of our conscious states, while soul denotes the source of our vegetative activities as well.

If. Immortality , Life , Mind 1423 Words | 4 Pages. Socrates ’ take on justice was a rather controversial viewpoint for his era, in that he opined about virtues men should possess and rabota, strive for . Admission Essays? that they might otherwise have no desire to obtain. A just man strives to promote justice for ru, the sake of original admission essays justice in on family itself. He, as one who is admission, good, seeks to further justice because it fulfills his daimon, or nature. The nature of man is therefore, naturally, to do the right and proper thing. Good, as the on family planning, nature of man, is what man desires, needs, and yet also. English-language films , Plato , Political philosophy 1235 Words | 3 Pages. The Trial of original admission Socrates: an Analysis and Construction of Socrates Defense. The Trial of driving essay papers Socrates : An Analysis and Construction of original essays Socrates Defense Understanding the decisions made by the jurymen in on family planning . Socrates trial will always be a mystery, but one can perceive why some would have voted the way that they did. Politically and historically Athens was a thriving place of innovation and philosophical advancements.

Athens could very well be divided, morally on various aspects, one of them being which “political” affiliation Athenians related themselves with. Some choices. Apology , Aristophanes , Classical Athens 2363 Words | 6 Pages. Socrates ’ discussion with Meletus stems from Meletus leading the prosecution against Socrates . Socrates is charged . with “corrupting the original admission essays, youth and of not believing in the gods in who the city believes, but in other new spiritual things.” During his trial, Socrates is given the writing courses, chance to defend himself against the accusations. Socrates argues that the charges against him are contradictory and incoherent. Socrates begins by attacking Meletus, using Meletus’ charge that Socrates is the only person. Accusation , Aristotle , Atheism 585 Words | 2 Pages.

caution because Socrates is a “clever speaker”. According to Socrates , the difference between him and his accusers is that he . speaks the truth. Essays? He is on driving papers, trial for two items, which include, corrupting the youth and original college, impiety. Socrates tells everyone that he has no experience with the hamlet, court and he will speak the way he is used to admission by being honest and direct. Socrates explains that his behavior is from the oracle of Apollo at Delphi. The oracle was asked if anyone was wiser than Socrates was. The answer. Apology , Argument , Corruption 527 Words | 2 Pages. conversation between Socrates and Euthyphro each of who attempt to argue their point of justification about why they are in court or should not . Best Opening? be there, which in turn a question develops about the college essays, gods and holiness. Euthyphro has a surprise encounter beside the writing courses, porch of the essays, king responsible for overseeing religious law. Euthyphro asks Socrates why he is essay, there.

Socrates states he has being persecuted by original Meletus for corrupting the youth with his ideals about predictions of the future. Socrates in turn asks. Dialogue , Euthyphro , Prosecutor 691 Words | 2 Pages. Socrates was the son of Sophroniscus, an Athenian stonemason and sculptor, and essay on family, Phaenarete, a midwife. He received a basic Greek education . because he wasn’t from original college admission essays, a noble family, where he learned his father’s craft at a young age.

Socrates worked as a mason for many years before he devoted his life to philosophy. Socrates married Xanthippe, a younger woman, who gave him three sons- Lamprocles, Sophroniscus and Menexenus. By Eliot? There isn’t much known of Xanthippe. Only that she wasn’t happy with Socrates . Ethics , Mind , Peloponnesian War 650 Words | 2 Pages.

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a better world essay Share your teaching story or professional reflection. subscribe to journal. on Place, Service, and Sustainability. Los Angeles, California. The Social and Public Art. Becoming More Human, Building a Better World. What is it all about?

Why engage in original college service-learning and writing courses place-based education—if not to improve ourselves and to improve the original college admission world around us? This question—how do individuals fit within and opening salutation cover contribute to broader community?—has been driving liberal education, community education, and philosophy for original college essays quite literally hundreds of years. As many of the best opening cover letter most interesting community development solutions and educational methodologies that exist today are profoundly place-based and culturally and temporally-specific, is original college admission, there anything that unites us? The question presses harder as travel and communication become more affordable. We have the opportunity to engage in cooperative and in canada community-based development efforts that span countries, civil societies, and original essays citizenships. Locally, our cities and now towns are increasingly diverse. Essays In Canada. We may walk through several ways of being and knowing just on the way to the store. In our contemporary moment, conscious of the many harms done by original admission essays universalizing logics and civilizing mandates throughout history, we must be able to by eliot, imagine at least a tentative answer. We must be able to point, albeit loosely, the direction we’re headed. Essays. If we have not gotten better at a precise answer to how we improve ourselves and the world around us, we have certainly complicated the answer(s). On Family Planning. We do not lack for passion in pursuit of the question.

In my role teaching and facilitating learning in university-community engagements in the US and original college around the world, I’ve seen the full range of tears, concerns, and fundamental life changes following from anger and outrage at our everyday, omnipresent injustices. A student named Andrea broke down in tears in a US shopping mall following her return from a service-learning experience in a Bolivian orphanage, where she everyday cared for babies whose lives would be fundamentally altered with just a fraction of the resources traded in that mall on a given day. A colleague named Maria left conventional study abroad—absolutely resigned from her staff position at a strong, established university—after her first experience with global service-learning. She saw how our conventional patterns of learning, exchange, and politics continuously perpetuated a world of injustice. So she walked away. Essays Crime. We don’t all need to college, walk away. We do all need to do our part. A community organizer who runs an all-encompassing human services agency up the technical writing courses street from my office shared it with me this way, “When we get new interns, I ask them if they’re interested in becoming more human.

If they’re interested in growing as people, in better connecting as people, in being better people, then we can work with them – because they’ll develop relationships with people in our community. If they just want technical skills, they’re not for us.”. We do wish to become more human—or to be better citizens, or cosmopolitans, or global justice advocates, or, or, or… but our age is also marked by a ubiquitous uncertainty born of college admission, centuries of good intentions gone awry. This essay is about acting in hamlet essay by eliot the context of that broad awareness. It’s about understanding the legacy of racism, sexism, colonialism, and hundreds of original college admission, years of other inequities and horrors, and nonetheless figuring out essays on organized crime in canada, how – today – we can still manage to cooperate and continue building a better world together. Admission. That better world includes US communities as much as it does communities elsewhere; in fact that world will not be built until we can think of technical writing, others as brothers and sisters first and as nationalities second. It will also not be built until people from positions of power and admission essays privilege can cooperate with their economically devastated neighbors five miles away as much as they may cooperate with international charities and global justice efforts. Opening Cover. This generation IS acting to address injustice.

There is ample empirical evidence: young people seek out and engage in service-learning; increasing numbers of students are daring to original admission essays, explore untraditional study abroad destinations; young people have founded NGOs to work with refugees in Africa or internally displaced people in Colombia; it was young people who played a major role in getting funding to hamlet, fight AIDS in Africa on the US agenda. We are pushing harder on global social issues than ever before. It is our responsibility to original admission essays, realize greater global justice. We can no longer pretend the world ends at the shore. Rabota. Nor, of college, course, can we pretend that injustice only begins at the shore. And yet we have so often organized our efforts through the exclusionary lenses of on family planning, citizenship and original essays faith. We are not merely citizens, we are not merely Christians. We are human.

Our efforts are making a broad difference. Yet these efforts are hard to name precisely. That is both good and bad. It’s hard to raise money for a movement that refuses to fit into drinking essay, a bumper sticker. It’s also hard to raise an army. And that’s part of the original college admission essays reason this generation’s movement is itself deliberately pluralistic. It recognizes the long history of misguided attempts to promote the good. Yet continuing to build a better world binds us together. We explicitly recognize the great danger in supposing to solve others’ problems, in attempting to do justice, or simply in interacting with other cultures disrespectfully. That recognition and challenge requires that each person who works toward some sense of global community thinks about the impacts their actions have in travel, in essay planning service, and in their daily lived lives.

It requires listening to local voices and perspectives about their specific wishes in relation to visitors who desire good works. Admission. And it requires thorough thinking that attempts to consider the nearly incomprehensible series of effects that our actions can have in this world of unprecedented interconnectedness. In many ways these things are not new. People have always sought the world, have always explored. The Ancient Greek philosopher Diogenes declared, “I am a citizen of the technical courses world,” and sought with other cosmopolitans to discern ethical actions for a citizen conscious of what lay beyond the walls, conscious – to original college essays, do this is still an intellectual problem and paradox for us today – of the unknown, unexplored, or misunderstood. Gandhi advocated for a new social-economic-religious order based on the unity of humanity and the opportunity to be of service. Various traditions speak of right, wrong, fairness, and justice. Today we have the opportunity to see the drinking driving essay papers overlap and differences among these paths. And our communication technologies give us the original admission knowledge that – by nearly any of the measures – justice would involve a radical departure from the world as we know it. This is our position, inspired by the human impulse to hamlet essay, connect and to serve, informed by our actions and testing our ethics in the context of a continuous and dizzying flow of information that at admission essays, once liberates from stock thinking and plunges into uncertainty. Not one, two, three, or four ways of knowing but countless.

Aware of the unintended impacts of past efforts to improve societies—cultures undone by the insertion of Christianity, millions killed in rabota resume ru the name of proletarian revolution, warfare and original college admission genocide perpetrated due to conjured ethnic identities and the employment of religious or national identity for enhanced senses of on organized crime, belonging – we still wish to build a better world. We know we must therefore do so humbly, through humble service and a humble approach to knowledge. This is where the impulse and action returns to us as ideas. Ideas we may receive from and develop with others, share, reject and reformulate based on our core concern of valuing all human life equally, and living a life that reflects that equal value . This is the original college admission essays fundamental uniting concept—some call it global citizenship, others say it is on organized, simply becoming more human. The duty is clear. We must continuously return to the question: Do our actions, efforts, and original admission essays outlooks reflect concern for each human being’s individual dignity? This is powerful and persuasive on its own – or so it should be, but many people are inspired to essays on organized crime in canada, access and to live through this reality based on their understanding of Buddhism, Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism, Islam, and many other less popular understandings of the divine, the original college unknowable. It is that serious.

It is about how we understand the miracles around us, the complexity of the world, the human experience and purpose. For many, a secular reconciliation of best salutation cover, races will never ring as truly or strongly as Martin Luther King’s vision of the original college essays peaceable kingdom he shared the night before his assassination, “mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the drinking papers Lord!”. But we do not know if King’s Peaceable Kingdom is original college admission essays, truer than Pope Benedict’s understanding of salutation cover letter, Love, nor whether we must understand Abraham in the context of Christian, Islamic, or Jewish teachings. We know only that many teachings have understood the supremacy of original college essays, Love. In villages around the world, without phones and without human rights traditions as articulated by the United Nations, human life matters.

And even our best secular articulations of the need for justice, fairness, equity, and basic rights can’t get started without an initial assumption of the worth of human life. We therefore may hold to technical writing courses, this as a fundamental truth, while we embrace the humility that allows us to value and appreciate the original admission essays many different – sometimes the strangeness astounds even the most culturally sensitive—paths to best opening letter, achieving this final outcome: valuing human life, helping more than hurting. That is how we become more human. Original College Admission. That is essay planning, how we build a better world. This humility means not only that we must be willing and able to distance ourselves from our cultural backgrounds and assumptions about ways of being and knowing, but also that we must recognize the need to be profoundly humble in terms of our ability to even know. Gustavo Esteva and Madhu Suri Prakash (1997) have warned us of the inherent folly in ‘global thinking.’ There is arrogance, they argue, in pretending to God-like powers of original college admission, cognition and analysis in ostensible service of a global society, the contours of which we are fundamentally incapable of truly comprehending. They position themselves with Gandhi, Illich, Wendell Berry (1992) and others in arguing for essays in canada the wisdom of original college essays, thinking little.

Small and sustainable is still the experience of a large portion of the communities and economies in the world. To live locally without harming others through distant economic transactions or creating excessive pollutants may be a more ethical global citizenship than has been exhibited in the past by the architects of “great changes for the better.” Belgium colonists’ efforts to civilize Hutus and Tutsis, Maoist reforms, the effects of Manifest Destiny on Native Americans, and various versions of conversion at the end of a gun are among the most widely known disasters of doing good, but many effects are much more subtle. People in the Sacred Valley of Peru are currently battling non-native and invasive eucalyptus trees that the Peace Corps planted in the 1960s. Throughout the development era, many developing countries have become net importers of food (Escobar 1994); their citizens are less able to choose to live local, sustainable lifestyles. Doing good gone bad is not merely a phenomenon in developing countries; nearly every major US city has a strong example of a neighborhood or set of opening cover, neighborhoods marginalized and destroyed due to reckless, top-down urban planning (Jacobs 1961). Change has costs and benefits. Humility means being very (extraordinarily!) careful. And this is our position, to be conscious of original college admission essays, these objections, warnings, and concerns, to best opening salutation cover letter, be aware of different ways of admission, being and knowing, and to choose the most ethical path we can, based upon opening salutation cover letter, what lies behind us and before us, based not only on what is but also on what is still possible. Because for all the folly and error – make no mistake implicit in original college those terms is drinking papers, death and destruction—there has been substantial beauty and realization of possibility. Life expectancies have risen, more people have access to education, and more people have the opportunity to determine the direction of their own lives. Yet so many people—in the US and all over the world—still live short lives without breadth of opportunity.

That is college, it. Essays On Organized Crime. We must realize the potential and possibility, the original college admission essays interrelated and overlapping ethical streams, the value of best opening cover, different ways of being and knowing, the profound skepticism we should give our own efforts, and the chance to bring people together peaceably, equitably, respectfully. To do so would revolutionize our current experience. The possibility is original, better felt and understood than painted precisely. Richard Falk (2002) writes of global citizen pilgrims working toward an as-yet-unimagined tomorrow. Our efforts must be rooted in planning the reality we have, but visionary in terms of imagining then creating a better tomorrow that more robustly recognizes all people equally. We are on the way. Different people will serve different ways. As engineers developing sustainable buildings, as editors allowing pluralistic voices, as revolutionaries and pragmatists, as business people developing and succeeding with fair trade products, as teachers making sure peace, justice, and diverse cultures are part of the curriculum, as writers, philosophers, poets, and small, local, sustainable farmers, as people who value their children and families and care to live in ethical communities.

We will work toward it. Original Admission Essays. We will address specific problems. We will end global poverty. We will reconsider poverty. We will stop calling healthy sustainable farmers poor just because they live differently than many of us. We will recognize human flourishing in its many forms. We will be skeptical, but we will work and hope in service of the writing courses central ethic that all of our sisters and brothers must be recognized as such and valued equally. We will continue this work, creating, allowing, and engaging possibilities. We will make our own best efforts to help realize the rhythm recognized by the great Northern Irish poet Seamus Heaney: But then, once in a lifetime. The longed-for tidal wave.

Of justice can rise up, And hope and history rhyme. Berry, W. 1992. Sex, Economy, Freedom, and Community. New York: Pantheon Books. Escobar, A. 1994. Original Admission Essays. Encountering Development: The Making and writing Unmaking of the Third. World. Original College Admission. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Esteva, G. and Prakash, M.S. 1997.

From Global Thinking to Local Thinking. In. Rahnema, M. and Bawtree, V. Rabota Ru. eds. The Post-Development Reader . New York: Zed Books. Falk, R. 2002. “An Emergent Matrix of Citizenship: Complex, Uneven, and Fluid” in Dowers, N. and Williams, J. Original. Global Citizenship: A Critical Introduction. New York: Routledge. Jacobs, J. 1961. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House. copyright 1995-2018, Community Works Institute (CWI) All rights reserved.

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colleage essay A SHORT GUIDE TO THE. AMERICAN POLITICAL SYSTEM. The United States is - by size of electorate - the second largest democracy on the globe (India is the largest and Indonesia comes third) and the most powerful nation on earth, politically, economically and militarily, but its political system is in college, many important respects unlike any other in the world. This essay then was written originally to inform non-Americans as to how the American political system works. What has been striking, however, is how many Americans - especially young Americans - have found the essay useful and insightful. There is considerable evidence that many Americans know and understand little about the political system of their own country - possibly more than is the case with any other developed democratic nation. In the U.S., the National Assessment of driving, Educational Progress (NAEP) tests what American students are learning.

It has found that the two worst subjects for American students are civics and American history. One NAEP survey found that only original, 7% of eighth graders (children aged 13-14) could describe the three branches of government. On one of my trips to the United States, I was eating cereal for breakfast and found that the opening salutation letter, whole of the reverse side of the college essays, cereal packet was devoted to a short explanation of the executive, legislative and judicial branches of the American government. I find it hard to imagine that many democratic nations would feel it necessary to explain such a subject in such a format. It is probably more importamt than ever than both Americans and non-Americans understand the drinking driving essay papers, fundamentals of the American political system because, in Donald Trump, we have a US President who is original admission behaving quite unlike his predecessors and effectively challenging the essay by eliot, famed constitutional system of 'checks and balances'. So I hope that this explanation helps . To understand any country's political system, it is helpful to know something of the history of the nation and the background to the creation of the (latest) constitution. But this is a fundamental neccesity in the case of the American political system. Original Admission! This is because the on family, Constitution of the United States is so different from those of other nations and because that Constitution is, in all material respects, the same document as it was over two centuries ago. There were four main factors in the minds of the 'founding fathers' who drafted the US Constitution: The United States had just fought and original college essays, won a bloody War of Independence from rabota, Britain and essays, it was determined to create a political system that was totally different from the British system in which considerable authority still resided in a hereditary King (George III at the time) or Queen and in which Parliament was increasingly assertive in the exercise of its growing powers. Therefore the new constitution deliberately spread power between the three arms of government - executive, legislature and judiciary - and writing courses, ensured that each arm was able to limit the exercise of original admission, power by the other arms.

The United States was already a large country with problems of communications and a population of varied background and education. Therefore, for salutation cover, all the intentions to be a new democracy, it was seen as important to limit the influence of admission essays, swings in public opinion. So the election of the president was placed in the hands of an on family planning, Electoral College, rather than the college admission, subject of direct election, and the terms of office of the president and the two chambers of the legislature were all set at different lengths. The United States was the creation of resume ru, 13 individual states, each of which valued its traditions and powers, and so the overarching federal government was deliberately limited in its powers compared to the position of the central government in other nations. Arguably the later Civil War was about states' rights more than it was about slavery and original admission, there is still a real tension today between the states and federal government. The original 13 states of the USA were of very different size in terms of population and from the beginning there was a determination by the smaller states that political power should not be excessively in the hands of the larger states. Therefore the Constitution is built on on family planning a 'Great Compromise' between the Virginia plan (representation by population) and the New Jersey plan (equal representation for all states) which resulted in the House of Representatives being constructed on college admission the basis of population and the Senate being composed of an equal number of representatives regardless of writing courses, population. This is why today six states have only admission essays, one member in the House of Representatives but two members in the Senate. Whatever the 'founding fathers' intended, the sheer longevity of the driving papers, Constitution and the profound changes in America since its drafting means that today the balance of power is not necessarily what the original admission, drafters of the Constitution had in mind. So originally the legislature was seen as the most powerful arm of government (it is described first in the Constitution) but, over essay, time, both the Presidency (starting with the original college, time of Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War) and the Supreme Court (especially on social issues like desegregation, marriage and abortion) have assumed more power.

Unlike Britain but like most nation states, the on organized in canada, American political system is clearly defined by original college basic documents. The Declaration of Independence of 1776 and the Constitution of 1789 form the foundations of the United States federal government. The Declaration of Independence establishes the United States as an drinking driving essay, independent political entity, while the Constitution creates the basic structure of the federal government. College Admission Essays! Both documents are on display in the National Archives and Records Administration Building in Washington, D.C. which I have visited several times. Opening Letter! Further information on the thinking expressed in the Constitution can be found in original admission, the Federalist Papers which are a series of 85 articles and essays published in 1787-1788 promoting the ratification of the Constitution. The United States Constitution is essays crime in canada both the longest-lasting in the world, being over two centuries old, and the shortest in the world, having just seven articles and original, 27 amendments. Essay By Eliot! As well as its age and brevity, the US Constitution is notable for original college admission, being a remarkably stable document. The first 10 amendments were all carried in 1789 - the same year as the original constitution - and are collectively known as the Bill of Rights. If one accepts that these first 10 amendments were in effect part of the original constitutional settlement, there have only been 17 amendments in rabota, over 200 years (the last substantive one - reduction of the voting age to 18 - in 1971).

One of the original college, major reasons for this relative immutability is that - quite deliberately on best opening salutation cover letter the part of its drafters - the Constitution is a very difficult instrument to change. First, a proposed amendment has to secure a two-thirds vote of original college, members present in both houses of Congress. Rabota! Then three-quarters of the state legislatures have to ratifiy the proposed change (this stage may or may not be governed by a specific time limit). As an indication of how challenging this process is, consider the case of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). This was first written in 1920, shortly after women were given the vote in the USA. The proposed amendment was introduced in Congress unsuccessfully in every legislative year from 1923 until it was finally passed in 1972. College Admission! It was then sent to each state for ratification but, by 1982, it was still three states short of the essay planning, minimum of the original college admission, 38 needed to add it to opening salutation letter, the constitution. Various attempts since 1982 to revive the original college admission, amendment have all failed. At the heart of the US Constitution is the principle known as 'separation of powers' , a term coined by the French political, enlightenment thinker Montesquieu.

This means that power is spread between three institutions of the state - the executive (President Cabinet), the legislature (House of Representatives Senate) and the judiciary (Supreme Court federal circuits) - and no one institution has too much power and no individual can be a member of more than one institution. This principle is also known as 'checks and balances' , since each of the three branches of the state has some authority to act on its own, some authority to regulate the other two branches, and ru, has some of its own authority, in turn, regulated by the other branches. Not only is power spread between the different branches; the members of those branches are deliberately granted by the Constitution different terms of office which is a further brake on rapid political change. So the President has a term of four years, while members of the Senate serve for six years and members of the House of Representatives serve for two years. Members of the Supreme Court effectively serve for life. The great benefit of this system is that power is spread and counter-balanced and the 'founding fathers' - the 55 delegates who drafted the Constitution - clearly wished to create a political system which was in sharp contrast to, and much more democratic than, the monarchical system then in force in Britain. The great weakness of the system is that it makes government slow, complicated and legalistic which is a particular disadvantage in a world - unlike that of 1776 - in which political and economic developments are fast-moving and original college admission, the USA is a - indeed the essay on family, - super power. Since the Constitution is so short, so old and so difficult to change, for it to be meaningful to contemporary society it requires interpretation by the courts and college admission, ultimately it is the Supreme Court which determines what the technical writing courses, Constitution means. There are very different approaches to the interpretation of the Constitution with the two main strands of thought being known as originalism and original college admission, the Living Constitution . Originalism is a principle of interpretation that tries to driving, discover the original meaning or intent of the constitution. It is original college admission based on technical the principle that the judiciary is not supposed to create, amend or repeal laws (which is the realm of the legislative branch) but only to admission, uphold them. On Organized Crime! This approach tends to be supported by conservatives.

Living Constitution is a concept which claims that the Constitution has a dynamic meaning and original essays, that contemporary society should be taken into account when interpreting key constitutional phrases. Hamlet Essay By Eliot! Instead of seeking to divine the views of the original admission essays, drafters of the document, it claims that they deliberately wrote the Constitution in broad terms so that it would remain flexible. This approach tends to be supported by liberals. Full text of the US Constitution click here. Guide to the US Constitution click here. Constitution Day in the United States click here.

Information on the Federalist Papers click here. What is the Presidency? The President is the head of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States. He - so far, the position has always been held by a man - is both the rabota resume ru, head of state and college essays, the head of government, as well as the military commander-in-chief and chief diplomat. The President presides over the executive branch of the government, a vast organisation numbering about four million people, including one million active-duty military personnel. Technical Writing! The so-called Hatch Act of 1939 forbids anyone in the executive branch - except the President or Vice-President - from using his or her official position to engage in political activity. Who is eligible to become a President? To be President, one has to: be a natural-born citizen of the United States be at least 35 years old have lived in the US for at least 14 years.

How is essays a President chosen? The President is resume ru elected for a fixed term of four years and may serve a maximum of two terms. Originally there was no constitutional limit on the number of terms that a President could serve in office and the first President George Washington set the precedent of serving simply two terms. Following the election of Franklin D Roosevelt to a record four terms, it was decided to limit terms to two and the relevant constitutional change - the 22nd Amendment - was enacted in 1951. Elections are always held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November to coincide with Congressional elections. So the last election was held on 8 November 2016 and the next eelction will be held on 3 November 2020.

The President is not elected directly by the voters but by an Electoral College representing each state on the basis of a combination of the number of members in the Senate (two for each state regardless of size) and the number of members in the House of Representatives (roughly proportional to population). The states with the largest number of votes are California (55), Texas (38) and New York (29). The states with the smallest number of votes - there are seven of them - have only three votes. The District of Columbia, which has no voting representation in Congress, has three Electoral College votes. In effect, therefore, the Presidential election is not one election but 51.

The total Electoral College vote is 538. This means that, to become President, a candidate has to win at least 270 electoral votes. The voting system awards the original essays, Electoral College votes from each state to delegates committed to vote for a certain candidate in a winner take all system, with the exception of Maine and Nebraska (which award their Electoral College votes according to best opening letter, Congressional Districts rather than for the state as a whole). In practice, most states are firmly Democrat - for instance, California and New York - or firmly Republican - for original essays, instance, Texas and Tennessee. Therefore, candidates concentrate their appearances and resources on the so-called battleground states, those that might go to either party. The three largest battleground or swing states are Florida (29 votes), Pennsylvania (20) and Ohio (18). Others include North Carolina (15), Virginia (13), Wisconsin (10), Colorado (9), Iowa (6) and Nevada (6). This system of planning, election means that a candidate can win the largest number of votes nationwide but fail to win the largest number of votes in the Electoral College and therefore fail to become President. College! Indeed, in practice, this has happened four times in US history: 1876, 1888, 2000 and 2016.

On the last occasion, the losing canidate (Hillary Clinton) actuallu secured 2.9 million more votes than the winning candidate (Donald Trump). If this seems strange (at least to non-Americans), the explanation is that the 'founding fathers' who drafted the American Constitution did not wish to give too much power to the people and so devised a system that gives the on family planning, ultimate power of original college admission essays, electing the President to members of the crime in canada, Electoral College. The same Constitution, however, enables each state to determine how its members in original admission, the Electoral College are chosen and since the 1820s states have chosen their electors by a direct vote of the people. The United States is the only example in the world of an indirectly elected executive president. In the event that the Electoral College is evenly divided between two candidates or no candidate secures a majority of the votes, the constitution provides that the choice of President is made by the House of Representatives and the choice of in canada, Vice-President is made by the Senate. In the first case, the representatives of each state have to agree collectively on the allocation of a single vote.

In the second case, each senator has one vote. This has actually happened twice - in 1800 and admission essays, 1824. In 1800, the House of Representatives, after 35 votes in which neither Thomas Jefferson nor Aaron Burr obtained a majority, elected Jefferson on the 36th ballot. Essay On Family Planning! In 1824, neither John Quincy Adams nor Andrew Jackson was able to original college, secure a majority of the best opening, votes in the Electoral College and the House of Representatives chose Adams even though he had fewer Electoral Colleage votes and fewer votes at the ballot boxes than Jackson. What are the powers of the President?

Within the executive branch, the President has broad constitutional powers to manage national affairs and the workings of the federal government. The President may issue executive orders to affect internal policies. The use of executive orders has varied enormously between presidents and original, is often a controversial matter since, in effect, it is bypassing the Congress to achieve what would otherwide require legislation. Very few such orders were issued until the time of Abraham Lincoln (the Emanicpation Declaration was such an technical writing, order); use of executive orders was considerable and peaked during the terms of the seven presidents from Theodore Roosevelt to Franklin D Roosevelt (1901-1945); but, since the Second World War, use has been more modest with Democrats tending to original admission, issue them a bit more than Republicans. Barack Obama has made very sparing use of essay on family, this power, notably to reform immigration law and to tighten gun controls. Executive orders can be overturned by a succeeding President.

The President has the power to recommend measures to Congress and may sign or veto legislation passed by Congress. The Congress may override a presidential veto but only by original college a two-thirds majority in each house. The President has the authority to best opening salutation letter, appoint Cabinet members, Supreme Court justices. federal judges, and ambassadors but only with the'advice and consent' of the Senate which can be problematic especially when the Senate is controlled by college admission a different political party to that of the President. The President has the power to pardon criminals convicted of offences against best the federal government and most controversially President Gerald Ford used this power to pardon his predecessor Richard Nixon. The President has the power to make treaties with the 'advice and consent' of the admission, Senate. The President can declare war for rabota, 60 days but then has to have the approval of Congress (although it can be difficult to withdraw troops once they have been committed). Since 1939, there has been an Executive Office of the President (EOP) which has consistently and considerably expanded in original essays, size and power. Today it consists of some 1,600 staff and costs some $300M a year. Besides the formal powers of the hamlet essay by eliot, President, there are informal means of exercising influence.

Most notably, Teddy Roosvelt introduced the notion of 'the bully pulpit': the ability of the President to use his standing to influence public opinion. Over time, the changing nature of media - newspapers, radio, television, the Internet, social media - has presented a variety of instruments for college admission, the White House to use to 'push' Congress or other political players or indeed communicate directly with the electorate. Currently Donald Trump uses his personal Twitter account to issue several messages a day to (as at summer 2017) some 32.4 million followers. By Eliot! Add to that his POTUS Twitter account (18.8 million followers), Facebook pages (22.4 million likes and 1.7 million followers), YouTube subscribers (103,000 and 4.3 million), and Instagram (7 million followers). That is a lot of 'bullying'.

Other interesting facts about the Presidency Although the 'founding fathers' wanted to admission essays, avoid a political system that in any way reflected the monarchical system then prevalent in Britain and for a long time the Presidency was relatively weak, the vast expansion of the federal bureaucracy and the military in the 20th century has in current practice given a greater role and essays, more power to the President than is the admission, case for any single individual in best opening cover, most political systems. The President may be impeached which means that he is removed from the office. The House of Representatives has the sole power of impeaching, while the Senate has the sole power to original college essays, try all such impeachments. Two U.S. Presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives but acquitted at the trials held by by eliot the Senate: Andrew Johnson (1868) and Bill Clinton (1999).

Richard Nixon resigned before he would certainly have been impeached (1974). Although the President heads the executive branch of government, the day-to-day enforcement and administration of federal laws is in the hands of the various federal executive departments, created by Congress to deal with specific areas of national and international affairs. Original College Essays! The heads of the 15 departments, chosen by the President and approved with the 'advice and consent' of the Senate, form a council of advisors generally known as the President's Cabinet. This is not a cabinet in on family, the British political sense: it does not meet so often and does not act so collectively. In fact, the original college essays, President has powers of hamlet by eliot, patronage that extend way beyond appointment of Cabinet members. In all, the President appoints roughly 4,000 individuals to positions in the federal government, of which around 1,200 require the confirmation of the Senate. Original! As the divisions in salutation, American politics have deepened, so the confirmation process has become more fractious and prolonged - when first elected, Barack Obama had to wait ten months before all his nominees were in their jobs. The first United States President was George Washington, who served from 1789-1797, so that the original, current President Donald Trump is the 44th to hold the office. However, there have been 45 presidencies. Courses! Grover Cleveland was the 22nd and 24th President and therefore was the only US president to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885-1889 and 1893-1897) and to original essays, be counted twice in hamlet by eliot, the numbering of the presidents. So far, every US President has been male.

All but one President has been Protestant (the exception was John Kennedy who was a Catholic) and all but one President has been white (the exception is Barack Obama). On assuming office, the original essays, youngest was Theodore Roosevelt (42) and the oldest was Donald Trump (70). Four sitting Presidents have been assassinated: Abraham Lincoln in resume ru, 1865, James A. Garfield in 1881, William McKinley in original, 1901, and John F. Kennedy in technical, 1963. A further eight Presidents were subject to near misses in assassination attempts. The President is sometimes referred to as POTUS (President Of The United States) and the Presidency is college admission essays often referred to by the media as variously the White House, the technical, West Wing, and the Oval Office. Such is the admission essays, respect for the Presidency that, even having left office, a President is referred to writing, by the title for the remainder of his life. The position of Vice-President is elected on the same ticket as that of the President and has the same four-year term of office. The Vice-President is original often described as 'a heart beat away from the Presidency' since, in the event of the death or incapacity of the President, the Vice-President assumes the office. In practice, however, a Vice-Presidential candidate is chosen (by the Presidential candidate) to 'balance the ticket' in the Presidential election (that is, represent a different geographical or gender or ethnic constituency) and, for rabota, all practical purposes, the position only original admission, carries the power accorded to it by the President - which is usually very little (a major exception has been Dick Cheney under George W Bush).

The official duties of the Vice-President are to sit as a member of the technical, Cabinet and as a member of the National Security Council and to act as ex-officio President of the Senate. Current members of the cabinet click here. Assassinations and near misses of US Presidents click here. An important feature of the American political system is that the two major parties - the Democrats and original college essays, the Republicans - hold a system of primaries to determine who will be their candidate in the general election. These primaries are particularly important when it comes to essays on organized crime in canada, the four-yearly Presidential election. The key point to essays, understand is essays on organized crime in canada that formally the Democratic and Republican Parties choose their Presidential candidate through a vote of original essays, delegates at a national convention and not directly through the various ballots in the various primaries. Each party allocates delegates to each state, roughly proportionate to its size in numbers of citizens. Writing! There are two types of delegates. The normal delegates are those who are chosen by original college admission voters to back a specific candidate. Technically these delegates are pledged to that candidate but there are circumstances in which they can switch their support. Then there are what the Democrats call super delegates and the Republicans call unpledged delegates who are notable figures in the party such as former presidents, state governors and members of the two houses of Congress who are free to back whichever candidate they wish.

They can do this any time they like. They can also change their mind before the convention. How the normal delegates are chosen is a matter for each party in each of the 50 states. Some hold caucuses which require voters to turn up to discussions on the merits of the essay on family planning, contending candidates. Most hold conventional-style elections. In the case of the Democrats in essays, Texas, there is both a caucus and an election. Courses! Another variation is that, in some cases, one can only take part in a caucus or election if one is registered for original college admission, that political party but, in other cases, anyone in the state - including those registered for another party or none - can vote.

How normal delegates are then allocated to the different candidates is also a matter for each party in each of the 50 states. In most of the Republican contests (but not all), the candidate who wins the drinking driving, most votes in that state's primary wins all the party's delegates for original essays, that state - a system known as 'winner takes all'. In all the Democrat contests, delegates are allocated roughly proportional to the vote secured by on organized crime the candidate subject to a minimum performance. The allocation process varies, but typically it is college essays based on the performance of the candidate in particular Congressional districts. In practice, normally the parties have clearly decided on a candidate well before the holding of the convention which therefore becomes more a coronation than a selection. However, it is not unknown for a party to reach the rabota resume, convention with no clear choice.

A contested or deadlocked convention happens when no candidate arrives with a majority of votes. On the original admission essays, first ballot, pledged delegates will vote for the candidate to whom they are pledged. But, in any subsequent ballots, delegates are then free to vote for whomever they want. This could include the papers, other candidates or even - subject to the rules of the convention - people who are not candidates. Delegates keep on voting until someone wins a majority. The most famous deadlocked convention - it involved the Democrats - took place in 1924.

It required 103 ballots to chose the Democratic candidate - who then lost to college essays, the Republican candidate in the general election. The last deadlocked convention was experienced by the Republicans in 1976, when Gerald Ford did not have enough delegates before the convention to claim the nomination (his opponent was Ronald Reagan), but eventually won the nomination (Reagan withdrew) and went on to lose the general election. The last time a contested convention produced a candidate who went on to win in the general election was in salutation letter, 1932 with Franklin Roosevelt. For the 2016 convention, the Democrats had a total of college, 4,763 delegates including super delegates and so, to win the nomination, the Democratic front runner needed a total of 2,382 delegates. For the 2016 convention, the Republicans had a total of 2,472 delegates including unpledged delegates and so, to win the nomination, the Republican front runner needed a total of 1,237 delegates. The Republicans had their convention in Cleveland, Ohio from 18-21 July 2016 and nominated Donald Trump as their candidate, while the Democrats held their convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvannia from best opening salutation letter, 25-28 July 2016 and nominated Hillary Clinton as their candidate. THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. What is the House of original, Representatives? The House of Representatives is the lower chamber in the bicameral legislature known collectively as Congress. On Organized Crime In Canada! The founders of the college admission, United States intended the House to be the politically dominant entity in the federal system and, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the House served as the primary forum for political debate.

However, subsequently the Senate has been the dominant body. Who is drinking driving papers eligible to become a member of the House? To be a member of the House, one has to: be at least 25 years old have been a US citizen for at least seven years live in the state which one represents (but not the actual district) How is college essays a member of the drinking papers, House chosen? The House consists of 435 members (set in 1911), each of whom represents a congressional district and serves for a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population according to each decennial (every 10 years) census, but every state must have at least one member and in fact seven states have only one Representative each (Alaska, Delaware, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont and original college admission essays, Wyoming). Typically a House constituency would represent around 700,000 people. Once House seats are reapportioned to the states, it is state legislatures that must redraw the physical boundaries of Congressional districts. By Eliot! Although the states are bound by limits established by original admission essays Congress and the Supreme Court, there is essay on family planning scope for gerry-mandering to ensure electoral advantage for the dominant political party in the state. Such reapportionment of members of the House takes effect three years after the original college admission, decennial census so, as the next census will take place in rabota, 2020, reapportionment will take effect for the 118th Congress (2023-2025).

Members of the House are elected by original admission essays first-past-the-post voting in essay, every state except Louisiana and Washington, which have run-offs if no candidate secures more than 50% of the vote. Original Admission! Elections are always held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even numbered years. Voting in congressional elections - especially to the House - is generally much lower than levels in other liberal democracies. In a year when there is a Presidential election, turnout is typically around 50%; in years when there is no Presidential election (known as mid-terms), it usually falls to rabota resume ru, around one third of the electorate. In the event that a member of the House of Representatives dies or resigns before the end of the two-year term, a special election is held to fill the vacancy. The House has five non-voting delegates from the District of Columbia (1971), Guam (1972) the Virgin Islands (1976), American Samoa (1981) and the Northern Mariana Islands (2008) and one resident commissioner for Puerto Rico (1976), bringing the essays, total formal membership to 441. Non-voting delegates are not allowed floor votes, but can vote in any committees to which they are assigned. What are the powers of the House? The House of Representatives is one of the two chambers that can initiate and pass legislation, although to become law any legislation has to be approved by drinking essay papers the Senate as well.

Each chamber of Congress has particular exclusive powers. The House must introduce any bills for the purpose of raising revenue. If the college admission essays, Electoral College is tied, the choice of President is made by the House of Representatives. The House has a key role in any impeachment proceedings against the President or Vice-President. It lays the hamlet by eliot, charges which are then passed to the Senate for a trial. The House (and the Senate) have the power to declare war - although the last time this happened was in college admission essays, 1941. Other interesting facts about the House The Speaker of the House - chosen by essays crime in canada the majority party - has considerable power. He or she presides over original, the House and sets the agenda, assigns legislation to drinking driving papers, committees, and determines whether and how a bill reaches the floor of the chamber. Currently the Majority Leader in the House - and original college admission, therefore the Speaker - is the Republican Paul Ryan, while the Minority leader is Democrat Nancy Pelosi. Much of the work of the House is done through 20 standing committees and around 100 sub-committees which perform both legislative functions (drafting Bills) and investigatory functions (holding enquiries).

Most of the committees are focused on an area of government activity such as homeland security, foreign affairs, agriculture, energy, or transport, but others are more cross-cutting such as those on the budget and ethics. Activity in the House of on family planning, Representatives tends to be more partisan than in the Senate. One illustration of this is the so-called Hastert Rule. This Rule's introduction is widely credited to former Speaker Dennis Hastert (1999-2007); however, Newt Gingrich, who directly preceded Hastert as Speaker (1995-1999), followed the same rule. Original Admission Essays! The Hastert Rule, also known as the majority of the majority rule, is an informal governing principle used by Republican Speakers of the House of Representatives since the mid-1990s to maintain their speakerships and limit the power of the minority party to bring bills up for a vote on the floor of the House. Under the doctrine, the best cover letter, Speaker of the House will not allow a floor vote on a bill unless a majority of the majority party supports the bill.

The rule keeps the minority party from passing bills with the assistance of a small number of original college admission, majority party members. The House of Representatives has met in its chamber in the south wing of the Capitol in Washington DC since 1857. Offices of members of the House are located in three buildings on writing courses the south side of the Capitol along Independence Avenue: the Cannon, Longworth, and Rayburn Buildings. The House and Senate are often referred to college, by the media as Capitol Hill or simply the Capitol or the Hill. Link: House of crime, Representatives click here. What is the Senate?

The Senate is the upper chamber in original admission essays, the bicameral legislature known collectively as Congress. The original intention of the authors of the US Constitution was that the Senate should be a regulatory group, less politically dominant than the House. However, since the mid 19th century, the Senate has been the dominant chamber and indeed today it is perhaps the most powerful upper house of any legislative body in the world. Who is eligible to become a member of the Senate? To be a member of the Senate, one has to: be at least 30 years old have been a US citizen for at least nine years live in the state which one represents. How is a member of the best opening salutation letter, Senate chosen? The Senate consists of 100 members, each of whom represents a state and serves for a six-year term (one third of the original college, Senate stands for election every two years). Each state has two Senators, regardless of population, and, since there are 50 states, then there are 100 senators.

This equality of Senate seats between states has the effect of producing huge variations in constituency population (the two senators from Wyoming represent less than half a million electors, while the two senators from California represent 34M people) with gross over-representation of the smaller states and serious under-representation of racial and ethnic minorities. For a long time, Senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. However, since the 17th Amendment to the Constitution in 1913, members of the Senate are elected by first-past-the-post voting in every state except Louisiana and Washington, which have run-offs. Elections are always held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even numbered years. Each Senator is known as the senior or junior Senator for his or her state, based on best salutation cover letter length of service. In the event that a member of the original admission, Senate dies or resigns before the end of the six-year term, a special election is not normally held at that time (this is the case for opening letter, 46 states). Instead the college essays, Governor of the state that the Senator represented nominates someone to serve until the next set of salutation cover, Congressional elections when the special election is held to fill the vacancy. What are the powers of the Senate? The Senate is one of the two chambers that can initiate and pass legislation, although to become law any legislation has to be approved by the House of Representatives as well.

Each chamber of Congress has particular exclusive powers. The Senate must give 'advice and college essays, consent' to many important Presidential appointments including Cabinet members, Supreme Court justices. federal judges, and ambassadors. The Senate has the responsibility of ratifying treaties. If the Electoral College is on organized tied, the choice of Vice-President is made by the Senate. The Senate has a key role in any impeachment proceedings against the President or Vice-President. Once the House of Representatives has laid the charges, the Senate then conducts a trial on these charges. The Supreme Court Chief Justice presides over such a trial. A two-thirds majority of the college admission essays, Senate is required to uphold impeachment charges.

The Senate (and the essay on family planning, House) have the power to declare war - although the last time this happened was in original college admission, 1941. Other interesting facts about the Senate. The most powerful position in the Senate is the hamlet essay by eliot, Majority Leader but he or she does not have the admission, same control over the upper chamber as the control that the Speaker of the House has over the lower chamber, since the 'whipping' system is on family planning weaker in original college admission essays, the Senate. Currently the Majority Leader in the Senate is the Republican Mitch McConnell, while the Minority leader is Democrat Chuck Schummer. Much of the work of the Senate is done through 16 standing committees and around 40 sub-committees which perform both legislative functions (drafting Bills) and investigatory functions (holding enquiries). Essay! Most of the committees are focused on an area of admission essays, government activity such as homeland security, foreign relations, health, energy, or transport, but others are more cross-cutting such as those on the budget and rules. Activity in the Senate tends to best opening salutation cover letter, be less partisan and more individualistic than in the House of Representatives. Original! Senate rules permit what is called a filibuster when a Senator, or a series of Senators, can speak for hamlet essay by eliot, as long as they wish and on any topic they choose, unless a supermajority of three-fifths of the college admission, Senate (60 Senators, if all 100 seats are filled) brings debate to a close by essays invoking what is called cloture (taken from the admission essays, French term for closure). The Senate has met in its chamber in the north wing of the Capitol in Washington DC since 1859. Offices of members of the Senate are located in three buildings on the north side of the Capitol along Constitution Avenue: the Russell, Dirksen, and Hart Buildings.

The Senate and House are often referred to by the media as Capitol Hill or simply the Capitol or the Hill. THE SUPREME COURT. What is the Supreme Court? The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land. Hamlet Essay! Originally it had five members but over original admission essays, time this number has increased. Essay On Family Planning! Since 1869, it has consisted of nine Justices: the Chief Justice of the United States and eight Associate Justices.

They have equal weight when voting on a case and original college, the Chief Justice has no casting vote or power to instruct colleagues. Decisions are made by a simple majority. Below the drinking driving essay papers, Supreme Court, there is a system of college, Courts of Appeal, and, below these courts, there are District Courts. Together, these three levels of courts represent the federal judicial system. Who is eligible to become a member of the Court? The Constitution does not specify qualifications for Justices such as age, education, profession, or native-born citizenship.

A Justice does not have to be a lawyer or a law school graduate, but all Justices have been trained in the law. Many of the 18th and papers, 19th century Justices studied law under a mentor because there were few law schools in the country. The last Justice to be appointed who did not attend any law school was James F. Byrnes (1941-1942). He did not graduate from high school and taught himself law, passing the bar at the age of 23. All Supreme Court judges are appointed for life. How is a member of the Court chosen? The Justices are nominated by the President and confirmed with the 'advice and consent' of the Senate. As federal judges, the essays, Justices serve during good behavior, meaning essentially that they serve for technical, life and can be removed only by resignation or by impeachment and subsequent conviction. Since the Supreme Court makes so many 'political' decisions and its members are appointed so rarely, the original, appointment of Justices by the President is often a very charged and controversial matter. Writing Courses! Since Justices serve for life and college admission, therefore usually beyond the term of office of the appointing President, such appointment are often regarded as an important part of any particular President's legacy.

What are the powers of the Court? The Supreme Court is the highest court in the United States. The court deals with matters pertaining to rabota ru, the federal government, disputes between states, and interpretation of the Constitution. It can declare legislation or executive action made at college admission, any level of the government as unconstitutional, nullifying the law and creating precedent for future law and decisions. However, the planning, Supreme Court can only rule on a lower court decision so it cannot take the initiative to consider a matter. There are three ways that a matter can come to the Supreme Court: A federal authority makes a decision that is challenged as unconstitutional which goes straight to admission, the Supreme Court which is not obliged to take it A state makes a decision which someone believes is unconstitutional but the matter would have to driving essay, have previously been heard by a Federal Court of original college essays, Appeal (there are 11 circuits covering the 50 states) There is a conflict between states that needs to be resolved (if the two or more states are in the same circuit, the matter would first have to go to the appropriate Federal Court of Appeal) Other interesting facts about the Court. Each year, around 8,000 petitions are made to the Supreme Court seeking a judgement, but each term the number of cases determined is only about 100. When a case is considered in on organized crime in canada, public by the Court, each side of the case only has half-an-hour to state its position. Original College Admission! All the detail is set out in documents and all the essay on family, rest of the original college, time of the public hearing is on organized crime in canada taken up by questions from the Justices. Decisions of the Supreme Court are taken in original admission essays, private conference, following discussion and debate.

No Justice speaks for a second time until every Justice has spoken once. Given how difficult it is to change the US Constitution through the formal method, one has seen informal changes to the Constitution through various decisions of the Supreme Court which have given specific meanings to some of the general phases in the Constitution. It is one of the many ironies of the American political system that an unelected and unaccountable body like the Supreme Court can in practice exercise so much political power in a system which proclaims itself as so democractic. The Supreme Court in practice therefore has a much more 'political' role than the highest courts of opening, European democracies. In the 1960s, the court played a major role in bringing about desegregation.

The scope of abortion in the USA is essays effectively set by the Supreme Court whereas, in hamlet essay by eliot, other countries, it would be set by legislation. Indeed in original college admission, 2000, it made the most political decision imaginable by determining - by seven votes to two - the outcome of that year's presidential election. It decided that George W Bush had beaten Al Gore, although Gore won the most votes overall. A recent and momentous instance of this exercise of political power was the Supreme Court decision in the case of the challenge to Barack Obama's signature piece of legislation, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, often dubbed Obamacare. Essay On Family! No less than 26 states challenged the legality of these health reforms under a clause in the constitution governing interstate commerce. In the end, the Court ruled by five to four that, while the individual mandate provision in the Act is not itself a tax, the original college essays, penalties imposed for technical courses, not buying health insurance do represent taxes and college essays, therefore the entire requirement falls within the remit of Congress's right to impose taxes. William Howard Taft (1857-1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909-1913) and later the tenth Chief Justice of the technical writing courses, United States (1921-1930). He is the college, only person to have served in both of cover, these offices.

In the history of the United States, there has only been four women members, two black members and original admission, one Hispanic member of the Supreme Court. The present membership of the courses, Supreme Court includes three women members and one black member. Of the nine members, five are Catholic and original college, three are Jewish while one - Neil Gorsuch - was raised as a Catholic but attends a Protestant church. Following the hamlet by eliot, appointment by President Trump of Neil Gorsuch to the Supreme Court, there is now a five to four conservative-liberal majority on the court. All the conservative members were appointed by Republican presidents, while all the liberals were appointed by Democratic presidents. A special feature of the American political system in respect of the judiciary is that, although federal judges are appointed, nationwide 87% of all state court judges are elected and 39 states elect at least some of their judges. Outside of the United States, there are only two nations that have judicial elections and then only in limited fashion. Smaller Swiss cantons elect judges and appointed justices on the Japanese Supreme Court must sometimes face retention elections (although those elections are a formality).

POLITICAL PARTIES ELECTIONS. To an extent quite extraordinary in democratic countries, the American political system is dominated by two political parties: the Democratic Party and the Republican Party (often known as the 'Grand Old Party' or GOP). These are very old and very stable parties - the Democrats go back to original admission, 1824 and the Republicans were founded in 1854. In illustrations and promotional material, the opening cover letter, Democratic Party is admission often represented as a donkey, while the Republican Party is featured as an elephant. The origin of these symbols is the political cartoonist Thomas Nast who came up with them in 1870 and 1874 respectively. The main reason for the dominance of these two parties is on family that - like most other Anglo-Saxon countries (notably Britain) - the electoral system is 'first past the admission essays, post' or simple majority which, combined with the large voter size of the opening, constituencies in the House and college essays, (even more) the Senate, ensures that effectively only two parties can play. The other key factor is the huge influence of money in the American electoral system. Since effectively a candidate can spend any amount he can raise (not allowed in many other countries) and since one can buy broadcasting time (again not allowed in many countries), the US can only 'afford' two parties or, to put it another way, candidates of any other party face a formidable financial barrier to entry.

Some people tend to rabota ru, view the division between the Democratic Party and the Republican Party in the United States as the same as that between Labour and Conservative in Britain or between Social Democrats and Christian Democrats in Germany. The comparison is valid in the sense that, in each country, one political party is characterised as Centre-Left and the other as Centre-Right or, to original college, put it another way, one party is more economically interventionist and socially radical than the other. Essay! However, the analogy has many weaknesses. The Centre in American politics is considerably to the Right of the Centre in most European states including Britain, Germany, France, Italy and (even more especially) the Scandinavian countries. College Essays! So, for instance, most members of the best salutation cover, Conservative Party in the UK would support a national health service, whereas many members of the Democratic Party in college essays, the US would not. As a consequence of the enormous geographical size of the United States and the different histories of the best salutation cover letter, different states (exemplified by the Civil War), geography is a factor in ideological positioning to a much greater extent than in other democratic countries. For instance, a Northern Republican could be more liberal than a Southern Democract.

Conversely there is a group of Democratic Congressmen that are fiscally very conservative - they are known as blue dog Democrats or even DINO (Democrats In Name Only). In the United States, divisions over social matters - such as abortion, capital punishment, same-sex relationships and stem cell research - matter and follow party lines in a way which is not true of college, most European countries. In Britain, for instance, these sort of issues would be regarded as matters of personal conscience and would not feature prominently in election debates between candidates and parties. In the USA, religion is a factor in politics in a way unique in western democracies. Candidates openly proclaim their faith in a manner which would be regarded as bizarre elswhere (even in a Catholic country like France) and religious groupings - such as the rabota resume ru, Christian Coalition of America [click here] - exert a significiant political influence in a manner which would be regarded as improper in college, most European countries (Poland is an exception here).

In the essays, United States, the 'whipping system' - that is the instructions to members of the House and the Senate on how to vote - is not as strict or effective as it is in most European countries. As a consequence, members of Congress are less constrained by party affiliation and freer to act individually. In the USA, political parties are much weaker institutions than they are in other democracies. Original College Admission! Between the selection of candidates, they are less active than their counterparts in other countries and, during elections, they are less influential in campaigning, with individual politicians and their campaigns having much more influence. The cost of elections is much greater in drinking papers, the US than in other democracies which has the original admission essays, effects of limiting the range of essay on family, candidates, increasing the influence of original college admission, corporate interests and pressure groups, and enhancing the hamlet, position of the incumbent office holder (especially in the winning of primaries). As long ago as 1895, the Chairman of the original admission, Republican National Committee Mark Hanna stated: There are two things that are important in politics. Essay Planning! The first is money, and I can't remember what the second one is.

Whereas in other countries, voters shape the policies and select the candidates of a party by joining it, in the USA voters register as a supporter of one of the major parties and then vote in essays, primary elections to determine who should be the best opening letter, party's candidate in the 'real' election. One other oddity of the American party system is that, whereas in most countries of the world the colour red is associated with the Left-wing party and the colour blue with the Right-wing party, in the United States the college, reverse is the case. On Family! So the 'blue states' are those traditionally won by the Democrats, while the college admission essays, 'red states' are those normally controlled by the Republicans. Two interesting features of American political elections are low turnout and the importance of incumbency. Traditionally turnout in US congressional elections is much lower than in other liberal democracies especially those of Western Europe. When there is essays crime in canada a presidential election, turnout is only about original admission essays half; when there is no presidential election, turnout is merely about one third. The exception was the elections of 2008: the excitement of the candidacy of Barack Obama led to an unusually high turnout of on organized crime in canada, 63%, the highest since 1960 (the election of John F Kennedy).

While Congress as an institution is held in popular contempt, voters like their member of Congress and indeed there is a phenomenon known as 'sophomore surge' whereby incumbents tend to increase their share of the vote when they seek re-election. More generally most incumbents win re-election for several reasons: they allocate time and resources to waging a permanent re-election campaign; they can win earmarks which are appropriations of government spending for projects in the constituency; and they find it easier than challengers to raise money for election campaigns. The Democratic Party click here. The Republican Party click here. THE FEDERAL SYSTEM. Understanding the federal nature of the United States is critical to appreciating the college admission essays, complexities of the American political system. Most political systems are created top-down. A national system of government is constructed and a certain amount of power is released to lower levels of government. Essay! The unique history of the United States means that, in this case, the political system was created bottom-up. First, some 240 years ago, there were were 13 autonomous states who, following the War of Independence against the British, created a system of government in which the various states somewhat reluctantly ceded power to the federal government.

Around a century later, the respective authority of the federal government and the individual states was an issue at the heart of the Civil War when there was a bloody conflict over who had the right to determine whether slavery was or was not permissable. With the essays, exception of Switzerland, no other Western democracy diffuses power to the same degree as America. So today the powers of the federal government remain strictly limited by the Constitution - the critical Tenth Amendment of 1791 - which leaves a great deal of authority to the individual states. Each state has an writing, executive, a legislature and a judiciary. The head of the executive is the Governor who is directly elected. As with the President at federal level, state Governors can issue Executive Orders. The legislature consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives (the exception is the original admission essays, state of essays crime in canada, Nebraska which has a unicameral system). The judiciary consists of a state system of courts. The 50 states are divided into counties (parishes in Louisiana and boroughs in Alaska). Each county has its court.

Althought the Constitution prescribes precisely when Presidential and Congressional elections will be held, the dates and times of state and local elections are determined by state governments. Essays! Therefore there is a plethora of elections in the United States and, at almost all times, an election is being held somewhere in salutation cover letter, the country. Original Admission! State and local elections, like federal elections, use the 'first past the post' system of election. In fact, most states choose to elect the governor and legislature when Congressional elections are held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even numbered years. Exceptions are the states of Virginia and New Jersey which hold their governor and legislature elections in odd numbered years (known as off-year elections). This means that these states provide the first electoral indication of how voters view the performance of a newly-elected President and/or Congress. The debate about federalism in hamlet by eliot, the US is far from over. There are those who argue for a stronger role for the federal government and there are advocates of locating more power at the state level. The recent rise of the college, electorally-successful Tea Party movement owes a good deal to essays, the view that the federal government has become too dominant, too intrusive and too profligate.

Meanwhile many states - especially those west of the Rockies - have what has been called the fourth arm of government: this is the ballot or referendum initiative. This enables a policy question to be put to the electorate as a result of the collection of original college admission essays, a certain number of best opening salutation cover letter, signatures or the decison of the state legislation. Over the original, last century, some 3,000 such initiatives have been conducted - in some cases (such as California) with profound results. In all political systems, there is a disconnect between the formal arrangements, as set out in the constitution and relevant laws, and the informal arrangements, as occurs in practice. Arguably, in the United States this disconnect is sharper than in most other democratic systems because: The US Constitution is an old one (late 18th century) whereas most countries have had several constitutions with the current one typically being a 20th century creation. The US Constitution is relatively immutable so it is very difficult to change the provisions to reflect the drinking essay, reforms that have come about over time from the pressure of events. Since the US adopted its Constitution, the US has become the original essays, pre-eminent world economic and essay, political power which has brought about major changes in how the Presidency operates, most especially in the international sphere. What this means is that, in original college admission essays, the last century and most especially since the end of the driving papers, Second World War, the reality of how the American political system operates has changed quite fundamentally in terms which are not always evident from the terms of the Constitution (and indeed some might argue are in original college essays, some respects in contravention of the essays crime in canada, Constitution). The main changes are as follows: The balance of power between the Congress and the President has shifted significantly in favour of the President.

This is evident in the domestic sphere through practices like 'impoundment' (when money is taken from the original college essays, purpose intended by Congress and allocated to another purpose favoured by the President) and in the international sphere through refusal to invoke the War Powers Resolution in spite of major military invasions. Essay By Eliot! Different terms for this accretion of original, power by hamlet essay by eliot the Presidency are the unitary executive and original admission, the imperial presidency. The impact of private funding of political campaigns and best opening letter, of lobbyists and college, special interest groups in drinking essay, political decision making have increased considerably. Candidates raise their own money for campaigns, there is effectively no limit on the money that can be spent in such campaigns (thanks to what is college called super Political Action Committees), and the levels of expenditure - especially in the presidential primaries and election proper - have risen astronomically. In the presidential race of 2012, both Barack Obama and Mitt Romney spent over one billion dollars. Even in the mid-term Congressional elections of 2014, total expenditure was nearly $4 billion. All this has led to some observers describing the American political system as a plutocracy, since it is effectively controlled by private finance from big businesses, which expect certain policies and practices to follow from the candidates they are funding, and big donors, who often expect preferment such as an ambassadorship from driving essay, a candidate elected as President. There has been a growth of college admission essays, what is called pork barrel politics through the use of earmarks. The term pork barrel refers to the appropriation of government spending for projects that are intended primarily to benefit particular constituents, such as those in essay, marginal seats, or campaign contributors. Such appropriations are achieved through earmarks which can be found both in legislation (also called hard earmarks or hardmarks) and in the text of Congressional committee reports (also called soft earmarks or softmarks).

The nature of political debate in the United States has become markedly more partisan and bitter. The personal lifestyle as well as the original admission, political record of on organized crime in canada, a candidate might well be challenged and even the patriotism or religiosity of the original college, candidate may be called into essays crime question. Whereas the politics of original admission essays, most European countries has become more consensual, US domestic politics has become polarised and tribal. As a result, the crime in canada, political culture is often more concerned with satisfying the demands of the political 'base' rather than attempting to achieve a national consensus. One final trend worth noting is the frequency of the admission, same family to provide members of Congress. Low polling in elections, the high cost of running for election, and the focus on the individual more than the party all mean that a well-known name can work successfully for a candidate. Everyone is familiar with the Kennedys, Clintons and Bushs in technical writing courses, American politics but, in 2014, there are no less than 37 members of Congress who have a relative who has served in the legislature.

A DIVIDED DEMOCRACY. Of course, all nation states are divided, especially in terms of college admission essays, power and wealth, but also - to different extents - by gender, race, ethnicity, religion and hamlet essay by eliot, other factors. Indeed the constitution and original college admission, institutions of a democratic society are deliberately intended to provide for the expression and resolution of writing courses, such divisions. However, it is often observed that the USA is an especially divided democracy in at least four respects: It is divided horizontally through the 'separation of powers', so that the executive, the legislature and the judiciary are quite distinct in terms of both powers and college, personalties. Each arm of government exercises a check on the other.

It is divided vertically through the federal system of government with the drinking essay, division of powers between the federal government and the state governments a very important issue that arguably was once the subject of college, a civil war. Opening Salutation Cover Letter! In such a large country geographically, the college essays, federal goverment can seem very distant to many citizens. It is divided politically through the sharp (and often bitter) differences of view on many economic issues like tackling the recession and reforming health care and social issues ranging from gun control to gay rights. Since 2009, such differences have been highlighted by essays crime the presence of the admission, first black President in the White House and resume ru, the rapid emergence of a Tea Party movement that is both virulently anti-Obama and anti-mainstream Republicanism. It is college admission essays divided racially through the essays on organized in canada, growth of the non-white electorate. When Ronald Reagan was first elected President in 1980, almost 90% of the US electorate was white; today some 30% of voters are non-white; and that proportion is growing (especially Spanish-speaking communities).

The Democratic Party tends to do better among non-white voters than the Republicans and therefore the demographic trends are viewed as favourable to Democrats. One of the college admission essays, most visible and dramatic illustrations of how the divisons in American politics frustrate decision-making is the regular failure to technical writing, agree a federal budget before the start of the original admission, new financial period. This results in what is technical writing known as federal 'shutdown' when most federal employees are sent home because they cannot be paid and many federal institutions therefore close down. This is not an isolated occurrence: it has happened 18 times since 1976 (the last one was in 2013). A major role of the Congress is to original college essays, pass legislation but the rabota resume, divided nature of American politics has made this increasingly diffiicult and the Congress frequently exhibits legislative grid-lock. Hillary Clinton - former First Lady, former Senator, and original essays, former Secretary of State - in her memoir Hard Choices (2014) talks of all the horse trading, arm-twisting, vote counting, alternating appeals to rabota ru, principle and self-interest, and hard-ball politics that go into passing major legislation . Reading this short essay, it will be evident to many (especially non-American) readers that the United States is different from other democracies. This observation has given rise to the notion of American exceptionalism. This is an college, ill-defined term which has been used differently at different times. From the creation of the Republic in 1776, there has been a sense that the United States has been exceptional in its commitment to freedom as expressed in the US Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

Even though today there are many challenges to freedom in the USA, many Americans still feel that their attachment to freedom - however defined - is a distinguishing feature of their nation as compared to all others. Another important version of American exceptionalism revolves around the lack of drinking papers, a clear ideological or class-based division between the two major political parties. The USA has never had a credible socialist or anti-capitalist party; both the main parties are pro-capital and original admission essays, pro-business and speak largely to the 'middle class'. Other versions of the concept revolve around the alleged 'superiority' of the United States because of its history, size, wealth and global dominance plus the rabota, 'sophistication' of its constitution and power of its values such as individualism, innovation and entrepreneurship. In perhaps its most extreme form, the original college admission essays, concept has a religious dimension with the belief that God has especially chosen or blessed the hamlet by eliot, country. Of course, it is college easy to view the American political system as exceptional in negative terms such as the unusual influence of race, religion and money as compared to other liberal democracies. In truth, for all its special features, the American political system needs to be seen as one among many models of democracy with its own strenghs and weaknesses that need to be assessed in comparison to essay, those of essays, other democracies. discussion of essay on family planning, American exceptionalism click here.

how to critique a political system click here. Americans are losing faith in the American political system as people around the world are questioning the college admission, continued pre-eminence of the United States as the dominant global power. Since 2004, a clear majority of Americans have told Gallup that they are dissatisfied with the way they are governed. The numbers of those has several times climbed above 80% which is higher than at the time of the Watergate scandal. This disillusionment is resume reflected in the falling number of original college essays, Americans who even bother to vote. In The World In 2015, John Micklethwait, editor-in-chief of The Economist, wrote: In America, there is nothing particularly democratic about the writing courses, ascent of money politics, the arcane blocking procedures of original college, Congress or the gerrymandering of district boundaries. Indeed they are all reminiscent of the rotten boroughs of technical writing, 18th century England that infuriated the original essays, Founding Fathers. The debate about the effectiveness of the US political system is a part of the wider debate about whether or not the United States is in relative decline on the world stage. In his book Time To Start Thinking: America And The Spectre Of Decline [for my review click here], Edward Luce writes: Sometimes it seems Americans are engaged in some kind of collusion in which voters pretend to drinking driving papers, elect their lawmakers and lawmakers pretend to govern.

This, in some ways, is America's core problem: the more America postpones any coherent response to college admission essays, the onset of relative decline, the more difficult the politics are likely to get. These issues have been highlighted by resume the recent election as US President of original college admission essays, Donald Trump, someone who ran for election as the anti-establishment candidate who was going todrain the swamp, who has never previously held political office, and technical courses, who is governing in a most unconventional style. His insistence that he will Make America Great Again and his intention to boost dramatically defence expenditure address directly the position of the US as global player. Last modified on original admission 30 August 2017. If you would like to comment on this essay e-mail me.

If you would like me to speak on this subject contact me. For a comparison of the American and British political systems click here. For guides to the political systems of other nations click here.

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Critique on Plato’s Apology of original college admission Socrates Essay. Socrates was a great philosopher of best opening salutation cover letter his time. There came a point in his life when his beliefs were questioned and his teachings doubted. He was charged for evil deeds and wrong doings. His accusers said he made people see the worse as better and passed them on as truths.

They also said that he corrupted the youth and that he did not believe in the gods recognized by the state. Essays. Socrates addressed the Athenians in defense of his philosophical life. He appealed to the Men of Athens to best letter hear him out and exercise caution in judging him because he had all the answers for original college them. He said he was a wise man and his wisdom came from the oracle. He believed in gods contrary to what they accused him of.

He taught the youth of virtues and denied he corrupted them. By Eliot. He never feared death as much as he feared the unjust… The Athenians wanted to know how Socrates became a famous wise man and where he got his wisdom from. A philosopher like Socrates engaged people in discussions. He gave learned opinions and college admission, answers to the most puzzling and difficult questions that often confronted ordinary minds. When these people were convinced and on family planning, enlightened they went away with nothing but praises and admiration for college admission essays Socrates, reasons why they called Socrates, a wise man. Many people came to him to learn more.

It can not be said that wisdom is something one is essay on family planning, born with. In the case of original college essays Socrates his wisdom came from the oracle. He had divine guidance in his teachings. Writing. One with a divine guidance taught not only what was good and admission essays, what was right but also lived by those tenets. The oracle was also what kept Socrates from arrogance. Socrates knew he was wise because he knew that the wisdom he possessed meant little or was nothing compared to God’s infinite wisdom.

A philosopher may be wiser than any man, but is never wisest, as only God is. Socrates was asked why he did not share his wisdom with the state and gave it sound advice. The oracle was the rabota resume ru, inner voice or the conscience of Socrates. College. When he was a child the oracle prevented him from doing what he intended to do. The oracle never ordered him to do anything which was why he never entertained the thoughts of essay becoming a politician. He will never be any good to the state by becoming one. Good and righteous men in politics did not live long to do more good. Towards the original college admission, end of the trial, when Socrates was sentenced to writing courses death, Socrates mentioned the oracle again. The oracle did not oppose what he said or stopped him from leaving the house which was unusual if something bad was to happen.

In the end, Socrates was happy to die because the oracle had meant it for him. A philosopher was sought after for wise counsel and Socrates who sought the counsel of the oracle. The oracle symbolized the Divine Guidance which was the source of wisdom of Socrates. It strengthened his defense because it proved that his wisdom came from the divine and not from evil. Socrates tried to convince the Athenians that he believed in gods. At the start of the trial began with a reference to God under whose name he said he will make his defense. God symbolized the highest authority that Socrates subjected himself to. He respected a just and righteous authority. Socrates warned the Athenians that should they harm him, they will sin against original college God.

God had a purpose for him in the Athenian affairs of the state. He was to shake the state up whenever it was in stupor. If they killed him after the trial the state will forever be in stupor as there will be no one to shake it up. He was not one to best salutation cover go against the state over any matter because God meant him to help keep order and not chaos. He must to speak up whenever that state was in essays neglect of its duties. He knew what his responsibilities were to the state and knew that he must keep them, for God. Essay. God was the authority over and above the state. Socrates gave the state its due place, an authority under God and originated from God. God was acknowledged by everyone as just and righteous. To believe in God meant that Socrates conformed to the ways of God and it followed that he was just and righteous also. The impact of this in his defense was that Socrates, first of all was not an atheist as alleged by his accusers.

Second, he was respectful of authority, God and the state. Third, he was a good man who kept the ways of God. God as the Supreme Being is the original college admission essays, symbol of the highest, just and righteous authority. Socrates was given the chance to go free on the condition that he stopped teaching and technical writing courses, speaking to original admission essays people. Essays On Organized Crime In Canada. He refused outright because he would be negligent of his mandate from the oracle to go and teach Virtues to men. Original Admission Essays. Virtues symbolized knowledge. It is cover letter, a virtue to know right and wrong and to make enlightened choices of right over wrong. He had promised God that he will continue to college teach for as long as he was able.

He taught the people to put more value on the enrichment of the soul, the pursuit of truth and wisdom instead of gaining material wealth, fame and crime, glory. A person with virtue knows his real worth, he never underestimates neither does he overrates himself. He reminded them that their souls must take precedence over their persons and original admission, their possessions. He taught virtues to anyone who came to him, young or old, bad or good, rich or poor. As a teacher he counseled them to lead good and righteous lives. He was like a caring parent or brother.

Those among the young who had heard him speak became sensible adults. The charges against him were wrong. He never corrupted the essays in canada, youth with the kind of teaching he did. There was nothing greater for him than to obey the command of college essays God to rabota teach the people about virtues. Original Admission Essays. The knowledge that a philosopher shares with his students is planning, a good defense for the philosophical life, while disproving that he was a corruptor of the youth. Virtues or knowledge that he shared should convince the Athenians that Socrates was a virtuous man who sought the enlightenment of others. Teaching others so that they may not be ignorant and so that they may lead virtuous lives can not be said as evil deeds. Taking others to original college the path of technical courses righteousness can not be called corruption. Socrates should be vindicated of the charges against original college essays him as they were baseless and purely lies. Socrates was never sorry for driving the kind of life he lived even if it eventually led him to his death. Admission Essays. Death was symbolic of the essay on family, good for original college Socrates.

Death to technical courses save a friend, death in defense of a right, death for one’s moral convictions was all good deaths. A person who feared death lacked wisdom, because he feared the unknown. Socrates feared committing injustice and wrong more than he feared death. When he was a senator, the generals were on trial for leaving the admission essays, bodies of the slain in essay a battle. They were all tried at the same time, which he opposed because it was illegal. He was the only one in opposition. In spite of the threats of impeachment and arrest he stood his ground. He took the risk for law and justice. Original College Essays. Those were in the days of democracy. His resolve never wavered even during the oligarchy.

When Leon from technical Salamis was to be executed he with four others was ordered to bring the Salaminian to the rotunda. He refused and instead went home. He faced possible death without fear. What he feared most then was to side with injustice. When threatened with death or enticement of being saved from original college death even if it meant doing wrong, he would rather die a thousand times. For Socrates death is good. Opening Salutation Cover. He philosophized that it was a state of deep sleep or one of blankness. Either way it is a restful state. Original. It is a state that we never experience in most of our nights. He likened it to a journey which all of us will take at some point in our lives. In death we will once again see those friends and heroes who have gone before us.

There will also be those victims of fate worst than his with whom he will be able to compare notes with. In the trial of Socrates, death was associated with good. Socrates was never afraid to die for he was sure something good was bound to happen to essay him. Original College Essays. That should dampen the desire of his accusers to ask death for Socrates. Why wish the best for someone whom you wanted punished for on family planning misdeeds. The oracle symbolized divine guidance. It proved difficult for Socrates to claim that his wisdom came from the oracle from the god of Delphi. His only credible witness was a dead man. A brother of the original college, dead man was present in court but he did not volunteer as witness.

Socrates did not call him as witness to corroborate his story. The oracle called him wise. His wisdom was attainable for the ordinary man. He did not claim that he had extraordinary wisdom for that would not be true. Crime In Canada. The teaching of Socrates was about righteousness, justice and humility. These are works of essays goodness that logically will originate only from the divine. God is a symbol of authority. What God commanded Socrates to do he followed. Between the God and state, Socrates placed God first. A philosopher has respect for authority and that should convince the Athenians that Socrates was a good man. Rabota Resume. He would very likely pass on this virtue to others.

Virtue is a symbol of original college admission knowledge. Socrates shared his philosophies with others so that they may be enlightened. Rabota Resume Ru. He taught only the good as his wisdom was from the divine source. In his trial he made the Athenians know that his accusers know nothing of admission what they were accusing him of. As they were non-believers, with whom he had not shared his wisdom, his accusers remained ignorant. Death is the symbol of something good and pleasant, something one should not fear just like Socrates. The Men of Athens will see Socrates as a man of essays in canada courage who was not scared of original death and an enlightened disciple of the divine who treated death as a journey, a deep slumber or a crossover. In the trial of Socrates we found a man with a strong faith in on organized crime God, despite accusations of atheism. He chose right over wrong all the time even at the threat of death and harm. He lived what he preached carried a meaningful and purposeful life. He wanted to convince the Athenians that teaching the right values and exalting the virtues in people was no corruption.

An evil doer would do no such thing. No amount of pressure or threat or enticement would compromise his values. He kept God’s command to him to original college essays continue teaching at all cost to him. This came from a true believer of God and not from an atheist as Meletus had accused him to be. Salutation Cover. A philosopher would teach only things that would be of value to people as well as those things that will do the person enormous good. A philosopher’s measure of college admission value puts the spiritual over and above the physical and the material.

That is cover, what separates the original essays, ordinary man from the philosopher. The wants of the ordinary man is of this world and the philosopher’s is of the higher realm. Courses. There were many lessons learned from the original essays, arguments of Socrates in his defense. They let us into the mind of a philosopher with its depth, humor, eloquence, drama and wit. It is difficult to understand a philosopher because he is in a level all by himself.

His logic is simple and clear at the start but he can be confusing towards the end. It is amusing how they turn one’s argument against his own like what he did to Meletus. Socrates’ arguments are too profound for the ordinary mind to follow. A philosopher’s life is too dull to wish for drinking driving essay oneself and too unappealing to desire. He goes for the simple and uncomplicated. He is not attached to the material. He can work with no pay and treasures the fulfillment in doing the job for God and fellowmen. It is enough remuneration for college a philosopher that others learn of rabota resume ru truth and wisdom from him. Socrates helped us understand the life of a man for others, as a philosopher actually is.

Socrates was a man with a strong faith in God. He placed God above all else. College Admission. God represented the authority in his life. He would do anything God commanded him to technical do, out of great respect. A philosopher who regards God in such high esteem is worthy of trust. He could pretend to original admission essays know so much because people hold his every word as truth. Technical. Socrates was not that kind of admission essays philosopher. He could assume power like a god but Socrates did not.

He thought of himself as wise because he accepted that his wisdom and writing, power were not the ultimate. Philosophers have all the answers. Their knowledge is deep and expansive. They can talk about anything and everything. They spoke with authority. They have the gift of knowledge. They derive their wisdom from the admission essays, Supreme Being who is all-knowing. As such they speak only of the just and the righteous. They share the knowledge with the drinking essay, people who go to them for their good counsel. They lead simple lives without the unnecessary trappings.

They care for their soul more than their physical and material concerns. The share with their fellow men what they valuable possession, knowledge. Socrates was all the admission, above. The Philosophers were brave men who fear wrong more than they fear death. There was no way they would be swayed from their convictions because of the threat of punishment. Neither will they stop from doing what is right to be saved from harm. They will die for a friend, be hanged for a good cause and beaten for their beliefs. The Philosophers were no ordinary mortals. They endured because of their faith, their tenacity and wisdom. Papers. They may have been misunderstood but they have been understood more. Original Admission Essays. Their legacies live on, long after they are gone.

Works Cited “Socrates’ Defense. Hamlet. ” 1994-2000. Apology by Plato. Translated by Benjamin Jowett. 10 May 2008 http://classics. mit. edu/Plato/apology. html. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.

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